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description of joints.
ArOthrol6oOgy , n. [Gr. ? joint + Ology.] That part of anatomy which treats of joints.
Ar6throOmere (?), n. [Gr. ? joint + Omere.] (Zol.) One of the body segments of Arthropods. See Arthrostraca. Packard.
X Ar7throOpleu6ra (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ? the side.] (Zol.) The side or limbPbearing portion of an arthromere.
Ar6throOpod (?), n (Zol.) One of the Arthropoda. X ArOthrop6oOda (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + Opoda.] (Zol.) A large division of Articulata, embracing all those that have jointed legs. It includes Insects, Arachnida, Pychnogonida, and Crustacea. P ArOthrop6oOdal (?), a. X Ar7throOpom6aOta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ? lid.] (Zol.) One of the orders of Branchiopoda. See Branchiopoda.
X ArOthro6sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? joint.] (Anat.) Articulation.
X ArOthros6traOca , n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ? a shell.] (Zol.) One of the larger divisions of Crustacea, so called because the thorax and abdomen are both segmented; Tetradecapoda. It includes the Amphipoda and Isopoda. Ar7throOzo6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? joint + ? animal, fr. ? an animal.] (Zol.) Of or pertaining to the Articulata; articulate.
Ar6tiOad (?), a. [Gr. ? even, fr. ? exactly.] (Chem.) Even; not odd; P said of elementary substances and of radicals the valence of which is divisible by two without a remainder. Ar6tiOchoke (?), n. [It. articioc?o, perh. corrupted fr. the same word as carciofo; cf. older spellings archiciocco, archicioffo, carciocco, and Sp. alcachofa, Pg. alcachofra; prob. fr. Ar. alPharshaf, alPkharsh?f.] (Bot.) 1. The Cynara scolymus, a plant somewhat resembling a thistle, with a dilated, imbricated, and prickly involucre. The head (to which the name is also applied) is composed of numerous oval scales, inclosing the florets, sitting on a broad receptacle, which, with the fleshy base of the scales, is much esteemed as an article of food.
2. See Jerusalem artichoke.
Ar6tiOcle (?), n. [F., fr. L. articulus, dim. of artus joint, akin to Gr. ?, fr. a root ar to join, fit. See Art, n.] 1. A distinct portion of an instrument, discourse, literary work, or any other writing, consisting of two or more particulars, or treating of various topics; as, an article in the Constitution. Hence: A clause in a contract, system of regulations, treaty, or the like; a term, condition, or stipulation in a contract; a concise statement; as, articles of agreement.
2. A literary composition, forming an independent portion of a magazine, newspaper, or cyclopedia.
3. Subject; matter; concern; distinct. [Obs.] A very great revolution that happened in this article of good breeding.
Addison.
This last article will hardly be believed. De Foe.
4. A distinct part. =Upon each article of human duty.8 Paley. =Each article of time.8 Habington. The articles which compose the blood.
E. Darwin.
5. A particular one of various things; as, an article of merchandise; salt is a necessary article. They would fight not for articles of faith, but for articles of food.
Landor.
6. Precise point of time; moment. [Obs. or Archaic] This fatal news coming to Hick’s Hall upon the article of my Lord Russell’s trial, was said to have had no little influence on the jury and all the bench to his prejudice. Evelyn.
7. (Gram.) One of the three words, a, an, the, used before nouns to limit or define their application. A (or an) is called the indefinite article, the the definite article. 8. (Zol.) One of the segments of an articulated appendage. Articles of Confederation, the compact which was first made by the original thirteen States of the United States. They were adopted March 1, 1781, and remained the supreme law until March, 1789. P Articles of impeachment, an instrument which, in cases of impeachment, performs the same office which an indictment does in a common criminal case. P Articles of war, rules and regulations, fixed by law, for the better government of the army. P In the ~ of death [L. in articulo mortis], at the moment of death; in the dying struggle. P Lords of the articles (Scot. Hist.), a standing committee of the Scottish Parliament to whom was intrusted the drafting and preparation of the acts, or bills for laws. P The ThirtyPnine Articles, statements (thirtyPnine in number) of the tenets held by the Church of England. Ar6tiOcle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Articled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Articling (?).] [Cf. F. articuler, fr. L. articulare. See Article, n., Articulate.] 1. To formulate in articles; to set forth in distinct particulars.
If all his errors and follies were articled against him, the man would seem vicious and miserable.
Jer. Taylor.
2. To accuse or charge by an exhibition of articles. He shall be articled against in the high court of admiralty. Stat. 33 Geo. III.
3. To bind by articles of covenant or stipulation; as, to article an apprentice to a mechanic.
Ar6tiOcle, v. i. To agree by articles; to stipulate; to bargain; to covenant. [R.]
Then he articled with her that he should go away when he pleased.
Selden.
Ar6tiOcled (?), a. Bound by articles; apprenticed; as, an articled clerk.
ArOtic6uOlar (?), a. [L. articularis: cf. F. articulaire. See Article, n.] Of or pertaining to the joints; as, an articular disease; an articular process. ArOtic6uOlar (?), ArOtic6uOlaOry (?), } n. (Anat.) A bone in the base of the lower jaw of many birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.

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ArOtic6uOlarOly , adv. In an articular or an articulate manner.
X ArOtic7uOla6ta (?), n. pl. [Neut. pl. from L. articulatus furnished with joints, distinct, p. p. of articulare. See Article, v.] (Zol.) 1. One of the four subkingdoms in the classification of Cuvier. It has been much modified by later writers.
5 It includes those Invertebrata having the body composed of ringlike segments (arthromeres). By some writers, the unsegmented worms (helminths) have also been included; by others it is restricted to the Arthropoda. It corresponds nearly with the Annulosa of some authors. The chief subdivisions are Arthropoda (Insects, Myriapoda, Arachnida, Pycnogonida, Crustacea); and Anarthropoda, including the Annelida and allied forms.
2. One of the subdivisions of the Brachiopoda, including those that have the shells united by a hinge. 3. A subdivision of the Crinoidea.
ArOtic6uOlate (?), a. [L. articulatus. See Articulata.] 1. Expressed in articles or in separate items or particulars. [Archaic]
Bacon.
2. Jointed; formed with joints; consisting of segments united by joints; as, articulate animals or plants. 3. Distinctly uttered; spoken so as to be intelligible; characterized by division into words and syllables; as, articulate speech, sounds, words.
Total changes of party and articulate opinion. Carlyle.
ArOtic6uOlate, n. (Zol.) An animal of the subkingdom Articulata.
ArOtic6uOlate (?)(?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Articulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Articulating (?). 1. To utter ~ sounds; to utter the elementary sounds of a language; to enunciate; to speak distinctly.
2. To treat or make terms. [Obs.]
Shak.
3. To join or be connected by articulation. ArOtic6uOlate, v. t. 1. To joint; to unite by means of a joint; to put together with joints or at the joints. 2. To draw up or write in separate articles; to particularize; to specify. [Obs.]
3. To form, as the elementary sounds; to utter in distinct syllables or words; to enunciate; as, to articulate letters or language. =To articulate a word.8
Ray.
4. To express distinctly; to give utterance to. Luther articulated himself upon a process that hand already begun in the Christian church.
Bibliotheca Sacra.
To… articulate the dumb, deep want of the people. Carlyle.
ArOtic6uOla7ted (?), a. 1. United by, or provided with, articulations; jointed; as, an articulated skeleton. 2. Produced, as a letter, syllable, or word, by the organs of speech; pronounced.
ArOtic6uOlateOly (?), adv. 1. After the manner, or in the form, of a joint.
2. Article by article; in distinct particulars; in detail; definitely.
Paley.
I had articulately set down in writing our points. Fuller.
3. With distinct utterance of the separate sounds. ArOtic6uOlateOness, n. Quality of being articulate. ArOtic7uOla6tion (?), n. [Cf. F. articulation, fr. L. articulatio.] 1. (Anat.) A joint or juncture between bones in the skeleton.
5 Articulations may be immovable, when the bones are directly united (synarthrosis), or slightly movable, when they are united intervening substance (amphiarthrosis), or they may be more or less freely movable, when the articular surfaces are covered with synovial membranes, as in complete joints (diarthrosis). The last (diarthrosis) includes hinge joints, admitting motion in one plane only (ginglymus), ball and socket joints (enarthrosis), pivot and rotation joints, etc.
2. (Bot.) (a) The connection of the parts of a plant by joints, as in pods. (b) One of the nodes or joints, as in cane and maize. (c) One of the parts intercepted between the joints; also, a subdivision into parts at regular or irregular intervals as a result of serial intermission in growth, as in the cane, grasses, etc.
Lindley.
3. The act of putting together with a joint or joints; any meeting of parts in a joint.
4. The state of being jointed; connection of parts. [R.] That definiteness and articulation of imagery. Coleridge.
5. The utterance of the elementary sounds of a language by the appropriate movements of the organs, as in pronunciation; as, a distinct articulation. 6. A sound made by the vocal organs; an articulate utterance or an elementary sound, esp. a consonant. ArOtic6uOlaOtive (?), a. Of or pertaining to articulation. Bush.
ArOtic6uOla7tor (?), n. One who, or that which, articulates; as: (a) One who enunciates distinctly. (b) One who prepares and mounts skeletons. (c) An instrument to cure stammering. X ArOtic6uOlus (?)(?) n.; pl. Articuli (?). [L. See Article.] (Zol.) A joint of the cirri of the Crinoidea; a joint or segment of an arthropod appendage. Ar6tiOfice (?), n. [L. artificium, fr. artifex artificer; ars, artis, art + facere to make: cf. F. artifice.] 1. A handicraft; a trade; art of making. [Obs.] 2. Workmanship; a skillfully contrived work. The material universe.. in the artifice of God, the artifice of the best Mechanist.
Cudworth.
3. Artful or skillful contrivance.
His [Congreve’s] plots were constructed without much artifice.
Craik.
4. Crafty device; an artful, ingenious, or elaborate trick. [Now the usual meaning.]
Those who were conscious of guilt employed numerous artifices for the purpose of averting inquiry. Macaulay.
ArOtif6iOcer (?), n. [Cf. F. artificier, fr. LL. artificiarius.] 1. An artistic worker; a mechanic or manufacturer; one whose occupation requires skill or knowledge of a particular kind, as a silversmith. 2. One who makes or contrives; a deviser, inventor, or framer. =Artificer of fraud.8
Milton.
The great Artificer of all that moves. Cowper.
3. A cunning or artful fellow. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
4. (Mil.) A military mechanic, as a blacksmith, carpenter, etc.; also, one who prepares the shells, fuses, grenades, etc., in a military laboratory.
