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sufficient evidence to give preponderation to the mind, but insufficient to induce certainty; as, in our apprehension, the facts prove the issue.
To false, and to be thought false, is all one in respect of men, who act not according to truth, but apprehension. South.
5. The faculty by which ideas are conceived; understanding; as, a man of dull apprehension.
6. Anticipation, mostly of things unfavorable; distrust or fear at the prospect of future evil.
After the death of his nephew Caligula, Claudius was in no small apprehension for his own life.
Syn. – Apprehension, Alarm. Apprehension springs from a sense of danger when somewhat remote, but approaching; alarm arises from danger when announced as near at hand. Apprehension is calmer and more permanent; alarm is more agitating and transient.
Ap7preOhen6sive (?), a. [Cf. F. apprhensif. See Apprehend.] 1. Capable of apprehending, or quick to do so; apt; discerning.
It may be pardonable to imagine that a friend, a kind and apprehensive… friend, is listening to our talk. Hawthorne.
2. Knowing; conscious; cognizant. [R.] A man that has spent his younger years in vanity and folly, and is, by the grace of God, apprehensive of it. Jer. Taylor.
3. Relating to the faculty of apprehension. Judgment… is implied in every apprehensive act. Sir W. Hamilton.
4. Anticipative of something unfavorable’ fearful of what may be coming; in dread of possible harm; in expectation of evil.
Not at all apprehensive of evils as a distance. Tillotson.
Reformers… apprehensive for their lives. Gladstone.
5. Sensible; feeling; perceptive. [R.] Thoughts, my tormentors, armed with deadly stings, Mangle my apprehensive, tenderest parts. Milton.
Ap7preOhen6siveOly, adv. In an apprehensive manner; with apprehension of danger.
Ap7preOhen6siveOness, n. The quality or state of being apprehensive.
ApOpren6tice (?), n. [OE. apprentice, prentice, OF. aprentis, nom. of aprentif, fr. apprendare to learn, L. apprendere, equiv. to apprehendere, to take hold of (by the mind), to comprehend. See Apprehend, Prentice.] 1. One who is bound by indentures or by legal agreement to serve a mechanic, or other person, for a certain time, with a view to learn the art, or trade, in which his master is bound to instruct him.
2. One not well versed in a subject; a tyro. 3. (Old law) A barrister, considered a learner of law till of sixteen years’ standing, when he might be called to the rank of serjeant. [Obs.]
ApOpren6tice , v. t. [imp. & p. p. Apprenticed ; p. pr. & vb. n. Apprenticing .] To bind to, or put under the care of, a master, for the purpose of instruction in a trade or business.
ApOpre6ticeOage , n. [F. apprentissage.] Apprenticeship. [Obs.]
ApOpren6ticeOhood, n. Apprenticeship. [Obs.] ApOpren6ticeOship, n. 1. The service or condition of an apprentice; the state in which a person is gaining instruction in a trade or art, under legal agreement. 2. The time an apprentice is serving (sometimes seven years, as from the age of fourteen to twentyPone). ApOpressed6, ApOprest6 } , a. [p. p. appress, which is not in use. See Adpress.] (Bot.) Pressed close to, or lying against, something for its whole length, as against a stem, Gray.
ApOprise6 , v. t. [imp. & p. p. Apprised ; p. pr. & vb. n. Apprising.] [ F. appris, fem. apprise, p. p. apprendre to learn, to teach, to inform. Cf. Apprehend, Apprentice.] To give notice, verbal or written; to inform; P followed by of; as, we will apprise the general of an intended attack; he apprised the commander of what he had done. ApOprise6, n. Notice; information. [Obs.] Gower.
ApOpriz6al , n. See Appraisal.
ApOprize6 , v. t. [The same as Appraise, only more accommodated to the English form of the L. pretiare.] To appraise; to value; to appreciate.
ApOprize6ment , n. Appraisement.
ApOpriz6er , n. 1. An appraiser.
2. (Scots Law) A creditor for whom an appraisal is made. Sir W. Scott.
ApOproach6 , v. i. [imp. & p. p. Approached ; p. pr. & vb. n. Approaching.] [OE. approchen, aprochen, OF. approcher, LL. appropriare, fr. L. ad + propiare to draw near, prope near.] 1. To come or go near, in place or time; to draw ?igh; to advance nearer.
Wherefore approached ye so nigh unto the city? 2 Sam. xi. 20.
But exhorting one another; and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching.
Heb. x. 25.
2. To draw near, in a figurative sense; to make advances; to approximate; as, he approaches to the character of the ablest statesman.
ApOproach6, v. t. 1. To bring near; to cause to draw near; to advance. [Archaic]
2. To come near to in place, time, or character; to draw nearer to; as, to approach the city; to approach my cabin; he approached the age of manhood.
He was an admirable poet, and thought even to have approached Homer.
3. (Mil.) To take approaches to.
ApOproach6, n. [Cf. F. approche. See Approach, v. i.] 1. The act of drawing near; a coming or advancing near. =The approach of summer.8
A nearer approach to the human type. Owen.
2. A access, or opportunity of drawing near. The approach to kings and principal persons. Bacon.
3. pl. Movements to gain favor; advances. 4. A way, passage, or avenue by which a place or buildings can be approached; an access.
5. pl. (Fort.) The advanced works, trenches, or covered roads made by besiegers in their advances toward a fortress or military post.
6. (Hort.) See Approaching.
ApOproach7aObil6iOty (?), n. The quality of being approachable; approachableness.
ApOproach6aOble (?), a. Capable of being approached; accessible; as, approachable virtue.
ApOproach6aObleOness, n. The quality or state of being approachable; accessibility.
ApOproah6er (?), n. One who approaches. ApOproach6ing, n. (Hort.) The act of ingrafting a sprig or shoot of one tree into another, without cutting it from the parent stock; P called, also, inarching and grafting by approach.
ApOproach6less, a. Impossible to be approached. ApOproach6ment (?), n. [Cf. F. approachement.] Approach. [Archaic]
Ap6proObate (?), a. [L. approbatus, p. p. of approbare to approve.] Approved. [Obs.]
Ap6proObate (?), v. t. To express approbation of; to approve; to sanction officially.
I approbate the one, I reprobate the other. Sir W. Hamilton.
5 This word is obsolete in England, but is occasionally heard in the United States, chiefly in a technical sense for license; as, a person is approbated to preach; approbated to keep a public house.
Pickering (1816).
Ap7proOba6tion (?), n. [L. approbatio: cf. F. approbation. See Approve to prove.] 1. Proof; attestation. [Obs.] Shak.
2. The act of approving; an assenting to the propriety of a thing with some degree of pleasure or satisfaction; approval; sanction; commendation.
Many… joined in a loud hum of approbation. Macaulay.
The silent approbation of one’s own breast. Melmoth.
Animals… love approbation or praise. Darwin.
3. Probation or novitiate. [Obs.]
This day my sister should the cloister enter, And there receive her approbation.
Syn. – Approval; liking; sanction; consent; concurrence. P Approbation, Approval. Approbation and approval have the same general meaning, assenting to or declaring as good, sanction, commendation; but approbation is stronger and more positive. =We may be anxious for the approbation of our friends; but we should be still more anxious for the approval of our own consciences.8 =He who is desirous to obtain universal approbation will learn a good lesson from the fable of the old man and his ass.8 =The work has been examined by several excellent judges, who have expressed their unqualified approval of its plan and execution.8 Ap6proObaOtive (?), a. [Cf. F. approbatif.] Approving, or implying approbation.
Ap6proObaOtiveOness, n. 1. The quality of being approbative. 2. (Phren.) Love of approbation.
Ap6proOba7tor (?), n. [L.] One who approves. [R.] Ap6proOba7toOry (?), a. Containing or expressing approbation; commendatory.
ApOpromt6 (?; 215), v. t. [Pref. adO + promt.] To quicken; to prompt. [Obs.]
To appromt our invention.
ApOproof6 (?), n. [See Approve, and Proof.] 1. Trial; proof. [Archaic]
2. Approval; commendation.
Ap7proOpin6quate (?), v. i. [L. appropinquatus, p. p. of appropinquare; ad + prope near.] To approach. [Archaic] Ld. Lytton.
Ap7proOpinOqua6tion (?), n. [L. appropinquatio.] A drawing nigh; approach. [R.]
Bp. Hall.
Ap7proOpin6quiOty (?), n. [Pref. adO + propinquity.] Nearness; propinquity. [R.]
J. Gregory.
ApOpro6pre (?), v. t. [OE. appropren, apropren, OF. approprier, fr. L. appropriare. See Appropriate.] To appropriate. [Obs.]
ApOpro6priOaOble (?), a. [See Appropriate.] Capable of being appropriated, set apart, sequestered, or assigned exclusively to a particular use.
Sir T. Browne.
ApOpro6priOaOment (?), n. What is peculiarly one’s own; peculiar qualification.[Obs.]
If you can neglect
Your own appropriaments.
ApOpro6priOate (?), a. [L. appropriatus, p. p. of appropriare; ad + propriare to appropriate, fr. proprius one’s own, proper. See Proper.] Set apart for a particular use or person. Hence: Belonging peculiarly; peculiar; suitable; fit; proper.
In its strict and appropriate meaning. Porteus.
Appropriate acts of divine worship. Stillingfleet.
It is not at all times easy to find words appropriate to express our ideas.
ApOpro6priOat? (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appropriated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Appropriating (?).] 1. To take to one’s self in exclusion of others; to claim or use as by an exclusive right; as, let no man appropriate the use of a common benefit.
2. To set apart for, or assign to, a particular person or use, in exclusion of all others; P with to or for; as, a spot of ground is appropriated for a garden; to appropriate money for the increase of the navy.
3. To make suitable; to suit. [Archaic] Paley.
4. (Eng. Eccl. Law) To annex, as a benefice, to a spiritual corporation, as its property.
ApOpro6priOate (?), n. A property; attribute. [Obs.] ApOpro6priOateOly, adv. In an appropriate or proper manner; fitly; properly.
ApOpro6priOateOness, n. The state or quality of being appropriate; peculiar fitness.
ApOpro7priOa6tion (?), n. [L. appropriatio: cf. F. appropriation.] 1. The act of setting apart or assigning to a particular use or person, or of taking to one’s self, in exclusion of all others; application to a special use or purpose, as of a piece of ground for a park, or of money to carry out some object.
2. Anything, especially money, thus set apart. The Commons watched carefully over the appropriation. Macaulay.
3. (Law) (a) The severing or sequestering of a benefice to the perpetual use of a spiritual corporation. Blackstone. (b) The application of payment of money by a debtor to his creditor, to one of several debts which are due from the former to the latter.
ApOpro6priOaOtive (?), a. Appropriating; making, or tending to, appropriation; as, an appropriative act. P ApOpro6priOaOtiveOness, n.
ApOpro6priOa7tor (?), n. 1. One who appropriates. 2. (Law) A spiritual corporation possessed of an appropriated benefice; also, an impropriator. Blackstone.
