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With the fish thus prepared, roll them in fine cracker crumbs and sauté them in melted butter until they are nicely browned. Serve with slices of lemon.

55. SAUTÉD HALIBUT STEAK.–Slices of halibut, when firm in texture and cut about 3/4 inch thick, lend themselves very well to sautéing. Secure the required number of such slices and sprinkle each with salt and pepper. Then spread melted butter over each steak, and roll it in fine crumbs. Place fat in a frying pan, allow it to become hot, and sauté the halibut in this until well browned.

56. SAUTÉD PICKEREL.–A variety of fresh-water fish that finds favor with most persons is pickerel. When this fish is to be sautéd, scale and clean it and cut it crosswise into 2-inch strips. Then roll each piece in flour, sprinkle it with salt and pepper, and sauté the slices in hot fat. When one side is sufficiently brown, turn and brown on the other side.

57. STEWED FISH.–Like boiling, stewing extracts flavor and nutriment from fish. The process differs, however, in that the fish is cooked gently by simmering. This cookery method is employed for fish that is inclined to be tough. Usually, vegetables, such as carrots and onions, are cooked with the fish in order to impart flavor. To prevent the fish from falling apart, it may be wrapped in cheesecloth or gauze.

58. STEWED FRESH HERRING.–When fresh herring can be obtained, it can be made into a delicious dish by stewing it with onions, parsley, and carrots. In this method of preparation, the herring should not be permitted to stew rapidly; it will become more tender if it simmers gently. As herring are rather small fish, weighing only about 1/2 pound, it will usually be necessary to obtain more than one for a meal.

Clean the required number of fresh herring, place them in a saucepan, and sprinkle them with salt and pepper. Brown some slices of onion in butter, and add the same number of slices of carrots and a generous quantity of parsley. Add enough boiling water to these vegetables to cover them and the fish, and pour both over the fish. Place all on the fire and simmer gently until the fish is tender. Remove the fish from the water and serve. The vegetables are used merely to add flavor, and they will have practically boiled away by the time the fish is cooked.

59. STEWED EEL.–Eel is delicious when stewed. When allowed to simmer slowly with several slices of onion and a little parsley, it becomes both tasty and tender.

Skin and clean the eel that is to be stewed, remove all the fat, and cut into pieces about 2 inches long. Season well with salt and pepper and place in a saucepan with several slices of onion, 1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Add enough cold water to cover well, and allow the eel to simmer gently until it is tender enough to be pierced with a fork. Remove from the water and serve hot.


60. PLACE OF SALT AND SMOKED FISH IN THE DIET.–In regions where fresh fish cannot be obtained or in seasons when they are scarce everywhere, the housewife will do well to use salt and smoked fish. These varieties of fish not only will give her a chance to vary the diet, but will enable her to provide at a more economical price, food that, pound for pound, contains more nutriment than the same fish when fresh. While some of the varieties of smoked and salt fish may not be obtainable in all communities, the housewife will do much toward bringing the supply to her community by requesting them from the dealer. When a dealer knows that there is a demand for certain kinds, he will make an effort to secure the varieties wanted.

61. FRESHENING SALT AND SMOKED FISH.–The cooking of salt and smoked fish is not a difficult matter, but it always involves the freshening of the fish before any cooking method can be applied. This consists in placing the fish in a large quantity of water and allowing it to stand until enough of the salt has been extracted to suit the taste. Some kinds of fish are so salty that they require considerable soaking, whereas others require only a little freshening. However, it is usually advisable to change the water several times. If it is desired to hasten the extraction of the salt, the fish should be raised above the bottom of the vessel by means of a wire rack or several clean sticks. In the case of very thick fish, several gashes may be cut into the flesh to permit the salt to pass out more readily.

62. CREAMED CODFISH.–Since codfish is a rather dry fish, containing little fat, it is usually combined with some other food to make it more appetizing. In the case of creamed codfish, the cream sauce supplies the food substances in which the fish is lacking and at the same time provides a very palatable dish. When codfish is prepared in this way, boiled potatoes are usually served with it.

To make creamed codfish, freshen the required amount of codfish by pouring lukewarm water over it. Shred the fish by breaking it into small pieces with the fingers. Pour off the water, add fresh warm water, and allow the fish to stand until it is not too salty. When it is sufficiently freshened, drain off all the water. Melt a little butter in a frying pan, add the fish, and sauté until slightly browned. Make a medium white sauce and pour it over the codfish. Serve hot with boiled potatoes.

63. CODFISH BALLS.–Another excellent way in which to serve codfish is to combine it with mashed potatoes, make these into balls, and fry them in deep fat. These give variety to meals and also afford an opportunity to serve a nutritious food.

Freshen the codfish as explained in Art. 61, and then mince it very fine. Add an equal amount of freshly cooked hot potato that has been put through a potato ricer or mashed fine. Mix thoroughly and, if necessary, season with salt and pepper. Shape into balls and fry in deep fat. Drain well and serve hot.

64. SAUTÉD SALT MACKEREL.–When an extremely tasty dish that will afford a change from the usual daily routine of meals is desired, sautéd salt mackerel will be found very satisfactory.

Freshen salt mackerel that is to be sautéd by putting it into a saucepan and covering it with cold water. Place this over the fire, and allow the water to heat to almost the boiling point. Pour off the water, and sauté the fish in butter or other fat until nicely browned. If desired, pour a small amount of thin cream over the mackerel just before removing it from the pan, allow this to heat, and serve it as a sauce with the mackerel.

65. BAKED FINNAN HADDIE.–When haddock is cured by smoking, it is known as _finnan haddie_. As fish of this kind has considerable thick flesh, it is very good for baking. Other methods of cookery may, of course, be applied to it, but none is more satisfactory than baking.

To bake a finnan haddie, wash it in warm water and put it to soak in fresh warm water. After it has soaked for 1/2 hour, allow it to come gradually to nearly the boiling point and then pour off the water. Place the fish in a baking pan, add a piece of butter, sprinkle with pepper, and pour a little water over it. Bake in a hot oven until it is nicely browned. Serve hot.

66. CREAMED FINNAN HADDIE.–The flavor of finnan haddie is such that this fish becomes very appetizing when prepared with a cream sauce. If, after combining the sauce with the fish, the fish is baked in the oven, an especially palatable dish is the result.

To prepare creamed finnan haddie, freshen the fish and shred it into small pieces. Then measure the fish, put it into a baking dish, and pour an equal amount of white sauce over it. Sprinkle generously with crumbs and bake in a hot oven until the crumbs are browned. Serve hot.

67. BOILED SALMON.–When smoked salmon can be secured, it makes a splendid fish for boiling. If it is cooked until tender and then served with a well-seasoned sauce, it will find favor with most persons.

Freshen smoked salmon in warm water as much as seems necessary, remembering that the cooking to which it will be subjected will remove a large amount of the superfluous salt. Cover the salmon with hot water, and simmer slowly until it becomes tender. Remove from the water, pour a little melted butter over it, and serve with any desired sauce.


68. CANNED FISH IN THE DIET.–As a rule, canned fish is a comparatively cheap food and there is no reason why the economical housewife should not make frequent use of the various kinds. It should be bought, however, from a reputable firm, in order that the greatest value may be obtained for the money spent. In addition, it should be used as soon as possible after the can has been opened; if all of it cannot be utilized at one time, it should be placed in a covered receptacle–not a metal one–and kept cold to prevent it from spoiling. Often canned fish can be served without any further preparation than removing it from the can. However, as some varieties, particularly salmon and tuna fish, are much used in the preparation of both cold and cooked dishes, several recipes are here given for these varieties.

