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The preparation of roast turkey does not differ materially from the method given for the preparation of roast chicken. After the turkey is cleaned, drawn, and prepared according to the directions previously given, rub the inside of the cavity with salt and pepper. Then stuff with any desirable stuffing, filling the cavity and also the space under the skin of the neck where the crop was removed. Then sew up the opening, draw the skin over the neck and tie it, and truss the turkey by forcing the tip of each wing back of the first wing joint in a triangular shape and tying both ends of the legs to the tail. When thus made ready, place the turkey in the roasting pan so that the back rests on the pan and the legs are on top. Then dredge with flour, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and place in a hot oven. When its surface is well browned, reduce the heat and baste every 15 minutes until the turkey is cooked. This will usually require about 3 hours, depending, of course, on the size of the bird. For basting, melt 4 tablespoonfuls of butter or bacon fat in 1/2 cupful of boiling water. Pour this into the roasting pan. Add water when this evaporates, and keep a sufficient amount for basting. Turn the turkey several times during the roasting, so that the sides and back, as well as the breast, will be browned. When the turkey can be easily pierced with a fork, remove it from the roasting pan, cut the strings and pull them out, place on a platter, garnish, and serve. Gravy to be served with roast turkey may be made in the manner mentioned for making gravy to be served with fried chicken.

56. ROAST DUCK.–While young duck is often broiled, the usual method of preparing this kind of poultry is by roasting; in fact, roasting is an excellent way in which to cook duck that is between the broiling age and full maturity.

57. Duck is roasted in practically the same way as chicken or turkey. In the case of a _young duck_, or _spring duck_, however, stuffing is not used. After it is drawn and cleaned, truss it by folding back the wings and tying the ends of the legs to the tail, so as to give it a good appearance when served. Season with salt and pepper and dredge with flour, and, over the breast, to prevent it from burning, place strips of bacon or salt pork. When thus made ready, put the duck in a roasting pan, pour in 1/2 cupful of water, and cook it in a hot oven until it is very tender, basting it about every 15 minutes during the roasting. About 15 minutes before the roasting is done, remove the strips of bacon or pork, so as to permit the breast underneath them to brown. Serve on a platter with a garnish. Make gravy if desired.

58. In the case of an _old duck_, proceed as for roasting chicken or turkey; that is, draw, clean, stuff, and truss it. In addition, place strips of bacon or salt pork over its breast. Place it in a roasting pan, pour 1/2 cupful of water into the pan, and put it in a hot oven. During the roasting baste the duck every 15 minutes; also, as in roasting a young duck, remove the bacon or salt pork in plenty of time to permit the part underneath to brown. When the surface is well browned and the meat may be easily pierced with a fork, place the duck on a platter, remove the strings used to sew it up, garnish, and serve. Make gravy if desired.

59. ROAST GOOSE.–Specific directions for roasting goose are not given, because the methods differ in no way from those already given for roasting duck. Very young goose, or green goose, is usually roasted without being stuffed, just as young duck. Older goose, however, is stuffed, trussed, and roasted just as old duck. A very old goose may be placed in a roasting pan and steamed until it is partly tender before roasting. Apples in some form or other are commonly served with goose. For example, rings of fried apple may be used as a garnish, or apple sauce or stewed or baked apples may be served as an accompaniment. Make gravy if desired.

60. ROAST SMALL BIRDS.–Such small birds as guinea fowl, partridge, pheasant, quail, etc. may be roasted if desired, but on account of being so small they are seldom filled with stuffing. To roast such poultry, first clean, draw, and truss them. Then lard them with strips of bacon or salt pork, and place in a roasting pan in a very hot oven. During the roasting, turn them so as to brown all sides; also, baste every 15 minutes during the roasting with the water that has been poured into the roasting pan. Continue the roasting until the flesh is very soft and the joints can be easily pulled apart. Serve with a garnish. Make gravy if desired.

61. STUFFING FOR ROAST POULTRY.–As has been mentioned, stuffing, or dressing, of some kind is generally used when poultry is roasted. Therefore, so that the housewife may be prepared to vary the stuffing she uses from time to time, recipes for several kinds are here given. Very often, instead of using the giblets for gravy, they are cooked in water and then chopped and added to the stuffing. Giblets are not included in the recipes here given, but they may be added if desired. The quantities stated in these recipes are usually sufficient for a bird of average size; however, for a smaller or a larger bird the ingredients may be decreased or increased accordingly.


4 c. dry bread crumbs
1/2 c. butter
1 small onion
1 beaten egg
1 tsp. salt
1 tsp. celery salt, or 1/2 tsp. celery seed 1/4 tsp. powdered sage (if desired)
1/4 tsp. pepper

Pour a sufficient amount of hot water over the bread crumbs to moisten them well. Melt the butter and allow it to brown slightly. Add the onion, chopped fine, to the butter and pour this over the bread crumbs. Add the beaten egg, salt, celery salt, and other seasonings, mix thoroughly, and stuff into the bird.


3 c. cracker crumbs
1 small onion (if desired)
1/3 c. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. powdered sage (if desired) 1/4 tsp. pepper

Moisten the cracker crumbs with hot milk or water until they are quite soft. Brown the chopped onion with the butter and pour over the crackers. Add the seasonings, mix thoroughly, and stuff into the bird.


3 c. dry bread crumbs
1/4 c. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 c. oysters
| c. chopped celery

Moisten the bread crumbs with a sufficient amount of hot water to make them quite soft. Brown the butter slightly and add it, with the seasonings, to the bread. Mix with this the oysters and chopped celery. Stuff into the bird.


1 pt. blanched chestnuts
1 pt. bread crumbs
1/4 c. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. chopped parsley

Blanch the chestnuts in boiling water to remove the dark skin that covers them. Cook them until they are quite soft, and then chop them or mash them. Moisten the bread crumbs with hot water and add the chestnuts. Brown the butter slightly and pour it over the mixture. Add the seasonings and chopped parsley and stuff.


1 qt. dried bread crumbs
1 c. stewed tomatoes
1/4 c. melted butter
2 Tb. bacon fat
1 small onion, chopped
1/4 c. finely chopped green pepper
2 Tb. chopped parsley
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper

Moisten the bread crumbs with the stewed tomatoes and add a sufficient amount of hot water to make the crumbs quite soft. Melt the butter and bacon fat, add the onion, green pepper, and the seasonings, and pour over the crumbs. Mix thoroughly and stuff.


2 c. steamed rice
2 c. bread crumbs
1 c. stewed tomatoes
1/4 c. chopped pimiento
2 Tb. chopped parsley
1 small onion, chopped
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1/4 c. butter
4 small strips bacon, diced and fried brown

Mix the steamed rice with the bread crumbs. Add the stewed tomatoes, pimiento, chopped parsley, chopped onion, salt, pepper, melted butter, bacon and bacon fat, and a sufficient amount of hot water to moisten the whole well. Mix thoroughly and stuff.


1 pt. cracker crumbs
1 c. shelled peanuts, finely chopped 1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of Cayenne pepper
1/4 c. butter
Hot milk

Mix the crumbs and the chopped peanuts. Add the salt, pepper, and Cayenne pepper, and pour over them the melted butter and a sufficient amount of hot milk to soften the whole. Stuff into the duck.


1 duck liver
1/4 c. butter
1 small onion, chopped
2 c. dry bread crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1 egg

Chop the liver and sauté in the butter to which has been added the chopped onion. Pour over the bread crumbs. Then add the salt, pepper, finely chopped parsley, and the beaten egg. Pour over all a sufficient amount of water to moisten well. Stuff into the duck.


62. To offer variety in the serving of chicken, as well as to present an easily carved bird, the process known as _boning_ is often resorted to. Boning, as will be readily understood, consists in removing the flesh from the bones before the bird is cooked. Boned chicken may be prepared by roasting or broiling. In either case, the cookery process is the same as that already given for poultry that is not boned. If it is to be roasted, the cavity that results from the removal of the bones and internal organs should be filled with stuffing or forcemeat, so that the bird will appear as if nothing had been removed. If it is to be broiled, stuffing is not necessary. Cooked boned chicken may be served either hot or cold. Of course, other kinds of poultry may be boned if desired, and if the directions here given for boning chicken are thoroughly learned no difficulty will be encountered in performing this operation on any kind. Boning is not a wasteful process as might be supposed, because after the flesh is removed from the bones, they may be used in the making of soup.

[Illustration: FIG. 31]

[Illustration: FIG. 32]

[Illustration: FIG. 33]

[Illustration: FIG. 34]

[Illustration: FIG. 35]

[Illustration: FIG. 36]

[Illustration: FIG. 37]

63. Before proceeding to bone a chicken, singe it, pull out the pin feathers, cut off the head, remove the tendons from the legs, and take out the crop through the neck. The bird may be drawn or not before boning it, but in any event care must be taken not to break any part of the skin. With these matters attended to, wash the skin well and wipe it carefully. First, cut off the legs at the first joint, and, with the point of a sharp knife, as shown in Fig. 31, loosen the skin and muscles just above the joint by cutting around the bone. Cut the neck off close to the body, as in Fig. 32. Then, starting at the neck, cut the skin clear down the back to the tail, as in Fig. 33. [Illustration: FIG. 38] Begin on one side, and scrape the flesh, with the skin attached to it, from the back bone, as in Fig. 34. When the shoulder blade is reached, push the flesh from it with the fingers, as in Fig. 35, until the wing joint is reached. Disjoint the wing where it is attached to the body, as in Fig. 36, and loosen the skin from the wing bone down to the second joint. Disjoint the bone here and remove it up to this place, as Fig. 37 illustrates. The remaining bone is left in the tip of the wing to give it shape. When the bone from one wing is removed, turn the chicken around and remove the bone from the other wing. Next, start at the back, separating the flesh from the ribs, as in Fig. 38, taking care not to penetrate into the side cavity of the chicken, provided it has not [Illustration: FIG. 39] been drawn. Push the flesh down to the thigh, as in Fig. 39, disjoint the bone here, and remove it down to the second joint, as in Fig. 40. Disjoint the bone at the other joint, and remove the skin and meat from the bone by turning them inside out, as in Fig. 41. If the bone has been properly loosened at the first joint of the leg, there will be no trouble in slipping it out. When this is done, turn the meat and skin back again, so that they will be right side out. Then proceed in the same way with the other leg. Next, free the flesh from the collar bone down to the breast bone on both sides, proceeding as in Fig. 42. When the ridge of the breast bone is reached, care must be taken not to break the skin that lies very close to the bone. The fingers should be used to separate the flesh at this place. When the sides and front have been thus taken care of, free the skin and the flesh from the bones over the rump. After this is done, the skeleton and internal organs of the undrawn bird may be removed, leaving the flesh intact. The skeleton of a chicken will appear as in Fig. 43.