Syn. – Artisan; artist. See Artisan. Ar7tiOfi6cial (?), a. [L. artificialis, fr. artificium: cf. F. artificiel. See Artifice.] 1. Made or contrived by art; produced or modified by human skill and labor, in opposition to natural; as, artificial heat or light, gems, salts, minerals, fountains, flowers.
Artificial strife
Lives in these touches, livelier than life. Shak.
2. Feigned; fictitious; assumed; affected; not genuine. =Artificial tears.8
Shak.
3. Artful; cunning; crafty. [Obs.]
Shak.
4. Cultivated; not indigenous; not of spontaneous growth; as, artificial grasses.
Gibbon.
w arguments (Rhet.), arguments invented by the speaker, in distinction from laws, authorities, and the like, which are called inartificial arguments or proofs. Johnson. P w classification (science), an arrangement based on superficial characters, and not expressing the true natural relations species; as, =the artificial system8 in botany, which is the same as the Linnan system. P w horizon. See under Horizon. w light, any light other than that which proceeds from the heavenly bodies. P w lines, lines on a sector or scale, so contrived as to represent the logarithmic sines and tangents, which, by the help of the line of numbers, solve, with tolerable exactness, questions in trigonometry, navigation, etc. P w numbers, logarithms. P w person (Law). See under Person. P w sines, tangents, etc., the same as logarithms of the natural, tangents, etc. Hutton.
Ar7tiOfi7ciOal6iOty (?), n. The quality or appearance of being artificial; that which is artificial. Ar7tiOfi6cialOize (?), v. t. To render artificial. Ar7tiOfi6cialOly, adv. 1. In an artificial manner; by art, or skill and contrivance, not by nature. 2. Ingeniously; skillfully. [Obs.]
The spider’s web, finely and artificially wrought. Tillotson.
3. Craftily; artfully. [Obs.]
Sharp dissembled so artificially.
Bp. Burnet.
Ar7tiOfi6cialOness, n. The quality of being artificial. Ar7tiOfi6cious (?), a. [L. artificiosus.] Artificial. [Obs.] Johnson.
Art6iOlize (?), v. t. To make resemble. [Obs.] If I was a philosopher, says Montaigne, I would naturalize art instead of artilizing nature.
Bolingbroke.
ArOtil6lerOist (?), n. A person skilled in artillery or gunnery; a gunner; an artilleryman.
ArOtil6lerOy (?), n. [OE. artilrie, OF. artillerie, arteillerie, fr. LL. artillaria, artilleria, machines and apparatus of all kinds used in war, vans laden with arms of any kind which follow camps; F. artillerie great guns, ordnance; OF. artillier to work artifice, to fortify, to arm, prob. from L. ars, artis, skill in joining something, art. See Art.] 1. Munitions of war; implements for warfare, as slings, bows, and arrows. [Obs.]
And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad. 1 Sam. xx. 40.
2. Cannon; great guns; ordnance, including guns, mortars, howitzers, etc., with their equipment of carriages, balls, bombs, and shot of all kinds.
5 The word is sometimes used in a more extended sense, including the powder, cartridges, matches, utensils, machines of all kinds, and horses, that belong to a train of ~.
3. The men and officers of that branch of the army to which the care and management of ~ are confided. 4. The science of ~ or gunnery.
Campbell.
w park, or Park of ~. (a) A collective body of siege or field ~, including the guns, and the carriages, ammunition, appurtenances, equipments, and persons necessary for working them. (b) The place where the ~ is encamped or collected. P w train, or Train of ~, a number of pieces of ordnance mounted on carriages, with all their furniture, ready for marching.
ArOtil6lerOyOman (?), n. A man who manages, or assists in managing, a large gun in firing.
X Ar7tiOoOdac6tyOla (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? even + ? finger or toe.] (Zol.) One of the divisions of the ungulate animals. The functional toes of the hind foot are even in number, and the third digit of each foot (corresponding to the middle finger in man) is asymmetrical and paired with the fourth digit, as in the hog, the sheep, and the ox; P opposed to Perissodactyla.
Ar7tiOoOdac6tyle (?), n. (Zol.) One of the Artiodactyla. Ar7tiOoOdac6tyOlous (?), a. (Zol.) EvenPtoed. Ar6tiOsan (?; 277), n. [F. artisan, fr. L. artitus skilled in arts, fr. ars, artis, art: cf. It. artigiano. See Art, n.] 1. One who professes and practices some liberal art; an artist. [Obs.]
2. One trained to manual dexterity in some mechanic art or trade; and handicraftsman; a mechanic.
This is willingly submitted to by the artisan, who can… compensate his additional toil and fatigue. Hume.
Syn. – Artificer; artist. P Artisan, Artist, Artificer. An artist is one who is skilled in some one of the fine arts; an artisan is one who exercises any mechanical employment. A portrait painter is an artist; a sign painter is an artisan, although he may have the taste and skill of an artist. The occupation of the former requires a fine taste and delicate manipulation; that of the latter demands only an ordinary degree of contrivance and imitative power. An artificer is one who requires power of contrivance and adaptation in the exercise of his profession. The word suggest neither the idea of mechanical conformity to rule which attaches to the term artisan, nor the ideas of refinement and of peculiar skill which belong to the term artist.
Art6ist (?), n. [F. artiste, LL. artista, fr. L. ars. See Art, n., and cf. Artiste.] 1. One who practices some mechanic art or craft; an artisan. [Obs.] How to build ships, and dreadful ordnance cast, Instruct the articles and reward their.
Waller.
2. One who professes and practices an art in which science and taste preside over the manual execution. 5 The term is particularly applied to painters, sculptors, musicians, engravers, and architects.
Elmes.
3. One who shows trained skill or rare taste in any manual art or occupation.
Pope.
4. An artful person; a schemer. [Obs.] Syn. – Artisan. See Artisan.
X ArOtiste6 (?), n. [F. See Artist.] One peculiarly dexterous and tasteful in almost any employment, as an opera dancer, a hairdresser, a cook.
5 This term should not be confounded with the English word artist.
ArOtis6tic , ArOtis6ticOal (?), } a. [Cf. F. artistique, fr. artiste.] Of or pertaining to art or to artists; made in the manner of an artist; conformable to art; characterized by art; showing taste or skill. P ArOtis6ticOalOly, adv. Art6istOry (?), n. 1. Works of art collectively. 2. Artistic effect or quality.
Southey.
3. Artistic pursuits; artistic ability. The Academy.
Art6less (?), a. 1. Wanting art, knowledge, or skill; ignorant; unskillful.
Artless of stars and of the moving sand. Dryden.
2. Contrived without skill or art; inartistic. [R.] Artless and massy pillars.
T. Warton.
3. Free from guile, art, craft, or stratagem; characterized by simplicity and sincerity; sincere; guileless; ingenuous; honest; as, an artless mind; an artless tale. They were plain, artless men, without the least appearance of enthusiasm or credulity about them.
Porteus.
O, how unlike the complex works of man, Heaven’s easy, artless, unencumbered plan! Cowper.
Syn. – Simple; unaffected; sincere; undesigning; guileless; unsophisticated; open; frank; candid.
Art6lessOly, adv. In an artless manner; without art, skill, or guile; unaffectedly.
Pope.
Art6lessOness, n. The quality of being artless, or void of art or guile; simplicity; sincerity.
Art6ly, adv. With art or skill. [Obs.] Ar7toOcar6peOous (?), Ar7toOcar6pous (?), } a. [Gr. ? bread + ? fruit.] (Bot.) Of or pertaining to the breadfruit, or to the genus Artocarpus.
Ar6toOtype (?), n. [Art + type.] A kind of autotype. Ar7toOty6rite (?), n. [LL. Artotyritae, pl., fr. Gr. ? bread + ? cheese.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect in the primitive church, who celebrated the Lord’s Supper with bread and cheese, alleging that the first oblations of men not only of the fruit of the earth, but of their flocks. [Gen. iv. 3, 4.]
Ar6tow (?). A contraction of art thou. [Obs.] Chaucer.
Arts6man (?), n. A man skilled in an art or in arts. [Obs.] Bacon.
Art7 un6ion (?). An association for promoting art (esp. the arts of design), and giving encouragement to artists. X A6rum , n. [L. arum, aros, Gr. ?.] A genus of plants found in central Europe and about the Mediterranean, having flowers on a spadix inclosed in a spathe. The cuckoopint of the English is an example.
Our common arums the lords and ladies of village children. Lubbock.
5 The American =Jack in the pulpit8 is now separated from the genus Arum.
Ar7unOdel6ian (?), a. Pertaining to an Earl of Arundel; as, Arundel or Arundelian marbles, marbles from ancient Greece, bought by the Earl of Arundel in 1624.
Ar7unOdif6erOous , a. [L. arundifer; arundo reed + ferre to bear.] Producing reeds or canes.
AOrun7diOna6ceous (?), a. [L. arundinaceus, fr. arundo reed.] Of or pertaining to a reed; resembling the reed or cane.
Ar7unOdin6eOous (?), a. [L. arundineus, fr. arundo reed.] Abounding with reeds; reedy.
X AOrus6pex (?), n.; pl. Aruspices (?). [L. aruspex or haruspex.] One of the class of diviners among the Etruscans and Romans, who foretold events by the inspection of the entrails of victims offered on the altars of the gods. AOrus6pice (?), n. [L. aruspex: cf. F. aruspice. Cf. Aruspex, Haruspice.] A soothsayer of ancient Rome. Same as Aruspex. [Written also haruspice.]
AOrus6piOcy (?), n. [L. aruspicium, haruspicium.] Prognostication by inspection of the entrails of victims slain sacrifice.
Ar6val (?), n. [W. arwyl funeral; ar over + wylo to weep, or cf. arfl; Icel. arfr inheritance + Sw. l ale. Cf. Bridal.] A funeral feast. [North of Eng.]
Grose.
Ar6viOcole (?), n. [L. arvum field + colere to inhabit.] (Zol.) A mouse of the genus Arvicola; the meadow mouse. There are many species.
Ar6yan (?), n. [Skr. >rya excellent, honorable; akin to the name of the country Iran, and perh. to Erin, Ireland, and the early name of this people, at least in Asia.] 1. One of a primitive people supposed to have lived in prehistoric times, in Central Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, and north of the Hindoo ???? and Paropamisan Mountains, and to have been the stock from which sprang the Hindoo, Persian, Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic, and other races; one of that ethnological division of mankind called also IndoPEuropean or IndoPGermanic.

<– p. 87 –>

2. The language of the original Aryans. [Written also Arian.]
Ar6yan (?), a. Of or pertaining to the people called Aryans; IndoPEuropean; IndoPGermanic; as, the Aryan stock, the Aryan languages.
Ar6yanOize , v. t. To make Aryan (a language, or in language).