69. CREAMED TUNA FISH.–Combining tuna fish with a cream sauce and serving it over toast makes a dish that is both delicate and palatable–one that will prove very satisfactory when something to take the place of meat in a light meal is desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 Tb. butter
3 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/8 tsp. paprika
1-1/2 c. hot milk
1-1/2 c. tuna fish
1 egg

Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the flour, salt, pepper, and paprika. Stir well, pour in the milk, and when this has thickened add the tuna fish. Allow this to heat thoroughly in the sauce. Just before serving, add the slightly beaten egg and cook until this has thickened. Pour over toast and serve.

70. SALMON MOLD.–A change from the usual way of serving salmon can be had by making a salmon mold such as is illustrated in Fig. 24. Besides being a delicious dish and providing variety in the diet, salmon mold is very attractive.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. salmon
2 Tb. vinegar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 Tb. gelatine
1-1/2 c. boiling water

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

Remove all skin and bones from the salmon when it is taken from the can, and mince it thoroughly with a fork. Add the vinegar, salt, and pepper. Prepare the gelatine by dissolving it in the boiling water. Add the seasoned salmon to the prepared gelatine. With cold water, wet a ring-shaped mold having an open space in the center. Pour the salmon-and-gelatine mixture into this mold, and allow it to stand until it solidifies. Arrange a bed of lettuce leaves on a chop plate, turn the mold out on this, and fill the center with dressing. Serve at once. A very desirable dressing for this purpose is made as follows:


1 c. cream
2 Tb. vinegar
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. sugar
1 c. finely chopped cucumber

Whip the cream until it is stiff, and add the vinegar, salt, and sugar. Fold into this the finely chopped cucumber.

71. SALMON PATTIES.–Delicious patties can be made from salmon by combining it with bread crumbs and using a thick white sauce to hold the ingredients together. These may be either sautéd in shallow fat or fried in deep fat.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

2 c. finely minced salmon
1 c. fresh bread crumbs
1 c. thick white sauce
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
Dry bread crumbs

With the salmon, mix the fresh bread crumbs and the white sauce. Season with salt and pepper. Shape into round patties, roll in the dry bread crumbs, and fry in deep fat or sauté in shallow fat. Serve hot with or without sauce.

72. CREAMED SALMON WITH RICE.–A creamed protein dish is always more satisfactory if it is served on some other food, particularly one high in carbohydrate. When this is done, a better balanced dish is the result. Creamed salmon and rice make a very nutritious and appetizing combination.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. salmon
1 c. medium white sauce
Steamed rice

Break the salmon into moderately small pieces and carefully fold these into the hot white sauce. Serve this on a mound of hot steamed rice.


73. So as not to waste any food material, it is necessary that all left-over fish be utilized in some way. This is not so simple a matter as in the case of meat, because fish is one of the foods that are not popular as a left-over dish. Still fish left-overs can be used if a little thought is given to the matter. Of course, it is a wise plan to prepare only the quantity of fish that can be consumed at the meal for which it is cooked, but should any remain it should not be thrown away, for some use can be made of it. A point to remember, however, is that fish is not satisfactory in soup of any kind except a fish soup; therefore, bits of left-over fish may be added to only such soups as clam chowder or other fish chowder.

Whether the fish has been boiled, steamed, baked, fried, sautéd, or prepared in any other way, it may always be made into croquettes. When used for this purpose, all the bones should be carefully removed. These may be easily taken out after the fish has become cold. If the fish has been stuffed and part of the stuffing remains, it may be broken into pieces and used with the flesh of the fish. A recipe for croquettes in which fish is combined with rice follows.

74. FISH CROQUETTES.–If any quantity of left-over fish is on hand, it may be combined with rice to make very tasty croquettes.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. cold fish
1 c. cold steamed rice
1 c. thick white sauce
Salt and pepper
1 egg

Mince the fish into small pieces, mix with the rice, and add the white sauce. Season with salt and pepper and shape into croquettes. Dip into slightly beaten egg, roll in crumbs, and fry in deep fat. Drain and serve with any desired sauce.

75. CREAMED FISH IN POTATO NEST.–Fish may also be combined with mashed potato to produce a most appetizing dish. Line a baking dish with hot mashed potato, leaving a good-sized hollow in the center. Into this pour creamed fish made by mixing equal proportions of left-over cold fish and white sauce. Season well with salt and pepper, sprinkle with crumbs, and dot the top with butter. Bake until the crumbs are brown. Serve hot.

* * * * *



76. Besides the varieties of fish that have already been considered, the general term fish also includes SHELL FISH. Fish of this kind are different in structure from bony fish, for they are acquatic animals that are entirely or partly encased in shells. They include _mollusks_, or _bivalves_, such as oysters, clams, and scallops, and _crustaceans_, such as lobsters, crabs, and shrimp.

77. The popularity of the edible varieties of mollusks and crustaceans mentioned depends largely on whether they can be easily obtained and whether they are pleasing to the local or individual taste. As they are found in salt rivers, bays, and other shallow salt-water sources, their greatest use is among people living near the seashore, but they are much favored where they can be procured in edible condition. They are not so cheap as many other fish foods; that is, a certain amount of money will not purchase so great a quantity of shell fish, lobster for instance, as some of the well-known varieties of fish proper, such as halibut or whitefish. Lobsters and crabs are usually more expensive than oysters and clams; consequently, they are used more often to provide a delicacy or to supply something more or less uncommon for a special meal.

78. Several precautions should be observed in purchasing shell fish. For instance, crabs and lobsters should be purchased alive. They are usually shipped on ice so that they will remain in this condition for some time, and they are displayed on ice in the markets for the same reason. Such shell fish should be kept alive until they are plunged into boiling water to cook. Oysters and clams bought in the shell must also be alive when purchased. A tightly closed shell indicates that they are alive, whereas a slightly open shell proves that they are dead. If these two varieties are bought out of the shells, the fish themselves should not be accompanied by a great quantity of liquid. Considerable liquid is an indication that the oysters or clams have been adulterated by the addition of water. Formerly it was the custom to keep oysters in fresh water, as the water they absorb bloats or fattens them. This practice, however, has fallen into disfavor.

79. Shell fish lend themselves admirably to a large variety of dishes, including soups, entrees, salads, and substitutes for meat dishes. They possess a great deal of distinctive flavor, their food value is comparatively high, and, provided they are in good condition and are properly prepared, they are healthful and easily digested. It can therefore be seen that shell fish have much to recommend their use. There is considerable danger, however, in using any varieties that are not perfectly fresh or freshly cooked. In the case of mollusks, or bivalves, much harm has resulted from the use of those which have been grown or bred in unsanitary surroundings. Because of these facts, it is of the utmost importance that great care be exercised in selecting and preparing shell fish.

80. COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF SHELL FISH.–In composition, the varieties of fish included under shell fish do not differ greatly from fish proper. Most of them, however, contain more waste and less of the food substances than fish, so that their food value is somewhat lower. Table IV will serve to give a good idea of the composition and food value of the several varieties of shell fish, and in studying it, a good plan will be to compare it with Table I, which gives the food value of fish. As will be observed, protein forms a very large proportion of the food substance of shell fish. Also, they contain more carbohydrates than fish, the amount ranging from .4 to 5.2 per cent., which is in the form of sugar. Although this amount is too small to warrant much consideration as a supply of carbohydrates, it is mentioned because it is an interesting fact.