ApOprov6aOble (?), a. Worthy o? be?? approved; meritorious. P ApOprov6aObleOness, n.
ApOprov6al (?), n. Approbation; sanction. A censor… without whose approval n? capital sentences are to be executed.
Syn. – See Approbation.
ApOprov6ance (?), n. Approval. [Archaic] A parents… deign approvance.
ApOprove6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Approved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Approving.] [OE. aproven, appreven, to prove, OF. aprover, F. approuver, to ~, fr. L. approbare; ad + probare to esteem as good, ~, prove. See Prove, and cf. Approbate.] 1. To show to be real or true; to prove. [Obs.] Wouldst thou approve thy constancy? Approve First thy obedience.
2. To make proof of; to demonstrate; to prove or show practically.
Opportunities to approve… worth.
He had approved himself a great warrior. Macaulay.
‘T is an old lesson; Time approves it true. Byron.
His account… approves him a man of thought. Parkman.
3. To sanction officially; to ratify; to confirm; as, to approve the decision of a courtPmartial. 4. To regard as good; to commend; to be pleased with; to think well of; as, we approve the measured of the administration.
5. To make or show to be worthy of approbation or acceptance.
The first care and concern must be to approve himself to God.
5 This word, when it signifies to be pleased with, to think favorably (of), is often followed by of. They had not approved of the deposition of James. Macaulay.
They approved of the political institutions. W. Black.
<– p. 75 –>

ApOprove6 (?), v. t. [OF. aprouer; ? (L. ad) + a form apparently derived fr. the pro, prod, in L. prodest it is useful or profitable, properly the preposition pro for. Cf. Improve.] (Eng. Law) To make profit of; to convert to one’s own profit; said esp. of waste or common land appropriated by the lord of the manor.
ApOprov6edOly (?), adv. So as to secure approbation; in an approved manner.
ApOprove6ment (?), n. [Obs.] 1. Approbation. I did nothing without your approvement.
2. (Eng. Law) a confession of guilt by a prisoner charged with treason or felony, together with an accusation of his accomplish and a giving evidence against them in order to obtain his own pardon. The term is no longer in use; it corresponded to what is now known as turning king’s (or queen’s) evidence in England, and state’s evidence in the United States.
Burrill. Bouvier.
ApOprove6ment, n. (Old Eng. Law) Improvement of common lands, by inclosing and converting them to the uses of husbandry for the advantage of the lord of the manor. Blackstone.
ApOprov6er (?), n. 1. One who approves. Formerly, one who made proof or trial.
2. An informer; an accuser. [Obs.]
3.(Eng. Law) One who confesses a crime and accuses another. See 1st Approvement, 2.
ApOprov6er, n. [See 2d Approve, v. t.] (Eng. Law) A bailiff or steward; an agent. [Obs.]
ApOprov6ing, a. Expressing approbation; commending; as, an approving smile. P ApOprov6ingOly, adv.
ApOprox6iOmate (?), a. [L. approximatus, p. p. of approximare to approach; ad + proximare to come near. See Proximate.] 1. Approaching; proximate; nearly resembling. 2. Near correctness; nearly exact; not perfectly accurate; as, approximate results or values.
w quantities (Math.), those which are nearly, but not, equal.
ApOprox6iOmate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Approximated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Approximating.] 1. To carry or advance near; to cause to approach.
To approximate the inequality of riches to the level of nature.
2. To come near to; to approach.
The telescope approximates perfection. J. Morse.
ApOprox6iOmate, v. i. To draw; to approach. ApOprox6iOmateOly (?), adv. With approximation; so as to approximate; nearly.
ApOprox7iOma6tion (?). n. [Cf. F. approximation, LL. approximatio.] 1. The act of approximating; a drawing, advancing or being near; approach; also, the result of approximating.
The largest capacity and the most noble dispositions are but an approximation to the proper standard and true symmetry of human nature.
I. Taylor.
2. An approach to a correct estimate, calculation, or conception, or to a given quantity, quality, etc. 3. (Math.) (a) A continual approach or coming nearer to a result; as, to solve an equation by approximation. (b) A value that is nearly but not exactly correct. ApOprox6iOmaOtive (?), a. [Cf. F. approximatif.] Approaching; approximate. P ApOprox6iOmaOtiveOly, adv. P ApOprox6iOmaOtiveOness, n.
ApOprox6iOma7tor (?), n. One who, or that which, approximates.
X Ap7pui6 (?), n. [F., fr. L. ad + podium foothold, Gr. ?, dim. of ?, ?, foot.] A support or supporter; a stay; a prop. [Obs.]
If a be to climb trees that are of any great height, there would be stays and appuies set to it.
Point d’appui (?). [F., a point of support.] (Mil.) (a) A given point or body, upon which troops are formed, or by which are marched in line or column. (b) An advantageous defensive support, as a castle, morass, wood, declivity, etc.
Ap6pulse (?; 277), n. [L. appulsus, fr. appellere, appulsum, to drive to; ad + pellere to drive: cf. F. appulse.] 1. A driving or running towards; approach; impulse; also, the act of striking against.
In all consonants there is an appulse of the organs. Holder.
2. (Astron.) The near approach of one heavenly body to another, or to the meridian; a coming into conjunction; as, the appulse of the moon to a star, or of a star to the meridian.
ApOpul6sion (?), n. A driving or striking against; an appulse.
ApOpul6sive (?), a. Striking against; impinging; as, the appulsive influence of the planets.
P. Cyc.
ApOpul6siveOly, adv. By appulsion.
ApOpur6teOnance (?), n. [OF. apurtenaunce, apartenance, F. appartenance, LL. appartenentia, from L. appertinere. See Appertain.] That which belongs to something else; an adjunct; an appendage; an accessory; something annexed to another thing more worthy; in common parlance and legal acceptation, something belonging to another thing as principal, and which passes as incident to it, as a right of way, or other easement to land; a right of common to pasture, an outhouse, barn, garden, or orchard, to a house or messuage. In a strict legal sense, land can never pass as an appurtenance to land.
Tomlins. Bouvier. Burrill.
Globes… provided as appurtenances to astronomy. Bacon.
The structure of the eye, and of its appurtenances. Reid.
ApOpur6teOnant (?), a. [F. appartenant, p. pr. of appartenir. See Appurtenance.] Annexed or pertaining to some more important thing; accessory; inc?dent; as, a right of way appurtenant to land or buildings.
Common ~. (Law) See under Common, n. ApOpur6teOnant, n, Something which belongs or appertains to another thing; an appurtenance.
Mysterious appurtenants and symbols of redemption. Coleridge.
Ap6riOcate (?), v. t. & i. [ L. apricatus, p. p. of apricare, fr. apricus exposed to the sun, fr. aperire to uncover, open.] To bask in the sun.
Ap7riOca6tion , n. Basking in the sun. [R.] A6priOcot , n. [OE. apricock, abricot, F. abricot, fr. Sp. albaricoque or Pg. albricoque, fr. Ar. albirq?q, alPburq?q. Though the E. and F. form abricot is derived from the Arabic through the Spanish, yet the Arabic word itself was formed from the Gr. ?, pl. (Diosc. c. 1000) fr. L. praecoquus, praecox, early ripe. The older E. form apricock was prob. taken direct from Pg. See Precocious, Cook.] (Bot.) A fruit allied to the plum, of an orange color, oval shape, and delicious taste; also, the tree (Prunus Armeniaca of Linnus) which bears this fruit. By cultivation it has been introduced throughout the temperate zone. A6pril (?), n. [L. Aprilis. OE. also Averil, F. Avril, fr. L. Aprilis.] 1. The fourth month of the year. 2. Fig.: With reference to April being the month in which vegetation begins to put forth, the variableness of its weather, etc.
The April’s her eyes; it is love’s spring. Shak.
w fool, one who is sportively imposed upon by others on the first day of w.
X A7 priOo6ri (?). [L. a (ab) + prior former.] 1. (Logic) Characterizing that kind of reasoning which deduces consequences from definitions formed, or principles assumed, or which infers effects from causes previously known; deductive or deductively. The reverse of a posteriori. 2. Presumptive; presumptively; without examination. 3.(Philos.) Applied to knowledge and conceptions assumed, or presupposed, as prior to experience, in order to make experience rational or possible.
A priori, that is, form these necessities of the mind or forms of thinking, which, though first revealed to us by experience, must yet have pre xisted in order to make experience possible.
A7priOo6rism (?), n. [Cf. F. apriorisme.] An a priori principle.
A7priOor6iOty (?), n. The quality of being innate in the mind, or prior to experience; a priori reasoning. X AOproc6ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? anus.] (Zol.) A group of Turbellaria in which there is no anal aperture.
AOproc6tous (?), a.(Zol.) Without an anal office. A6pron (?; 277), n. [OE. napron, OF. naperon, F. napperon, dim. of OF. nape, F. nappe, cloth, tablecloth, LL. napa, fr. L. mappa, napkin, table napkin. See Map.] 1. An article of dress, of cloth, leather, or other stuff, worn on the fore part of the body, to keep the clothes clean, to defend them from injury, or as a covering. It is commonly tied at the waist by strings.
2. Something which by its shape or use suggests an ~; as, (a) The fat skin covering the belly of a goose or duck. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. (b) A piece of leather, or other material, to be spread before a person riding on an outside seat of a vehicle, to defend him from the rain, snow, or dust; a boot. =The weather being too hot for the apron.8 Hughes. (c) (Gun.) A leaden plate that covers the vent of a cannon. (d) (Shipbuilding) A piece of carved timber, just above the foremost end of the keel. Totten. (e) A platform, or flooring of plank, at the entrance of a dock, against which the dock gates are shut. (f) A flooring of plank before a dam to cause the water to make a gradual descent. (g) (Mech.) The piece that holds the cutting tool of a planer. (h) (Plumbing) A strip of lead which leads the drip of a wall into a gutter; a flashing. (i) (Zol.) The infolded abdomen of a crab.
A6proned (?), a. Wearing an apron.
A cobbler aproned, and a parson gowned. Pope.
A6pronOful (?), n.; pl. Apronfuls (?). The quality an apron can hold.
A6pronOless, a. Without an apron.
A6pron man7 (?). A man who wears an apron; a laboring man; a mechanic. [Obs.]
A6pron string7 (?). The string of an apron. To be tied to a wife’s or mother’s apron strings, to be unduly controlled by a wife or mother.
He was so made that he could not submit to be tied to the apron strings even of the best of wives. Macaulay.

Ap6roOsos7 (?), a. & adv. [F. ? propos; ? (L. ad) + propos purpose, L. proposium plan, purpose, fr. proponere to propose. See Propound.] 1. Opportunely or opportune; seasonably or seasonable.
A tale extremely apropos.
2. By the way; to the purpose; suitably to the place or subject; P a word used to introduce an incidental observation, suited to the occasion? though not strictly belonging to the narration.