K. Johnston.
AOryt6eOnoid (?), a. [Gr. ? shaped like a ladle; ? a ladle + ? form.] (Anat.) LadlePshaped; P applied to two small cartilages of the larynx, and also to the glands, muscles, etc., connected with them. The cartilages are attached to the cricoid cartilage and connected with the vocal cords. As (?), adv. & conj. [OE. as, als, alse, also, al swa, AS. eal sw>, lit. all so; hence, quite so, quite as: cf. G. als as, than, also so, then. See Also.] 1. Denoting equality or likeness in kind, degree, or manner; like; similar to; in the same manner with or in which; in accordance with; in proportion to; to the extent or degree in which or to which; equally; no less than; as, ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil; you will reap as you sow; do as you are bidden.
His spiritual attendants adjured him, as he loved his soul, to emancipate his brethren.
Macaulay.
5 As is often preceded by one of the antecedent or correlative words such, same, so, or as, in expressing an equality or comparison; as, give us such things as you please, and so long as you please, or as long as you please; he is not so brave as Cato; she is as amiable as she is handsome; come as quickly as possible. =Bees appear fortunately to prefer the same colors as we do.8 Lubbock. As, in a preceding part of a sentence, has such or so to answer correlatively to it; as with the people, so with the priest.
2. In the idea, character, or condition of, P limiting the view to certain attributes or relations; as, virtue considered as virtue; this actor will appear as Hamlet. The beggar is greater as a man, than is the man merely as a king.
Dewey.
3. While; during or at the same time that; when; as, he trembled as he spoke.
As I return I will fetch off these justices. Shak.
4. Because; since; it being the case that. As the population of Scotland had been generally trained to arms… they were not indifferently prepared. Sir W. Scott.
[See Synonym under Because.]
5. Expressing concession. (Often approaching though in meaning).
We wish, however, to avail ourselves of the interest, transient as it may be, which this work has excited. Macaulay.
6. That, introducing or expressing a result or consequence, after the correlatives so and such.[Obs.] I can place thee in such abject state, as help shall never find thee.
Rowe.
So ~, so that. [Obs.]
The relations are so uncertain as they require a great deal of examination.
Bacon.
7. As if; as though. [Obs. or Poetic] He lies, as he his bliss did know.
Waller.
8. For instance; by way of example; thus; P used to introduce illustrative phrases, sentences, or citations. 9. Than. [Obs. & R.]
The king was not more forward to bestow favors on them as they free to deal affronts to others their superiors. Fuller.
10 Expressing a wish. [Obs.] =As have,8 i. e., may he have. Chaucer.

As… as. See So… as, under So. P As far as, to the extent or degree. =As far as can be ascertained.8 Macaulay. P As far forth as, as far as. [Obs.] Chaucer. P As for, or As to, in regard to; with respect to. P As good as, not less than; not falling short of. P As good as one’s word, faithful to a promise. P As if, or As though, of the same kind, or in the same condition or manner, that it would be if. P As it were (as it were), a qualifying phrase used to apologize for or to relieve some expression which might be regarded as inappropriate or incongruous; in a manner. P As now, just now. [Obs.] Chaucer. P As swythe, as quickly as possible. [Obs.] Chaucer. P As well, also; too; besides. Addison. P As well as, equally with, no less than. =I have understanding as well as you.8 Job xii. 3. P As yet, until now; up to or at the present time; still; now.
As (?), n. [See Ace.] An ace. [Obs.] Chaucer.
AmbesPas, double aces.
X As (?), n.; pl. Asses (?). [L. as. See Ace.] 1. A Roman weight, answering to the libra or pound, equal to nearly eleven ounces Troy weight. It was divided into twelve ounces.
2. A Roman copper coin, originally of a pound weight (12 oz.); but reduced, after the first Punic war, to two ounces; in the second Punic war, to one ounce; and afterwards to half an ounce.
X As6a (?), n. [NL. asa, of oriental origin; cf. Per. az> mastic, Ar. as> healing, is> remedy.] An ancient name of a gum.
As7aOfet6iOda, As7aOf?t6iOda } (?), n. [Asa + L. foetidus fetid.] The fetid gum resin or inspissated juice of a large umbelliferous plant (Ferula asaf?tida) of Persia and the East India. It is used in medicine as an antispasmodic. [Written also assaf?tida.]
X As6aOphus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? indistinct, uncertain.] (Paleon.) A genus of trilobites found in the Lower Silurian formation. See Illust. in Append.
X As7aOraObac6ca (?), n. [L. asarum + bacca a berry. See Asarone.] (Bot.) An acrid herbaceous plant (Asarum Europum), the leaves and roots of which are emetic and cathartic. It is principally used in cephalic snuffs. As6aOrone (?), n. [L. asarum hazelwort, wild spikenard, Gr. ?] (Chem.) A crystallized substance, resembling camphor, obtained from the Asarum Europum; P called also camphor of asarum.
AsObes6tic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling asbestus; inconsumable; asbestine.
AsObes6tiOform (?), a. [L. asbestus + Oform.] Having the form or structure of asbestus.
AsObes6tine (?), a. Of or pertaining to asbestus, or partaking of its nature; incombustible; asbestic. AsObes6tous (?), a. Asbestic.
AsObes6tus (?), AsObes6tos (?; 277), } n. [L. asbestos (NL. asbestus) a kind of mineral unaffected by fire, Gr. ? (prop. an adj.) inextinguishable; ? priv. + ? to extinguish.] (Min.) A variety of amphibole or of pyroxene, occurring in long and delicate fibers, or in fibrous masses or seams, usually of a white, gray, or greenPgray color. The name is also given to a similar variety of serpentine. 5 The finer varieties have wrought into gloves and cloth which are incombustible. The cloth was formerly used as a shroud for dead bodies, and has been recommended for firemen’s clothes. Asbestus in also employed in the manufacture of iron sa?es, for fireproof roofing, and for lampwicks. Some varieties are called amianthus. Dana.
Ab6soOlin (?), n. [Gr. ? soot.] (Chem.) A peculiar acrid and bitter oil, obtained from wood soot.
As6caOrid (?), n.; pl. Ascarides (?) or Ascarids. [NL. ascaris, fr. Gr. ?.] (Zol.) A parasitic nematoid worm, espec. the roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, often occurring in the human intestine and allied species found in domestic animals; also commonly applied to the pinworm (Oxyuris), often troublesome to children and aged persons. AsOcend6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ascended; p. pr. & vb. n. Ascending.] [L. ascendere; ad + scandere to climb, mount. See Scan.] 1. To move upward; to mount; to go up; to rise; P opposed to descend.
Higher yet that star ascends.
Bowring.
I ascend unto my father and your father. John xx. 17.
Formerly used with up.
The smoke of it ascended up to heaven. Addison.
2. To rise, in a figurative sense; to proceed from an inferior to a superior degree, from mean to noble objects, from particulars to generals, from modern to ancient times, from one note to another more acute, etc.; as, our inquiries ascend to the remotest antiquity; to ascend to our first progenitor.
Syn. – To rise; mount; climb; scale; soar; tower. AsOcend6, v. t. To go or move upward upon or along; to climb; to mount; to go up the top of; as, to ascend a hill, a ladder, a tree, a river, a throne.
AsOcend6aOble (?), a. Capable of being ascended. AsOcend6anOcy (?), AsOcend6ance (?), } n. Same as Ascendency.
AsOcend6ant (?), n. [F. ascendant, L. ascendens; p. pr. of ascendere.] 1. Ascent; height; elevation. [R.] Sciences that were then in their highest ascendant. Temple.
2. (Astrol.) The horoscope, or that degree of the ecliptic which roses above the horizon at the moment of one’s birth; supposed to have a commanding influence on a person’s life and fortune.
5 Hence the phrases To be in the ~, to have commanding power or influence, and Lord of the ~, one who has possession of such power or influence; as, to rule, for a while, lord of the ascendant.
Burke.
3. Superiority, or commanding influence; ascendency; as, one man has the ascendant over another.
Chievres had acquired over the mind of the young monarch the ascendant not only of a tutor, but of a parent. Robertson.
4. An ancestor, or one who precedes in genealogy or degrees of kindred; a relative in the ascending line; a progenitor; P opposed to descendant.
Ayliffe.
AsOcend6ant (?), AsOcend6ent (?), } a. 1. Rising toward the zenith; above the horizon.
The constellation… about that time ascendant. Browne.
2. Rising; ascending.
Ruskin.
3. Superior; surpassing; ruling.
An ascendant spirit over him.
South.
The ascendant community obtained a surplus of wealth. J. S. Mill.
Without some power of persuading or confuting, of defending himself against accusations, … no man could possibly hold an ascendent position.
Grote.
AsOcend6enOcy (?), n. Governing or controlling influence; domination; power.
An undisputed ascendency.
Macaulay.
Custom has an ascendency over the understanding. Watts.
Syn. – Control; authority; influence; sway’ dominion; prevalence; domination.
AsOcend6iOble (?), a. [L. ascendibilis.] Capable of being ascended; climbable.
AsOcend6ing, a. Rising; moving upward; as, an ascending kite. P AsOcend6ingOly, adv.
w latitude (Astron.), the increasing latitude of a planet. Ferguson. P w line (Geneal.), the line of relationship traced backward or through one’s ancestors. One’s father and mother, grandfather and grandmother, etc., are in the line direct ascending. P w nodehaving, that node of the moon or a planet wherein it passes the ecliptic to proceed northward. It is also called the northern node. Herschel. P w series. (Math.) (a) A series arranged according to the ~ powers of a quantity. (b) A series in which each term is greater than the preceding. P w signs, signs east of the meridian.
AsOcen6sion , n. [F. ascension, L. ascensio, fr. ascendere. See Ascend.] 1. The act of ascending; a rising; ascent. 2. Specifically: The visible ascent of our Savior on the fortieth day after his resurrection. (Acts i. 9.) Also, Ascension Day.
3. An ascending or arising, as in distillation; also that which arises, as from distillation.
Vaporous ascensions from the stomach. Sir T. Browne.
w Day, the Thursday but one before Whitsuntide, the day on which commemorated our Savior’s ~ into heaven after his resurrection; P called also Holy Thursday. P Right ~ (Astron.), that degree of the equinoctial, counted from the beginning of Aries, which rises with a star, or other celestial body, in a right sphere; or the arc of the equator intercepted between the first point of Aries and that point of the equator that comes to the meridian with the star; P expressed either in degrees or in time. P Oblique ~ (Astron.), an arc of the equator, intercepted between the first point of Aries and that point of the equator which rises together with a star, in an oblique sphere; or the arc of the equator intercepted between the first point of Aries and that point of the equator that comes to the horizon with a star. It is little used in modern astronomy. AsOcen6sionOal (?), a. Relating to ascension; connected with ascent; ascensive; tending upward; as, the ascensional power of a balloon.
w difference (Astron.), the difference between oblique and right ascension; P used chiefly as expressing the difference between the time of the rising or setting of a body and six o’clock, or six hours from its meridian passage. AsOcen6sive (?), a. [See Ascend.] 1. Rising; tending to rise, or causing to rise.