[Illustration: Fig. 40]

[Illustration: Fig. 41]

[Illustration: Fig. 42]

[Illustration: FIG. 43]

[Illustration: FIG. 44]

[Illustration: FIG. 45]

If the boned chicken is to be roasted, the entire chicken, including the spaces from which the wing and leg bones were removed, may be filled with highly seasoned stuffing. When this is done, shape the chicken as much as possible to resemble its original shape and sew up the back. The chicken will then be ready to roast. If the boned chicken is to be broiled, shape it on the broiler as shown in Fig. 44 and broil. When broiled, boned chicken should appear as in Fig. 45.


64. CHICKEN STEW WITH DUMPLINGS OR NOODLES.–Perhaps the most common way of preparing chicken is to stew it. When chicken is so cooked, such an addition as dumplings or noodles is generally made because of the excellent food combination that results. For stewing, an old chicken with a great deal of flavor should be used in preference to a young one, which will have less flavor.

In order to prepare chicken by stewing, clean, draw, and cut up the bird according to directions previously given. Place the pieces in a large kettle and cover them well with boiling water. Bring all quickly to the boiling point and add 2 teaspoonfuls of salt. Then remove the scum, lower the temperature, and continue to cook at the simmering point. Keep the pieces well covered with water; also, keep the stew pot covered during the cooking. When the chicken has become tender enough to permit the pieces to be easily pierced with a fork, remove them to a deep platter or a vegetable dish. Dumplings or noodles may be cooked in the chicken broth, as the water in which the chicken was stewed is called, or they may be boiled or steamed separately. If they are cooked separately, thicken the broth with flour and serve it over the chicken with the noodles or dumplings.

65. FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN.–For chicken that is tough, fricasseeing is an excellent cooking method to employ. Indeed, since it is a long method of cookery, a rather old, comparatively tough fowl lends itself best to fricasseeing. Fricassee of chicken also is a dish that requires a great deal of flavor to be drawn from the meat, and this, of course, cannot be done if a young chicken is used.

To prepare fricassee of chicken, clean and cut the bird into pieces according to the directions previously given. Put these into a saucepan, cover with boiling water, add 2 teaspoonfuls of salt, bring to the boiling point quickly, skim, and reduce the temperature so that the meat will simmer slowly until it is tender. Next, remove the pieces of chicken from the water in which they were cooked, roll them in flour, and sauté them in butter or chicken fat until they are nicely browned. If more than 2 or 2 1/2 cupfuls of broth remains, boil it until the quantity is reduced to this amount. Then moisten 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of flour with a little cold water, add this to the stock, and cook until it thickens. If desired, the broth may be reduced more and thin cream may be added to make up the necessary quantity. Arrange the pieces of chicken on a deep platter, pour the sauce over them, season with salt and pepper if necessary, and serve. To enhance the appearance of this dish, the platter may be garnished with small three-cornered pieces of toast, tiny carrots, or carrots and green peas.

66. CHICKEN PIE.–A good change from the usual ways of serving chicken may be brought about by means of chicken pie. Such a dish is simple to prepare, and for it may be used young or old chicken.

To prepare chicken pie, dress, clean, and cut up a chicken in the usual manner. Put it into a saucepan, add a small onion and a sprig of parsley, cover with boiling water, and cook slowly until the meat is tender. When the meat is cooked, add 2 teaspoonfuls of salt and 1/4 teaspoonful of pepper, and when it is perfectly tender remove it from the stock. Thicken the stock with 1 tablespoonful of flour to each cupful of liquid. Next, arrange the chicken in a baking dish. It may be left on the bones or cut into large pieces and the bones removed. To it add small carrots and onions that have been previously cooked until tender and pour the thickened stock over all. Cover this with baking-powder biscuit dough made according to the directions given in _Hot Breads_ and rolled 1/4 inch thick. Make some holes through the dough with the point of a sharp knife to let the steam escape, and bake in a moderate oven until the dough is well risen and a brown crust is formed. Then remove from the oven and serve.

67. CHICKEN CURRY.–Chicken combined with rice is usually an agreeable food combination, but when flavored with curry powder, as in the recipe here given, it is a highly flavored dish that appeals to the taste of many persons.


1 3 lb. chicken
2 Tb. butter
2 onions
1 Tb. curry powder
2 tsp. salt
2 c. steamed rice

Clean, dress, and cut up the chicken as for stewing. Put the butter in a hot frying pan, add the onions, sliced thin, then the pieces of chicken, and cook for 10 minutes. Parboil the liver, gizzard, and heart, cut them into pieces and add them to the chicken in the frying pan. Sprinkle the curry powder and the salt over the whole. Add boiling water or the stock in which the giblets were cooked, and simmer until the chicken is tender. Remove the meat from the frying pan and place it on a deep platter. Surround it with a border of steamed rice. Thicken the stock in the frying pan slightly with flour and pour the gravy over the chicken. Serve hot.

68. CHICKEN EN CASSEROLE.–Food prepared in casseroles always seems to meet with the approval of even the most discriminating persons; and chicken prepared in this way with vegetables is no exception to the rule. For such a dish should be selected a chicken of medium size that is neither very old nor very young. Any flavor that the bird contains is retained, so a strong flavor is not desirable.

In preparing chicken en casserole, first clean, dress, and cut it up in the manner directed for stewed chicken. Place the pieces in a casserole dish, together with 1 cupful of small carrots or larger carrots cut into strips. Fry a finely chopped onion with several strips of bacon, and cut these more finely while frying until the whole is well browned. Then add them to the meat in the casserole dish. Also, add 1 cupful of potato balls or 1 cupful of diced potatoes. Season well with salt and pepper, add 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, and over the whole pour sufficient hot water to cover. Cover the casserole dish, place it in a moderate oven, and cook slowly until the chicken is tender. Serve from the dish.

69. JELLIED CHICKEN.–The housewife who desires to serve an unusual chicken dish will find that there is much in favor of jellied chicken. Aside from its food value, jellied chicken has merit in that it appeals to the eye, especially if the mold used in its preparation has a pleasing shape.


1 3 or 4 lb. chicken
2 tsp. salt
Several slices of onion
1 hard-cooked egg
1 pimiento
Several sprigs of parsley

Clean, dress, and cut up the chicken. Put it into a saucepan and cover with boiling water. Season with the salt and add the slices of onion. Cook slowly until the meat will fall from the bones. Remove the chicken from the saucepan, take the meat from the bones, and chop it into small pieces. Reduce the stock to about 1 1/2 cupfuls, strain it, and skim off the fat. With this done, place slices of the hard-cooked egg in the bottom of a wet mold. Chop the pimiento and sprigs of parsley and mix them with the chopped meat. Put the mixture on top of the sliced egg, and pour the stock over the whole. Keep in a cool place until it is set. If the stock is not reduced and more jelly is desired, unflavored gelatine may be dissolved and added to coagulate the liquid. To serve jellied chicken, remove from the mold, turn upside down, so that the eggs are on top and act as a garnish, and then cut in thin slices.

70. CHICKEN BECHAMEL.–Still another chicken dish that may be used to break the monotony of meals is chicken bechamel, the word bechamel being the name of a sauce invented by Béchamel, who was steward to Louis XIV, a king of France.


1 good-sized chicken
2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 c. small mushrooms
1/4 c. chopped pimiento
3 Tb. flour
1 c. thin cream

Clean, dress, and cut up the chicken. Place the pieces into a saucepan, and cover with boiling water. Add the salt and the pepper, and allow to come to the boiling point. Remove the scum and simmer the chicken slowly until it is tender. Remove the chicken from the liquid, take the meat from the bones, and cut it into small pieces. Add to these the mushrooms and chopped pimiento. Reduce the stock to 1 cupful and thicken it with the flour added to the thin cream. Cook until the sauce is thickened. Then add to it the chopped chicken with the other ingredients. Heat all thoroughly and serve on toast points or in timbale cases, the making of which is explained in _Meat_, Part 2.

71. COOKING OF GIBLETS.–As has been pointed out, the giblets–that is, the liver, heart, and gizzard of all kinds of fowl–are used in gravy making and as an ingredient for stuffing. When poultry is stewed, as in making stewed chicken, it is not uncommon to cook the giblets with the pieces of chicken. The gizzard and heart especially require long, slow cooking to make them tender enough to be eaten. Therefore, when poultry is broiled, fried, or roasted, some other cookery method must be resorted to, as these processes are too rigid for the preparation of giblets. In such cases, the best plan is to cook them in water until they are tender and then sauté them in butter. When cooked in this way, they may be served with the poultry, for to many persons they are very palatable.