Apse (?), n. pl. Apses (?). See Apsis.] 1. (Arch.) (a) A projecting part of a building, esp. of a church, having in the plan a polygonal or semicircular termination, and, most often, projecting from the east end. In early churches the Eastern ~ was occupied by seats for the bishop and clergy. Hence: (b) The bishop’s seat or throne, in ancient churches. 2. A reliquary, or case in which the relics of saints were kept.
5 This word is also written apsis and absis. Ap6siOdal (?), a. 1. (Astron.) Of or pertaining to the apsides of an orbit.
2. (Arch.) Of or pertaining to the apse of a church; as, the apsidal termination of the chancel.
Ap6siOdes (?), n. pl. See Apsis.
X Ap6sis (?), n. pl. Apsides (?). See Apse. [L. apsis, absis, Gr. ?, ?, a tying, fastening, the hoop of a wheel, the wheel, a bow, arch, vault, fr. ? to fasten.] 1. (Astron.) One of the two points of an orbit, as of a planet or satellite, which are at the greatest and least distance from the central body, corresponding to the aphelion and perihelion of a planet, or to the apogee and perigee of the moon. The more distant is called the higher apsis; the other, the lower apsis; and the line joining them, the line of apsides.
2. (Math.) In a curve referred to polar cordinates, any point for which the radius vector is a maximum or minimum. 3. (Arch.) Same as Apse.
Apt (?), a [F. apte, L. aptus, fr. obsolete apere to fasten, to join, to fit, akin to apisci to reach, attain: cf. Gr. ? to fasten, Skr. >pta fit, fr. >p to reach attain.] 1. Fit or fitted; suited; suitable; appropriate. They have always apt instruments.
A river… apt to be forded by a lamb. Jer. Taylor.
2. Having an habitual tendency; habitually liable or likely; P used of things.
My vines and peaches… were apt to have a soot or smuttiness upon their leaves and fruit.
This tree, if unprotected, is apt to be stripped of the leaves by a leafPcutting ant.
3. Inclined; disposed customarily; given; ready; P used of persons.
Apter to give than thou wit be to ask. Beau. & Fl.
That lofty pity with which prosperous folk are apt to remember their grandfathers.
F. Harrison.
4. Ready; especially fitted or qualified (to do something); quick to learn; prompt; expert; as, a pupil apt to learn; an apt scholar. =An apt wit.8
Live a thousand years,
I shall not find myself so apt to die. Shak.
I find thee apt… Now, Hamlet, hear. Shak.
Syn. – Fit; meet; suitable; qualified; ???line?; disposed; liable; ready; quick; prompt.
Apt, v. t. [L. aptare. See Aptate.] To fit; to suit; to adapt. [Obs.] =To apt their places.8
B. Jonson.
That our speech be apted to edification. Jer. Taylor.
Apt6aOble (?), a. [LL. aptabilis, fr. L. aptare.] Capable of being adapted. [Obs.]
Ap6tate (?), v. t. [L. aptatus, p. p. of aptare. See Apt.] To make fit. [Obs.]
X Ap6teOra (?), n. pl. [NL. aptera, fr. Gr. ? without wings; ? priv. + ? wing, ? to fly.] (Zol.) Insects without wings, constituting the seventh Linnn order of insects, an artificial group, which included Crustacea, spiders, centipeds, and even worms. These animals are now placed in several distinct classes and orders.
Ap6terOal (?), a. 1. (Zol.) Apterous. 2. (Arch.) Without lateral columns; P applied to buildings which have no series of columns along their sides, but are either prostyle or amphiprostyle, and opposed to peripteral. R. Cyc.
Ap6terOan (?), n. (Zol.) One of the Aptera. X ApOte6riOa (?), n. pl. [NL. See Aptera.] (Zol.) Naked spaces between the feathered areas of birds. See Pteryli. Ap6terOous (?), a. 1. (Zol.) Destitute of wings; apteral; as, apterous insects.
2. (Bot.) Destitute of winglike membranous expansions, as a stem or petiole; P opposed to atate.
X ApOter6yOges (?), n. pl. [NL. See Apteryx.] (Zol.) An order of birds, including the genus Apteryx. X Ap6teOryx (?), n. [Gr. ? priv. + ? wing. Cf. Aptera.] (Zol.) A genus of New Zealand birds about the size of a hen, with only short rudiments of wings, armed with a claw and without a tail; the kiwi. It is allied to the gigantic extinct moas of the same country Five species are known. Apt6iOtude (?), n. [F. aptitude, LL. aptitudo, fr. L. aptus. See Apt, and cf. Attitude.] 1. A natural or acquired disposition or capacity for a particular purpose, or tendency to a particular action or effect; as, oil has an aptitude to burn.
He seems to have had a peculiar aptitude for the management of irregular troops.
2. A general fitness or suitableness; adaptation. That sociable and helpful aptitude which God implanted between man and woman.
3. Readiness in learning; docility; aptness. He was a boy of remarkable aptitude.
Apt7iOtu6diOnal (?), a. Suitable; fit. [Obs.] Apt6ly (?), adv. In an apt or suitable manner; fitly; properly; pertinently; appropriately; readily. Apt6ness, n. 1. Fitness; suitableness; appropriateness; as, the aptness of things to their end.
The aptness of his quotations.
J. R. Green.
<– p. 76 –>

2. Disposition of the mind; propensity; as, the aptness of men to follow example.
3. Quickness of apprehension; readiness in learning; d?cility; as, an aptness to learn is more observable in some children than in others.
4. Proneness; tendency; as, the aptness of iron to rust. Ap6tote (?), n. [L. aptotum, Gr. ? indeclinable; ? priv. + ? fallen, declined, ? to fall.] (Gram.) A noun which has no distinction of cases; an indeclinable noun. ApOtot6ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, aptotes; uninflected; as, aptotic languages. X Ap6tyOchus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?, fold.] (Zol.) A shelly plate found in the terminal chambers of ammonite shells. Some authors consider them to be jaws; others, opercula.
X A6pus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?. See Apode, n.] (Zol.) A genus of freshPwater phyllopod crustaceans. See Phyllopod. Ap7yOret6ic (?), a. [Pref. a? not + pyretic.] (Med.) Without fever; P applied to days when there is an intermission of fever.
X Ap7yOrex6iOa (?), Ap7yOrex7y (?), } n. [NL. apyrexia, fr. Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to be feverish, fr. ? fire: cf. F. apyrexie.] (Med.) The absence of intermission of fever. Ap7yOrex6iOal (?), a. (Med.) Relating to apyrexy. =Apyrexial period.8
Brande & C.
Ap6yOrous (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? fire.] Incombustible; capable of sustaining a strong heat without alteration of form or properties.
X A6qua (?), n. [L. See Ewer.] Water; P a word much used in pharmacy and the old chemistry, in various signification, determined by the word or words annexed. w ammoni, the aqueous solution of ammonia; liquid ammonia; often called aqua ammonia. P w marine (?), or w marina (?). Same as Aquamarine. P w regia (?). [L., royal water] (Chem.), a very corrosive fuming yellow liquid consisting of nitric and hydrochloric acids. It has the power of dissolving gold, the =royal8 metal. P w Tofana (?), a fluid containing arsenic, and used for secret poisoning, made by an Italian woman named Tofana, in the middle of the 17th century, who is said to have poisoned more than 600 persons. Francis. P w vit (?) [L., water of life. Cf. Eau de vie, Usquebaugh], a name given to brandy and some other ardent spirits.
X A7qua for6tis (?). [L., strong water.] (Chem.) Nitric acid. [Archaic]
A7quaOmaOrine6 (?), n. (Min.) A transparent, pale green variety of beryl, used as a gem. See Beryl. A7quaOpunc6ture (?), n. [L. aqua water, + punctura puncture, pungere, punctum, to, prick.] (Med.) The introduction of water subcutaneously for the relief of pain. X Aq7uaOrelle6 (?), n. [F., fr. Ital acquerello, fr. acqua water, L. aqua.] A design or painting in thin transparent water colors; also, the mode of painting in such colors. Aq7uaOrel6list (?), n. A painter in thin transparent water colors.
AOqua6riOal (?), AOqua6riOan (?), } a. Of or performance to an aquarium.
AOqua6riOan, n. [L. (assumed) Aquarianus, fr. aqua: cf. F. Aquarien. See Aqua.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of Christian in the primitive church who used water instead of wine in the Lord’s Supper.
AOqua6riOum (?), n.; pl. E. Aquariums (?), L. Aquaria (?). [L. See Aquarius, Ewer.] An artificial pond, or a globe or tank (usually with glass sides), in which living specimens of aquatic animals or plants are kept.
X AOqua6riOus (?), n. [L. aquarius, adj., relating to water, and n., a waterPcarrier, fr. aqua. See Aqua.] (Astron.) (a) The WaterPbearer; the eleventh sign in the zodiac, which the sun enters about the 20th of January; P so called from the rains which prevail at that season in Italy and the East. (b) A constellation south of Pegasus.
AOquat6ic (?), a. [L. aquaticus: cf. F. aquatique. See Aqua.] Pertaining to water growing in water; living in, swimming in, or frequenting the margins of waters; as, aquatic plants and fowls.
AOquat7ic, n. 1. An ~ animal plant. 2. pl. Sports or exercises practiced in or on the water. AOquat6icOal (?), a. Aquatic. [R.]
Aq6uaOtile (?), a. [L. aquatilis: cf. F. aquatile.] Inhabiting the water. [R.]
Sir T. Browne.
A6quaOtint (?), A7quaOtin6ta (?), } n. [It. acquatinta dyed water; acqua (L. aqua) water + tinto, fem. tinta, dyed. See Tint.] A kind of etching in which spaces are bitten by the use of aqua fortis, by which an effect is produced resembling a drawing in water colors or India ink; also, the engraving produced by this method.
Aq6ueOduct (?), n. [F. aqueduc, OF. aqueduct (Cotgr.), fr. L. aquaeductus; aquae, gen. of aqua water + ductus a leading, ducere to lead. See Aqua, Duke.] 1. A conductor, conduit, or artificial channel for conveying water, especially one for supplying large cities with water. 5 The term is also applied to a structure (similar to the ancient aqueducts), for conveying a canal over a river or hollow; more properly called an aqueduct bridge. 2. (Anat.) A canal or passage; as, the aqueduct of Sylvius, a channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain.
AOque6iOty (?), n. Wateriness. [Obs.] A6queOous (?), a. [Cf. F. aqueux, L. aquosus, fr. aqua. See Aqua, Aquose.] 1. Partaking of the nature of water, or abounding with it; watery.
The aqueous vapor of the air.
2. Made from, or by means of, water. An aqueous deposit.
w extract, an extract obtained from a vegetable substance by steeping it in water. P w humor (Anat.), one the humors of the eye; a limpid fluid, occupying the space between the crystalline lens and the cornea. (See Eye.) P w rocks (Geol.), those which are deposited from water and lie in strata, as opposed to volcanic rocks, which are of igneous origin; P called also sedimentary rocks. A7queOousOness, n. Wateriness.