Owen.
2. (Gram.) Augmentative; intensive. Ellicott.
AsOcent6 (?). [Formed like descent, as if from a F. ascente, fr. a verb ascendre, fr. L. ascendere. See Ascend, Descent.] 1. The act of rising; motion upward; rise; a mounting upward; as, he made a tedious ascent; the ascent of vapors from the earth.
To him with swift ascent he up returned. Milton.
2. The way or means by which one ascends. 3. An eminence, hill, or high place.
Addison.
4. The degree of elevation of an object, or the angle it makes with a horizontal line; inclination; rising grade; as, a road has an ascent of five degrees.
As7cerOtain6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ascertained (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ascertaining.] [OF. acertener; a (L. ad) + certain. See Certain.] 1. To render (a person) certain; to cause to feel certain; to make confident; to assure; to apprise. [Obs.]
When the blessed Virgin was so ascertained. Jer. Taylor.
Muncer assured them that the design was approved of by Heaven, and that the Almighty had in a dream ascertained him of its effects.
Robertson.
2. To make (a thing) certain to the mind; to free from obscurity, doubt, or change; to make sure of; to fix; to determine. [Archaic]
The divine law… ascertaineth the truth. Hooker.
The very deferring [of his execution] shall increase and ascertain the condemnation.
Jer. Taylor.
The ministry, in order to ascertain a majority… persuaded the queen to create twelve new peers.
Smollett.
The mildness and precision of their laws ascertained the rule and measure of taxation.
Gibbon.
3. To find out or learn for a certainty, by trial, examination, or experiment; to get to know; as, to ascertain the weight of a commodity, or the purity of a metal. He was there only for the purpose of ascertaining whether a descent on England was practicable.
Macaulay.
As7cerOtain6aOble (?), a. That may be ascertained. P As7cerOtain6aObleOness, n. P As7cerOtain6aObly, adv. As7cerOtain6er (?), n. One who ascertains. As7cerOtain6ment (?), n. The act of ascertaining; a reducing to certainty; a finding out by investigation; discovery. The positive ascertainment of its limits. Burke.
AsOces6sanOcy (?), n. AsOces6sant (?), a. See Acescency, Acescent. [Obs.]
AsOcet6ic (?) a. [Gr. ?, fr. ? to exercise, to practice gymnastics.] Extremely rigid in selfPdenial and devotions; austere; severe.
The stern ascetic rigor of the Temple discipline. Sir W. Scott.
AsOcet6ic, n. In the early church, one who devoted himself to a solitary and contemplative life, characterized by devotion, extreme selfPdenial, and selfPmortification; a hermit; a recluse; hence, one who practices extreme rigor and selfPdenial in religious things.
I am far from commending those ascetics that take up their quarters in deserts.
Norris.
w theology, the science which treats of the practice of the theological and moral virtues, and the counsels of perfection.
Am. Cyc.
AsOcet6iOcism (?), n. The condition, practice, or mode of life, of ascetics.
As6cham (?), n. [From Roger Ascham, who was a great lover of archery.] A sort of cupboard, or case, to contain bows and other implements of archery.
X As6ci , n. pl. See Ascus.
As6cian , n. One of the Ascii.
AsOcid6iOan (?), n. [Gr. ? bladder, pouch.] (Zol.) One of the Ascidioidea, or in a more general sense, one of the Tunicata. Also as an Adj.
X AsOcid7iOa6riOum (?), n. [NL. See Ascidium.] (Zol.) The structure which unites together the ascidiozooids in a compound ascidian.
AsOcid6iOform , a. [Gr. ? a pouch + Oform.] (Zol.) Shaped like an ascidian.
X AsOcid7iOoid6eOa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. ascidium + Ooid. See Ascidium.] (Zol.) A group of Tunicata, often shaped like a twoPnecked bottle. The group includes, social, and compound species. The gill is a netlike structure within the oral aperture. The integument is usually leathery in texture. See Illustration in Appendix.

<– p. 88 –>

AsOcid7iOoOzo6oid (?), n. [Ascidium + zooid.] (Zol.) One of the individual members of a compound ascidian. See Ascidioidea.
X AsOcid6iOum (?), n.; pl. Ascidia (?). [NL., fr. ascus. See Ascus.] 1. (Bot.) A pitcherPshaped, or flaskPshaped, organ or appendage of a plant, as the leaves of the pitcher plant, or the little bladderlike traps of the bladderwort (Utricularia).
2. pl. (Zol.) A genus of simple ascidians, which formerly included most of the known species. It is sometimes used as a name for the Ascidioidea, or for all the Tunicata. AsOcig6erOous (?), a. [Ascus + Ogerous.] (Bot.) Having asci. Loudon.
X As6ciOi (?), As6cians (?), } n. pl. [L. ascii, pl. of ascius, Gr. ? without shadow; ? priv. + ? shadow.] Persons who, at certain times of the year, have no shadow at noon; P applied to the inhabitants of the torrid zone, who have, twice a year, a vertical sun.
X AsOci6tes (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ? (sc. ? disease), fr. ? bladder, belly.] (Med.) A collection of serous fluid in the cavity of the abdomen; dropsy of the peritoneum. Dunglison.
AsOcit6ic (?), AsOcit6icOal (?), } a. Of, pertaining to, or affected by, ascites; dropsical.
As7ciOti6tious (?), a. [See Adscititious.] Supplemental; not inherent or original; adscititious; additional; assumed. Homer has been reckoned an ascititious name. Pope.
AsOcle6piOad (?), n. (Gr. & L. Pros.) A choriambic verse, first used by the Greek poet Asclepias, consisting of four feet, viz., a spondee, two choriambi, and an iambus. AsOcle7piOaOda6ceous , a. [See Asclepias.] (Bot.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, plants of the Milkweed family. X AsOcle6piOas , n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, named from Asclepios or Aesculapius.] (Bot.) A genus of plants including the milkweed, swallowwort, and some other species having medicinal properties.
w butterfly (Zol.), a large, handsome, red and black butterfly (Danais Archippus), found in both hemispheres. It feeds on plants of the genus Asclepias.
X As7coOcoc6cus (?), n.; pl. Ascococci (?). [NL., fr. Gr. ? bladder, bag + ? kernel.] (Biol.) A form of micrococcus, found in putrid meat infusions, occurring in peculiar masses, each of which is inclosed in a hyaline capsule and contains a large number of spherical micrococci. As6coOspore (?), n. [Ascus + spore.] (Bot.) One of the spores contained in the asci of lichens and fungi. [See Illust. of Ascus.]
AsOcrib6aOble (?), a. Capable of being ascribed; attributable.
AsOcribe6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ascribed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ascribing.] [L. ascribere, adscribere, to ascribe; ad + scribere to write: cf. OF. ascrire. See Scribe.] 1. To attribute, impute, or refer, as to a cause; as, his death was ascribed to a poison; to ascribe an effect to the right cause; to ascribe such a book to such an author. The finest [speech] that is ascribed to Satan in the whole poem.
Addison.
2. To attribute, as a quality, or an appurtenance; to consider or allege to belong.
Syn. – To Ascribe, Attribute, Impute. Attribute denotes, 1. To refer some quality or attribute to a being; as, to attribute power to God. 2. To refer something to its cause or source; as, to attribute a backward spring to icebergs off the coast. Ascribe is used equally in both these senses, but involves a different image. To impute usually denotes to ~ something doubtful or wrong, and hence, in general literature, has commonly a bad sense; as, to impute unworthy motives. The theological sense of impute is not here taken into view.
More than goodPwill to me attribute naught. Spenser.
Ascribes his gettings to his parts and merit. Pope.
And fairly quit him of the imputed blame. Spenser.
As6cript (?), a. See Adscript. [Obs.] AsOcrip6tion (?), n. [L. ascriptio, fr. ascribere. See Ascribe.] The act of ascribing, imputing, or affirming to belong; also, that which is ascribed.
As7cripOti6tious (?), a. [L. ascriptitius, fr. ascribere.] 1. Ascribed.
2. Added; additional. [Obs.]
An ascriptitious and supernumerary God. Farindon.
As6cus (?), n.; pl Asci (?). [NL., fr. Gr. ? a bladder.] (Bot.) A small membranous bladder or tube in which are inclosed the seedlike reproductive particles or sporules of lichens and certain fungi.
APsea , adv. [Pref. aO + sea.] On the sea; at sea; toward the sea.
AOsep6tic (?), a. [Pref. aO not + septic.] Not liable to putrefaction; nonputrescent. P n. An ~ substance. AOsex6uOal (?; 135), a. [Pref. aO not + sexual.] (Biol.) Having no distinct; without sexual action; as, asexual reproduction. See Fission and Gemmation. AOsex6uOalOly (?), adv. In an asexual manner; without sexual agency.
Ash (?), n. [OE. asch, esh, AS. sc; akin to OHG. asc, Sw. & Dan. ask, Icel. askr, D. esch, G. esche.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of trees of the Olive family, having opposite pinnate leaves, many of the species furnishing valuable timber, as the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and the white ash (F. Americana).
Prickly ~ (Zanthoxylum Americanum) and Poison ~ (R??s venerala) are shrubs of different families, somewhat resembling the true ashes in their foliage. P Mountain ~. See Roman tree, and under Mountain.
2. The tough, elastic wood of the ~ tree. Ash is used adjectively, or as the first part of a compound term; as, ash bud, ash wood, ash tree, etc. Ash, n., sing. of Ashes.
5 Ash is rarely used in the singular except in connection with chemical or geological products; as, soda ash, coal which yields a red ash, etc., or as a qualifying or combining word; as, ash bin, ash heap, ash hole, ash pan, ash pit, ashPgrey, ashPgrey, ashPcolored, pearlash, potash. Bone ~, burnt powered; bone earth. P Volcanic ~. See under Ashes.
Ash, v. t. To strew or sprinkle with ashes. Howell.
AOshame (?), v. t. [Pref. aO + shame: cf. AS. >scamian to shame (where >O is the same as Goth. usO, G. erO, and orig. meant out), gescamian, gesceamian, to shame.] To shame. [R.] Barrow.
AOshamed6 (?), a. [Orig. a p. p. of ashame, v. t.] Affected by shame; abashed or confused by guilt, or a conviction or consciousness of some wrong action or impropriety. =I am ashamed to beg.8
Wyclif.
All that forsake thee shall be ashamed. Jer. xvii. 13.
I began to be ashamed of sitting idle. Johnson.
Enough to make us ashamed of our species. Macaulay.
An ashamed person can hardly endure to meet the gaze of those present.
Darwin.
5 Ashamed seldom precedes the noun or pronoun it qualifies. By a Hebraism, it is sometimes used in the Bible to mean disappointed, or defeated.