72. Left-over poultry of any kind is too valuable to be wasted, but even if this were not so there are so many practical ways in which such left-overs may be used to advantage that it would be the height of extravagance not to utilize them. The bones that remain from roast fowl after carving are especially good for soup making, as they will yield quite a quantity of flavor when they are thoroughly cooked. If sufficient meat remains on the carcass to permit of slicing, such meat may be served cold. However, if merely small pieces are left or if fried or broiled poultry remains, it will be advisable to make some other use of these left-overs. It is often possible for the ingenious housewife to add other foods to them so as to increase the quantity and thus make them serve more. For example, a small quantity of pork or veal may be satisfactorily used with chicken, as may also pieces of hard-cooked eggs, celery, mushrooms, etc. In fact, salads may be made by combining such ingredients and salad dressings. To show the use of left-overs still further, there are here given a number of recipes that may well be used.

73. Chicken Salad.–A common way in which to utilize left-over chicken is in chicken salad. Such salad may be served to advantage for luncheons and other light meals.


2 c. cold diced chicken
1 c. chopped celery
1 small onion, chopped
Salad dressing
2 hard-cooked eggs

Mix the meat with the chopped celery and onion. Marinate with well-seasoned vinegar or a little lemon juice. French dressing may be used for this if oil is desired. Just before serving pour off any excess liquid. Add any desired salad dressing. Heap the salad on lettuce leaves and garnish with slices of the hard-cooked eggs.

74. Chicken á la King.–Chicken à la king is not necessarily a left-over dish, for it may be made from either left-over chicken or, if desired, chicken cooked especially for it. It makes an excellent dish to prepare in a chafing dish, but it may be conveniently prepared in a saucepan on the fire and served in any desirable way.


3 Tb. fat (butter or bacon fat or part of each) 2 Tb. flour
3/4 c. chicken stock
1 c. milk or thin cream
1 tsp. salt
1/2 c. mushrooms
1/4 c. canned pimiento
1-1/2 c. cold chicken
2 eggs

Melt the fat in a saucepan, add the flour, and stir until well mixed. Heat the stock and the milk or cream, pour this into the mixture, stir rapidly, and bring to boiling point. Add the salt and the mushrooms, pimientoes, and cold chicken cut into pieces 1/2 to 1 inch long, allow the mixture to come to the boiling point again, and add the slightly beaten eggs. Remove from the fire at once to prevent the egg from curdling. Serve over pieces of fresh toast and sprinkle with paprika.

75. Chicken Croquettes.–Left-over chicken may be used to advantage for croquettes made according to the following recipe. When the ingredients listed are combined with chicken, an especially agreeable food will be the result. If there is not sufficient cold chicken to meet the requirements, a small quantity of cold veal or pork may be chopped with the chicken.


3 Tb. fat
1/4 c. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/4 tsp. paprika
1 c. chicken stock or cream
2 c. cold chicken, chopped
1/4. mushrooms, chopped
1 tsp. parsley, chopped
1 egg
Fine bread crumbs

Melt the fat in a saucepan, add the flour, and stir until well blended. Add the salt, pepper, and paprika. Heat the stock or cream and add to the mixture in the saucepan. Stir constantly until the sauce is completely thickened. Then add the chopped chicken, mushrooms, and parsley. When cold, shape into oblong croquettes, roll in the egg, slightly beaten, and then in fine crumbs. Fry in deep fat until brown. Serve with a garnish or some vegetable, such as peas, diced carrots, or small pieces of cauliflower, as well as with left-over chicken gravy or well-seasoned white sauce.

76. TURKEY HASH.–Possibly the simplest way in which to utilize left-over turkey meat is to make it up into hash. Such a dish may be used for almost any meal, and when made according to the recipe here given it will suit the taste of nearly every person.


2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. coarse rye-bread crumbs
1 small onion, sliced
2 c. finely chopped cold turkey
1/2 c. finely chopped raw potato
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 pt. milk

Melt the butter in a saucepan. When brown, add to it the rye-bread crumbs and mix well. Then add the sliced onion, chopped turkey, potato, salt, and pepper. Cook for a short time on top of the stove, stirring frequently to prevent burning. Pour the milk over the whole, and place the pan in the oven or on the back of the stove. Cook slowly until the milk is reduced and the hash is sufficiently dry to serve. Serve on buttered toast.

77. CHICKEN WITH RICE.–Left-over chicken may be readily combined with rice to make a nutritious dish. To prepare chicken with rice, add to left-over gravy any left-over cold chicken cut into small pieces. If there is not enough gravy to cover the meat, add sufficient white sauce; if no gravy remains, use white sauce entirely. Heat the chicken in the gravy or the sauce to the boiling point. Then heap a mound of fresh steamed or boiled rice in the center of a deep platter or a vegetable dish and pour the chicken and sauce over it. Serve hot.

78. Baked Poultry With Rice.–A casserole or a baking dish serves as a good utensil in which to prepare a left-over dish of any kind of poultry, because it permits vegetables to be added and cooked thoroughly. Baked poultry with rice is a dish that may be prepared in such a utensil.

Line a casserole or a baking dish with a thick layer of fresh steamed or boiled rice. Fill the center with chopped cold poultry, which may be chicken, turkey, duck, or goose. Add peas, chopped carrots, potato, and a few slices of onion in any desirable proportion. Over this pour sufficient left-over gravy or white sauce to cover well. First, steam thoroughly; then uncover the utensil and bake slowly until the vegetables are cooked and the entire mixture is well heated. Serve from the casserole or baking dish.


79. Poultry of any kind should always be served on a platter or in a dish that has been heated in the oven or by running hot water over it. After placing the cooked bird on the platter or the dish from which it is to be served, it should be taken to the dining room and placed before the person who is to serve. If it is roasted, it will require carving. If not, the pieces may be served as they are desired by the individuals at the table. Poultry having both dark and white meat is usually served according to the taste of each individual at the table. If no preference is stated, however, a small portion of each kind of meat is generally served.

80. The carving of broiled or roast chicken, turkey, duck, or goose may be done in the kitchen, but having the whole bird brought to the table and carved there adds considerably to a meal. Carving is usually done by the head of the family, but in a family in which there are boys each one should be taught to carve properly, so that he may do the carving in the absence of another person.

[Illustration: FIG. 46]

[Illustration: FIG. 47]

[Illustration: FIG. 48]

[Illustration: FIG. 49]

For carving, the bird should be placed on the platter so that it rests on its back; also, a well-sharpened carving knife and a fork should be placed at the right of the platter and the person who is to serve. To carve a bird, begin as shown in Fig. 46; that is, thrust the fork firmly into the side or breast of the fowl and cut through the skin where the leg joins the body, breaking the thigh joint. Cut through this joint, severing the second joint and leg in one piece. Then, if desired, cut the leg apart at the second joint. As the portions are thus cut, they may be placed on a separate platter that is brought to the table heated. Next, in the same manner, cut off the other leg and separate it at the second joint. With the legs cut off, remove each wing at the joint where it is attached to the body, proceeding as shown in Fig. 47. Then slice the meat from the breast by cutting down from the ridge of the breast bone toward the wing, as in Fig. 48. After this meat has been sliced off, there still remains some meat around the thigh and on the back. This should be sliced off or removed with the point of the knife, as in Fig. 49, so that the entire skeleton will be clean, as in Fig. 50. If the entire bird is not to be served, as much as is necessary may be cut and the remainder left on the bones. With each serving of meat a spoonful of dressing should be taken from the inside of the bird, provided it is stuffed, and, together with some gravy, served on the plate.

[Illustration: FIG. 50]

* * * * *



81. GAME, which includes the meat of deer, bear, rabbit, squirrel, wild duck, wild goose, partridge, pheasant, and some less common animals, such as possum, is not a particularly common food. However, it is sufficiently common to warrant a few directions concerning its use. Game can be purchased or caught only during certain seasons, designated by the laws of various states. Such laws are quite stringent and have been made for the protection of each particular species.

82. The meat of wild animals and birds is usually strong in flavor. Just why this is so, however, is not definitely known. Undoubtedly some of the strong flavor is due to the particular food on which the animal or the bird feeds, and much of this flavor is due to extractives contained in the flesh.

When game birds and animals have considerable fat surrounding the tissues, the greater part of it is often rejected because of its extremely high flavor. By proper cooking, however, much of this flavor, if it happens to be a disagreeable one, can be driven off.

The general composition of the flesh of various kinds of game does not differ greatly from that of similar domestic animals or birds. For instance, the flesh of bear is similar in its composition to that of fat beef, as bear is one of the wild animals that is very fat. Venison, or the meat obtained from deer, contains much less fat, and its composition resembles closely that of very lean beef. Rabbits and most of the wild birds are quite lean; in fact, they are so lean that it is necessary in the preparation of them to supply sufficient fat to make them more appetizing.


83. Only a few recipes for the preparation of game are here given, because, in the case of wild birds, the cookery methods do not differ materially from those given for poultry, and, in the case of such animals as bears, the directions for preparing steaks and other cuts are identical with the cooking of similar cuts of beef. Rabbit and squirrel are perhaps the most common game used as food in the home; therefore, directions for cleaning and cooking them receive the most consideration.

84. PREPARING A RABBIT FOR COOKING.–In order to prepare a rabbit for cooking, it must first be skinned and drawn, after which it may be cut up or left whole, depending on the cookery method that is to be followed.

To skin a rabbit, first chop off the feet at the first joint; then remove the head at the first joint below the skull and slit the skin of the stomach from a point between the forelegs to the hind legs. With this done, remove the entrails carefully, proceeding in much the same manner as in removing the entrails of a chicken. Then slit the skin from the opening in the stomach around the back to the opposite side. Catch hold on the back and pull the skin first from the hind legs and then from the forelegs. If the rabbit is to be stewed, wash it thoroughly and separate it into pieces at the joints. If it is to be roasted or braized, it may be left whole. A rabbit that is left whole presents a better appearance when it is trussed. To truss a rabbit, force the hind legs toward the head and fasten them in place by passing a skewer through the leg on one side, through the body, and into the leg on the other side. Then skewer the front legs back under the body in the same way. In such a case, the head may be left on or removed, as desired.