AOquif6erOous (?), a. [L. aqua water + Oferous.] Consisting or conveying water or a watery fluid; as, aquiferous vessels; the aquiferous system.
A6quiOform (?), a. [L. aqua water + Oform.] Having the form of water.
X Aq6uiOla (?), n; pl. Aquil (?). [L., an eagle.] 1. (Zol.) A genus of eagles.
2. (Astron.) A northern constellation southerly from Lyra and Cygnus and preceding the Dolphin; the Eagle. w alba [L., white eagle], an alchemical name of calomel. Brande & C.
Aq6uiOla7ted (?), a. (Her.) Adorned with eagles’ heads. Aq6uiOline (?; 277), a. [L. aquilinus, fr. aquila eagle: cf. F. aquilin. See Eagle. ] 1. Belonging to or like an eagle. 2. Curving; hooked; prominent, like the beak of an eagle; P applied particularly to the nose
Terribly arched and aquiline his nose. Cowper.
Aq6uiOlon (?), n. [L. aquilo, Olonis: cf. F. aquilon.] The north wind. [Obs.]
AOquip6aOrous (?), a. [L. aqua water + parere to bring forth.] (Med.) Secreting water; P applied to certain glands. Dunglison.
Aq7uiOta6niOan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aquitania, now called Gascony.
AOquose6 (?), a. [L. aquosus watery, fr. aqua. See Aqua, Aqueous.] Watery; aqueous. [R.]
AOquos6iOty (?), n. [LL. aquositas.] The condition of being wet or watery; wateriness.
Very little water or aquosity is found in their belly. Holland.
Ar (?), conj. Ere; before. [Obs.]
X A6ra (?), n. [L.] (Astron.) The Altar; a southern constellation, south of the tail of the Scorpion. X A6ra (?), n. [Native Indian name.] (Zol.) A name of the great blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna), native of South America.
Ar6ab (?; 277), n. [Prob. ultimately fr. Heb. arabah a desert, the name employed, in the Old Testament, to denote the valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea. Ar. Arab, Heb. arabi, arbi, arbim: cf. F. Arabe, L. Arabs, Gr. ?.] One of a swarthy race occupying Arabia, and numerous in Syria, Northern Africa, etc.
Street w, a homeless vagabond in the streets of a city, particularly and outcast boy or girl.
The ragged outcasts and street Arabs who are shivering in damp doorways.
Lond. Sat. Rev.
Ar7aObesque6 (?), n. [F. arabesque, fr. It. arabesco, fr. Arabo Arab.] A style of ornamentation either painted, inlaid, or carved in low relief. It consists of a pattern in which plants, fruits, foliage, etc., as well as figures of men and animals, real or imaginary, are fantastically interlaced or put together.
5 It was employed in Roman imperial ornamentation, and appeared, without the animal figures, in Moorish and Arabic decorative art. (See Moresque.) The arabesques of the Renaissance were founded on GrecoPRoman work. Ar7aObesque6, a. 1. Arabian. [Obs.]
2. Relating to, or exhibiting, the style of ornament called arabesque; as, arabesque frescoes.
Ar7aObesqued6 (?), a. Ornamented in the style of arabesques. AOra6biOan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Arabia or its inhabitants.
w bird, the phenix.
AOra6biOan, n. A native of Arabia; an Arab. Ar6aObic (?), a. [L. Arabicus, fr. Arabia.] Of or pertaining to Arabia or the Arabians.
w numerals or figures, the nine digits, 1, 2, 3, etc., and the cipher 0. P Gum ~. See under Gum.
Ar6aObic, n. The language of the Arabians. 5 The Arabic is a Semitic language, allied to the Hebrew. It is very widely diffused, being the language in which all Mohammedans must read the Koran, and is spoken as a vernacular tongue in Arabia, Syria, and Northern Africa. AOrab6icOal (?), a. Relating to Arabia; Arabic. P AOrab6icOalOly, adv.
Ar6aObin (?), n. 1. (Chem.) A carbohydrate, isomeric with cane sugar, contained in gum arabic, from which it is extracted as a white, amorphous substance. 2. Mucilage, especially that made of gum arabic. Ar6aObinOose7 (?), n. (Chem.) A sugar of the composition C5H10O5, obtained from cherry gum by boiling it with dilute sulphuric acid.
Ar6aObism (?), n. [Cf. F. Arabisme.] An Arabic idiom peculiarly of language.
Ar7aObist (?), n. [Cf. F. Arabiste.] One well versed in the Arabic language or literature; also, formerly, one who followed the Arabic system of surgery.
Ar6aOble (?), a. [F. arable, L. arabilis, fr. arare to plow, akin to Gr. ?, E. ear, to plow. See Earable.] Fit for plowing or tillage; P hence, often applied to land which has been plowed or tilled.
Ar6aOble, n. w land; plow land.
Ar6aOby (?), n. The country of Arabia. [Archaic & Poetic] X Ar7aOcaOnese6 (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aracan, a province of British Burmah. P n. sing. & pl. A native or natives of Aracan.
X A7raO?a6ri (?), n. (Zol.) A South American bird, of the genus Pleroglossius, allied to the toucans. There are several species.
AOrace6 (?), v. t. [OE. aracen, arasen, OF. arachier, esracier, F. arracher, fr. L. exradicare, eradicare. The prefix aO is perh. due to L. ab. See Eradicate.] To tear up by the roots; to draw away. [Obs.]
AOra6ceous (?), a. [L. arum a genus of plants, fr. Gr. ?.] (Bot.) Of or pertaining to an order of plants, of which the genus Arum is the type.
AOrach6nid (?), n. An arachnidan.
X AOrach6niOda (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? spider.] (Zol.) One of the classes of Arthropoda. See Illustration in Appendix.
5 They have four pairs of legs, no antenn nor wings, a pair of mandibles, and one pair of maxill or palpi. The head is usually consolidated with the thorax. The respiration is either by tranche or by pulmonary sacs, or by both. The class includes three principal orders: Araneina, or spiders; Arthrogastra, including scorpions, etc.; and Acarina, or mites and ticks.
AOrach6niOdan (?), n. [Gr. ? spider.] (Zol.) One of the Arachnida.
Ar7achOnid6iOal (?), a. (Zol.) (a) Of or pertaining to the Arachnida. (b) Pertaining to the arachnidium. X Ar7achOnid6iOum (?), n. [NL. See Arachnida.] (Zol.) The glandular organ in which the material for the web of spiders is secreted.
X Ar7achOni6tis (?), n. [Gr. ? + ?.] (Med.) Inflammation of the arachnoid membrane.
AOrach6noid (?), a. [Gr. ? like a cobweb; ? spider, spider’s web + ? form.] 1. Resembling a spider’s web; cobweblike. 2. (Anat.) Pertaining to a thin membrane of the brain and spinal cord, between the dura mater and pia mater. 3. (Bot.) Covered with, or composed of, soft, loose hairs or fibers, so as to resemble a cobweb; cobwebby. AOrach6noid, n. 1. (Anat.) The ~ membrane. 2. (Zol.) One of the Arachnoidea.
Ar7achOnoid6al (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the arachnoid membrane; arachnoid.
X Ar7achOnoid6eOa (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zol.) Same as Arachnida.
AOrach7noOlog6icOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to arachnology. Ar7achOnol6oOgist (?), n. One who is versed in, or studies, arachnology.
Ar7achOnol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? spider + Ology.] The department of zology which treats of spiders and other Arachnida.
A7rOom6eOter (?; 277). See Areometer. AOr6oOstyle (?), a. & n. [L. araeostylos, Gr. ?; ? at intervals + ? pillar, column.] (Arch.) See Intercolumniation.
AOr7oOsys6tyle (?), a. & n. [Gr. ? as intervals + ?. See Systyle.] (Arch.) See Intercolumniation. Ar7aOgoOnese (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aragon, in Spain, or to its inhabitants. P n. sing. & pl. A native or natives of Aragon, in Spain.
AOrag6oOnite (?), n. [From Aragon, in Spain.] (Min.) A mineral identical in composition with calcite or carbonate of lime, but differing from it in its crystalline form and some of its physical characters.
X A7raOgua6to (?), n. [Native name.] (Zol.) A South American monkey, the ursine howler (Mycetes ursinus). See Howler, n., 2.
AOraise66 (?), v. t. To raise. [Obs.] Shak.
Ar6ak (?), n. Same as Arrack.
Ar7aOman, Ar7aOme6an } (?), a. [L. Aramaeus, Gr. ?, fr. Heb. Ar>m, i. e. Highland, a name given to Syria and Mesopotamia.] Of or pertaining to the Syrians and Chaldeans, or to their language; Aramaic. P n. A native of Aram. Ar7aOma6ic (?), a. [See Araman, a.] Pertaining to Aram, or to the territory, inhabitants, language, or literature of Syria and Mesopotamia; Araman; P specifically applied to the northern branch of the Semitic family of languages, including Syriac and Chaldee. P n. The Aramaic language. Ar7aOma6ism (?), n. An idiom of the Aramaic. X Ar7aOne6iOda (?), X Ar7aOneOoid6eOa (?), } n. pl. [NL.] (Zol.) See Araneina.
Ar7aOne6iOdan (?), a. (Zol.) Of or pertaining to the Araneina or spiders. P n. One of the Araneina; a spider. Ar7aOne6iOform (?)(?) a. [L. aranea spider + Oform.] (Zol.) Having the form of a spider.
X AOra7neOi6na (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. aranea spider.] (Zol.) The order of Arachnida that includes the spiders. 5 They have mandibles, modified a poison fa?gs, leglike palpi, simple eyes, abdomen without segments, and spinnerets for spinning a web. They breathe by pulmonary sacs and trache in the abdomen. See Illustration in Appendix. AOra6neOose7 , a. [L. araneous.] Of the aspect of a spider’s web; arachnoid.
AOra6neOous (?), a. [L. araneosus, fr. aranea spider, spider6s web.] Cobweblike; extremely thin and delicate, like a cobweb; as, the araneous membrane of the eye. See Arachnoid.

<– p. 77 –>

X AOran6go (?), n. pl. Arangoes (?). [The native name.] A bead of rough carnelian. Arangoes were formerly imported from Bombay for use in the African slave trade. M?Culloch.
X A7raOpai6ma (?), n. [Prob. native name.] (Zol.) A large freshPwater food fish of South America.
X AOra6ra (?), n. [Native name.] (Zol.) The palm (or great black) cockatoo, of Australia (Microglossus aterrimus). AOra6tion (?), n. [L. aratio, fr. arare to plow.] Plowing; tillage. [R.]
Lands are said to be in a state of aration when they are under tillage.
Ar6aOtoOry (?), a. [LL. aratorius: cf. F. aratoire.] Contributing to tillage.