Name of Fish Water Protein Fat Total Ash Food Value Carbo- Per Pound
hydrates Calories Clams, removed
from shell 80.8 10.6 1.1 5.2 2.3 340 Crabs, whole 77.1 16.6 2.0 1.2 3.1 415 Lobsters, whole 79.2 16.4 1.8 .4 2.2 390 Oysters, in shell 86.9 6.2 1.2 3.7 2.0 235 Scallops 80.3 14.8 .1 3.4 1.4 345




Clams, hard shelled…………..All the year Clams, soft shelled…………..May 1 to October 15 Crabs, hard shelled…………..All the year Crabs, soft shelled…………..March 1 to October 15 Lobsters…………………….All the year Oysters……………………..September 1 to May 1 Scallops…………………….September 15 to April 1 Shrimp………………………March 15 to June 1, and September 15 to October 15

81. SEASONS FOR SHELL FISH.–With the exception of clams and lobster, which can be obtained all the year around, shell fish have particular seasons; that is, there is a certain time of the year when they are not suitable for food. It is very important that every housewife know just what these seasons are, so that she will not include the foods in the diet of her family when they should not be used. Table V, which will furnish her with the information she needs, should therefore be carefully studied.

* * * * *



[Illustration: FIG. 25]

82. OYSTERS, CLAMS, and SCALLOPS are salt-water fish that belong to the family of mollusks, or soft-bodied animals. They are entirely encased in hard shells, which, though of the same general shape, differ somewhat from each other in appearance. Fig. 25 shows a group of oysters and clams, the three on the left being oysters and the three on the right, clams. Oysters are larger than clams and have a rough, uneven shell, whereas clams have a smooth, roundish shell. The three varieties of mollusks are closely related in their composition and in their use as food, but as oysters are probably used more commonly than the others they are considered first.

83. COMPOSITION OF OYSTERS.–Oysters occupy a prominent place among animal foods, because they are comparatively high in protein. In addition, they contain a substance that most flesh foods lack in any quantity, namely, carbohydrate in the form of glycogen, and for this reason are said to resemble milk closely in composition. A comparison of the following figures will show how these foods resemble each other:

WATER PROTEIN FAT CARBOHYDRATE MINERAL SALTS Milk……… 87.0 3.3 4.0 5.0 .7 Oysters…… 86.9 6.2 1.2 3.7 2.0

Oysters, as will be observed, contain only a small quantity of fat, and for this reason their total food value is somewhat lower than that of milk. A pint of milk has a value of 325 calories, while the same quantity of oysters has an approximate value of only 250 calories. Because of the difference in the cost of these two foods, oysters costing several times as much as milk, the use of oysters is not so cheap a way of supplying food material.

84. DIGESTIBILITY OF OYSTERS.–When merely the ability of the digestive tract to handle oysters is taken into consideration, they are said to be easily digested if they are served raw or are properly prepared. This is due to the fact that when taken as a food they are disposed of in a comparatively short time by the stomach. In addition, their absorption from the alimentary tract is quite complete; that is, they contain little or no waste material. But, just as cooking has much to do with the digestibility of other protein foods, so it has with oysters. For this reason, the housewife who wishes to feed her family this food in its most digestible form must thoroughly understand all phases of its cooking.

85. HEALTHFULNESS OF OYSTERS.–Much illness has been attributed to oysters, and without doubt they have been the cause of some typhoid and some ptomaine poisoning. A knowledge of the reason for these diseases has done much to eliminate them. It is now definitely known that much of the typhoid caused from eating oysters was due to the conditions under which they were grown. In their growth, oysters fasten themselves to stationary things, such as rocks or piles driven into the ground underneath the water, and they obtain their food by simply opening the shell and making use of minute particles of plant and animal life that they are able to extract from the water. When the water was not clean or when sewage was turned into it, typhoid germs were transmitted to persons who took oysters as food. At present, there is scarcely any danger from such causes, for more care is now given to the conditions under which oysters grow. Ptomaine poisoning from oysters was caused by eating them when they had been improperly cared for in storage or had been taken from the shells after they were dead. Unless persons handling oysters know how to take care of them, this danger is still likely to exist.

86. PURCHASING OYSTERS.–To be able to purchase oysters intelligently, the housewife should be familiar with the names of the various kinds. These names are dependent on the locality from which the oysters come, and include _Blue Points, Cape Cods, Cotuits, Lynn Havens_, and numerous other varieties. It should be remembered that the varieties raised in different localities are quite distinctive, differing to some extent in both size and appearance. Unless the purchaser is familiar with the different varieties, almost any of the small oysters are likely to be sold to her for one of the small varieties and, likewise, any of the large oysters for one of the large varieties. While this is of small consequence, provided the quality is satisfactory and the price is right, it is well for every housewife to familiarize herself with the names of the various kinds, so that she may know just what variety she is purchasing.

87. When oysters are bought in the shell, they should be alive, a fact that can be determined by the tightly closed shell, as has already been stated. If the shells are not closed or can be easily pried apart, it may be known that the oysters are not good and that they should be rejected. When it is possible to procure them, oysters that have been removed from the shells immediately after being taken from the beds are preferable to those which have not been removed from the shells before shipping. When purchased out of the shells, oysters should be grayish in color, should have no disagreeable odor, and should contain no excess water or liquid. After being purchased, oysters should be kept on ice unless they can be cooked at once.

The season for oysters is from September to April, inclusive. While in some localities they can be purchased at other times during the year, they are not likely to be so good. In fact, it is not safe to use oysters during the warm months.

88. IMPORTANT POINTS IN COOKING OYSTERS.–The protein of oysters, like that found in other foods, is coagulated by heat. Long heat, provided it is sufficiently intense, makes oysters tough, and in this condition they are neither agreeable to eat nor readily digested. When they are to be cooked at a high temperature, therefore, the cooking should be done quickly. If they are to be cooked at a temperature below the boiling point, they may be subjected to heat for a longer time without becoming so tough as when a high temperature is used. Cooking quickly at a high temperature, however, is preferable in most cases to long, slow cooking. For example, in the preparation of oyster stew, long cooking produces no better flavor than short cooking at a high temperature and renders oysters far less digestible.

[Illustration: FIG. 26]

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

89. OPENING OYSTERS.–Unless oysters are bought already opened, it becomes necessary to open them in the home before they can be served raw or cooked. To open oysters is not difficult, and with a little experience the work can be done with ease. It will be well to note that the two shells of an oyster, which are called _valves_, are held together by a single muscle, known as the _adductor muscle_, that lies near the center, and that this muscle must be cut before the shell will open readily. Before attempting to open oysters, however, they should be scrubbed with clean water, so as to remove any sand that may be on the shells. When the oysters are cleaned, proceed to open them in the manner shown in Figs. 26 and 27. First, as in Fig. 26, insert the point of a knife into the hinged, or pointed, end and push the blade between the valves until they appear to separate, when it will be known that the muscle has been cut. Then, as in Fig. 27, lay the valves open and loosen the oyster from the shell by slipping the knife under it.

If the oysters that are being opened are to be cooked before serving, simply drop them with their liquid into a suitable vessel and discard the shells. Before using the oysters, remove them from the liquid, look them over carefully to see that no small particles of shells cling to them, and wash them in clean, cold water to remove any sand that may be present. Also, strain the liquid through a cloth, so that it will be free from sand when used in the preparation of the dish for which the oysters are to be used or for the making of soup or broth.

Oysters that are to be eaten raw are frequently served on the half shell. Therefore, if they are to be used in this way, place each oyster, as it is loosened in the process of opening, into the deeper shell, as Fig. 27 shows, and discard the other one. Very often good-looking oyster shells are saved in order that they may be used from time to time in serving raw oysters that are bought already opened.

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

90. RAW OYSTERS.–When an appetizer is desired in a meal that is to consist of several courses, raw oysters are often used for the first course. Oysters that are to be eaten raw may be served in the shells or removed from them. They are bland in flavor, however, and require some sharp, highly seasoned sauce in order to give them sufficient snap. The sauces commonly used for this purpose include cocktail sauce, chilli sauce, catsup, horseradish, and tobasco sauce. Sometimes, though, lemon juice or vinegar and pepper and salt are preferred to sauce. As a rule, crisp crackers, small squares of toast, or wafers and butter accompany raw oysters in any form, and sometimes celery and radishes are served, too.