AOsham6edOly (?), adv. Bashfully. [R.] Ash7anOtee6 (?), n.; pl. Ashantees (?). A native or an inhabitant of Ashantee in Western Africa. Ash7anOtee6, a. Of or pertaining to Ashantee. Ash6Pcol7ored (?), a. Of the color of ashes; a whitish gray or brownish gray.
Ash6en (?), a. [See Ash, the tree.] Of or pertaining to the ash tree. =Ashen poles.8
Dryden.
Ash6en, a. Consisting of, or resembling, ashes; of a color between brown and gray, or white and gray. The ashen hue of age.
Sir W. Scott.
Ash6en (?), n., obs. pl. for Ashes. Chaucer.
Ash6erOy (?), n. 1. A depository for ashes. 2. A place where potash is made.
Ash6es (?), n. pl. [OE. asche, aske, AS. asce, sce, axe; akin to OHG. asca, G. asche, D. asch, Icel. & Sw. aska, Dan. aske, Goth. azgo.] 1. The earthy or mineral particles of combustible substances remaining after combustion, as of wood or coal.
2. Specifically: The remains of the human body when burnt, or when 8returned to dust8 by natural decay. Their martyred blood and ashes sow.
Milton.
The coffins were broken open. The ashes were scattered to the winds.
Macaulay.
3. The color of ashes; deathlike paleness. The lip of ashes, and the cheek of flame. Byron.
In dust and ~, In sackcloth and ~, with humble expression of grief or repentance; P from the method of mourning in Eastern lands. P Volcanic ~, or Volcanic ash, the loose, earthy matter, or small fragments of stone or lava, ejected by volcanoes.
Ash6Ofire , n. A low fire used in chemical operations. Ash6Pfur7nace (?), Ash6Pov7en (?), n. A furnace or oven for fritting materials for glass making.
AOschine6 (?), a. Shining; radiant. Ash6lar, Ash6ler } (?), n. [OE. ascheler, achiler, OF. aiseler, fr. aiselle, dim. of ais plank, fr. L. axis, assis, plank, axle. See Axle.] 1. (Masonry) (a) Hewn or squared stone; also, masonry made of squared or hewn stone. Rough ashlar, a block of freestone as brought from the quarry. When hammerOdressed it is known as common ashlar. Knight.
(b) In the United States especially, a thin facing of squared and dressed stone upon a wall of rubble or brick. 2. (Carp.) One of the short upright pieces or studs between the floor beams and the rafters of a garret. Ashlar pieces cut off the sharp angles between the floor and ceiling. Knight.
Ash6larOing, Ash6lerOing, } n. 1. The act of bedding ashlar in mortar.
2. Ashlar when in thin slabs and made to serve merely as a case to the body of the wall.
Brande & C.
3. (Carp.) The short upright pieces between the floor beams and rafters in garrets. See Ashlar, 2.
AOshore6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + shore.] On shore or on land; on the land adjacent to water; to the shore; to the land; aground (when applied to a ship); P sometimes opposed to aboard or afloat.
Here shall I die ashore.
Shak.
I must fetch his necessaries ashore. Shak.
Ash6toOreth (?), n.; pl. Ashtaroth (?). The principal female divinity of the Ph?nicians, as Baal was the principal male divinity.
W. Smith.
Ash7 Wednes6day (?). The first day of Lent; P so called from a custom in the Roman Catholic church of putting ashes, on that day, upon the foreheads of penitents. Ash6weed7 (?), n. (Bot.) [A corruption of achePweed; F. ache. So named from the likeness of its leaves to those of ache (celery).] Goutweed.
Ash6y (?), a. 1. Pertaining to, or composed of, ?shes; filled, or strewed with, ashes.
2. AshPcolored; whitish gray; deadly pale. Shak.
w pale, pale as ~.
Shak.
A6sian (?), a. [L. Asianus, Gr. ?, fr. ?, L. Asia.] Of or pertaining to Asia; Asiatic. =Asian princes.8 Jer. Taylor. P n. An Asiatic.
A6siOarch (?), n. [L. Asiarcha, Gr. ?; ? + ? ruler.] One of the chiefs or pontiffs of the Roman province of Asia, who had the superintendence of the public games and religious rites.
Milner.
A7siOat6ic (?), a. [L. Asiaticus, Gr. ?.] Of or pertaining to Asia or to its inhabitants. P n. A native, or one of the people, of Asia.
A7siOat6iOcism (?), n. Something peculiar to Asia or the Asiatics.
AOside6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + side.] 1. On, or to, one side; out of a straight line, course, or direction; at a little distance from the rest; out of the way; apart. Thou shalt set aside that which is full. 2 Kings iv. 4.
But soft! but soft! aside: here comes the king. Shak.
The flames were blown aside.
Dryden.
2. Out of one’s thoughts; off; away; as, to put aside gloomy thoughts. =Lay aside every weight.8
Heb. xii. 1.
3. So as to be heard by others; privately. Then lords and ladies spake aside.
Sir W. Scott.
To set ~ (Law), to annul or defeat the effect or operation of, by a subsequent decision of the same or of a superior tribunal; to declare of no authority; as, to set aside a verdict or a judgment.
AOside6, n. Something spoken ~; as, a remark made by a stageplayer which the other players are not supposed to hear.
X AOsi6lus (?), n. [L., a gadfly.] (Zol.) A genus of large and voracious twoPwinged flies, including the bee killer and robber fly.
As7One6go, As7siOne6go (?), n. [Sp. asnico, dim. of asno an ass.] A stupid fellow. [Obs.]
Shak.
As6iOnine (?), a. [L. asininus, fr. asinus ass. See Ass.] Of or belonging to, or having the qualities of, the ass, as stupidity and obstinacy. =Asinine nature.8 B. Jonson. =Asinine feast.8 Milton.
As7iOnin6iOty (?), n. The quality of being asinine; stupidity combined with obstinacy.
AOsi6phonOate (?), a. (Zol.) Destitute of a siphon or breathing tube; P said of many bivalve shells. P n. An ~ mollusk.
X As7iOpho6neOa (?), X AOsi7phoOna6ta (?), X As7iOphon6iOda (?), } n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? a tube.] (Zol.) A group of bivalve mollusks destitute of siphons, as the oyster; the asiphonate mollusks.
X AOsi6tiOa (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? food.] (Med.) Want of appetite; loathing of food.
Ask (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Asked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Asking.] [OE. asken, ashen, axien, AS. >scian, >csian; akin to OS. ?sc?n, OHG. eisc?n, Sw. >ska, Dan. ske, D. eischen, G. heischen, Lith. j sk”ti, OSlav. iskati to seek, Skr. ish to desire. ?.] 1. To request; to seek to obtain by words; to petition; to solicit; P often with of, in the sense of from, before the person addressed.
Ask counsel, we pray thee, of God.
Judg. xviii. 5.
If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you. John xv. 7.
2. To require, demand, claim, or expect, whether by way of remuneration or return, or as a matter of necessity; as, what price do you ask?
Ask me never so much dowry.
Gen. xxxiv. 12.
To whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.
Luke xii. 48.
An exigence of state asks a much longer time to conduct a design to maturity.
Addison.
3. To interrogate or inquire of or concerning; to put a question to or about; to question.
He is of age; ask him: he shall speak for himself. John ix. 21.
He asked the way to Chester.
Shak.
4. To invite; as, to ask one to an entertainment. 5. To publish in church for marriage; P said of both the banns and the persons.
Fuller.
Syn. – To beg; request; seek; petition; solicit; entreat; beseech; implore; crave; require; demand; claim; exhibit; inquire; interrogate. See Beg.
Ask, v. i. 1. To request or petition; P usually folllowed by for; as, to ask for bread.
Ask, and it shall be given you.
Matt. vii. 7.
2. To make inquiry, or seek by request; P sometimes followed by after.
Wherefore… dost ask after my name? Gen. xxxii. 29.
Ask (?), n. [See 2d Asker.] (Zol.) A water newt. [Scot. & North of Eng.]
AOskance6 (?), AOskant6 (?), } adv. [Cf. D. schuin, schuins, sideways, schuiven to shove, schuinte slope. Cf. Asquint.] Sideways; obliquely; with a side glance; with disdain, envy, or suspicion.
They dart away; they wheel askance. Beattie.
My palfrey eyed them askance.
Landor.
Both… were viewed askance by authority. Gladstone.
AOskance6 , v. t. To turn aside. [Poet.] O, how are they wrapped in with infamies That from their own misdeeds askance their eyes! Shak.
Ask6er , n. One who asks; a petitioner; an inquirer. Shak.
Ask6er, n. [A corruption of AS. a?exe lizard, newt.] (Zol.) An ask; a water newt. [Local Eng.]
AOskew6 , adv. & a. [Pref. aO + skew.] Awry; askance; asquint; oblique or obliquely; P sometimes indicating scorn, or contempt, or entry.
Spenser.
Ask6ing , n. 1. The act of inquiring or requesting; a petition; solicitation.
Longfellow.
2. The publishing of banns.

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AOslake6 (?), v. t. & i. [AS. >slacian, slacian, to slacken. Cf. Slake.] To mitigate; to moderate; to appease; to abate; to diminish. [Archaic]
Chaucer.
AOslant6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + slant.] Toward one side; in a slanting direction; obliquely.
[The shaft] drove through his neck aslant. Dryden.
AOslant6, prep. In a slanting direction over; athwart. There is a willow grows aslant a brook.
Shak.
AOsleep6 , a. & adv. [Pref. aO + sleep.] 1. In a state of sleep; in sleep; dormant.
Fast asleep the giant lay supine.
Dryden.
By whispering winds soon lulled asleep. Milton.
2. In the sleep of the grave; dead. Concerning them which are asleep… sorrow not, even as others which have no hope.
1 Thess. iv. 13.
3. Numbed, and, usually, tingling.
Udall.
Leaning long upon any part maketh it numb, and, as we call it, asleep.
Bacon.
AOslope6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + slope.] Slopingly; aslant; declining from an upright direction; sloping. =Set them not upright, but aslope.8
Bacon.
AOslug6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + slug to move slowly.] Sluggishly. [Obs.]
Fotherby.
AOsmear6 (?), a. [Pref. aO + smear.] Smeared over. Dickens.
As7moOne6an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the patriotic Jewish family to which the Maccabees belonged; Maccabean; as, the Asmonean dynasty. [Written also Asmonan.] As7moOne6an, n. One of the w family. The Asmoneans were leaders and rulers of the Jews from 168 to 35 b. c. AOsoak6 (?), a. [Pref. aO + soak.] Soaking. AOso6maOtous (?), a. [L. asomatus, Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? body.] Without a material body; incorporeal.
Todd.
As6oOnant (?), a. [Pref. aO not + sonant.] Not sounding or sounded. [R.]