X Ar7auOca6riOa (?), n. [Araucania, a territory south of Chili.] (Bot.) A genus of tall conifers of the pine family. The species are confined mostly to South America and Australia. ?he wood cells differ from those of other in having the dots in their lateral surfaces in two or three rows, and the dots of contiguous rows alternating. The seeds are edible.
Ar7auOca6riOan (?), a. Relating to, or of the nature of, the Araucaria. The earliest conifers in geological history were mostly w.
Ar6baOlest (?), Ar6baOlist (?), } n. [OF. arbaleste, LL. arbalista, for L. arcuballista; arcus bow + ballista a military engine. See Ballista.] (Antiq.) A crossbow, consisting of a steel bow set in a shaft of wood, furnished with a string and a trigger, and a mechanical device for bending the bow. It served to throw arrows, darts, bullets, etc. [Written also arbalet and arblast.] Fosbroke.
Ar6baOlest7er (?), Ar6baOlist7er (?), } n. [OF. arblastere, OF. arbalestier. See Arbalest.] A crossbowman. [Obs.] Speed.
Ar6biOter (?), n. [L. arbiter; arO (for ad) + the root of betere to go; hence properly, one who comes up to look on.] 1. A person appointed, or chosen, by parties to determine a controversy between them.
5 In modern usage, arbitrator is the technical word. 2. Any person who has the power of judging and determining, or ordaining, without control; one whose power of deciding and governing is not limited.
For Jove is arbiter of both to man. Cowper.
Syn. – Arbitrator; umpire; director; referee; controller; ruler; governor.
Ar6biOter, v. t. To act as ~ between. [Obs.] Ar6biOtraOble (?), a. [Cf. F. arbitrable, fr. L. arbitrari. See Arbitrate, v. t.] Capable of being decided by arbitration; determinable. [Archaic]
Bp. Hall.
Ar6biOtrage (?), n. [F., fr. arbiter to give judgment, L. arbitrari.] 1. Judgment by an arbiter; authoritative determination. [Archaic]
2. (Com) A traffic in bills of exchange (see Arbitration of Exchange); also, a traffic in stocks which bear differing values at the same time in different markets. Ar6biOtral (?), a. [L. arbitralis.] Of or relating to an arbiter or an arbitration. [R.]
ArObit6raOment (?), n. [LL. arbitramentum.] 1. Determination; decision; arbitration.
The arbitrament of time.
Gladly at this moment would MacIvor have put their quarrel to personal arbitrament.
Sir W. Scott.
2. The award of arbitrators.
Ar6biOtraOriOly (?), adv. In an arbitrary manner; by will only; despotically; absolutely.
Ar6biOtraOriOness, n. The quality of being arbitrary; despoticalness; tyranny.
Bp. Hall.
Ar7biOtra6riOous (?), a. [L. arbitrarius. See Arbitrary.] Arbitrary; despotic. [Obs.] P Ar7biOtra6OriOousOly, adv. [Obs.]
Ar6biOtraOry (?), a. [L. arbitrarius, fr. arbiter: cf. F. arbitraire. See Arbiter.] 1. Depending on will or discretion; not governed by any fixed rules; as, an arbitrary decision; an arbitrary punishment. It was wholly arbitrary in them to do so. Jer. Taylor.
Rank pretends to fix the value of every one, and is the most arbitrary of all things.
2. Exercised according to one’s own will or caprice, and therefore conveying a notion of a tendency to abuse the possession of power.
Arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins of liberty abused licentiousness.
3. Despotic; absolute in power; bound by no law; harsh and unforbearing; tyrannical; as, an arbitrary prince or government.

w constant, w function (Math.), a quantity of function that is introduced into the solution of a problem, and to which any value or form may at will be given, so that the solution may be made to meet special requirements. P w quantity (Math.), one to which any value can be assigned at pleasure. Ar6biOtrate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arbitrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Arbitrating (?).] [L. arbitratus, p. p. of arbitrari to be a hearer or beholder of something, to make a decision, to give judgment, fr. arbiter. See Arbiter.] 1. To hear and decide, as arbitrators; as, to choose to arbitrate a disputed case.
2. To decide, or determine generally. South.
There shall your swords and lances arbitrate The swelling difference of your settled hate. Shak.
Ar6biOtrate (?), v. i. 1. To decide; to determine. Shak.
2. To act as arbitrator or judge; as, to arbitrate upon several reports;; to arbitrate in disputes among heighbors; to arbitrate between parties to a suit.
Ar7biOtra6tion (?), n. [F. arbitration, L. arbitratio, fr. arbitrari.] The hearing and determination of a cause between parties in controversy, by a person or persons chosen by the parties.
5 This may be done by one person; but it is usual to choose two or three called arbitrators; or for each party to choose one, and these to name a third, who is called the umpire. Their determination is called the award. Bouvier
w bond, a bond which obliges one to abide by the award of an ~. P w of Exchange, the operation of converting the currency of one country into that of another, or determining the rate of exchange between such countries or currencies. An arbitrated rate is one determined by such ~ through the medium of one or more intervening currencies. Ar6biOtra7tor (?), n. [L., fr. arbitrari: cf. F. arbitrateur.] 1. A person, or one of two or more persons, chosen by parties who have a controversy, to determine their differences. See Arbitration.
2. One who has the power of deciding or prescribing without control; a ruler; a governor.
Though Heaven be shut,
And Heaven’s high Arbitrators sit secure. Milton.
Masters of their own terms and arbitrators of a peace. Addison.
Syn. – Judge; umpire; referee; arbiter. See Judge. Ar6biOtra7trix (?), n. [L., fem. of arbitrator.] A female who arbitrates or judges.
Ar6biOtress (?), n. [From Arbiter.] A female arbiter; an arbitratrix.

Ar6blast (?), n. A crossbow. See Arbalest. Ar6bor (?), n. [OE. herber, herbere, properly a garden of herbs, F. herbier, fr. L. herbarium. See Herb, and cf. Herbarium.] A kind of latticework formed of, or covered with, vines, branches of trees, or other plants, for shade; a bower.
Sir P. Sidney.
Ar6bor, n. [Written also arbour.] [L., a tree, a beam.] 1. (Bot.) A tree, as distinguished from a shrub. 2. [Cf. F. arbre.] (Mech.) (a) An axle or spindle of a wheel or opinion. (b) A mandrel in lathe turning. Knight.
w Day, a day appointed for planting trees and shrubs. [U.S.] Ar6boOraOry (?), a. [L. arborarius, fr. arbor tree.] Of or pertaining to trees; arboreal.
Ar6boOra7tor (?), n. [L., fr. arbor tree.] One who plants or who prunes trees. [Obs.]
X Ar6bor DiOa6n (?). [L., the tree of Diana, or silver.] (Chem.) A precipitation of silver, in a beautiful arborescent form.
ArObo6reOal (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to a tree, or to trees; of nature of trees.
2. Attached to, found in or upon, or frequenting, woods or trees; as, arboreal animals.
Woodpeckers are eminently arboreal. Darwin.
Ar6bored (?), a. Furnished with an arbor; lined with trees. =An arboreal walk.8
ArObo6reOous (?), a. [L. arboreous, fr. arbor tree.] 1. Having the form, constitution, or habits, of a proper tree, in distinction from a shrub.
2. Pertaining to, or growing on, trees; as, arboreous moss. Quincy.
Ar7boOres6cence (?), n. The state of being arborescent; the resemblance to a tree in minerals, or crystallizations, or groups of crystals in that form; as, the arborescence produced by precipitating silver.
Ar7boOres6cent (?), a. [L. arborescens, p. pr. of arborescere to become a tree, fr. arbor tree.] Resembling a tree; becoming woody in stalk; dendritic; having crystallizations disposed like the branches and twigs of a tree. =Arborescent hollyhocks.8
Ar6boOret (?), n. [OF. arboret, dim. of arbre tree, L. arbor] A small tree or shrub. [Obs.]
Among thickPwoven arborets, and flowers Imbordered on each bank.
X Ar7boOre6tum (?), n.; pl. Arboreta (?). [L., a place grown with trees.] A place in which a collection of rare trees and shrubs is cultivated for scientific or educational purposes. ArObor6icOal (?), a. Relating to trees. [Obs.] ArObor6iOcole (?), a. [L. arbor + colere to inhabit.] (Zol.) TreePinhabiting; P said of certain birds. Ar7borOiOcul6turOal (?), a. Pertaining to arboriculture. Loudon.
Ar7borOiOcul6ture (?; 135), n. [L. arbor tree + cultura. See Culture.] The cultivation of trees and shrubs, chiefly for timber or for ornamental purposes.
Ar7borOiOcul6turOist, n. One who cultivates trees. ArObor6iOform (?), a. Treelike in shape. Ar6borOist (?), n. [F. arboriste, fr. L. arbor tree.] One who makes trees his study, or who is versed in the knowledge of trees.
Ar7borOiOza6tion (?), n. [Cf. F. arborisation, fr. L. arbor tree.] The appearance or figure of a tree or plant, as in minerals or fossils; a dendrite.
Ar6borOized (?), a. Having a treelike appearance. =An arborized or moss agate.8
Ar6borOous (?), a. Formed by trees. [Obs.] From under shady, arborous roof.
Ar6bor vine7 (?). A species of bindweed. X Ar6bor vi6t (?). [L., tree of life.] 1. (Bot.) An evergreen tree of the cypress tribe, genus Thuja. The American species is the T. occidentalis. 2. (Anat.) The treelike disposition of the gray and white nerve tissues in the cerebellum, as seen in a vertical section.
Ar6busOcle (?), n. [L. arbuscula small tree, shrub, dim. of arbor tree.] A dwarf tree, one in size between a shrub and a tree; a treelike shrub.
ArObus6cuOlar (?), a. Of or pertaining to a dwarf tree; shrublike.
Da Costa.
ArObus6tive (?), a. [L. arbustivus, fr. arbustum place where trees are planted.] Containing copses of trees or shrubs; covered with shrubs.
Ar6buOtus (?), Ar6bute (?), } n. [L. arbutus, akin to arbor tree.] The strawberry tree, a genus of evergreen shrubs, of the Heath family. It has a berry externally resembling the strawberry; the arbute tree.
Trailing arbutus (Bot.), a creeping or trailing plant of the Heath family (Epiga repens), having white or usually rosePcolored flowers with a delicate fragrance, growing in small axillary clusters, and appearing early in the spring; in New England known as mayflower; P called also ground laurel.
Arc (?), n. [F. arc, L. arcus bow, ~. See Arch, n.] 1. (Geom.) A portion of a curved line; as, the arc of a circle or of an ellipse.
2. A curvature in the shape of a circular ~ or an arch; as, the colored arc (the rainbow); the arc of Hadley’s quadrant. 3. An arch. [Obs.]
Statues and trophies, and triumphal arcs. Milton.
4. The apparent ~ described, above or below the horizon, by the sun or other celestial body. The diurnal arc is described during the daytime, the nocturnal arc during the night.