91. When a cocktail sauce is served with raw oysters, they are generally referred to as OYSTER COCKTAILS. Two methods of serving these are in practice. In one, as shown in Fig. 28, the cocktail sauce is put into a small glass placed in the center of a soup plate filled with cracked ice, and the oysters, usually six in half shells, are arranged around the glass, on the ice. In the other, as shown in Fig. 29, the desired number of oysters that have been removed from the shells are dropped into a stemmed glass containing the cocktail sauce, and the glass is placed in a bowl of cracked ice. An _oyster fork_, which is a small, three-pronged fork, is always served with raw oysters, and usually a piece of lemon is supplied in addition to the cocktail sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 28]

[Illustration: FIG. 29]

92. OYSTER STEW.–If an extremely nutritious way of preparing oysters is desired, oyster stew should be selected. This is perhaps the simplest way in which to cook oysters, and yet care must be exercised in making this dish, for the oysters should not be cooked too long and the milk, which must be brought to the boiling point, should not be allowed to burn. Oyster stew makes an excellent dish for lunch. It should not be served as the first course of a heavy meal because of the large amount of nutriment it contains.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. oysters
1 qt. milk
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Pour 1 cupful of water over the oysters, look them over carefully, and remove any pieces of shell that may cling to the oysters, making sure that any particles of sand are washed off. Heat this liquid to the boiling point and then strain it through a cloth. Put the milk on the fire to heat, and when hot, add the butter, salt, and pepper, and strained liquid. After the whole mixture has come to the boiling point, pour in the oysters and cook until they look plump and the edges begin to curl. Remove from the heat and serve with crisp crackers.

93. CREAMED OYSTERS.–Another nutritious way in which to prepare oysters and at the same time produce a dish that is pleasing to most persons is to cream them. After being creamed, oysters may be served over toast or in timbale cases.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
24 oysters
1-1/2 c. medium white sauce
Salt and pepper
6 slices toast or 6 timbale cases

Melt the butter in a frying pan, add the oysters, and heat them in the butter until the edges begin to curl slightly. Pour the hot oysters into the hot white sauce, season to taste with salt and pepper, and serve over toast or in timbale cases.

94. SCALLOPED OYSTERS.–No food makes a more palatable scalloped dish than oysters. Oysters so prepared are liked by nearly every one, and the ingredients with which they are combined help to give such a dish balance so far as the food substances are concerned. Care should be taken, however, in the baking of scalloped oysters, for they are likely to become tough if they are cooked too long.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. bread crumbs
2 Tb. butter
1 c. cracker crumbs
1 pt. oysters
Salt and pepper
1 c. milk

Butter the bread crumbs with the butter, and then mix them with the cracker crumbs. Sprinkle the bottom of a greased baking dish with one-fourth of the crumbs, and over this put a layer of oysters that have been previously cleaned. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and add one-fourth more of the crumbs. Add another layer of oysters, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and place the remainder of the crumbs on top. Strain the liquid from the oysters through a piece of cloth, mix this with the milk, and pour over the dish thus prepared. Place in a hot oven, and bake until the mixture is thoroughly heated and the top is brown.

95. FRIED OYSTERS.–Of all the dishes prepared from oysters, fried oysters undoubtedly find favor with the greatest number of persons. However, unless care is taken in frying the oysters, they are likely to be somewhat indigestible. Deep fat should be used for this purpose, and it should be hot enough to brown a 1-inch cube of bread a golden brown in 40 seconds.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

24 large oysters
1 egg
1/4 c. milk
Fine cracker crumbs

Thoroughly dry the oysters by laying them on one end of a soft cloth and patting them with the other. Beat the egg and add the milk to it. Dip the oysters into the cracker crumbs, then into the egg-and-milk mixture, and again into the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until brown. Remove from the fat, drain well, and place on oiled paper. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and serve hot.

96. OYSTER PIE.–Baking oysters into a pie is another means of combining a protein food with foods that are high in other food substances. As oyster pie is somewhat hearty, it may be used as the main dish of a heavy meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. oysters
1 c. medium white sauce
Salt and pepper
Baking-powder biscuit dough

Cut each of the oysters into three or four pieces, and place them in a greased baking dish. Pour over them the hot white sauce and the juice from the oysters. Season with salt and pepper. Over the top, place a layer of the biscuit dough rolled about 1/4 inch thick. Set in a hot oven and bake until the crust is brown.

97. PIGS IN BLANKETS.–When something entirely different in the way of oysters is desired, pigs in blankets should be tried. This is a very good name for the dish given in the accompanying recipe, for the oysters are rolled up in a strip of bacon, which serves as a blanket. They are especially suitable for a light meal, such as luncheon or a dainty lunch that is to be served to company.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

18 large oysters
18 thin strips of bacon

After the oysters have been cleaned, roll each one in a strip of bacon. Fasten the bacon where the edges meet by running a toothpick through at this point. Place in a broiler and broil on one side until brown; then turn them and broil until the other side is brown. Serve hot.

98. OYSTER FRITTERS.–Variety may also be secured in the use of oysters by making oyster fritters. When such fritters are nicely browned and served with an appetizing sauce, an attractive as well as a tasty dish is the result.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. oysters
1 egg muffin batter

Clean the oysters and cut each into four or five pieces. Make a one-egg muffin batter and to it add the cut oysters. Drop the mixture by spoonfuls into deep fat and fry until brown. Remove from the fat, drain, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Serve with a desired sauce.


99. NATURE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF CLAMS.–Clams are bivalves similar to oysters in both form and composition. Because of the similarity in composition, they are utilized in much the same ways as oysters, being used extensively for food in parts of the country where the supply is large. There are numerous varieties of clams, and some of them differ slightly from each other in appearance, color, and flavor. Preference for the different varieties is largely a matter of individual taste.

Clams may be purchased loose or in the shell and they may be served in or out of the shell. However, when bought in the shell, they must be purchased alive and must be subjected to the same tests as are oysters. As in the case of oysters, they may be eaten raw or cooked. Their preparation for cooking is similar to that of oysters. In the raw state, they are easily digested, but upon the application of heat they become tough, and the longer they are cooked, the tougher they become. It can therefore be seen that the digestibility of clams is influenced very much by cooking.

100. OPENING CLAMS.–If clams are to be opened in the home, the method illustrated in Fig. 30 may be employed. First wash the clams to remove the sand, and then place a clam on a hard surface so that the pointed edge is up. Insert the thin edge of a knife into the very slight groove between the shells, or valves, and with a heavy utensil of some kind strike the top of the knife several times so as to separate the valves. Then, as in opening oysters, spread the shells apart, as shown, and loosen the clam from the shell it adheres to.

[Illustration: FIG. 30]

101. RAW CLAMS.–Like oysters, raw clams are generally served as a cocktail, or an appetizer, at the beginning of a meal. If they are to be served in the half shell, place them in a dish of cracked ice; if they are to be served without the shells, place the required number in a stemmed glass that is set in a dish of cracked ice. In either case, lemon or a suitable sauce, or both, should be supplied.

102. STEAMED CLAMS.–Steaming is the method generally adopted when clams in large numbers are cooked for a “clam bake,” but there is no reason why it cannot be used by the housewife when she wishes to cook only enough for her family. When large quantities are to be steamed, use is generally made of a steamer, but the housewife will find that she can steam a few clams very satisfactorily in a saucepan or a similar vessel.