C. C. Felton.
Asp (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Aspen. =Trembling poplar or asp.8 Martyn.
Asp (?), n. [L. aspis, fr. Gr. ?: cf. OF. aspe, F. aspic.] (Zol.) A small, hooded, poisonous serpent of Egypt and adjacent countries, whose bite is often fatal. It is the Naja haje. The name is also applied to other poisonous serpents, esp. to Vipera aspis of southern Europe. See Haje. X AsOpal6aOthus (?), n. [L. aspalathus, Gr. ?.] (Bot.) (a) A thorny shrub yielding a fragrant oil. Ecclus. xxiv. 15. (b) A genus of plants of the natural order Leguminos. The species are chiefly natives of the Cape of Good Hope. AsOpar6aOgine (?), n. [Cf. F. asparagine.] (Chem.) A white, nitrogenous, crystallizable substance, C4H8N2O3+H2O, found in many plants, and first obtained from asparagus It is believed to aid in the disposition of nitrogenous matter throughout the plant; P called also altheine. As7paOrag6iOnous (?), a. Pertaining or allied to, or resembling, asparagus; having shoots which are eaten like asparagus; as, asparaginous vegetables.
AsOpar6aOgus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, ?; cf. ? to swell with sap or juice, and Zend ?paregha prong, sprout, Pers. asparag, Lith. spurgas sprout, Skr. sphurj to swell. Perh. the Greek borrowed from the Persian. Cf. Sparrowgrass.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of perennial plants belonging to the natural order Liliace, and having erect much branched stems, and very slender branchlets which are sometimes mistaken for leaves. Asparagus racemosus is a shrubby climbing plant with fragrant flowers. Specifically: The Asparagus officinalis, a species cultivated in gardens.
2. The young and tender shoots of A. officinalis, which form a valuable and wellPknown article of food. 5 This word was formerly pronounced sparrowgrass; but this pronunciation is now confined exclusively to uneducated people.
w beetle (Zol.), a small beetle (Crioceris asparagi) injurious to ~.
AsOpar6tic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived, asparagine; as, aspartic acid.
As6pect (?), n. [L. aspectus, fr. aspicere, aspectum, to look at; ad + spicere, specere, to look, akin to E. spy.] 1. The act of looking; vision; gaze; glance. [R.] =The basilisk killeth by aspect.8
Bacon.
His aspect was bent on the ground.
Sir W. Scott.
2. Look, or particular appearance of the face; countenance; mien; air. =Serious in aspect.8
Dryden.
[Craggs] with aspect open shall erect his head. Pope.
3. Appearance to the eye or the mind; look; view. =The aspect of affairs.8
Macaulay.
The true aspect of a world lying in its rubbish. T. Burnet.
4. Position or situation with regard to seeing; that position which enables one to look in a particular direction; position in relation to the points of the compass; as, a house has a southern aspect, that is, a position which faces the south.
5. Prospect; outlook. [Obs.]
This town affords a good aspect toward the hill from whence we descended.
Evelyn.
6. (Astrol.) The situation of planets or stars with respect to one another, or the angle formed by the rays of light proceeding from them and meeting at the eye; the joint look of planets or stars upon each other or upon the earth. Milton.
5 The aspects which two planets can assume are five; sextile, ?, when the planets are 600 apart; quartile, or quadrate, ?, when their distance is 900 or the quarter of a circle; trine, ?, when the distance is 1200; opposition, ?, when the distance is 1800, or half a circle; and conjunction, ?, when they are in the same degree. Astrology taught that the aspects of the planets exerted an influence on human affairs, in some situations for good and in others for evil.
7. (Astrol.) The influence of the stars for good or evil; as, an ill aspect.
Shak.
The astrologers call the evil influences of the stars evil aspects.
Bacon.
w of a plane (Geom.), the direction of the plane. AsOpect6 (?), v. t. [L. aspectare, v. intens. of aspicere. See Aspect, n.] To behold; to look at. [Obs.] AsOpect6aOble (?), a. [L. aspectabilis.] Capable of being; visible. =The aspectable world.8 Ray. =Aspectable stars.8 Mr. Browning.
AsOpect6ant (?), a. (Her.) Facing each other. AsOpect6ed, a. Having an aspect. [Obs.]
B. Jonson.
AsOpec6tion (?), n. [L. aspectio, fr. aspicere to look at.] The act of viewing; a look. [Obs.]
Asp6en (?), Asp (?), } n. [AS. sp, ps; akin to OHG. aspa, Icel. sp, Dan. sp, Sw. asp, D. esp, G. espe, spe, aspe; cf. Lettish apsa, Lith. apuszis.] (Bot.) One of several species of poplar bearing this name, especially the Populus tremula, so called from the trembling of its leaves, which move with the slightest impulse of the air. Asp6en (?), a. Of or pertaining to the ~, or resembling it; made of ~ wood.
Nor aspen leaves confess the gentlest breeze. Gay.
As6per (?), a. [OE. aspre, OF. aspre, F. pre, fr. L. asper rough.] Rough; rugged; harsh; bitter; stern; fierce. [Archaic] =An asper sound.8
Bacon.
X As6per (?), n. [L. spiritus asper rough breathing.] (Greek Gram.) The rough breathing; a mark (?) placed over an initial vowel sound or over ? to show that it is aspirated, that is, pronounced with h before it; thus ?, pronounced h?s, ?, pronounced hr>6t?r.
X As6per, n. [F. aspre or It. aspro, fr. MGr. ?, ?, white (prob. from the whiteness of new silver coins).] A Turkish money of account (formerly a coin), of little value; the 120th part of a piaster.
As6perOate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Asperated; p. pr. & vb. n. Asperating.] [L. asperatus, p. p. of asperare, fr. asper rough.] To make rough or uneven.
The asperated part of its surface.
Boyle.
As7perOa6tion (?), n. The act of asperating; a making or becoming rough.
Bailey.
X AsOper6ges (?), n. [L., Thou shalt sprinkle.] (R. C. Ch.) (a) The service or ceremony of sprinkling with holy water. (b) The brush or instrument used in sprinkling holy water; an aspergill.
As6perOgill (?), X As7perOgil6lum (?), } n. [LL. aspergillum, fr. L. aspergere. See Asperse, v. t. 1. The brush used in the Roman Catholic church for sprinkling holy water on the people. [Also written aspergillus.] 2. (Zol.) See Wateringpot shell.
As7perOgil6liOform (?), a. [Aspergillum + Oform.] (Bot.) Resembling the aspergillum in form; as, an aspergilliform stigma.
Gray.
As7perOiOfo6liOate (?), As7perOiOfo6liOous (?), } a. [L. asper rough + folium leaf.] (Bot.) Having rough leaves. 5 By some applied to the natural order now called Boraginace or borageworts.
AsOper6iOty (?), n.; pl. Asperities (?). [L. asperitas, fr. asper rough: cf. F. asprit.] 1. Roughness of surface; unevenness; P opposed to smoothness. =The asperities of dry bodies.8
Boyle.
2. Roughness or harshness of sound; that quality which grates upon the ear; raucity.
3. Roughness to the taste; sourness; tartness. 4. Moral roughness; roughness of manner; severity; crabbedness; harshness; P opposed to mildness. =Asperity of character.8
Landor.
It is no very cynical asperity not to confess obligations where no benefit has been received.
Johnson.
5. Sharpness; disagreeableness; difficulty. The acclivities and asperities of duty.
Barrow.
Syn. – Acrimony; moroseness; crabbedness; harshness; sourness; tartness. See Acrimony.
AOsper6maOtous (?), a. [Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?, seed.] (Bot.) Aspermous.
AOsper6mous , a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? seed.] (Bot.) Destitute of seeds; aspermatous.
AOsperne6 (?), v. t. [L. aspernari; a (ab) + spernari.] To spurn; to despise. [Obs.]
Sir T. More.
As6perOous (?), a. [See Asper, a.] Rough; uneven. Boyle.
AsOperse6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aspersed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Aspersing.] [L. aspersus, p. p. of aspergere to scatter, sprinkle; ad + spargere to strew. See Sparse.] 1. To sprinkle, as water or dust, upon anybody or anything, or to besprinkle any one with a liquid or with dust. Heywood.
2. To bespatter with foul reports or false and injurious charges; to tarnish in point of reputation or good name; to slander or calumniate; as, to asperse a poet or his writings; to asperse a man’s character.
With blackest crimes aspersed.
Cowper.
Syn. – To slander; defame; detract from; calumniate; vilify. P To Asperse, Defame, Slander, Calumniate. These words have in common the idea of falsely assailing the character of another. To asperse is figuratively to cast upon a character hitherto unsullied the imputation of blemishes or faults which render it offensive or loathsome. To defame is to detract from a man’s honor and reputation by charges calculated to load him with infamy. Slander (etymologically the same as scandal) and calumniate, from the Latin, have in common the sense of circulating reports to a man’s injury from unworthy or malicious motives. Men asperse their neighbors by malignant insinuations; they defame by advancing charges to blacken or sully their fair fame; they slander or calumniate by spreading injurious reports which are false, or by magnifying slight faults into serious errors or crimes.
AsOpersed6 (?), a. 1. (Her.) Having an indefinite number of small charges scattered or strewed over the surface. Cussans.
2. Bespattered; slandered; calumniated. Motley.
AsOpers6er (?), n. One who asperses; especially, one who vilifies another.
AsOper6sion (?), n. [L. aspersio, fr. aspergere: cf. F. aspersion.] 1. A sprinkling, as with water or dust, in a literal sense.
Behold an immersion, not and aspersion. Jer. Taylor.
2. The spreading of calumniations reports or charges which tarnish reputation, like the bespattering of a body with foul water; calumny.
Every candid critic would be ashamed to cast wholesale aspersions on the entire body of professional teachers. Grote.
Who would by base aspersions blot thy virtue. Dryden.
AsOpers6ive (?), a. Tending to asperse; defamatory; slanderous. P AsOpers6iveOly, adv.
X As7per7soir6 (?), n. [F.] An aspergill. X As7perOso6riOum (?), n.; pl. Aspersoria (?). [LL. See Asperse.] 1. The stoup, basin, or other vessel for holy water in Roman Catholic churches.
2. A brush for sprinkling holy water; an aspergill. As6phalt (?), AsOphal6tum (?), } n. [Gr. ?, of eastern origin: cf. F. asphalte.] 1. Mineral pitch, Jews’ pitch, or compact native bitumen. It is brittle, of a black or brown color and high luster on a surface of fracture; it melts and burns when heated, leaving no residue. It occurs on the surface and shores of the Dead Sea, which is therefore called Asphaltites, or the Asphaltic Lake. It is found also in many parts of Asia, Europe, and America. See Bitumen. 2. A composition of bitumen, pitch, lime, and gravel, used for forming pavements, and as a waterPproof cement for bridges, roofs, etc.; asphaltic cement. Artificial asphalt is prepared from coal tar, lime, sand, etc. Asphalt stone, Asphalt rock, a limestone found impregnated with asphalt.