85. ROAST RABBIT.–Roasting is the cookery process often used to prepare rabbit. To cook it in this way, first skin and clean the animal and stuff it. Any of the stuffings previously given may be used for this purpose. Then skewer the legs in position, place strips of bacon across the back, put in a roasting pan, and dredge with salt and pepper. Also, add 1/2 cupful of hot water to which has been added a little butter or bacon fat. Roast in a quick oven, and baste every 15 minutes during the roasting. A few minutes before the rabbit is tender enough to be pierced with a fork, remove the strips of bacon so that the flesh underneath may brown. Then remove from the pan and serve.

86. SAUTÉD RABBIT.–If it is desired to prepare a rabbit by sautéing, skin and clean it, cut it into pieces, and dry all the pieces with a soft cloth. Then melt bacon fat in a frying pan, and when it is hot place the pieces of rabbit in it and allow them to brown. Add several sprigs of parsley and two small onions, sliced, season with salt and pepper, add a slice or two of bacon, and pour water over the whole until it is nearly covered. Place a cover on the frying pan and simmer slowly. Add water when it is necessary. When the meat is tender, remove it from the frying pan. Then thicken the fluid that remains with a small amount of flour so as to make a gravy. Serve hot.

87. RABBIT PIE.–Rabbit made into pie is also a desirable way in which to serve rabbit. To prepare such a dish, skin and clean one or more rabbits and cut them up into as small pieces as possible, removing the largest bones. Put these pieces into a baking dish, and over them place bacon cut into small strips. Sprinkle all with chopped parsley, salt, and pepper, and add a few slices of onion, as well as some strips of carrot and potato, if desired. Pour a sufficient amount of boiling water over the whole and allow to simmer slowly until the meat is partly cooked. Then place in the oven and cook until the meat is tender. Next, dredge the contents of the baking dish with flour and cover with a 1/4-inch layer of baking-powder biscuit dough. Make several slits through the dough to allow the steam to escape. Bake until the dough becomes a well-browned crust. Serve hot in the baking dish.

88. BROILED SQUIRREL.–For cooking, squirrel is cleaned in practically the same way as rabbit. Squirrel may be made ready to eat by stewing, but as it is so small a creature, broiling is the usual method of preparation. To broil a squirrel, first remove the skin and clean it. Then break the bones along the spine, so that the squirrel can be spread out flat. When thus made ready, place it on a well-greased hot broiler and sear it quickly on one side; then turn it and sear the other side. Next, sprinkle it with salt and pepper, place strips of bacon across the back, and allow it to broil slowly until it is well browned. Squirrel may be served in the same way as rabbit.

89. CUTS OF VENISON.–The meat obtained from deer, called venison, as has been mentioned, may be cut up to form cuts similar to those obtained from beef, such as steaks and roasts. Although such meat is a rarity, it will be well to be familiar with a few of the methods of cooking it. These, however, do not differ materially from the methods of cooking other meats.

90. BROILED VENISON.–To prepare venison for broiling, cut a steak from 1 to 1-1/2 inches thick. Place this on a well-greased broiler and broil until well done. Serve on a hot platter. Garnish the broiled venison with parsley and pour over it sauce made as follows:


2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. ground cinnamon
4 Tb. currant jelly
2 tsp. lemon juice
1/4 c. port wine
6 finely chopped Maraschino cherries

Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, salt, ground cinnamon, currant jelly, lemon juice, and the port wine, which should be heated with 1 cupful of water. Cook until the flour has thickened, remove from the fire, and add the cherries.

91. ROAST FILLET OF VENISON.–If a fillet of venison is to be roasted, proceed by larding it with strips of salt pork. Then place it in a pan with one small onion, sliced, a bay leaf, and a small quantity of parsley, 1 teaspoonful of salt, and 1/4 teaspoonful of pepper. Dilute 1/4 cupful of vinegar with 3/4 cupful of water and add a teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce. Pour this over the fillet and place it in a hot oven. Cook until the liquid has evaporated sufficiently to allow the venison to brown. Turn, so as to brown on both sides, and when quite tender and well browned, serve on a hot platter.

92. ROAST LEG OF VENISON.–If a leg of venison is to be roasted, first remove the skin, wipe the meat with a damp cloth, and cover it with a paste made of flour and water. Then put it into a roasting pan and roast in a very hot oven. Baste with hot water every 15 minutes for about 1 1/2 hours. At the end of this time, remove the paste, spread the surface with butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and continue to roast for 1 to 1 1/4 hours longer. Baste every 15 minutes, basting during the last hour with hot water in which has been melted a small quantity of butter. Then remove the venison from the pan and serve it on a hot platter with any desired sauce.



(1) Of what value is poultry in the diet?

(2) What effect do the feeding and care of poultry have upon it as food?

(3) Mention briefly the proper preparation of poultry killed for market.

(4) (_a_) What are the most important things to consider when poultry is to be selected? (_b_) Give the points that indicate good quality of poultry.

(5) How would you determine the age of a chicken?

(6) How would you determine the freshness of a chicken?

(7) (_a_) What are the marks of cold-storage poultry? (_b_) Should cold-storage poultry be drawn or undrawn? Tell why.

(8) How should frozen poultry be thawed?

(9) Tell briefly how turkey should be selected.

(10) At what age and season is turkey best?

(11) Discuss the selection of: (_a_) ducks; (_b_) geese.

(12) (_a_) How does the composition of poultry compare with that of meat? (_b_) What kind of chicken has a high food value?

(13) (_a_) How should a chicken be dressed? (_b_) What care should be given to the skin in plucking?

(14) Give briefly the steps in drawing a chicken.

(15) Give briefly the steps in cutting up a chicken.

(16) How is poultry prepared for: (_a_) roasting? (_b_) frying? (_c_) broiling? (_d_) stewing?

(17) (_a_) Describe trussing, (_b_) Why is trussing done?

(18) Give briefly the steps in boning a chicken.

(19) Tell briefly how to serve and carve a roasted bird.

(20) Discuss game in a general way.


Select a fowl by applying the tests given for selection in the lesson. Prepare it by what seems to you to be the most economical method. Tell how many persons are served and the use made of the left-overs. Compute the cost per serving by dividing the cost of the fowl by the number of servings it made.

At another time, select a chicken for frying by applying the tests given in the lesson. Compute the cost per serving by dividing the cost of the chicken by the number of servings it made.

Compare the cost per serving of the fried chicken with that of the fowl, to find which is the more economical. In each case, collect the bones after the chicken is eaten and weigh them to determine which has the greater proportion of bone to meat, the fowl or the frying chicken. Whether you have raised the poultry yourself or have purchased it in the market, use the market price in computing your costs. Weigh the birds carefully before drawing them.

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1. FISH provides another class of high-protein or tissue-building food. As this term is generally understood, it includes both vertebrate fish–that is, fish having a backbone, such as salmon, cod, shad, etc.–and many other water animals, such as lobsters, crabs, shrimp, oysters, and clams. A distinction, however, is generally made between these two groups, those having bones being regarded properly as _fish_ and those partly or entirely encased in shells, as _shell fish_. It is according to this distinction that this class of foods is considered in this Section. Because all the varieties of both fish and shell fish are in many respects similar, the term _sea food_ is often applied to them, but, as a rule, this term is restricted to designate salt-water products as distinguished from fresh-water fish.

2. Fish can usually be purchased at a lower price than meat, and for this reason possesses an economic advantage over it. Besides the price, the substitution of fish for meat makes for economy in a number of ways to which consideration is not usually given. These will become clearly evident when it is remembered that nearly all land animals that furnish meat live on many agricultural products that might be used for human food. Then, too, other foods fed to animals, although not actually human foods, require in their raising the use of soil that might otherwise be utilized for the raising of food for human beings. This is not true in the case of fish. They consume the vegetation that grows in lakes, streams, and the ocean, as well as various kinds of insects, small fish, etc., which cannot be used as human food and which do not require the use of the soil. In addition, much of the food that animals, which are warm-blooded, take into their bodies is required to maintain a constant temperature above that of their surroundings, so that not all of what they eat is used in building up the tissues of their bodies. With fish, however, it is different. As they are cold-blooded and actually receive heat from their surroundings, they do not require food for bodily warmth. Practically all that they take into the body is built up into a supply of flesh that may be used as food for human beings.

3. With fish, as with other foods, some varieties are sought more than others, the popularity of certain kinds depending on the individual taste or the preference of the people in a particular locality. Such popularity, however, is often a disadvantage to the purchaser, because a large demand for certain varieties has a tendency to cause a rise in price. The increased price does not indicate that the fish is of more value to the consumer than some other fish that may be cheaper because it is less popular, although quite as valuable from a food standpoint. The preference for particular kinds of fish and the persistent disregard of others that are edible is for the most part due to prejudice. In certain localities, one kind of fish may be extremely popular while in others the same fish may not be used for food at all. Such prejudice should be overcome, for, as a matter of fact, practically every fish taken from pure water is fit to eat, in the sense that it furnishes food and is not injurious to health.

In addition, any edible fish should be eaten in the locality where it is caught. The transportation of this food is a rather difficult matter, and, besides, it adds to the cost. It is therefore an excellent plan to make use of the kind of fish that is most plentiful, as such practice will insure both better quality and a lower market price.