Electric ~, Voltaic ~. See under Voltaic. ArOcade6 (?), n. [F. arcade, Sp. arcada, LL. arcata, fr. L. arcus bow, arch.] 1. (Arch.) (a) A series of arches with the columns or piers which support them, the spandrels above, and other necessary appurtenances; sometimes open, serving as an entrance or to give light; sometimes closed at the back (as in the cut) and forming a decorative feature. (b) A long, arched building or gallery.
2. An arched or covered passageway or avenue. ArOcad6ed (?), a. Furnished with an arcade. ArOca6diOa (?), n. [L. Arcadia, Gr. ?.] 1. A mountainous and picturesque district of Greece, in the heart of the Peloponnesus, whose people were distinguished for contentment and rural happiness.
2. Fig.: Any region or scene of simple pleasure and untroubled quiet.
Where the cow is, there is Arcadia. J. Burroughs.
ArOca6diOan (?), ArOca6dic (?), } a. [L. Arcadius, Arcadicus, fr. Arcadia: cf. F. Arcadien, Arcadique.] Of or pertaining to Arcadia; pastoral; ideally rural; as, Arcadian simplicity or scenery.
ArOcane6 (?), a. [L. arcanus.] Hidden; secret. [Obs.] =The arcane part of divine wisdom.8
X ArOca6num (?), n.; pl. Arcana (?). [L., fr. arcanus closed, secret, fr. arca chest, box, fr. arcere to inclose. See Ark.] 1. A secret; a mystery; P generally used in the plural.
Inquiries into the arcana of the Godhead. Warburton.
2. (Med.) A secret remedy; an elixir. Dunglison.
X Arc7Obou7tant6 (?), n. [F.] (Arch.) A flying buttress. Gwilt.
Arch (?), n. [F. arche, fr. LL. arca, for arcus. See Arc.] 1. (Geom.) Any part of a curved line.
2. (Arch.) (a) Usually a curved member made up of separate wedgePshaped solids, with the joints between them disposed in the direction of the radii of the curve; used to support the wall or other weight above an opening. In this sense arches are segmental, round (i. e., semicircular), or pointed. (b) A flat arch is a member constructed of stones cut into wedges or other shapes so as to support each other without rising a curve.
5 Scientifically considered, the ~ is a means of spanning an opening by resolving vertical pressure into horizontal or diagonal thrust.
3. Any place covered by an ~; an archway; as, to pass into the arch of a bridge.
4. Any curvature in the form of an ~; as, the arch of the aorta. =Colors of the showery arch.8
Triumphal ~, a monumental structure resembling an arched gateway, with one or more passages, erected to commemorate a triumph.
Arch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Arching.] 1. To cover with an ~ or arches. 2. To form or bend into the shape of an ~. The horse arched his neck.
Arch, v. i. To form into an arch; to curve.

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ArchO (rchO, except in archangel and one or two other words). [L. archO, Gr. ???. See ArchO.] A prefix signifying chief, as in archbuilder, archfiend.
Arch (?), a. [See ArchO, pref.] 1. Chief; eminent; greatest ; principal.
The most arch act of piteous massacre. Shak.
2. Cunning or sly; sportively mischievous; roguish; as, an arch look, word, lad.
[He] spoke his request with so arch a leer. Tatler.
Arch, n. [See ArchO, pref.] A chief. [Obs.] My worthy arch and patron comes toPnight. Shak.
Oarch (?). [Gr. ? chief, commander, ? to rule. See Arch, a.] A suffix meaning a ruler, as in monarch (a sole ruler). ArOch6an (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient, fr. ? beginning.] Ancient; pertaining to the earliest period in geological history. ArOch6an, n. (Geol.) The earliest period in geological period, extending up to the Lower Silurian. It includes an Azoic age, previous to the appearance of life, and an Eozoic age, including the earliest forms of life. 5 This is equivalent to the formerly accepted term Azoic, and to the Eozoic of Dawson.
Ar7chOog6raOphy (?), n. [Gr. ? ancient + Ography.] A description of, or a treatise on, antiquity or antiquities. Ar7chOoOlith6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient + ? pertaining to a stone.] (Archol.) Of or pertaining to the earliest Stone age; P applied to a prehistoric period preceding the Paleolithic age.
Ar7chOoOlo6giOan (?), n. An archologist. Ar7chOoOlog6ic (?), Ar7chOoOlog6icOal (?), } Relating to archology, or antiquities; as, archological researches. P Ar7OchOoOlog6icOalOly, adv.
Ar7chOol6oOgist (?), n. One versed in archology; an antiquary.
Ar7chOol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? ancient (fr. ? beginning) + ? discourse, ? to speak.] The science or study of antiquities, esp. prehistoric antiquities, such as the remains of buildings or monuments of an early epoch, inscriptions, implements, and other relics, written manuscripts, etc.
X Ar7chOop6teOryx (?), n. [Gr. ? ancient + ? wing.] (Paleon.) A fossil bird, of the Jurassic period, remarkable for having a long tapering tail of many vertebr with feathers along each side, and jaws armed with teeth, with other reptilian characteristics.
Ar7chOoOstom6aOtous (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient + ? mouth.] (Biol.) Applied to a gastrula when the blastorope does not entirely up.
Ar7chOoOzo6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient + ? animal.] (Zol.) Like or belonging to the earliest forms of animal life. ArOcha6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? oldPfashioned, fr. ? ancient.] Of or characterized by antiquity or archaism; antiquated; obsolescent.
ArOcha6icOal (?), a. Archaic. [R.] P ArOcha6icOalOly, adv. Ar6chaOism (?), n. [Gr. ?, fr. ? ancient, fr. ? beginning: cf. F. archa sme. See Arch, a.] 1. An ancient, antiquated, or oldPfashioned, word, expression, or idiom; a word or form of speech no longer in common use.
2. Antiquity of style or use; obsoleteness. A select vocabulary corresponding (in point of archaism and remoteness from ordinary use) to our Scriptural vocabulary. De Quincey.
Ar6chaOist, n. 1. Am antiquary.
2. One who uses archaisms.
Ar7chaOis6tic (?), a. Like, or imitative of, anything archaic; pertaining to an archaism.
Ar6chaOize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Archaized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Archaizing.] [Gr. ?.] To make appear archaic or antique.
Arch7an6gel (?), n. [L. archangelus, Gr. ?: cf. OF. archangel, F. archange. See ArchO, pref., and Angel.] 1. A chief angel; one high in the celestial hierarchy. Milton.
2. (Bot.) A term applied to several different species of plants (Angelica archangelica, Lamium album, etc.). Arch7anOgel6ic (?), a. [Cf. F. archanglique.] Of or pertaining to archangels; of the nature of, or resembling, an archangel.

Arch7bish6op (?), n. [AS. arcebisceop, arcebiscop, L. archiepiscopus, fr. Gr. ?. See Bishop.] A chief bishop; a church dignitary of the first class (often called a metropolitan or primate) who superintends the conduct of the suffragan bishops in his province, and also exercises episcopal authority in his own diocese.
Arch7bish6opOric (?), n. [AS. arcebiscoprFce. See Oric.] The jurisdiction or office of an archbishop; the see or province over which archbishop exercises archiepiscopal authority. Arch6 brick7 (?). A wedgePshaped brick used in the building of an arch.
Arch7but6ler (?), n. [Pref. archO + butler.] A chief butler; P an officer of the German empire.
Arch7cham6berOlain (?), n. [Cf. G. erzkmmerer. See ArchO, pref.] A chief chamberlain; P an officer of the old German empire, whose office was similar to that of the great chamberlain in England.
Arch7chan6celOlor (?), n. [Cf. Ger. erzkanzler. See ArchO, pref.] A chief chancellor; P an officer in the old German empire, who presided over the secretaries of the court. Arch7chem6ic (?), a. Of supreme chemical powers. [R.] =The archchemic sun.8

Arch7dea6con (?), n. [AS. arcediacon, archidiacon, L. archidiaconus, fr. Gr. ?. See ArchO, pref., and Deacon.] In England, an ecclesiastical dignitary, next in rank below a bishop, whom he assists, and by whom he is appointed, though with independent authority.
Arch7dea6conOry, n. The district, office, or residence of an archdeacon. See Benefice.
Every diocese is divided into archdeaconries. Blackstone.
Arch7dea6conOship, n. The office of an archdeacon. Arch7di6oOcese (?), n. [Pref. archO + diocese.] The diocese of an archbishop.
Arch7du6cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to an archduke or archduchy.
Arch7duch6ess (?), n. [Pref. archO + duchess.] The consort of an archduke; also, a princess of the imperial family of Austria. See Archduke.
Arch7duch6y, n. The territory of an archduke or archduchess. Ash.
Arch7duke6 (?), n. [Pref. archO + duke.] A prince of the imperial family of Austria.
5 Formerly this title was assumed by the rulers of Lorraine, Brabant, Austria, etc. It is now appropriated to the descendants of the imperial family of Austria through the make line, all such male descendants being styled archduke, and all such female descendants archduchesses. Arch7duke6dom (?), n. An archduchy.
X Ar7cheObiOo6sis (?), n. [Pref. archeO ? archiO + Gr. ?, ?, life.] To origination of living matter from nonPliving. See Abiogenesis.
Arched (?), a. Made with an arch or curve; covered with an arch; as, an arched door.
Ar7cheOgo6niOal (?), a. Relating to the archegonium. X Ar7cheOgo6niOum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? the first of a race.] (Bot.) The pistillidium or female organ in the higher cryptogamic plants, corresponding to the pistil in flowering plants.
ArOcheg6oOny (?), n. [See Archegonium.] (Biol.) Spontaneous generation; abiogenesis.
ArOchel6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? an element or first principle + Ology.] The science of, or a treatise on, first principles. Fleming.
X Ar7chenOceph6aOla (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. ? + ? the brain.] (Zol.) The division that includes man alone. R. Owen.
Arch7en6eOmy (?), n. [Pref. archO = enemy.] A principal enemy. Specifically, Satan, the grand adversary of mankind. Milton.
Arch7enOter6ic (?), a. (Biol.) Relating ? the archenteron; as, archenteric invagination.
X Arch7en6terOon , n. [Pref. archO + Gr. ? intestine.] (Biol.) The primitive enteron or undifferentiated digestive sac of a gastrula or other embryo. See Illust. under Invagination.
Ar7cheOol6oOgy (?), n., Ar7cheOoOlog7icOal (?), a. Same as Archology, etc.
Arch6er (?), n. [OF. archier, F. archer, LL. arcarius, fr. L. arcus bow. See Arc, Arch, n.] A bowman, one skilled in the use of the bow and arrow.
Arch6erOess (?), n. A female archer. Markham.
Arch6er fish7 (?). (Zol.) A small fish (Toxotes jaculator), of the East Indies; P so called from ?? ejecting drops of water from its mouth at its prey. The name is also applied to Chtodon rostratus.