As6phalt, v. t. To cover with ~; as, to asphalt a roof; asphalted streets.
X As7phalte6 (?), n. [F. See Asphalt.] Asphaltic mastic or cement. See Asphalt, 2.
AsOphal6tic (?), a. Pertaining to, of the nature of, or containing, asphalt; bituminous. =Asphaltic pool.8 =Asphaltic slime.8
Milton.
AsOphal6tite (?), a. Asphaltic.
AsOphal6tite (?), a. Asphaltic.
Bryant.
X AsOphal6tus , n. See Asphalt.
As6phoOdel (?), n. [L. asphodelus, Gr. ?. See Daffodil.] (Bot.) A general name for a plant of the genus Asphodelus. The asphodels are hardy perennial plants, several species of which are cultivated for the beauty of their flowers. 5 The name is also popularly given to species of other genera. The asphodel of the early English and French poets was the daffodil. The asphodel of the Greek poets is supposed to be the Narcissus poeticus.
Dr. Prior.
Pansies, and violets, and asphodel. Milton.
AsOphyc6tic (?), a. Pertaining to asphyxia. X AsOphyx6iOa (?), AsOphyx6y (?), } n. [NL. asphyxia, fr. Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to throb, beat.] (Med.) Apparent death, or suspended animation; the condition which results from interruption of respiration, as in suffocation or drowning, or the inhalation of irrespirable gases. AsOphyx6iOal (?), a. Of or relating to asphyxia; as, asphyxial phenomena.
AsOphyx6iOate (?), v. t. To bring to a state of asphyxia; to suffocate. [Used commonly in the past pple.] AsOphyx6iOa7ted (?), AsOphyx6ied (?), p. p. In a state of asphyxia; suffocated.
AsOphyx7iOa6tion (?), n. The act of causing asphyxia; a state of asphyxia.
As6pic (?), n. [F. See Asp.] 1. The venomous asp. [Chiefly poetic]
Shak. Tennyson.
2. A piece of ordnance carrying a 12 pound shot. [Obs.] As6pic, n. [F., a corrupt. of spic (OF. espi, F. pi), L. spica (spicum, spicus), ear, spike. See Spike.] A European species of lavender (Lavandula spica), which produces a volatile oil. See Spike.
As6pic, n. [F., prob. fr. aspic an asp.] A savory meat jelly containing portions of fowl, game, fish, hard boiled eggs, etc.
Thackeray.
X As7piOdoObran6chiOa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, ?, shield + ? gills.] (Zol.) A group of Gastropoda, with limpetlike shells, including the abalone shells and keyhole limpets. AsOpir6ant (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. aspirant, p. pr. of aspirer. See Aspire.] Aspiring.
AsOpir6ant, n. [Cf. F. aspirant.] One who aspires; one who eagerly seeks some high position or object of attainment. In consequence of the resignations… the way to greatness was left clear to a new set of aspirants. Macaulay.
As6piOrate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aspirated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Aspirating (?).] [L. aspiratus, p. p. of aspirare to breathe toward or upon, to add the breathing h; ad + spirare to breathe, blow. Cf. Aspire.] To [pronounce with a breathing, an ~, or an h sound; as, we aspirate the words horse and house; to aspirate a vowel or a liquid consonant. As6piOrate (?), n. 1. A sound consisting of, or characterized by, a breath like the sound of h; the breathing h or a character representing such a sound; an aspirated sound.

<– p. 90 –>

2. A mark of aspiration (?) used in Greek; the asper, or rough breathing.
Bentley.
3. An elementary sound produced by the breath alone; a surd, or nonvocal consonant; as, f, th in thin, etc. As6piOrate (?), As6piOra6ted (?), } a. [L. aspiratus, p. p.] Pronounced with the h sound or with audible breath. But yet they are not aspirate, i. e., with such an aspiration as h.
Holder.
As7piOra6tion (?), n. [L. aspiratio, fr. aspirare: cf. F. aspiration.] 1. The act of aspirating; the pronunciation of a letter with a full or strong emission of breath; an aspirated sound.
If aspiration be defined to be an impetus of breathing. Wilkins.
2. The act of breathing; a breath; an inspiration. 3. The act of aspiring of a ardently desiring; strong wish; high desire. =Aspirations after virtue.8 Johnson.
Vague aspiration after military renown. Prescott.
As6piOra7tor (?), n. 1. (Chem.) An apparatus for passing air or gases through or over certain liquids or solids, or for exhausting a closed vessel, by means of suction. 2. (Med.) An instrument for the evacuation of the fluid contents of tumors or collections of blood. AsOpir6aOtoOry (?), a. Of or pertaining to breathing; suited to the inhaling of air
AsOpire6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Aspired (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Aspiring.] [F. aspirer, L. aspirare. See Aspirate, v. t.] 1. To desire with eagerness; to seek to attain something high or great; to pant; to long; P followed by to or after, and rarely by at; as, to aspire to a crown; to aspire after immorality.
Aspiring to be gods, if angels fell; Aspiring to be angels, men rebel.
Pope.
2. To rise; to ascend; to tower; to soar. My own breath still foments the fire,
Which flames as high as fancy can aspire. Waller.
AsOpire6, v. t. To ~ to; to long for; to try to reach; to mount to. [Obs.]
That gallant spirit hath aspired the clouds. Shak.
AsOpire6, n. Aspiration. [Obs.]
Chapman.
AsOpire6ment (?), n. Aspiration. [Obs.] AsOpir6er (?), n. One who aspires.
AsOpir6ing, a. That aspires; as, an Aspiring mind. P AsOpir6ingOly, adv. P AsOpir6ingOness, n. Asp6ish (?), a. Pertaining to, or like, an asp. As7porOta6tion (?), n. [L. asportatio, fr. asportare to carry away; abs = ab + portare to bear, carry.] (Law) The felonious removal of goods from the place where they were deposited.
5 It is adjudged to be larceny, though the goods are not carried from the house or apartment.
Blackstone.
AOsprawl6 (?), adv. & a. Sprawling. AOsquat6 (?), adv. & a. Squatting.
AOsquint6 (?), adv. [Cf. Askant, Squint.] With the eye directed to one side; not in the straight line of vision; obliquely; awry, so as to see distortedly; as, to look asquint.
Ass (?), n. [OE. asse, AS. assa; akin to Icel. asni, W. asen, asyn, L. asinus, dim. aselus, Gr. ?; also to AS. esol, OHG. esil, G. esel, Goth. asilus, Dan. sel, Lith. asilas, Bohem. osel, Pol. osiel. The word is prob. of Semitic origin; cf. Heb. ath?n she ~. Cf. Ease.] 1. (Zol.) A quadruped of the genus Equus (E. asinus), smaller than the horse, and having a peculiarly harsh bray and long ears. The tame or domestic ~ is patient, slow, and surePfooted, and has become the type of obstinacy and stupidity. There are several species of wild asses which are swiftPfooted. 2. A dull, heavy, stupid fellow; a dolt. Shak.
Asses’ Bridge. [L. pons asinorum.] The fifth proposition of the first book of Euclid, =The angles at the base of an isosceles triangle are equal to one another.8 [Sportive] =A schoolboy, stammering out his Asses’ Bridge.8 F. Harrison. P To make an ~ of one’s self, to do or say something very foolish or absurd.
As7saOf?t6iOda (?), n. Same as Asafetida. As6saOgai (?), As6seOgai (?), n. [Pg. azagaia, Sp. azagaya, fr. a Berber word. Cf. Lancegay.] A spear used by tribes in South Africa as a missile and for stabbing, a kind of light javelin.
X AsOsa6i (?). [It., fr. L. ad + satis enough. See Assets.] (Mus.) A direction equiv?lent to very; as, adagio assai, very slow.
AsOsail6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assailed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Assailing.] [OE. assailen, asailen, OF. asaillir, assailler, F. assaillir; ? (L. ad) + saillir to burst out, project, fr. L. salire to leap, spring; cf. L. assilire to leap or spring upon. See Sally.] 1. To attack with violence, or in a vehement and hostile manner; to assault; to molest; as, to assail ? man with blows; to assail a city with artillery.
No rude noise mine ears assailing.
Cowper.
No storm can now assail
The charm he wears within.
Keble.
2. To encounter or meet purposely with the v??? of ??stering, as an obstacle, difficulty, or the like. The thorny wilds the woodmen fierce assail. Pope.
3. To attack morally, or with a view to produce ?anges in the feelings, character, conduct, existing usages, institutions; to attack by words, hostile influence, etc.; as, to assail one with appeals, arguments, abuse, ridicule, and the like.
The papal authority… assailed.
Hallam.
They assailed him with keen invective; they assailed him with still keener irony.

Macaulay.
Syn. – To attack; assault; invade; encounter; fall upon. See Attack.
AsOsail6aOble (?), a. Capable of being assailed. AsOsail6ant (?), a. [F. assaillant, p. pr. of assaillir.] Assailing; attacking.
Milton.
AsOsail6ant, n. [F. assaillant.] One who, or that which, assails, attacks, or assaults; an assailer. An assailant of the church.
Macaulay.
AsOsail6er (?), n. One who assails. AsOsail6ment (?), n. The act or power of assailing; attack; assault. [R.]
His most frequent assailment was the headache. Johnson.
As6saOmar (?), n. [L. assare to roast + amarus, bitter.] (Chem.) The peculiar bitter substance, soft or liquid, and of a yellow color, produced when meat, bread, gum, sugar, starch, and the like, are roasted till they turn brown. As7samOese6 (?), a. Of or pertaining to Assam, a province of British India, or to its inhabitants. P n. sing. & pl. A native or natives of Assam.
X As7saOpan6 (?), X As7saOpan6ic (?), n. [Prob. Indian name.] (Zol.) The American flying squirrel (Pteromys volucella).
AsOsart6 , n. [OF. essart the grubbing up of trees, fr. essarter to grub up or clear ground of bushes, shrubs, trees, etc., fr. LL. exartum, exartare, for exsaritare; L. ex + sarire, sarrire, saritum, to hoe, weed.] 1. (Old Law) The act or offense of grubbing up trees and bushes, and thus destroying the tickets or coverts of a forest. Spelman. Cowell.
2. A piece of land cleared of trees and bushes, and fitted for cultivation; a clearing.
Ash.
w land, forest land cleared of woods and brush. AsOsart6, v. t. To grub up, as trees; to commit an ~ upon; as, to assart land or trees.
Ashmole.