4. As is well known, fish is an extremely perishable food. Therefore, when it is caught in quantities too great to be used at one time, it is preserved in various ways. The preservation methods that have proved to be the most satisfactory are canning, salting and drying, smoking, and preserving in various kinds of brine and pickle. As such methods are usually carried out in the locality where the fish is caught, many varieties of fish can be conveniently stored for long periods of time and so distributed as to meet the requirements of the consumer. This plan enables persons far removed from the Source of supply to procure fish frequently.

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5. COMPARISON OF FISH WITH MEAT.–In general, the composition of fish is similar to that of meat, for both of them are high-protein foods. However, some varieties of fish contain large quantities of fat and others contain very little of this substance, so the food value of the different kinds varies greatly. As in the case of meat, fish is lacking in carbohydrate. Because of the close similarity between these two foods, fish is a very desirable substitute for meat. In fact, fish is in some respects a better food than meat, but it cannot be used so continuously as meat without becoming monotonous; that is to say, a person will grow tired of fish much more quickly than of most meats. The similarity between the composition of fish and that of meat has much to do with regulating the price of these protein foods, which, as has already been learned, are the highest priced foods on the market.

6. PROTEIN IN FISH.–In fish, as well as in shell fish, a very large proportion of the food substances present is protein. This proportion varies with the quantity of water, bone, and refuse that the particular food contains, and with the physical structure of the food. In fresh fish, the percentage of this material varies from 6 to 17 per cent. The structure of fish is very similar to that of meat, as the flesh is composed of tiny hollow fibers containing extractives, in which are dissolved mineral salts and various other materials. The quantity of extractives found in these foods, however, is less than that found in meat. Fish extracts of any kind, such as clam juice, oyster juice, etc., are similar in their composition to any of the extractives of meat, differing only in the kind and proportions. In addition to the muscle fibers of fish, which are, of course, composed of protein, fish contains a small quantity of albumin, just as meat does. It is the protein material in fish, as well as in shell fish, that is responsible for its very rapid decomposition.

The application of heat has the same effect on the protein of fish as it has on that of meat, fowl, and other animal tissues. Consequently, the same principles of cookery apply to both the retention and the extraction of flavor.

7. FAT IN FISH.–The percentage of fat in fish varies from less than 1 per cent. in some cases to a trifle more than 14 per cent. in others, but this high percentage is rare, as the average fish probably does not exceed from 3 to 6 or 7 per cent. of fat. This variation affects the total food value proportionately. The varieties of fish that contain the most fat deteriorate most rapidly and withstand transportation the least well, so that when these are secured in large quantities they are usually canned or preserved in some manner. Fish containing a large amount of fat, such as salmon, turbot, eel, herring, halibut, mackerel, mullet, butterfish, and lake trout, have a more moist quality than those which are without fat, such as cod. Therefore, as it is difficult to cook fish that is lacking in fat and keep it from becoming dry, a fat fish makes a more palatable food than a lean fish. The fat of fish is very strongly flavored; consequently, any that cooks out of fish in its preparation is not suitable for use in the cooking of other foods.

8. CARBOHYDRATE IN FISH.–Like meat, fish does not contain carbohydrate in any appreciable quantity. In fact, the small amount that is found in the tissue, and that compares to the glycogen found in animal tissues, is not present in sufficient quantities to merit consideration.

9. MINERAL MATTER IN FISH.–In fish, mineral matter is quite as prevalent as in meat. Through a notion that fish contains large proportions of phosphorus, and because this mineral is also present in the brain, the idea that fish is a brain food has become widespread. It has been determined, however, that this belief has no foundation.


10. FACTORS DETERMINING FOOD VALUE.–The total food value of fish, as has been shown, is high or low, varying with the food substances it contains. Therefore, since, weight for weight, the food value of fat is much higher than that of protein, it follows that the fish containing the most fat has the highest food value. Fat and protein, as is well known, do not serve the same function in the body, but each has its purpose and is valuable and necessary in the diet. Some varieties of fish contain fat that is strong in flavor, and from these the fat should be removed before cooking, especially if the flavor is disagreeable. This procedure of course reduces the total food value of the fish, but it should be done if it increases the palatability.

11. RELATIVE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FISH AND MEAT.–When fish and meat are compared, it will be observed that some kinds of fish have a higher food value than meat, particularly if the fish contains much fat and the meat is lean. When the average of each of these foods is compared, however, meat will be found to have a higher food value than fish. To show how fish compares with meat and fowl, the composition and food value of several varieties of each food are given in Table I, which is taken from a United States government bulletin.



—————————————————————- | Composition | Total |Food Value| |——————-| Food | per Pound| Edible Portion | Protein | Fat | Value | Due to | |Per Cent.|Per Cent.|per Pound | Protein | | | | Calories | Calories | —————————————————————- _Fish_: | | | | |
Bass, black……..| 20.6 | 1.7 | 443 | 373 | Bluefish………..| 19.4 | 1.2 | 401 | 352 | Carp……………| 17.4 | 2.6 | 421 | 315 | Catfish…………| 14.4 | 20.6 | 1,102 | 262 | Halibut steak……| 18.6 | 5.2 | 550 | 337 | Lake trout………| 17.8 | 1.0 | 363 | 323 | Red snapper……..| 19.2 | 1.0 | 389 | 348 | Salmon (canned)….| 21.8 | 12.1 | 888 | 396 | Whitefish……….| 22.9 | 6.5 | 680 | 415 | | | | | |
_Meat_: | | | | | Beef, round, | | | | | medium fat…….| 20.3 | 13.6 | 895 | 368 | Chicken, broilers..| 21.5 | 2.5 | 492 | 390 | Fowl……………| 19.3 | 16.3 | 1,016 | 350 | Lamb, leg……….| 19.2 | 16.5 | 870 | 348 | Pork chops………| 16.6 | 30.1 | 1,455 | 301 | —————————————————————-

12. A study of this table will show that on the whole the percentage of protein in the various kinds of fish is as much as that in meat, while in a few instances, it is greater. This proves that so far as the quantity of protein is concerned, these two foods are equally valuable in their tissue-forming and tissue-building qualities. It will be seen also that the percentage of fat in fish varies greatly, some varieties containing more than meat, but most of them containing less. Furthermore, the total food value per pound, in calories, is for the most part greater in meat than in fish, whereas the food value per pound due to protein is equivalent in most cases, but higher in some of the fish than in the meat.

13. It must also be remembered that the drying or preserving of fish does not in any way decrease its food value. In fact, pound for pound, dried fish, both smoked and salt, contains more nutritive value than fresh fish, because the water, which decreases the food value of fresh fish, is driven off in drying. However, when prepared for eating, dried fish in all probability has more food value than fresh fish, because water or moisture of some sort must be supplied in its preparation.

14. The method of preparing dried or preserved fish, as well as fresh fish, has much to do with the food value obtained from it. Just as nutritive value is lost in the cooking of meat by certain methods, so it may be lost in the preparation of fish if the proper methods are not applied. To obtain as much food value from fish as possible, the various points that are involved in its cookery must be thoroughly understood. Certain facts concerning the buying of fish must also be kept in mind. For instance, in canned fish, almost all the bones, skin, and other inedible parts, except the tails, heads, and fins of very small fish, have been removed before packing, indicating that practically all the material purchased is edible. In the case of fresh fish, a large percentage of what is bought must be wasted in preparation and in eating, the percentage of waste varying from 5 to 45 per cent.

15. DIGESTIBILITY OF FISH.–The food value of any food is an important item when its usefulness as a food is taken into account, but of equal importance is the manner in which the body uses the food; that is, whether it digests the food with ease or with difficulty. Therefore, when the value of fish as a food is to be determined, its digestibility must receive definite consideration. As has already been explained, much depends on the cooking of the food in question. On the whole, fish is found to be more easily digested than meat, with the exception perhaps of a few kinds or certain cuts. That physicians recognize this characteristic is evidenced by the fact that fish is often used in the feeding of invalids or sick people when meat is not permitted.

16. The ease with which fish is digested is influenced largely by the quantity of fat it contains, for this fat, acting in identically the same way as the fat of meat, has the effect of slowing the digestion that is carried on in the stomach. It follows, then, that with possibly one or two exceptions the kinds of fish most easily digested are those which are lean.

17. In addition to the correct cooking of fish and the presence of fat, a factor that largely influences the digestibility of this food is the length of the fibers of the flesh. It will be remembered that the parts of an animal having long fibers are tougher and less easily digested than those having short fibers. This applies with equal force in the case of fish. Its truth is evident when it is known that cod, a lean fish, is digested with greater difficulty than some of the fat fish because of the length and toughness of its fibers. This, however, is comparative, and it must not be thought that fish on the whole is digested with difficulty.

18. Another factor that influences the digestibility of fish is the salting of it. Whether fish is salted dry or in brine, the salt hardens the fibers and tissues. While the salt acts as a preservative in causing this hardening, it, at the same time, makes the fish preserved in this manner a little more difficult to digest. This slight difference need scarcely be considered so far as the normal adult is concerned, but in case of children or persons whose digestion is not entirely normal its effect is likely to be felt.