To prepare steamed clams, scrub the shells of the clams until they are perfectly clean. Place the desired number thus cleaned in a saucepan and add enough water to cover the bottom of the pan about 1 inch. Allow this to cook until the shells of the clams open. Remove the clams from the pan and serve them in the shells. Provide each person with a small dish of melted butter into which to dip the clams as they are removed from the shells to be eaten. The liquid found in the clams may be poured from the shell before the clams are served, and after being well seasoned may be served as clam broth.

103. BAKED CLAMS.–Another very appetizing way in which to prepare clams is to combine them with bread crumbs, season them well, and then bake them until they are well browned. Select several good-sized clams for each person to be served. Scrub the shells well and open them. Remove the clams and chop them into small pieces. To each cupful of chopped clams, add 2 cupfuls of buttered bread crumbs, 1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley, 1 tablespoonful of chopped pimiento, and 1 tablespoonful of onion juice. Season the mixture with salt and pepper and fill the shells with it. Place these in a shallow pan and bake in a very hot oven until the crumbs are well browned on top. Serve hot.

104. FRIED CLAMS.–As oysters make a very desirable dish when fried in deep fat, so clams may be treated in this way, too. Remove the desired number of clams from the shells, wash them thoroughly, and dry them on a clean towel. Dip them into beaten egg, and finally into the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until they are a golden brown. Serve with slices of lemon.


105. NATURE OF SCALLOPS.–Scallops, which are another form of bivalves, are less commonly used for food than oysters and clams. Scalloped dishes get their name from the fact that scallop shells were originally used for their preparation. Not all of the scallop is used for food; merely the heavy muscle that holds the two shells together is edible. Scallops are slightly higher in protein than oysters and clams and they also have a higher food value than these two mollusks. The most common method of preparation for scallops is to fry them, but they may also be baked in the shells.

106. FRIED SCALLOPS.–If scallops are properly fried, they make an appetizing dish. As they are a rather bland food, a sauce of some kind, preferably a sour one, is generally served with them.

Select the desired number of scallops and wash thoroughly. Dip first into either fine bread crumbs or cracker crumbs, then into beaten egg, and again into the crumbs. Fry in deep fat until a golden brown, remove, and drain. Serve with lemon or a sour sauce, such as horseradish or tomato sauce.

107. BAKED SCALLOPS.–If a tasty as well as a slightly unusual dish is desired to give variety to the diet, baked scallops will undoubtedly find favor. As shown in the accompanying recipe, mushrooms are one of the ingredients in baked scallops and these not only provide additional material, but improve the flavor.

To prepare baked scallops, clean the desired number, parboil for 15 minutes, drain, and cut into small pieces. For each cupful of scallops, melt 2 tablespoonfuls of butter in a frying pan, sauté in it 1 tablespoonful of chopped onion, and add 1/2 cupful of chopped mushrooms. When these have browned, add 2 tablespoonfuls of flour and 1 cupful of milk. Cook until thick and then add the scallops. Fill the scallop shells with the mixture, sprinkle with buttered bread crumbs, place in the oven, and bake until the crumbs are brown.

* * * * *



108. The shell fish, LOBSTERS, CRABS, and SHRIMP, come under the head of crustaceans; that is, animals consisting of jointed sections, each of which is covered with a hard shell. Their flesh is similar in composition to that of other fish, but it is tougher and harder to digest. However, it is popular because of its unique and delicate flavor. In fact, whenever these varieties of fish can be obtained along the seacoast or within a reasonable distance from the place where they are caught, they are considered a delicacy. If they can be shipped alive to any point, they are perfectly safe to use, although quite high in price because of their perishable nature.

109. Unless such shell fish can be procured alive in the markets, the use of a good brand of any of them canned is recommended. In fact, canned lobster, crab, and shrimp are very satisfactory and may be substituted for any of the fresh cooked varieties in the recipes that follow. It is true that some persons object to canned food because ptomaine poisoning sometimes results, but it has been found that ptomaine poisoning is more liable to result from eating these foods when they are bought in the market in poor condition than when they are secured in canned form. Care must be exercised, however, whenever use is made of canned food of any kind. Upon opening a can of any of these varieties of fish, the entire contents should be removed from the can at once and used as soon as possible. It must be remembered that the ptomaine poisoning that is sometimes caused by eating canned foods is not due to the fact that the foods come in tin cans, but that they are allowed to stand in the cans after they are opened. Upon their being exposed to the air, putrefaction sets in and causes the harmful effect.

110. Lobsters, crabs, and shrimp are very similar in composition, shrimp being slightly higher in protein and total food value than the others. If they are not prepared in an indigestible way, they are comparatively easy to digest. It has been proved a fallacy that lobster and ice cream are a dangerous combination, for if both are in good condition they may be combined with no ill effects to the normal individual.


111. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES.–Of these three types of sea food, lobsters are perhaps the most popular. They are found along the North Atlantic and North Pacific seacoasts. Alive, they are mottled bluish-green in color, but upon being cooked they change to bright red. As soon as they are caught, many of them are packed in ice and shipped alive to various points, while others are plunged immediately into boiling water and sold cooked. A live lobster ready for cooking is shown in Fig. 31. Lobsters vary greatly in size. Only those 9 inches or more in length can be sold, the smaller ones being thrown back into the water. When they are purchased either raw or cooked, they should be heavy for their size; that is, they should be heavy because of their plumpness and good condition.

[Illustration: FIG. 31]

112. PRELIMINARY PREPARATION.–To prepare a lobster, which should be alive, grasp it firmly by the back, as shown in Fig. 32, plunge it quickly, head first, into a kettle of rapidly boiling water, and then submerge the rest of the body. Be sure to have a sufficient amount of water to cover the lobster completely. Boil rapidly for 5 minutes; then lower the flame or remove to a cooler part of the stove and cook slowly for 1/2 hour. Remove from the water and allow to cool.

After being prepared in this way, a lobster may be served cold or it may be used in the preparation of various made dishes. If it is to be used without further preparation, it is often served from the shell, which is usually split open. Mayonnaise or some other sauce is generally served with lobster. The flesh is removed from the shell with a small fork as it is eaten.

[Illustration: FIG. 32]

113. REMOVING LOBSTER FROM THE SHELL.–The majority of the dishes made from lobster require that the flesh be removed from the shell. To do this, first pull off the two large claws and the four pairs of small claws, as shown in Fig. 33, and break the tail from the body. Then with scissors, as in Fig. 34, cut a single slit the entire length of the shell covering the under part of the tail and remove the flesh inside the tail in a whole, large piece, as shown in Fig. 35. The intestinal tract, which can be readily observed, will be found embedded in this piece and running the entire length. Slash the flesh and remove it. Next remove the flesh of the body from the shell, retaining only that part which appears to be fibrous, like the flesh of the tail. The stomach, which is called “the lady” because its inside appearance closely resembles a lady sitting in a chair, should not be removed from the shell. However, care should be taken to obtain all the flesh surrounding the bones in the bony part of the lobster. The coral substance, that is, the roe of the lobster, should also be removed, as it can be used for a garnish.

[Illustration FIG. 33]

[Illustration: FIG. 34]

With the flesh removed from the shell, proceed to take out that contained in the claws. Break open the large claws, using a nut cracker or a small hammer for this purpose, and, as in Fig. 36, remove the flesh that they contain. If the small claws are to be used for a garnish, as is often done, remove the flesh without breaking them; otherwise break them as in the case of the large ones.