AsOsas6sin (?), n. [F. (cf. It. assassino), fr. Ar. ?hashishin one who has drunk of the hashish. Under its influence the Assassins of the East, followers of the Shaikh alPJabal (Old Man of the Mountain), were said to commit the murders required by their chief.] One who kills, or attempts to kill, by surprise or secret assault; one who treacherously murders any one unprepared for defense. AsOsas6sin, v. t. To assassinate. [Obs.] Stillingfleet.
AsOsas6sinOate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assassinated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Assassinating (?).] [LL. assassinatus, p. p. of assassinare.] 1. To kill by surprise or secret assault; to murder by treacherous violence.
Help, neighbors, my house is broken open by force, and I am ravished, and like to be assassinated.
Dryden.
2. To assail with murderous intent; hence, by extended meaning, to maltreat exceedingly. [Archaic] Your rhymes assassinate our fame.
Dryden.
Such usage as your honorable lords
Afford me, assassinated and betrayed. Milton.
Syn. – To kill; murder; slay. See Kill. AsOsas6sinOate (?), n. [F. assassinat.] 1. An assassination, murder, or murderous assault. [Obs.]
If i had made an assassinate upon your father. B. Jonson.
2. An assassin. [Obs.]
Dryden.
AsOsas7siOna6tion (?), n. The act of assassinating; a killing by treacherous violence.
AsOsas6siOna7tor (?), n. An assassin. AsOsas6sinOous (?), a. Murderous.
Milton.
AsOsas6tion (?), n. [F., fr. LL. assatio, fr. L. assare to roast.] Roasting. [Obs.]
Sir T. Browne.
AsOsault6 (?), n. [OE. asaut, assaut, OF. assaut, asalt, F. assaut, LL. assaltus; L. ad + saltus a leaping, a springing, salire to leap. See Assail.] 1. A violent onset or attack with physical means, as blows, weapons, etc.; an onslaught; the rush or charge of an attacking force; onset; as, to make assault upon a man, a house, or a town.
The Spanish general prepared to renew the assault. Prescott.
Unshaken bears the assault
Of their most dreaded foe, the strong southwest. Wordsworth.
2. A violent onset or attack with moral weapons, as words, arguments, appeals, and the like; as, to make an assault on the prerogatives of a prince, or on the constitution of a government.
Clarendon.
3. (Law) An apparently violent attempt, or ? offer with force or violence, to do hurt to another; an attempt or offer to beat another, accompanied by a degree of violence, but without touching his person, as by lifting the fist, or a cane, in a threatening manner, or by striking at him, and missing him. If the blow aimed takes effect, it is a battery.
Blackstone. Wharton.
Practically, however, the word assault is used to include the battery.
Mozley & W.
Syn. – Attack; invasion; incursion; descent; onset; onslaught; charge; storm.
AsOsault6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assaulted; p. pr. & vb. n. Assaulting.] From Assault, n.: cf. OF. assaulter, LL. assaltare.] 1. To make an ~ upon, as by a sudden rush of armed men; to attack with unlawful or insulting physical violence or menaces.
Insnared, assaulted, overcome, led bound. Milton.
2. To attack with moral means, or with a view of producing moral effects; to attack by words, arguments, or unfriendly measures; to assail; as, to assault a reputation or an administration.
Before the gates, the cries of babes newborn,… Assault his ears.
Dryden.
5 In the latter sense, assail is more common. Syn. – To attack; assail; invade; encounter; storm; charge. See Attack.
AsOsaut6aOble (?), a. Capable of being assaulted. AsOsault6er (?), n. One who assaults, or violently attacks; an assailant.
E. Hall.
AsOsay6 (?), n. [OF. asai, essai, trial, F. essa. See Essay, n.] 1. Trial; attempt; essay. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
I am withal persuaded that it may prove much more easy in the assay than it now seems at distance. Milton.
2. Examination and determination; test; as, an assay of bread or wine. [Obs.]
This can not be, by no assay of reason. Shak.
3. Trial by danger or by affliction; adventure; risk; hardship; state of being tried. [Obs.]
Through many hard assays which did betide. Spenser.
4. Tested purity or value. [Obs.]
With gold and pearl of rich assay.
Spenser.
5. (Metallurgy) The act or process of ascertaining the proportion of a particular metal in an ore or alloy; especially, the determination of the proportion of gold or silver in bullion or coin.
6. The alloy or metal to be assayed. Ure.
[Assay and essay are radically the same word; but modern usage has appropriated assay chiefly to experiments in metallurgy, and essay to intellectual and bodily efforts. See Essay.]
5 Assay is used adjectively or as the first part of a compound; as, assay balance, assay furnace. w master, an officer who assays or tests gold or silver coin or bullion. P w ton, a weight of 29.166% grams. AsOsay6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Assaying.] [OF. asaier, essaier, F. essayer, fr. essai. See Assay, n., Essay, v.] 1. To try; to attempt; to apply. [Obs. or Archaic]
ToPnight let us assay our plot.
Shak.
Soft words to his fierce passion she assayed. Milton.
2. To affect. [Obs.]
When the heart is ill assayed.
Spenser.
3. To try tasting, as food or drink. [Obs.] 4. To subject, as an ore, alloy, or other metallic compound, to chemical or metallurgical examination, in order to determine the amount of a particular metal contained in it, or to ascertain its composition.
AsOsay6, v. i. To attempt, try, or endeavor. [Archaic. In this sense essay is now commonly used.]
She thrice assayed to speak.
Dryden.
AsOsay6aOble (?), a. That may be assayed. AsOsay6er , n. One who assays. Specifically: One who examines metallic ores or compounds, for the purpose of determining the amount of any particular metal in the same, especially of gold or silver.
AsOsay6ing, n. The act or process of testing, esp. of analyzing or examining metals and ores, to determine the proportion of pure metal.
X Asse (?), n. (Zol.) A small foxlike animal (Vulpes cama) of South Africa, valued for its fur.
As7seOcuOra6tion (?), n. [LL. assecuratio, fr. assecurare.] Assurance; certainty. [Obs.]
As7seOcure6 (?), v. t. [LL. assecurare.] To make sure or safe; to assure. [Obs.]
Hooker.
As7seOcu6tion (?), n. [F. asscution, fr. L. assequi to obtain; ad + sequi to follow.] An obtaining or acquiring. [Obs.]
Ayliffe.
As6seOgai (?), n. Same as Assagai.
AsOsem6blage , n. [Cf. F. assemblage. See Assemble.] 1. The act of assembling, or the state o? being; association. In sweet assemblage every blooming grace. Fen???.
2. A collection of individuals, or of individuals, or of particular things; as, a political assemblage; an assemblage of ideas.
Syn. – Company; group; collection; concourse; gathering; meeting; convention. Assemblage, Assembly. An assembly consists only of persons; an assemblage may be composed of things as well as persons, as, an assemblage of incoherent objects. Nor is every assemblage of persons an assembly; since the latter term denotes a body who have met, and are acting, in concert for some common end, such as to hear, to deliberate, to unite in music, dancing, etc. An assemblage of skaters on a lake, or of horse jockeys at a race course, is not an assembly, but might be turned into one by collecting into a body with a view to discuss and decide as to some object of common interest.
AsOsem6blance , n. [Cf. OF. assemblance.] 1. Resemblance; likeness; appearance. [Obs.]
Care I for the… stature, bulk, and big assemblance of a man ? Give me the spirit.
Shak.
2. An assembling; assemblage. [Obs.] To weete [know] the cause of their assemblance. Spenser.
AsOsem6ble (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assembled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Assembling (?).] [F. assembler, fr. LL. assimulare to bring together to collect; L. ad + simul together; akin to similis like, Gr. ? at the same time, and E. same. Cf. Assimilate, Same.] To collect into one place or body; to bring or call together; to convene; to congregate. Thither he assembled all his train.
Milton.
All the men of Israel assembled themselves. 1 Kings viii. 2.
AsOsem6ble, v. i. To meet or come together, as a number of individuals; to convene; to congregate.
Dryden.

The Parliament assembled in November. W. Massey.
AsOsem6ble, v. i. To liken; to compare. [Obs.] Bribes may be assembled to pitch.
Latimer.
AsOsem6bler (?), n. One who assembles a number of individuals; also, one of a number assembled. AsOsem6bly (?), n.; pl. Assemblies (?). [F. assemble, fr. assembler. See Assemble.] 1. A company of persons collected together in one place, and usually for some common purpose, esp. for deliberation and legislation, for worship, or for social entertainment.
2. A collection of inanimate objects. [Obs.] Howell.
3. (Mil.) A beat of the drum or sound of the bugle as a signal to troops to assemble.
5 In some of the United States, the legislature, or the popular branch of it, is called the Assembly, or the General Assembly. In the Presbyterian Church, the General Assembly is the highest ecclesiastical tribunal, composed of ministers and ruling elders delegated from each presbytery; as, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, or of Scotland.

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Assembly room, a room in which persons assemble, especially for dancing. P Unlawful assembly (Law), a meeting of three or more persons on a common plan, in such a way as to cause a reasonable apprehension that they will disturb the peace tumultuously. P Westminster Assembly, a convocation, consisting chiefly of divines, which, by act of Parliament, assembled July 1, 1643, and remained in session some years. It framed the =Confession of Faith,8 the =Larger Catechism,8 and the =Shorter Catechism,8 which are still received as authority by Presbyterians, and are substantially accepted by Congregationalists.
Syn. – See Assemblage.
AsOsem6blyOman (?), n.; pl. Assemblymen (?). A member of an assembly, especially of the lower branch of a state legislature.
AsOsent6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assented; p. pr. & vb. n. Assenting.] [ F. assentir, L. assentire, assentiri; ad + sentire to feel, think. See Sense.] To admit a thing as true; to express one’s agreement, acquiescence, concurrence, or concession.
Who informed the governor… And the Jews also assented, saying that these things were so.
Acts xxiv. 9.
The princess assented to all that was suggested. Macaulay.
Syn. – To yield; agree; acquiesce; concede; concur. AsOsent6 (?), n. [OE. assent, fr. assentir. See Assent, v.] The act of assenting; the act of the mind in admitting or agreeing to anything; concurrence with approval; consent; agreement; acquiescence.
Faith is the assent to any proposition, on the credit of the proposer.
Locke.
The assent, if not the approbation, of the prince. Prescott.
Too many people read this ribaldry with assent and admiration.
Macaulay.
Royal ~, in England, the ~ of the sovereign to a bill which has passed both houses of Parliament, after which it becomes law.
Syn. – Concurrence; acquiescence; approval; accord. P Assent, Consent. Assent is an act of the understanding, consent of the will or feelings. We assent to the views of others when our minds come to the same conclusion with theirs as to what is true, right, or admissible. We consent when there is such a concurrence of our will with their desires and wishes that we decide to comply with their requests. The king of England gives his assent, not his consent, to acts of Parliament, because, in theory at least, he is not governed by personal feelings or choice, but by a