NAME OF FISH SEASON METHOD OF COOKERY Bass, black……. All the year……….. Fried, baked Bass, sea……… All the year……….. Baked, broiled, fried Bass, striped….. All the year……….. Baked, broiled, fried Bass, lake…….. June 1 to January 1…. Baked, broiled, fried Bluefish………. May 1 to November 1…. Baked, broiled Butterfish…….. October 1 to May 1….. Fried, sautéd Carp………….. July 1 to November 1… Baked, broiled, fried Catfish……….. All the year……….. Fried, sautéd Codfish……….. All the year……….. Boiled, fried, sautéd, baked, broiled
Eels………….. All the year……….. Fried, boiled, baked Flounder………. All the year……….. Sautéd, fried, baked Haddock……….. All the year……….. Steamed, boiled, fried Halibut……….. All the year……….. Boiled, fried, creamed Herring……….. October 1 to May 1….. Sautéd, fried, broiled Kingfish………. May 1 to November 1…. Boiled, steamed, baked Mackerel………. April 1 to October 1… Baked, broiled, boiled, fried
Perch, fresh…… September 1 to June 1.. Fried, broiled water
Pike, or………. June 1 to January 1…. Fried, broiled, baked pickerel, fresh
Porgies, salt….. June 15 to October 15.. Fried, sautéd water
Red snapper……. October 1 to April 1… Boiled, steamed Salmon, Kennebec.. June 1 to October 1…. Broiled, baked, boiled Salmon, Oregon…. October 1 to June 1…. Broiled, baked, boiled Shad………….. January 1 to June 1…. Baked, broiled, fried Shad roe………. January 1 to June 1…. Broiled, fried Sheepshead…….. June 1 to September 15. Boiled, fried Smelts………… August 15 to April 15.. Fried, sautéd Sole, English….. November 1 to May 1…. Baked, broiled, fried Sunfish……….. May 1 to December 1…. Fried, sautéd Trout, fresh…… April 1 to September 1. Baked, broiled, fried, water boiled, sautéd
Weakfish, or…… May 15 to October 15… Baked, broiled sea trout
Whitebait……… May 1 to April 1……. Fried, sautéd Whitefish,…….. November 1 to March 1.. Baked, fried, sautéd, fresh water broiled

19. PURCHASE OF FISH.–The housewife has much to do with the market price of fish and the varieties that are offered for sale, for these are governed by the demand created by her. The fisherman’s catch depends on weather conditions, the season, and other uncertain factors. If the kinds of fish he secures are not what the housewife demands, they either will not be sent to market or will go begging on the market for want of purchasers. Such a state of affairs should not exist, and it would not if every housewife were to buy the kind of fish that is plentiful in her home market. So that she may become familiar with the varieties that the market affords, she should carefully study Tables II and III, which give the names, seasons, and uses of both fresh fish and salt and smoked fish. With the information given in these tables well in mind, she will be able not only to select the kind she wants, but to cooperate better with dealers.





Anchovies…….. All the year.. Served as a relish, stuffed with various highly
seasoned mixtures, used as flavor for sauce

Codfish, dried… All the year.. Creamed, balls

Herring, pickled. All the year.. Sautéd

Mackerel……… All the year.. Broiled, fried, sautéd

Salmon, salt….. All the year.. Fried, broiled, boiled


Haddock, or…… October 15 to. Broiled, baked, creamed finnan haddie April 1

Halibut………. October 1 to.. Baked, broiled, fried April 1
Herring………. All the year.. Served as a relish without cooking

Mackerel……… October 1 to.. Baked, boiled, fried November 1

Smoked salmon…. All the year.. Baked, boiled, fried

Shad…………. October 1 to.. Baked, boiled, fried May 1

Sturgeon……… October 1 to.. Baked, boiled, fried May 1

Whitefish…….. October 1 to.. Baked, boiled, fried May 1

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

20. Another point to be considered in the purchase of fish is the size. Some fish, such as halibut and salmon, are so large that they must usually be cut into slices or steaks to permit the housewife to purchase the quantity she requires for immediate use. Other fish are of such size that one is sufficient for a meal, and others are so small that several must be purchased to meet the requirements. An idea or the difference in the size of fish can be gained from Figs. 1 and 2. The larger fish in Fig. 1 is a medium-sized whitefish and the smaller one is a smelt. Fish about the size of smelts lend themselves readily to frying and sautéing, whereas the larger kinds, like whitefish, may be prepared to better advantage by baking either with or without suitable stuffing. The larger fish in Fig. 2 is a carp and the smaller one is a pike. Much use is made of pike, but carp has been more shunned than sought after. However, when carp is properly cooked, it is a very palatable food, and, besides, it possesses high food value.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

21. In the purchase of fish, the housewife, provided she is not obliged to have fish for a particular day, will do well also to get away from the one-day-a-week purchasing of fish; that is, if she is not obliged to serve fish on Friday, she should endeavor to serve it on some other day. Even twice a week is not too often. If such a plan were followed out, fishermen would be able to market their catch when it is procured and the waste of fish or the necessity for keeping it until a particular day would be overcome.

22. Another way in which the housewife can help herself in the selection of fish is to become familiar with all the varieties of edible fish caught in or near her community. When she has done this, it will be a splendid plan for her to give those with which she is unfamiliar a trial. She will be surprised at the many excellent varieties that are obtained in her locality and consequently come to her fresher than fish that has to be shipped long distances.

23. FRESHNESS OF FISH.–In the purchase of fish, the housewife should not permit herself to be influenced by any prejudice she may have as to the name or the appearance of the fish. However, too much attention cannot be paid to its freshness.

Several tests can be applied to fish to determine whether or not it is fresh; therefore, when a housewife is in doubt, she should make an effort to apply them. Fish should not give off any offensive odor. The eyes should be bright and clear, not dull nor sunken. The gills should have a bright-red color, and there should be no blubber showing. The flesh should be so firm that no dent will be made when it is touched with the finger. Fish may also be tested for freshness by placing it in a pan of water; if it sinks, it may be known to be fresh, but if it floats it is not fit for use.

24. CARE OF FISH IN THE HOME.–If fish is purchased in good condition, and every effort should be made to see that it is, the responsibility of its care in the home until it is presented to the family as a cooked dish rests on the housewife. If, upon reaching the housewife, it has not been cleaned, it should be cleaned at once. In case it has been cleaned either by the fish dealer or the housewife and cannot be cooked at once, it should be looked over carefully, immediately washed in cold water, salted slightly inside and out, placed in a covered enamel or porcelain dish, and then put where it will keep as cold as possible. If a refrigerator is used, the fish should be put in the compartment from which odors cannot be carried to foods in the other compartments. In cold weather, an excellent plan is to put the fish out of doors instead of in the refrigerator, for there it will remain sufficiently cold without the use of ice. However, the best and safest way is to cook the fish at once, so that storing it for any length of time after its delivery will not be necessary.

Salt and smoked fish do not, of course, require the same care as fresh fish. However, as many of these varieties are strong in flavor, it is well to weaken their flavor before cooking them by soaking them or, if possible, by parboiling them.


25. CLEANING FISH.–Fish is usually prepared for cooking at the market where it is purchased, but frequently a fish comes into the home just as it has been caught. In order to prepare such a fish properly for cooking, the housewife must understand how to clean it. The various steps in cleaning fish are illustrated in Figs. 3 to 6. The first step consists in removing the scales. To do this, place the fish on its side, as shown in Fig. 3, grasp it firmly by the tail, and [Illustration: FIG. 3] then with the cutting edge of a knife, preferably a dull one, scrape off the scales by quick motions of the knife toward the head of the fish. When one side has been scraped clean, or _scaled_, as this operation is called, turn the fish over and scale the other side.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

With the fish scaled, proceed to remove the entrails. As shown in Fig. 4, cut a slit in the belly from the head end to the vent, using a sharp knife. Run the opening up well toward the head, as Fig. 5 shows, and then through the opening formed draw out the entrails with the fingers.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

If the head is to be removed, it should be cut off at this time. When a fish is to be baked or prepared in some other way in which the head may be retained, it is allowed to remain on, but it is kept more for an ornament than for any other reason. To remove the head, slip a sharp knife under the gills as far as possible, as Fig. 6 shows, and then cut it off in such a way as not to remove with it any of the body of the fish.

Whether the head is removed or not, make sure that the cavity formed by taking out the entrails is perfectly clean. Then wash the fish with cold water and, if desired, cut off the fins and tail, although this is not usually done. The fish, which is now properly prepared, may be cooked at once or placed in the refrigerator until time for cooking.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

26. BONING FISH.–In the preparation of some kinds of fish, it is often desired to bone the fish; that is, to remove the backbone and the ribs. Figs. 7 to 10 show the various steps in the process of boning. After the fish has been thoroughly cleaned, insert a sharp-pointed knife in the back where it is cut from the head, as shown in Fig. 7, and loosen the backbone at this place. Then, as in Fig. 8, slip the knife along the ribs away from the backbone on both sides. After getting the bone well loosened at the end, cut it from the flesh all the way down to the tail, as shown in Fig. 9. When thus separated from the flesh, the backbone and the ribs, which comprise practically all the bones in a fish, may be lifted out intact, as is shown in Fig. 10.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

27. SKINNING FISH.–Some kinds of fish, especially those having no scales, such as flounder, catfish, and eels, are made more palatable by being skinned. To skin a fish, cut a narrow strip of the skin along the spine from the head to the tail, as shown in Fig. 11. At this opening, loosen the skin on one side where it is fastened to the bony part of the fish and then, as in Fig. 12, draw it off around toward the belly, working carefully so as not to tear the flesh. Sometimes it is a good plan to use a knife for this purpose, working the skin loose from the flesh with the knife and at the same time pulling the skin with the other hand. After removing the skin from one side, turn the fish and take off the skin from the other side in the same way. Care should be taken to clean the fish properly before attempting to skin it. If the fish is frozen, it should first be thawed in cold water.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

28. FILLETING FISH.–As many recipes require fish to be cut into _fillets_, that is, thick, flat slices from which the bone is removed, it is well for the housewife to understand just how to accomplish this part of the preparation. Figs. 13 to 15 show the filleting of a flounder. While this process varies somewhat in the different varieties of fish, the usual steps are the ones here outlined. After thoroughly cleaning the flounder and removing the skin, lay the fish out flat and cut the flesh down through the center from the head end to the tail, as shown in Fig. 13. Then, with a knife, work each half of the flesh loose from the bones, as in Fig. 14. With these two pieces removed, turn the fish over, cut the flesh down through the center, and separate it from the bones in the same manner as before. If a meat board is on hand, it is a good plan to place the fish on such a board before removing the flesh. At the end of the filleting process, the flounder should appear as shown in Fig. 15, the long, narrow strips on the right being the flesh and that remaining on the board being the bones intact. The strips thus produced may be cut into pieces of any preferred size.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