Arch6erOship, n. The art or skill of an archer. Arch6erOy (?), n. [OE. archerie.] 1. The use of the bow and arrows in battle, hunting, etc.; the art, practice, or skill of shooting with a bow and arrows.
2. Archers, or bowmen, collectively. Let all our archery fall off
In wings of shot aPboth sides of the van. Webster (1607).
Arch6es (?), pl. of Arch, n.
Court of w, or w Court (Eng. Law), the court of appeal of the Archbishop of Canterbury, whereof the judge, who sits as deputy to the archbishop, is called the Dean of the Arches, because he anciently held his court in the church of St. MaryPlePBow (de arcubus). It is now held in Westminster. Mozley & W.
Ar6cheOty7pal (?), a. Of or pertaining to an archetype; consisting a model (real or ideal) or pattern; original. =One archetypal mind.8
5 Among Platonists, the archetypal world is the world as it existed as an idea of God before the creation. Ar6cheOty7palOly, adv. With reference to the archetype; originally. =Parts archetypally distinct.= Dana.
Ar6cheOtype (?), n. [L. archetypum, Gr. ?, fr. ? stamped first and as model; ? ? + ? stamp, figure, pattern, ? to strike: cf. F. archtype. See ArchO, pref.] 1. The original pattern or model of a work; or the model from which a thing is made or formed.
The House of Commons, the archetype of all the representative assemblies which now meet. Macaulay.
Types and shadows of that glorious archetype that was to come into the world.
2. (Coinage) The standard weight or coin by which others are adjusted.
3. (Biol.) The plan or fundamental structure on which a natural group of animals or plants or their systems of organs are assumed to have been constructed; as, the vertebrate archetype.
Ar7cheOtyp6icOal (?), a. Relating to an archetype; archetypal.
X ArOche6us (?), n. [LL. arch?us, Gr. ? ancient, primeval, fr. ? beginning. See ArchiO, pref.] The vital principle or force which (according to the Paracelsians) presides over the growth and continuation of living beings; the anima mundi or plastic power of the old philosophers. [Obs.] Johnson.
Ar6chiO (?). [L., archiO, Gr. ?, a prefix which is from the same root as ? to be first, to begin; ? the first place, beginning; ? chief. Cf. AS. arceO, erceO, OHG. erziO.] A prefix signifying chief, arch; as, architect, archiepiscopal. In Biol. and Anat. it usually means primitive, original, ancestral; as, archipterygium, the primitive fin or wing.
X Ar7chiOanOnel6iOda (?), n. pl. [NL.; pref. archiO + annelida.] (Zol.) A group of Annelida remarkable for having no external segments or distinct ventral nerve ganglions. Ar6chiOa7ter (?), n. [L. archiatrus, Gr. ?; pref. ? + ? physician, ? to heal.] Chief physician; P a term applied, on the continent of Europe, to the first or body physician of princes and to the first physician of some cities. P. Cyc.
X Ar7chiOblas6tuOla (?), n. [Pref. archi + blastula.] (Biol.) A hollow blastula, supposed to be the primitive form; a c?loblastula.
Ar6chiOcal (?), a. [Gr. ? able to govern, fr. ? beginning, government. See ArchO, pref.] Chief; primary; primordi?.] [Obs.]
Ar7chiOdiOac6oOnal (?), a. [L. archidiaconus, Gr. ?, equiv. to E. archdeacon.] Of or pertaining to an archdeacon. This offense is liable to be censured in an archidiaconal visitation.
Ar7chiOeOpis6coOpaOcy (?), n. [Pref. archiO + episcopacy.] 1. That form of episcopacy in which the chief power is in the hands of archbishops.
2. The state or dignity of an archbishop. Ar7chiOeOpis6coOpal (?), a. [Pref. archiO + episcopal.] Of or pertaining to an archbishop; as, Canterbury is an archiepiscopal see.
Ar7chiOeOpis7coOpal6iOty (?), n. The station or dignity of an archbishop; archiepiscopacy.
Ar7chiOeOpis6coOpate (?), n. [Pref. archiO + episcopate.] The office of an archbishop; an archbishopric. X ArOchi6eOrey (?), n. [Russ. archieri, fr. Gr. ?; pref. ? (E. archO) + 5 priest.] The higher order of clergy in Russia, including metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops. Pinkerton.
Ar6chil (?; 277), n. [OF. orchel, orcheil, It. orcella, oricello, or OSp. orchillo. Cf. Orchil.] 1. A viole?dye obtained from several species of lichen (Roccella tinctoria, etc.), which grow on maritime rocks in the Canary and Cape Verd Islands, etc.
2. The plant from which the dye is obtained. [Written also orchal and orchil.]
Ar7chiOlo6chiOan (?), a. [L. Archilochius.] Of or pertaining to the satiric Greek poet Archilochus; as, Archilochian meter.
Ar6chiOmage (?), X Ar7chiOma6gus (?), } n. [NL.; pref. archiO + L. magus, Gr. ?, a Magian.] 1. The high priest of the Persian Magi, or worshipers of fire. 2. A great magician, wizard, or enchanter. Spenser.
Ar7chiOman6drite (?), n. [L. archimandrita, LGr. ?; pref. ? (E. archO) + ? an inclosed space, esp. for cattle, a fold, a monastery.] (Gr. Church) (a) A chief of a monastery, corresponding to abbot in the Roman Catholic church. (b) A superintendent of several monasteries, corresponding to superior abbot, or father provincial, in the Roman Catholic church.
Ar7chiOmeOde6an (?), a. [L. Archimedeus.] Of or pertaining to Archimedes, a celebrated Greek philosopher; constructed on the principle of Archimedes’ screw; as, Archimedean drill, propeller, etc.
w screw, or Archimedes’ screw, an instrument, said to have been invented by Archimedes, for raising water, formed by winding a flexible tube round a cylinder in the form of a screw. When the screw is placed in an inclined position, and the lower end immersed in water, by causing the screw to revolve, the water is raised to the upper end. Francis.
X Ar7chiOme6des (?), n. (Paleon.) An extinct genus of Bryzoa characteristic of the subcarboniferous rocks. Its form is that of a screw.
Arch6ing (?), n. 1. The arched part of a structure. 2. (Naut.) Hogging; P opposed to sagging. Ar7chiOpeOlag6ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to an archipelago. Ar7chiOpel6aOgo , n.; pl. Ogoes or Ogos (?). [It. arcipelago, properly, chief sea; Gr. pref ? + ? sea, perh. akin to ? blow, and expressing the beating of the waves. See Plague.]
1. The Grecian Archipelago, or gean Sea, separating Greece from Asia Minor. It is studded with a vast number of small islands.
2. Hence: Any sea or broad sheet of water interspersed with many islands or with a group of islands.

<– p. 79 –>

X ArOchip7teOryg6iOum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. ? (E. archO) + ? wing, fin.] (Anat.) The primitive form of fin, like that of Ceratodus.
Ar6chiOtect (?), n. [L. architectus, architecton, Gr. ? chief artificer, master builder; pref. ? (E. archiO) + ? workman, akin to ? art, skill, ? to produce: cf. F. architecte, It. architetto. See Technical.] 1. A person skilled in the art of building; one who understands architecture, or makes it his occupation to form plans and designs of buildings, and to superintend the artificers employed.
2. A contriver, designer, or maker. The architects of their own happiness.
A French woman is a perfect architect in dress. Coldsmith.
Ar7chiOtec6tive (?), a. Used in building; proper for building.
Ar7chiOtecOton6ic (?), Ar7chiOtecOton6icOal (?), } a. [L. architectonicus, Gr. ?. See Architect.] 1. Pertaining to a master builder, or to architecture; evincing skill in designing or construction; constructive. =Architectonic wisdom.8
These architectonic functions which we had hitherto thought belonged.
J. C. Shairp.
2. Relating to the systemizing of knowledge. Ar7chiOtecOton6ic, n. [Cf. F. architectonique.] 1. The science of architecture.
2. The act of arranging knowledge into a system. Ar7chiOtecOton6ics, n. The science of architecture. Ar6chiOtec7tor (?), n. An architect. [Obs.] North.
Ar6chiOtec7tress (?), n. A female architect. Ar7chiOtec6turOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the art of building; conformed to the rules of architecture. P Ar7chiOtec6turOalOly, adv.
Ar6chiOtec7ture (?; 135), n. [L. architectura, fr. architectus: cf. F. architecture. See Architect.] 1. The art or science of building; especially, the art of building houses, churches, bridges, and other structures, for the purposes of civil life; P often called civil architecture. 2. A method or style of building, characterized by certain peculiarities of structure, ornamentation, etc. Many other architectures besides Gothic. Ruskin.
3. Construction, in a more general sense; frame or structure; workmanship.
The architecture of grasses, plants, and trees. Tyndall.
The formation of the first earth being a piece of divine architecture.
Military ~, the art of fortifications. P Naval ~, the art of building ships.
X Ar7chiOteu6this (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. ? + ?, ?, a kind of squid.] (Zol.) A genus of gigantic cephalopods, allied to the squids, found esp. in the North Atlantic and about New Zealand.
Ar6chiOtrave (?), n. [F. architrave, fr. It. architrave; pref. archiO + trave beam, L. trabs.] (Arch.) (a) The lower division of an entablature, or that part which rests immediately on the column, esp. in classical architecture. See Column. (b) The group of moldings, or other architectural member, above and on both sides of a door or other opening, especially if square in form. Ar6chiOtraved (?), a. Furnished with an architrave. Cowper.
Ar6chiOval (?), a. Pertaining to, or contained in, archives or records.
Ar6chive (?), n. ; pl. Archives (?). [F. archives, pl., L. archivum, archium, fr. Gr. ? government house, ? ? archives, fr. ? the first place, government. See ArchiO, pref.] 1. pl. The place in which public records or historic documents are kept.
Our words…. become records in God’s court, and are ?aid up in his archives as witnesses.
Gov. of Tongue.
2. pl. Public records or documents preserved as evidence of facts; as, the archives of a country or family. [Rarely used in sing.]
Some rotten archive, rummaged out of some seldom explored press.
Syn. – Registers; records; chronicles. Ar6chiOvist (?), n. [F. archiviste.] A keeper of archives or records. [R.]
Ar6chiOvolt (?), n. [F. archivolte, fr. It. archivolto; pref. archiO + volto vault, arch. See Vault.] (Arch.) (a) The architectural member surrounding the curved opening of an arch, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a square opening. (b) More commonly, the molding or other ornaments with which the wall face of the voussoirs of an arch is charged.
Arch6lute (?), Arch6iOlute (?), } n. [Cf. F. archiluth, It. arciliuto.] (Mus.) A large theorbo, or doublePnecked lute, formerly in use, having the bass strings doubled with an octave, and the higher strings with a unison. Arch6ly (?), adv. In an arch manner; with attractive slyness or roguishness; slyly; waggishly.
Archly the maiden smiled.
Arch7mar6shal (?), n. [G. erzmarschall. See ArchO, pref.] The grand marshal of the old German empire, a dignity that to the Elector of Saxony.