[Illustration: FIG. 35]

114. LOBSTER COCKTAIL.–Practically all varieties of shell fish make most satisfactory cocktails, and lobster is no exception. To make a lobster cocktail, shred or cut into small pieces the flesh of a lobster that has been prepared according to the directions just given. Chill the shreds or pieces and then serve them in stemmed cocktail glasses with any desirable cocktail sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 36]

115. SCALLOPED LOBSTER.–Persons who care for the flavor of lobster will find scalloped lobster a very attractive dish. When prepared in this way, it is suitable either for luncheon or for dinner.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. lobster meat
1 c. medium white sauce
2/3 c. buttered bread crumbs
1 hard-cooked egg

Mix the lobster with the medium white sauce. Butter a baking dish, place half of the crumbs in the bottom, and pour over them the lobster and white sauce. Slice the hard-cooked egg over the top of the lobster, season the whole well with salt and pepper, and sprinkle the remainder of the crumbs over the top. Place in a hot oven and bake until the crumbs are brown. Garnish with sprays of parsley and serve at once.

116. DEVILED LOBSTER.–A dish that is delicious and at the same time very attractive is deviled lobster. After removing the flesh from the shell, the shell should be cleaned thoroughly, as it is to be used as a receptacle in which to put the lobster mixture for baking. When removed from the oven, this dish can be made more attractive by garnishing it with the lobster claws and tail.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 Tb. chopped onion
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
Dash of Cayenne pepper
1/8 tsp. paprika
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 Tb. lemon juice
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1 c. milk
2 c. lobster meat
1/4 c. buttered cracker crumbs

Sauté the onion in the butter, and to this add the flour, salt, Cayenne pepper, paprika, pepper, lemon juice, and parsley. Mix well and add the milk. When the whole has cooked until it is thick, add the lobster. Pour the mixture into the clean shell of the lobster, sprinkle with cracker crumbs, and place in the oven long enough to brown the crumbs. Remove from the oven, place on a serving dish, garnish with the claws and tail of the lobster, if desired, and serve at once.

117. LOBSTER À LA NEWBURG.–When lobster à la Newburg is mentioned, one naturally thinks of a chafing dish, for this is one of the dishes that is very often made in a chafing dish and served at small social gatherings. However, it can be made just as satisfactorily on the kitchen stove and is a dish suitable for a home luncheon or small dinner.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
1 Tb. flour
2 c. lobster
1/2 tsp. salt
Few grains of Cayenne pepper
1/2 c. milk
1/2 c. thin cream
1 tsp. vinegar
1 Tb. lemon juice
2 egg yolks

Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, and into this pour the lobster meat cut into rather large pieces. Add the salt, pepper, milk, and cream; cook together until thick, and then pour in the vinegar and lemon juice. Beat the egg yolks and stir them into the cooked mixture, using care to prevent them from curdling. When the mixture has thickened, remove from the stove and serve over toast.

118. LOBSTER CROQUETTES.–Probably the most attractive dish that can be made out of lobster is the one explained in the accompanying recipe. As this is artistically garnished, and at the same time extremely appetizing, it is suitable for a meal that is intended to be very nice, such as a dainty luncheon. If the elaborate garnishing here suggested is not desired, the croquettes may be served with merely a suitable sauce.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. thick white sauce
2 eggs
2 c. diced lobster meat
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
Fine bread crumbs

Prepare the white sauce and allow it to cool. Add one beaten egg and the lobster meat. Season with the salt and pepper. Shape into croquettes, roll in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and fry in deep fat until an even brown. Drain, stick a lobster claw into the end of each, and arrange on a platter with the claws around the outside. Pour a medium white sauce over the opposite ends and the centers of the croquettes and over this sprinkle the lobster coral and hard-cooked egg yolks, which have been forced through a sieve. In the center of the platter, arrange a small mound of parsley and one of the large claws of the lobster.


119. NATURE OF CRABS.–Numerous varieties of crabs are obtained along the seashores of the United States, and most of them measure not more than 5 or 6 inches across. Shell fish in this form are used for food both before the shells have hardened, when they are known as _soft-shelled crabs_, and after the shells have grown hard, when they are called _hard-shelled crabs_. To be at their best, crabs should be as heavy as lobsters in proportion to their size. Their flesh should be firm and stiff and their eyes should be bright. The male crab has a smaller body and longer claws than the female. In food value, crabs are quite similar to lobsters.

Tiny _oyster crabs_ are found in the shells of crabs as well as in oysters. These are considered a great delicacy and are used chiefly for garnishing, because they are very small and, as a rule, are not found in large numbers.

120. PRELIMINARY PREPARATION.–Before either soft-shelled or hard-shelled crabs can be used as food, a certain amount of preparation is necessary. In the case of hard-shelled crabs, plunge them alive into hot water, allow them to come to the boiling point, and cook slowly for 1/2 hour. It is a good plan to add 1 tablespoonful of salt for each crab that is being boiled. While the crabs are cooking, remove the scum that rises to the top. When they are sufficiently cooked, open the shells and take out the meat, being careful to remove all the meat from the claws.

Soft-shelled crabs require a somewhat different kind of preparation. With this variety, lift up the points on each side of the back shell and remove the spongy substance that is found under them. In addition, take off the apron, which is the small piece that occurs at the lower part of the shell and that terminates in points. The crabs are then ready for frying, which is the method of cooking that is usually applied to this variety.

121. CRAB-FLAKE COCKTAIL.–Crab meat is used for cocktails in the same way as oysters, clams, and lobster. In fact, no better appetizer to serve at the beginning of a meal can be found. To make crab-flake cocktail, remove the meat from the shells of cooked hard-shelled crabs in the way just explained, and chill it. Then place it in stemmed glasses and serve with cocktail sauce.

122. DEVILED CRABS.–Variety in the cooking of hard-shelled crabs can be secured by deviling them according to the accompanying directions. As will be observed, this is done in practically the same way that lobster is deviled.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 Tb. butter
4 crabs
1 c. cream sauce
1 Tb. onion juice
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash Cayenne pepper
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 egg
Cracker crumbs

Put the butter in a frying pan, add the meat from the four crabs, and pour into this the cream sauce. Season with the onion juice, salt, Cayenne pepper, and pepper. Add the well-beaten egg and allow the mixture to cook until the egg has thickened, being careful not to let it curd. Fill the back shells of the crabs with this mixture, sprinkle with cracker crumbs, place in a hot oven, and bake until brown. Serve hot or cold.

123. FRIED SOFT-SHELLED CRABS.–After soft-shelled crabs are prepared in the manner explained in Art. 120, they are usually fried in deep fat. Egg and cracker dust or flour are used to make a coating for the crabs.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

4 soft-shelled crabs
1 egg
Cracker dust or flour
Salt and pepper

Prepare the crabs by removing the apron and the spongy substance under the shell of each crab. Beat the egg slightly. Roll the crabs first in the egg and then in the cracker dust or the flour. Fry in hot, deep fat until a golden brown. Remove from the fat, drain, and sprinkle well with salt and pepper to season. Serve hot or cold.

124. CREAMED CRAB MEAT.–When the meat of hard-shelled crabs is creamed, it makes a very dainty dish, especially if it is served over toast or in timbale cases. To give a touch of color and at the same time add a little flavor, chopped pimiento is generally added.

Boil the desired number of hard-shelled crabs and remove the meat from the shells. For each cupful of crab meat, prepare 1 cupful of medium white sauce. Add the crab meat, season well, and, if desired, add some chopped pimiento. Serve hot over toast or in timbale cases.


125. NATURE OF SHRIMP.–Shrimp are similar to crabs and lobsters in composition and in the methods of preparation. They differ considerably in appearance, however, and are smaller in size. When alive, shrimp are a mottled greenish color, but upon being dropped into boiling-hot water they turn red. When they have cooked sufficiently, the meat, which is very delicious, may be easily removed from the shells. After the meat of shrimp is thus prepared, it may be used cold in a salad or a cocktail or it may be utilized in a number of ways for hot dishes. Very often a chafing dish is used in the preparation of such dishes, but this utensil is not necessary, as they may be cooked in an ordinary utensil on a stove of any kind.