* * * * *



29. As Tables II and III show, practically all methods of cookery are applicable in the cooking of fish. For instance, fish may be boiled, steamed, baked, fried, broiled, sautéd, and, in addition, used for various kinds of bisques, chowders, and numerous other made dishes. The effect of these different methods is exactly the same on fish as on meat, since the two foods are the same in general construction. The cookery method to select depends largely on the size, kind, quality, and flavor of the fish. Just as an old chicken with well-developed muscles is not suitable for broiling, so a very large fish should not be broiled unless it can be cut into slices, steaks, or thin pieces. Cook cutting fish with knife. Such a fish is usually either stuffed and baked or baked without stuffing, but when it is cut into slices, the slices may be sautéd, fried, broiled, or steamed.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

[Illustration: FIG. 15 Fish on cutting board]

Some varieties of fish are more or less tasteless. These should be prepared by a cookery method that will improve their flavor, or if the cooking fails to add flavor, a highly seasoned or highly flavored sauce should be served with them. The acid of vinegar or lemon seems to assist in bringing out the flavor of fish, so when a sauce is not used, a slice of lemon is often served with the fish.


30. As many of the recipes for fish call for sauce and stuffing, recipes for these accompaniments are taken up before the methods of cooking fish are considered. This plan will make it possible for the beginner to become thoroughly familiar with these accompaniments and thus be better prepared to carry out the recipes for cooking fish.

31. SAUCES FOR FISH.–Sauces are generally served with fish to improve their flavor and increase their nutritive value. Some kinds of fish, such as salmon, shad, butterfish, Spanish mackerel, etc., contain more than 6 per cent. of fat, but as many of the fish that are used for food contain less than this, they are somewhat dry and are improved considerably by the addition of a well-seasoned and highly flavored sauce. Then, too, some fish contain very few extractives, which, when present, as has been learned, are the source of flavor in food. As some of the methods of cooking, boiling in particular, dissolve the few extractives that fish contain and cause the loss of much of the nutritive material, it becomes almost necessary to serve a sauce with fish so prepared, if a tasty dish is to be the result.

32. The sauces that may be used with fish are numerous, and the one to select depends somewhat on the cookery method employed and the preference of those to whom the fish is served. Among the recipes that follow will be found sauces suitable for any method that may be used in the preparation of fish. A little experience with them will enable the housewife to determine the ones that are most satisfactory as to both flavor and nutritive value for the different varieties of fish she uses and the methods of cookery she employs.


2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 c. thin cream
Salt and pepper
Juice of 1 lemon or 1 Tb. vinegar

Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the flour, and continue stirring until the two are well mixed. Add to this the thin cream and stir until the mixture is thick and boils. Season with salt, pepper, and the juice of the lemon or the vinegar.


2 Tb. butter
1 slice of onion
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 c. milk
1/4 c. tomato purée
1/4 c. chopped pimiento

Brown the butter with the onion, add the flour, salt, and pepper, and stir until well blended. Add the milk and allow the mixture to cook until it thickens. To this add the tomato and pimiento. Heat thoroughly and serve.


1 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
2 Tb. peanut butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 c. meat stock

Melt the butter and add the flour and peanut butter. When they are well mixed, allow them to brown slightly. Add the salt and pepper to this mixture and pour into it the meat stock. Bring to the boiling point and serve.


1/2 c. cream
1/4 c. boiled salad dressing
2 Tb. grated horseradish
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. paprika
1/4 tsp. mustard

Whip the cream until stiff; then add the salad dressing, horseradish, salt, paprika, and mustard. When well blended, the sauce is ready to serve.


2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
3/4 c. milk
/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. vinegar
1 egg
1 Tb. chopped parsley

Melt the butter, add the flour, and stir until well blended. Add the milk, salt, and pepper, and cook until the mixture thickens. To this add the vinegar, the egg chopped fine, and the chopped parsley. Heat thoroughly and serve.


2 c. tomato purée
1 small onion, sliced
1 bay leaf
6 cloves
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Strain stewed tomato to make the purée. Put this over the fire in a saucepan with the sliced onion, the bay leaf, and the cloves. Cook slowly for about 10 minutes. Strain to remove the onion, bay leaf, and cloves. Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and pepper, and into this pour the hot tomato. Cook until it thickens and serve.


2 Tb. butter
1 slice of carrot
1 slice of onion
Sprig of parsley
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. flour
1 c. meat stock
1/2 c. mushrooms
2 tsp. lemon juice

Put the butter in a frying pan with the carrot, onion, parsley, salt, and pepper, and cook together until brown. Remove the onion, carrot, and parsley. Stir in the flour, brown it slightly, and then add the meat stock. Cook together until thickened. Just before removing from the fire, add the mushrooms, chopped into fine pieces, and the lemon juice. Allow it to heat thoroughly and then serve.


1/4 c. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1-1/2 c. hot water
2 hard-cooked eggs

Melt the butter, and add the flour, salt, and pepper. Pour into this the hot water, and cook until the mixture thickens. Slice the eggs into 1/4-inch slices and add these to the sauce just before removing from the stove.

33. STUFFING FOR FISH.–As has been mentioned, fish that is to be baked is often stuffed before it is put into the oven. The stuffing not only helps to preserve the shape of the fish, but also provides a means of extending the flavor of the fish to a starchy food, for bread or cracker crumbs are used in the preparation of most stuffings. Three recipes for fish stuffing are here given, the first being made of bread crumbs and having hot water for the liquid, the second of cracker crumbs and having milk for the liquid, and the third of bread crumbs and having stewed tomato for the liquid.


1/4 c. butter
1/2 c. hot water
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 tsp. onion juice
1 Tb. chopped parsley
2 c. fine bread crumbs

Melt the butter in the hot water, add the salt, pepper, onion juice, and parsley, and pour over the crumbs. Mix thoroughly and use to stuff the fish.


1/2 c. milk
2 c. cracker crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/4 c. melted butter
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1 egg

Warm the milk and add it to the crumbs, together with the salt, pepper, melted butter, and parsley. To this mixture, add the beaten egg. When well mixed, use as stuffing for fish.


2 Tb. butter
1 Tb. finely chopped onion
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 Tb. chopped sour pickles
1/2 c. stewed tomato
2 c. stale bread crumbs

Melt the butter and add the onion, parsley, salt, pepper, pickles, and tomato. Pour this mixture over the crumbs, mix all thoroughly, and use to stuff the fish. If the dressing seems to require more liquid than the stewed tomato, add a little water.


34. BOILED FISH.–Boiling extracts flavor and, to some extent, nutriment from the food to which this cookery method is applied. Therefore, unless the fish to be cooked is one that has a very strong flavor and that will be improved by the loss of flavor, it should not be boiled. Much care should be exercised in boiling fish, because the meat is usually so tender that it is likely to boil to pieces or to fall apart.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

35. A utensil in which fish can be boiled or steamed very satisfactorily is shown in Fig. 16. This _fish boiler_, as it is called, is a long, narrow, deep pan with a cover and a rack on which the fish is placed. Attached to each end of the rack is an upright strip, or handle, that permits the rack containing the fish to be lifted out of the pan and the fish thus removed without breaking. To assist further in holding the fish together while it is cooking, a piece of gauze or cheesecloth may be wrapped around the fish before it is put into the pan.

36. When a fish is to be boiled, clean it and, if desired, remove the head. Pour sufficient boiling water to cover the fish well into the vessel in which it is to be cooked, and add salt in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful to each quart of water. Tie the fish in a strip of cheesecloth or gauze if necessary, and lower it into the vessel of slowly boiling water. Allow the fish to boil until it may be easily pierced with a fork; then take it out of the water and remove the cloth, provided one is used. Serve with a well-seasoned sauce, such as lemon cream, horseradish, etc.

37. BOILED COD.–A fish that lends itself well to boiling is fresh cod. In fact, codfish prepared according to this method and served with a sauce makes a very appetizing dish.

Scale, clean, and skin a fresh cod and wrap it in a single layer of gauze or cheesecloth. Place it in a kettle or a pan of freshly boiling water to which has been added 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water. Boil until the fish may be easily pierced with a fork, take from the water, and remove the gauze or cheesecloth carefully so as to keep the fish intact. Serve with sauce and slices of lemon.

38. STEAMED FISH.–The preparation of fish by steaming is practically the same as that by boiling, and produces a dish similar to boiled fish. The only difference is that steamed fish is suspended over the water and is cooked by the steam that rises instead of being cooked directly in the water. Because the fish is not surrounded by water, it does not lose its nutriment and flavor so readily as does boiled fish.

If fish is to be cooked by steaming, first clean it thoroughly. Wrap in a strip of gauze or cheesecloth and place in a steamer. Steam until tender, and then remove the cloth and place the fish on a platter. As steaming does not add flavor, it is usually necessary to supply flavor to fish cooked in this way by adding a sauce of some kind.

39. BROILED FISH.–The best way in which to cook small fish, thin strips of fish, or even good-sized fish that are comparatively thin when they are split open is to broil them. Since in this method of cooking the flavor is entirely retained, it is especially desirable for any fish of delicate flavor.