Arch6ness, n. The quality of being arch; cleverness; sly humor free from malice; waggishness.
Ar6chon (?), n. [L. archon, Gr. ?, ?, ruler, chief magistrate, p. pr. of ? to be first, to rule.] (Antiq.) One of the chief magistrates in ancient Athens, especially, by pre minence, the first of the nine chief magistrates. P ArOchon6tic (?), a.
Ar6chonOship, n. The office of an archon. Mitford.
Ar6chonOtate (?), n. [Cf. F. archontat.] An archon’s term of office.
Ar6chonts (?), n. pl. [Gr. ?, p. pr. See Archon.] (Zol.) The group including man alone.
Arch7prel6ate (?), n. [Pref. archO + prelate.] An archbishop or other chief prelate.
Arch7pres6byOter (?), n. Same as Archpriest. Arch7pres6byOterOy (?), n. [Pref. archO + presbutery.] The absolute dominion of presbytery.
Arch7priest6 (?), n. A chief priest; also, a kind of vicar, or a rural dean.
Arch7pri6mate (?), n. [Pref. archO + primate.] The chief primate.
Arch6 stone7 (?). A wedgePshaped stone used in an arch; a voussoir.
Arch7trai6tor (?), n. [Pref. archO + traitor.] A chief or transcendent traitor.
I. Watts.
Arch7treas6urOer (?; 135), n. [Pref. archO + treasurer.] A chief treasurer. Specifically, the great treasurer of the German empire.
Arch6way (?), n. A way or passage under an arch. Arch7wife6 (?), n. [Pref. archO + wife.] A big, masculine wife. [Obs.]
Arch6wise (?), adv. ArchPshaped.
Arch6y (?), a. Arched; as, archy brows. Oar6chy (?). [Gr. ?, fr. ? chief. See ArchO, pref.] A suffix properly meaning a rule, ruling, as in monarchy, the rule of one only. Cf. Oarch.
Ar6ciOform (?), a. [L. arcus bow + Oform.] Having the form of an arch; curved.
Arc6oOgraph (?), n. [L. arcus (E. arc) + Ograph.] An instrument for drawing a circular arc without the use of a central point; a cyclograph.
ArcOta6tion (?), n. [L. arctus shut in, narrow, p. p. of arcere to shut in: cf. F. arctation.] (Med.) Constriction or contraction of some natural passage, as in constipation from inflammation.
Arc6tic (?), a. [OE. artik, OF. artique, F. arctique, L. arcticus, fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? a bear, also a northern constellation so called; akin to L. ursus bear, Skr. ?ksha.] Pertaining to, or situated under, the northern constellation called the Bear; northern; frigid; as, the arctic pole, circle, region, ocean; an arctic expedition, night, temperature.
5 The arctic circle is a lesser circle, parallel to the equator, 23o 287
from the north pole. This and the antarctic circle are called the polar circles, and between these and the poles lie the frigid zones. See Zone.
Arc6tic, n. 1. The arctic circle.
2. A warm waterproof overshoe. [U.S.] X ArcOtis6ca (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? bear.] (Zol.) A group of Arachnida. See Illust. in Appendix. Arc7toOge6al (?), a. [Gr. ? the north + ?, ?, country.] (Zol.) Of or pertaining to arctic lands; as, the arctogeal fauna.
X ArcOtoid6eOa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? bear + Ooid.] (Zol.) A group of the Carnivora, that includes the bears, weasels, etc.
ArcOtu6rus (?), n. [L. Arcturus, Gr. ? bearward, equiv. to ?; ? bear + ? ward, guard. See Arctic.] (Anat.) A fixed star of the first magnitude in the constellation Botes. 5 Arcturus has sometimes been incorrectly used as the name of the constellation, or even of Ursa Major. Canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons [Rev. Ver.: =the Bear with her train8].
Job xxxviii. 32.
Arc6uOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to an arc. w measure of an angle (Math.), that which the unit angle has its measuring arc equal to the radius of the circle. Arc6uOate (?), Arc6uOa7ted (?)(?), } a. [L. arcuatus, p. p. of arcuare to shape like a bow, fr. arcus. See Arc.] Bent or curved in the form of a bow. =Arcuate stalks.8 Gray.
Arc6uOateOly (?), adv. In the form of a bow. Arc7uOa6tion (?), n. [L. arcuatio.] 1. The act of bending or curving; incurvation; the state of being bent; crookedness. Coxe.
2. (Hort.) A mode of propagating trees by bending branches to the ground, and covering the small shoots with earth; layering.
Ar6cuObaOlist (?), n. [See Arbalist.] A crossbow. Fosbroke.
Ar7cuObal6istOer (?), n. [L. arcuballistarius. Cf. Arbalister.] A crossbowman; one who used the arcubalist. Camden.
Ar6cuObus (?), n. See Arquebus. [Obs.] Oard, Oart. The termination of many English words; as, coward, reynard, drunkard, mostly from the French, in which language this ending is of German origin, being orig. the same word as English hard. It usually has the sense of one who has to a high or excessive degree the quality expressed by the root; as, braggart, sluggard.
X ArOdas6sine (?), n. [F. (cf. Sp. ardacina), fr. ardasse a kind of silk thread, fr. Ar. & Per. ardan a kind of raw silk.] A very fine sort of Persian silk. Ar6denOcy (?), n. 1. Heat. [R.]
Sir T. Herbert.
2. Warmth of passion or affection; ardor; vehemence; eagerness; as, the ardency of love or zeal. Ar6dent (?), a. [OE. ardaunt, F. ardant, p. pr. of arder to burn, fr. L. ardere.] 1. Hot or burning; causing a sensation of burning; fiery; as, ardent spirits, that is, distilled liquors; an ardent fever.
2.Having the appearance or quality of fire; fierce; glowing; shining; as, ardent eyes.
3. Warm, applied to the passions and affections; passionate; fervent; zealous; vehement; as, ardent love, feelings, zeal, hope, temper.
An ardent and impetuous race.
Syn. – Burning; hot; fiery; glowing; intense; fierce; vehement; eager; zealous; keen; fervid; fervent; passionate; affectionate.
Ar6dentOly (?), adv. In an ardent manner; eagerly; with warmth; affectionately; passionately.
Ar6dentOness, n. Ardency. [R.]
Ar6dor (?), n. [L. ardor, fr. ardere to burn: cf. OF. ardor, ardur, F. ardeur.] [Spelt also ardour.] 1. Heat, in a literal sense; as, the ardor of the sun’s rays. 2. Warmth or heat of passion or affection; eagerness; zeal; as, he pursues study with ardor; the fought with ardor; martial ardor.
3. pl. Bright and effulgent spirits; seraphim. [Thus used by Milton.]
Syn. – Fervor; warmth; eagerness. See Fervor. Ar6duOous (?; 135), a. [L. arduus steep, high; akin to Ir. ard high, height.] 1. Steep and lofty, in a literal sense; hard to climb.
Those arduous pats they trod.
2. Attended with great labor, like the ascending of acclivities; difficult; laborious; as, an arduous employment, task, or enterprise.
Syn. – Difficult; trying; laborious; painful; exhausting. P Arduous, Hard, Difficult. Hard is simpler, blunter, and more general in sense than difficult; as, a hard duty to perform, hard work, a hard task, one which requires much bodily effort and perseverance to do. Difficult commonly implies more skill and sagacity than hard, as when there is disproportion between the means and the end. A work may be hard but not difficult. We call a thing arduous when it requires strenuous and persevering exertion, like that of one who is climbing a precipice; as, an arduous task, an arduous duty. =It is often difficult to control our feelings; it is still harder to subdue our will; but it is an arduous undertaking to control the unruly and contending will of others.8
Ar6duOousOly, adv. In an arduous manner; with difficulty or laboriousness.
Ar6duOousOness, n. The quality of being arduous; difficulty of execution.
Ar6duOrous (?), a. Burning; ardent. [R.] Lo! further on,
Where flames the arduous Spirit of Isidore. Cary.
Are (?). [AS. (Northumbrian) aron, akin to the 1st pers. pl. forms, Icel. erum, Goth. sijum, L. sumus, Gr. ?, Skr. smas; all from a root as. ? See Am and Is, and cf. Be.] The present indicative plural of the substantive verb to be; but etymologically a different word from be, or was. Am, art, are, and is, all come from the root as.
Are (?), n. [F., fr. L. area. See Area.] (Metric system) The unit of superficial measure, being a square of which each side is ten meters in length; 100 square meters, or about 119.6 square yards.
A6reOa (?; 277), n. pl. Areas (?). [L. area a broad piece of level gro???. Cf. Are, n.] 1. Any plane surface, as of the floor of a room or church, or of the ground within an inclosure; an open space in a building.
The Alban lake… looks like the area of some vast amphitheater.
2. The inclosed space on which a building stands. 3. The sunken space or court, giving ingress and affording light to the basement of a building.
4. An extent of surface; a tract of the earth’s surface; a region; as, vast uncultivated areas.
5. (Geom.) The superficial contents of any figure; the surface included within any given lines; superficial extent; as, the area of a square or a triangle.
6. (Biol.) A spot or small marked space; as, the germinative area.
7. Extent; scope; range; as, a wide area of thought. The largest area of human history and man’s common nature. F. Harrison.
Dry ~. See under Dry.
AOread6, AOreed6 } (?), v. t. [OE. areden, AS. >r?dan to interpret. See Read.] 1. To tell, declare, explain, or interpret; to divine; to guess; as, to aread a riddle or a dream. [Obs.]
Therefore more plain aread this doubtful case. Spenser.
2. To read. [Obs.]
3. To counsel, advise, warn, or direct. But mark what I aread thee now. Avaunt!
4. To decree; to adjudge. [Archaic] Ld. Lytton.
A6reOal (?), a. [Cf. L. arealis, fr. area.] Of or pertaining to an area; as, areal interstices (the areas or spaces inclosed by the reticulate vessels of leaves). AOrear6 (?), v. t. & i. [AS. >r?ran. See Rear.] To raise; to set up; to stir up. [Obs.]
AOrear6, adv. [See Arrear, adv.] Backward; in or to the rear; behindhand.
X AOre6ca (?), n. [Canarese adiki: cf. Pg. & Sp. areca.] (Bot.) A genus of palms, one species of which produces the ~ nut, or betel nut, which is chewed in India with the leaf of the Piper Betle and lime.
AOreek6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + reek.] In a reeking condition.
Ar7eOfac6tion (?), n. [L. arefacere to dry.] The act of drying, or the state of growing dry.
The arefaction of the earth.
Sir M. Hale.
Ar6eOfy (?), v. t. [L. arere to be dry + Ofly.] To dry, or make dry.
AOre6na (?), n.; pl. E. Arenas (?); L. Aren (?). [L. arena, harena, sand, a sandy place.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) The area in the central part of an amphitheater, in which the gladiators fought and other shows were exhibited; P so called because it was covered with sand.