[Illustration: FIG. 37]

126. CREAMED SHRIMP.–The usual way of preparing shrimp is to cook it with mushrooms and then serve it over toast, or, as shown in Fig. 37, in timbale cases. Creamed shrimp is dainty in appearance, pleasing to the taste, and highly nutritious.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. medium white sauce
1 c. diced shrimp
1 c. chopped mushrooms
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Heat the white sauce, and to it add the shrimp, mushrooms, salt, and pepper. Beat a little butter into the mixture to improve the flavor, heat, and serve in timbale cases, as shown, or over toast.

127. SHRIMP À LA SALLE.–Shrimp also makes an appetizing and attractive dish when combined with tomato and green pepper. The accompanying recipe gives directions for the preparation of such a dish, which is called shrimp à La Salle.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
1 c. shredded shrimp
1 c. stewed tomato
1 small green pepper, chopped
1 Tb. chopped onion
1 tsp. celery salt
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Brown the butter in a saucepan and add the shrimp, tomato, green pepper, onion, celery salt, salt, and pepper. Heat all together thoroughly, and serve over toast.


128. The various kinds of shell fish are served so frequently as cocktails that cocktail sauces are much in demand. The foundation of these sauces is always tomato catsup, but the ingredients used for seasoning usually vary according to individual taste. The following recipes make amounts sufficient for one serving:


1/4 tsp. grated horseradish
Juice of 1/4 lemon
12 drops tobasco sauce
10 drops Worcestershire sauce
1 Tb. tomato catsup


1 Tb. tomato catsup
1 Tb. grapefruit juice
1 tsp. spiced vinegar
Dash of tobasco sauce
Sprinkling of salt
Dusting of chopped parsley

Mix the ingredients thoroughly and serve with oysters, clams, lobster, shrimp, or crab meat thoroughly chilled.



(1) (_a_) For what food may fish be substituted in the diet? (_b_) How does fish compare with meat as to its usefulness as food?

(2) (_a_) What food substances are present in fish? (_b_) How does the food value of fish compare with that of meat?

(3) (_a_) Discuss the digestibility of fish. (_b_) How does the salting of fish for preservation affect its digestibility?

(4) How does the housewife’s purchase of fish affect the market price?

(5) What methods of cookery should be used in preparing: (_a_) large fish? (_b_) small fish?

(6) Mention the tests for determining the freshness of fish.

(7) Discuss the care of fish in the home.

(8) Give the steps in the preparation of a fish for cooking.

(9) Give the steps in the boning of a fish.

(10) (_a_) What are fillets? (_b_) Tell briefly how fillets are obtained.

(11) Why are sauces frequently served with fish?

(12) (_a_) What is larding? (_b_) How may fish be larded? (_c_) For what purpose is larding done?

(13) How may salt fish be freshened?

(14) (_a_) Mention the shell fish. (_b_) Discuss their usefulness in the diet.

(15) What precautions should be taken in the purchase of shell fish?

(16) Discuss the composition and food value of shell fish.

(17) Compare the composition of milk with that of oysters.

(18) (_a_) What is the season for oysters? (_b_) How are oysters opened?

(19) (_a_) How are clams opened? (_b_) What is the effect of long cooking on clams?

(20) (_a_) How are lobsters prepared? (_b_) Mention the two kinds of crabs. (_c_) How do these differ?


Mention the varieties of fish most common in your local market.

Compare the cost of a sufficient amount of fish to serve your family with the cost of beef and either veal or lamb served to the same number of persons at other times. Submit your results.

* * * * *



Adductor muscle of an oyster,
American forcemeat balls,
Apples, Bacon with sliced,
Cold pork with fried,
Asparagus soup, Cream of,


and eggs,
Calves’ liver and,
combined with cereals,
combined with other foods,
with sliced apples,
with tomatoes,
Baked clams,
fillet of whitefish,
finnan haddie,
poultry with rice,
Balls, American forcemeat,
Bass, Food value and composition of black, Basting of meat,
Batter, Timbale-case,
Béchamel, Chicken,
Boiled corned,
Composition and food value of,
Cooking of,
Cuts of,
Fillet of,
for stewing and coming, Cuts of,
General characteristics of,
loaf, Recipe for,
loin, Steaks obtained from,
organs and their preparation,
Preparation of stews and corned,
Tenderloin of,
Beefsteak, Broiled,
Beefsteaks and their preparation,
Birds, Preparation of small,
Roast small,
Biscuits, Creamed veal on,
Blue points,
Bluefish, Composition and food value of, Bob veal,
Boiled cod,
corned beef,
Boiler, Fish,
Boiling, Cooking meat by,
Bone stock,
Boned chicken,
Boning a chicken,
a fish,
Braized beef,
beef, Recipe for,
Bread sticks,
Broiled beefsteak,
fresh mackerel,
pork, Sautéd or,
scrod with potato border,
shad roe,
venison, Sauce for,
Broilers, Composition and food value of, Broiling, cooking meat by,
Brown sauce, Veal cutlets in,
Buying meats, Points to consider in,


Cabbage, Scalloped pork and,
Calves’ liver and bacon,
Canned fish in the diet,
Cape Cods,
Carbohydrate in fish,
in meat,
Care, nature, and use of stock pot, of fish in the home,
of meat,
of meat in the home,
of meat in the market,
Carp, Composition and food value of, Carving meat, Serving and,
poultry, Serving and,
Casserole, Chicken en,
Catfish, Composition and food value of, Caul,
Celery and radishes,
Cereals, Bacon combined with,
Chestnut purée,
Chicken à la king,
broilers, Composition and food value of, Crop of a,
Cutting up a,
Definition of,
Determining the age of,
Determining the freshness of,
Drawing a,
Dressing a,
en casserole,
feet, Preparing,
Fricassee of,
General marks of good quality in,
Gravy for fried,
Maryland fried,
Plucking a,
Poultry other than,
Preparation of,
salad, Mock,
Selection of,
Singeing a,
stew with dumplings or noodles,
with paprika sauce, Fried,
with rice,
Chickens, Live,
Chops in tomato sauce, pork,
Lamb and mutton,
Chowder, Clam,
Chuck roasts,
Clam chowder,
Clams, and scallops, Oysters,
Composition and food value of,
Nature and digestibility of,
Opening of,
Preparation of,
Classes of soup, General,
of soups denoting consistency,
Classification of poultry,
of soups,
Cleaning fish,
Clear soup or bouillon, Stock for,
soups and stocks,
Clearing soup,
Cocktail, Crab-flake,
Cod, Boiled,
Codfish balls,
Cold pork with fried apples,
-storage poultry,
Comparison of fish and meat, Table showing the, of fish with meat,
of mutton and lamb,
Composition and food value of beef, and food value of black bass,
and food value of bluefish,
and food value of canned salmon,
and food value of carp,
and food value of catfish,
and food value of chicken broilers, and food value of clams,
and food value of crabs,
and food value of fowl,
and food value of halibut steak,
and food value of lake trout,
and food value of lamb,
and food value of leg of lamb,
and food value of lobsters,
and food value of mutton,
and food value of oysters,
and food value of pork,
and food value of pork chops,
and food value of red snapper,
and food value of scallops,
and food value of shell fish,
and food value of shell fish, Tables showing, and food value of veal,
and food value of whitefish,
and structure of meat,
of fish,
of oysters,
of poultry,
Connective tissue,
Cooking meat for soup,
meat, Methods of,
meat, Purposes of,
meat, Time required for,
meats, Time table for,
of beef,
of fish,
of giblets,
of mutton and lamb,
of pork,
of poultry,
Cooking of veal,
oysters, Important points in,
Preparing rabbit for,
Corn chowder,
soup, Cream of,
Corned beef,
beef, Boiled,
beef, Preparation of stews and,
Cottage pie,
Crab, Deviled,
flake cocktail,
meat, Creamed,
Crabs, and shrimp, General characteristics of lobsters, Composition and food value of,
Fried soft-shelled,
Nature of,
Preliminary preparation of,
Preparation of,
Cracker stuffing,
Cream-of-asparagus soup,
of-corn soup,
of-onion soup,
of-pea soup,
of-potato soup,
of-spinach soup,
of-tomato soup,
sauce, Lemon,
Creamed codfish,
crab meat,
finnan haddie,
fish in potato nest,
salmon with rice,
tuna fish,
veal on biscuits,
Crop of a chicken,
Frying of,
Crown roast of lamb,
roast of pork,
Cured pork, Preparation of,
Curry, Chicken,
Cutlets in brown sauce, Veal,
Pan-broiled veal steak or,
Cutlets, Veal steaks or,
Cuts, Names and uses of beef,
Names of pork,
obtained from a side of beef and their uses, Table of, of beef,
of beef for stewing and corning,
of beef, Method of obtaining,
of beef, Table of,
of beef, Uses of,
of mutton and lamb, Distinguishing features of, of mutton and lamb, Method of obtaining, of mutton and lamb, Names and uses of,
of mutton and lamb, Table of,
of pork,
of pork, Uses of,
of veal and their uses,
Preparation of veal,
Table of pork,
Table of veal,
Cutting up a chicken,