To broil fish, sear them quickly over a very hot fire and then cook them more slowly until they are done, turning frequently to prevent burning. As most fish, and particularly the small ones used for broiling, contain almost no fat, it is necessary to supply fat for successful broiling and improvement of flavor. It is difficult to add fat to the fish while it is broiling, so, as a rule, the fat is spread over the surface of the fish after it has been removed from the broiler. The fat may consist of broiled strips of bacon or salt pork, or it may be merely melted butter or other fat.

40. BROILED SCROD WITH POTATO BORDER.–Young cod that is split down the back and that has had the backbone removed with the exception of a small portion near the tail is known as _scrod_. Such fish is nearly always broiled, it may be served plain, but it is much more attractive when potatoes are combined with it in the form of an artistic border.

To prepare this dish, broil the scrod according to the directions given in Art. 39. Then place it on a hot platter and spread butter over it. Boil the desired number of potatoes until they are tender, and then force them through a ricer or mash them until they are perfectly fine. Season with salt, pepper, and butter, and add sufficient milk to make a paste that is a trifle stiffer than for mashed potatoes. If desired, raw eggs may also be beaten into the potatoes to serve as a part of the moisture. Fill a pastry bag with the potatoes thus prepared and press them through a rosette tube in any desired design on the platter around the fish. Bake in a hot oven until the potatoes are thoroughly heated and are browned slightly on the top.

41. BROILED FRESH MACKEREL.–Probably no fish lends itself better to broiling than fresh mackerel, as the flesh of this fish is tender and contains sufficient fat to have a good flavor. To improve the flavor, however, strips of bacon are usually placed over the fish and allowed to broil with it.

Clean and skin a fresh mackerel. Place the fish thus prepared in a broiler, and broil first on one side and then on the other. When seared all over, place strips of bacon over the fish and continue to broil until it is done. Remove from the broiler, season with salt and pepper, and serve.

42. BROILED SHAD ROE.–The mass of eggs found in shad, as shown in Fig. 17, is known as the _roe_ of shad. Roe may be purchased separately, when it is found in the markets from January 1 to June 1, or it may be procured from the fish itself. It makes a delicious dish when broiled, especially when it is rolled in fat and bread crumbs.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

Wash the roe that is to be used and dry it carefully between towels. Roll it in bacon fat or melted butter and then in fine crumbs. Place in a broiler, broil until completely done on one side, turn and then broil until entirely cooked on the other side. Remove from the broiler and pour melted butter over each piece. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

43. BAKED FISH.–Good-sized fish, that is, fish weighing 4 or 5 pounds, are usually baked. When prepared by this method, fish are very satisfactory if they are spread out on a pan, flesh side up, and baked in a very hot oven with sufficient fat to flavor them well. A fish of large size, however, is especially delicious if its cavity is filled with a stuffing before it is baked.

When a fish is to be stuffed, any desired stuffing is prepared and then filled into the fish in the manner shown in Fig. 18. With the cavity well filled, the edges of the fish are drawn together over the stuffing and sewed with a coarse needle and thread, as Fig. 19 shows.

Whether the fish is stuffed or not, the same principles apply in its baking as apply in the roasting of meat; that is, the heat of a quick, hot oven sears the flesh, keeps in the juices, and prevents the loss of flavor, while that of a slow oven causes the loss of much of the flavor and moisture and produces a less tender dish.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

44. Often, in the baking of fish, it is necessary to add fat. This may be done by putting fat of some kind into the pan with the fish, by spreading strips of bacon over the fish, or by larding it. In the dry varieties of fish, larding, which is illustrated in Fig. 20, proves very satisfactory, for it supplies the substance in which the fish is most lacking. As will be observed, larding is done by inserting strips of bacon or salt pork that are about 3 inches long and 1/4 inch thick into gashes cut into the sides of the fish.

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

45. BAKED HADDOCK.–As haddock is a good-sized fish, it is an especially suitable one for baking. However, it is a dry fish, so fat should be added to it to improve its flavor. Any of the methods suggested in Art. 44 may be used to supply the fat that this fish needs.

When haddock is to be baked, select a 4 or 5-pound fish, clean it thoroughly, boning it if desired, and sprinkle it inside and out with salt. Fill the cavity with any desired stuffing and sew up. Place in a dripping pan, and add some bacon fat or a piece of salt pork, or place several slices of bacon around it. Bake in a hot oven for about 1 hour. After it has been in the oven for about 15 minutes, baste with the fat that will be found in the bottom of the pan and continue to baste every 10 minutes until the fish is done. Remove from the pan to a platter, garnish with parsley and slices of broiled bacon, and serve with any desired sauce.

46. BAKED HALIBUT.–Because of its size, halibut is cut into slices and sold in the form of steaks. It is probably one of the most economical varieties of fish to buy, for very little bone is contained in a slice and the money that the housewife expends goes for almost solid meat. Halibut slices are often sautéd, but they make a delicious dish when baked with tomatoes and flavored with onion, lemon, and bay leaf, as described in the accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. tomatoes
Few slices onion
1 bay leaf
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 thin slices bacon
1 Tb. flour
2 lb. halibut steak

Heat the tomatoes, onion, and bay leaf in water. Add the salt and pepper and cook for a few minutes. Cut the bacon into small squares, try it out in a pan, and into this fat stir the flour. Pour this into the hot mixture, remove the bay leaf, and cook until the mixture thickens. Put the steaks into a baking dish, pour the sauce over them, and bake in a slow oven for about 45 minutes. Remove with the sauce to a hot platter and serve.

47. BAKED FILLETS OF WHITEFISH.–When whitefish of medium size can be secured, it is very often stuffed and baked whole, but variety can be had by cutting it into fillets before baking it. Besides producing a delicious dish, this method of preparation eliminates carving at the table, for the pieces can be cut the desired size for serving.

Prepare fillets of whitefish according to the directions for filleting fish in Art. 28. Sprinkle each one with salt and pepper, and dip it first into beaten egg and then into bread crumbs. Brown some butter in a pan, place the fish into it, and set the pan in a hot oven. Bake until the fillets are a light brown, or about 30 minutes. Remove to a hot dish, garnish with parsley and serve with any desired sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 21]

48. FILLET OF FLOUNDER.–In appearance, flounder is not so attractive as many other fish, but it is a source of excellent flesh and is therefore much used. A very appetizing way in which to prepare flounder is to fillet it and prepare it according to the accompanying recipe, when it will appear as in Fig. 21.

Secure a flounder and fillet it in the manner explained in Art. 28. Cut each fillet into halves, making eight pieces from one flounder. Cut small strips of salt pork or bacon, roll the pieces of flounder around these, and fasten with a toothpick. Place in a baking dish with a small quantity of water, and bake in a hot oven until a good brown. Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 22]

49. PLANKED FISH.–Like planked steak, planked fish, which is illustrated in Fig. 22, is a dish that appeals to the eye and pleases the taste. The fish is baked on the plank and then surrounded with a border of potatoes, the fish and potatoes making an excellent food.

To prepare planked fish, thoroughly clean and bone a medium-size whitefish, shad, haddock, or any desired fish. Grease a plank and place the fish on it. Lay some strips of bacon across the top of the fish, place in a hot oven, and bake for about 30 minutes or a little longer if necessary. Boil potatoes and prepare them for piping by mashing them, using 4 tablespoonfuls of milk, 1 tablespoonful of butter, and one egg to each 2 cupfuls of potato. Then, with a rosette pastry tube, pipe a border of potatoes around the edge of the plank, so that it will appear as in Fig. 22. Likewise, pipe rosettes of potatoes on the strips of bacon placed on top of the fish. Then replace the plank with the fish and potatoes in the oven, and bake until the potatoes are brown. Garnish with parsley and serve.

50. FRIED FISH.–Very small fish or slices of larger fish are often fried in deep fat. When they are prepared in this way, they are first dipped into beaten egg and then into crumbs or corn meal to form a coating that will cling to their surface. Coated with such a material, they are fried in deep fat until the surface is nicely browned. After being removed from the fat, they should be drained well before serving.

51. FRIED PERCH.–When fried in deep fat, perch is found to be very appetizing. To prepare it in this way, secure a perch and scale and clean it. Cut it crosswise into 2-inch strips, roll each piece in flour, and fry in deep fat until nicely browned. Serve hot with lemon or with a sauce of some kind.

52. FRIED EEL.–If an appetizing way to cook eel is desired, it will be found advisable to fry it in deep fat. When it is to be cooked in this way, skin and clean the eel and cut it into thick slices. Pour some vinegar over the slices, sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and allow them to stand for several hours. Remove the pieces from the vinegar, dip each one into slightly beaten egg and then into flour, and fry in deep fat until well browned. Serve plain or with a sauce.

53. SAUTÉD FISH.–Without doubt, the most popular way to prepare fish is to sauté them. This method may be applied to practically the same kinds of fish that are fried or broiled, and it is especially desirable for the more tasteless varieties. It consists in browning the fish well in a small quantity of fat, first on one side and then on the other. If fat of good flavor is used, such as bacon or ham fat, the flavor of the fish will be very much improved. Before sautéing, the fish or pieces of fish are often dipped into slightly beaten egg and then rolled in flour, very fine cracker crumbs, or corn meal, or the egg is omitted and they are merely covered with the dry, starchy material. The effect of this method of cooking is very similar to that of deep-fat frying, except that the outside tissues are apt to become, very hard from the application of the hot fat because of the coating that is generally used. Since most fish breaks very easily, it is necessary that it be handled carefully in this method in order that the pieces may be kept whole.

[Illustration: FIG. 23]

54. SAUTÉD SMELTS.–To be most satisfactory, smelts are generally sautéd, as shown in Fig. 23. Fish of this kind are prepared for cooking by cutting off the heads and removing the entrails through the opening thus made; or, if it is desired to leave the heads on, the entrails may be removed through the gill or a small slit cut below the mouth. At any rate, these fish are not cut open as are most other fish.