Deep-fat frying, Principles of,
Delmonico steak,
Deviled crab,
Diet, Canned fish in the,
Fish in the,
Meat in the,
Salt and smoked fish in the,
Digestibility of clams, Nature and, of fish,
of oysters,
Drawing a chicken,
Drawn-butter sauce,
Dressing a chicken,
for salmon mold,
Dry plucking,
Duck, Liver stuffing for,
Peanut stuffing for roast,
Preparation of,
Ducks, Selection of,
or noodles, Chicken stew with,


Economic value of soup,
Economy in the purchase of poultry, Eel, Fried,
Egg balls,
Egg sauce,
Eggs and bacon,
in meat,
Extracts, Meat,


Fat in fish,
in meat,
Trying out suet and other,
Feathers, Pin,
Feeding and care on quality of poultry, Influence of, Fillet, Broiled,
of beef,
of flounder,
of venison, Roast,
of whitefish, Baked,
Filleting fish,
Finnan haddie, Baked,
haddie, Creamed,
First soup stock,
and meat, Relative nutritive value of, and meat, Table showing the comparison of, Baked,
Boning a,
Carbohydrate in,
Composition and food value of shell, Composition of,
Cooking of,
Creamed tuna,
Digestibility of,
Fat in,
Food value of,
Freshness of,
in potato nest, Creamed,
in the diet,
in the diet, Canned,
in the diet, Salt and smoked,
in the home, Care of,
Mineral matter in,
Protein in,
Purchase of,
Sauces for,
Scaling a,
Seasons for shell,
Stuffing for,
Table showing composition and food value of shell, Table showing the names, seasons, and uses of fresh, Table showing names, seasons, and uses of salt and smoked, Table showing seasons for shell,
with meat, Comparison of,
Flat-bone steak,
Flavoring stock,
Flounder, Fillet of,
Food, Poultry as a,
suitable for the stock pot,
value and composition of beef,
value and composition of black bass, value and composition of bluefish,
value and composition of canned salmon, value and composition of carp,
value and composition of catfish,
value and composition of chicken broilers, value and composition of clams,
value and composition of crabs,
value and composition of fowl,
value and composition of halibut steak, value and composition of lake trout,
value and composition of lamb,
value and composition of leg of lamb, value and composition of lobsters,
value and composition of mutton,
value and composition of oysters,
value and composition of pork,
value and composition of pork chops, value and composition of red snapper,
value and composition of scallops, value and composition of veal,
value and composition of whitefish, value of fish,
value of fish, Factors determining, Value of meat as,
value of shell fish, Composition and, value of shell fish, Tables showing composition and, Forcemeat balls,
Fore quarter of veal,
Fork, Oyster,
Fowl, Composition and food value of, Definition of,
Fowls, Selection of guinea,
Fresh fish, Table showing the names, seasons, and uses of, herring, Stewed,
mackerel, Broiled,
pork, Preparation of,
Freshening salt and smoked fish,
Freshness of fish,
Fricassee of chicken,
Fricasseeing applied to meat and fowl, Fried apples, Cold pork with,
chicken, Gravy for,
chicken, Maryland,
chicken with paprika sauce,
soft-shelled crabs,
Fritters, Oyster,
Frizzled beef,
Frying and sautéing applied to meat, chicken,
of croquettes,
Principles of deep-fat,


Gall bladder,
Game, Definition of,
General description of,
Garnishes, Soup accompaniments and, Geese, Selection of,
Gelatine in meat,
Giblets, Cooking of,
of a chicken,
Glycogen, or muscle sugar,
Goose, Preparation of,
Gravy for fried chicken,
Green-pepper stuffing,
Guinea fowls, Selection of,

Haddock, Baked,
Halibut, Baked,
steak, Composition and food value of, steak, Sautéd,
baked in milk,
Hamburger steak,
Hard-shelled crabs,
Hash, Beef,
Healthfulness of oysters,
Heart, Stuffed,
Heavy thick soups,
Herring, Stewed fresh,
Hind quarter of veal,
Hip-bone steak,
Home, Care of fish in the,
Horseradish sauce,
Household stock,


Individual lamb pies,
Influence of feeding and care on quality of poultry, Iron, Timbale,


Jellied chicken,
veal, Left-over,
Julienne soup,


Keeping stock,


Lake trout, Composition and food value of, Lamb,
and mutton chops,
and mutton cuts, Distinguishing features of, and mutton cuts, Names and uses of,
and mutton, Left-over,
and mutton stews,
Comparison of mutton and,
Composition and food value of,
Cooking of mutton and,
Crown roast of,
cuts, Method of obtaining mutton and, cuts, Table of mutton and,
Food value and composition of leg of, on toast, Minced,
or mutton, Scalloped,
pies, Individual,
Rack of,
Roast leg of,
Saddle of,
Lard, Leaf,
Leaf lard,
Left-over beef,
-over fish,
-over Jellied veal,
-over lamb and mutton,
-over Pork,
-over Poultry,
-over veal,
Leg of venison, Roast,
Lemon cream sauce,
Live chickens,
Liver and bacon,
stuffing for roast duck,
Loaf, beef,
Lobster à la Newburg,
from the shell, Removing,
Lobsters, Composition and food value of, crabs and shrimp,
Distinguishing features of,
Preparation of,
Loin, Steaks obtained from beef,
Lynn Havens,


Mackerel, Broiled fresh,
Sautéd salt,
Making gravy,
Market, Preparation of poultry for, Maryland fried chicken,
Meaning and use of soup stock,
Meat as food, Value of,
Basting of,
Carbohydrate in,
Care of,
Comparison of fish with,
Cooking of,
Meat, Creamed crab,
cuts, Names and uses of,
Definition of,
Extractives in,
Fat in,
Gelatine in,
in the diet,
in the home, Care of,
in the market, Care of,
Methods of cooking,
Minerals in,
preparations, Sausages and,
Protein in,
Purchase of,
Purposes of cooking,
Relative nutritive value of fish and, Serving and carving of,