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13. WATER IN MEAT.–The proportion of water in meat varies from one-third to three-fourths of the whole, depending on the amount of fat the meat contains and the age of the animal. This water carries with it the flavor, much of the mineral matter, and some food material, so that when the water is removed from the tissues these things are to a great extent lost. The methods of cookery applied to meat are based on the principle of either retaining or extracting the water that it contains. The meat in which water is retained is more easily chewed and swallowed than that which is dry. However, the water contained in flesh has no greater value as food than other water. Therefore, as will be seen in Fig. 1, the greater the amount of water in a given weight of food, the less is its nutritive value.

14. MINERALS IN MEAT.–Eight or more kinds of minerals in sufficient quantities to be of importance in the diet are to be found in meat. Lean meat contains the most minerals; they decrease in proportion as the amount of fat increases. These salts assist in the building of hard tissues and have a decided effect on the blood. They are lost from the tissues of meat by certain methods of cookery, but as they are in solution in the water in which the meat is cooked, they need not be lost to the diet if use is made of this water for soups, sauces, and gravies.

15. EXTRACTIVES IN MEAT.–The appetizing flavor of meat is due to substances called _extractives_. The typical flavor that serves to distinguish pork from beef or mutton is due to the difference in the extractives. Although necessary for flavoring, these have no nutritive value; in fact, the body throws them off as waste material when they are taken with the food. In some methods of cookery, such as broiling and roasting, the extractives are retained, while in others, such as those employed for making stews and soups, they are drawn out.

Extractives occur in the greatest quantity in the muscles that the animal exercises a great deal and that in reality have become tough. Likewise, a certain part of an old animal contains more extractives than the same part of a young one. For these reasons a very young chicken is broiled while an old one is used for stew, and ribs of beef are roasted while the shins are used for soup.

Meat that is allowed to hang and ripen develops compounds that are similar to extractives and that impart additional flavor. A ripened steak is usually preferred to one cut from an animal that has been killed only a short time. However, as the ripening is in reality a decomposition process, the meat is said to become “high” if it is allowed to hang too long.


16. PURCHASE OF MEAT.–Of all the money that is spent for food in the United States nearly one-third is spent for meat. This proportion is greater than that of any European country and is probably more than is necessary to provide diets that are properly balanced. If it is found that the meat bill is running too high, one or more of several things may be the cause. The one who does the purchasing may not understand the buying of meat, the cheaper cuts may not be used because of a lack of knowledge as to how they should be prepared to make them appetizing, or more meat may be served than is necessary to supply the needs of the family.

Much of this difficulty can be overcome if the person purchasing meat goes to the market personally to see the meat cut and weighed instead of telephoning the order. It is true, of course, that the method of cutting an animal varies in different parts of the country, as does also the naming of the different pieces. However, this need give the housewife no concern, for the dealer from whom the meat is purchased is usually willing to supply any information that is desired about the cutting of meat and the best use for certain pieces. In fact, if the butcher is competent, this is a very good source from which to obtain a knowledge of such matters.

Another way in which to reduce the meat bill is to utilize the trimmings of bone and fat from pieces of meat. In most cases, these are of no value to the butcher, so that if a request for them is made, he will, as a rule, be glad to wrap them up with the meat that is purchased. They are of considerable value to the housewife, for the bones may go into the stock pot, while the fat, if it is tried out, can be used for many things.

17. The quantity of meat to purchase depends, of course, on the number of persons that are to be served with it. However, it is often a good plan to purchase a larger piece than is required for a single meal and then use what remains for another meal. For instance, a large roast is always better than a small one, because it does not dry out in the process of cookery and the part that remains after one meal may be served cold in slices or used for making some other dish, such as meat pie or hash. Such a plan also saves both time and fuel, because sufficient meat for several meals may be cooked at one time.

In purchasing meat, there are certain pieces that should never be asked for by the pound or by the price. For instance, the housewife should not say to the butcher, “Give me 2 pounds of porterhouse steak,” nor should she say, “Give me 25 cents worth of chops.” Steak should be bought by the cut, and the thickness that is desired should be designated. For example, the housewife may ask for an inch-thick sirloin steak, a 2-inch porterhouse steak, and so on. Chops should be bought according to the number of persons that are to be served, usually a chop to a person being quite sufficient. Rib roasts should be bought by designating the number of ribs. Thus, the housewife may ask for a rib roast containing two, three, four, or more ribs, depending on the size desired. Roasts from other parts of beef, such as chuck or rump roasts, may be cut into chunks of almost any desirable size without working a disadvantage to either the butcher or the customer, and may therefore be bought by the pound. Round bought for steaks should be purchased by the cut, as are other steaks; or, if an entire cut is too large, it may be purchased as upper round or lower round, but the price paid should vary with the piece that is purchased. Round bought for roasts, however, may be purchased by the pound.

18. CARE OF MEAT IN THE MARKET.–Animal foods decompose more readily than any other kind, and the products of their decomposition are extremely dangerous to the health. It is therefore a serious matter when everything that comes in contact with meat is not clean. Regarding the proper care of meat, the sanitary condition of the market is the first consideration. The light and ventilation of the room and the cleanliness of the walls, floors, tables, counters, and other equipment are points of the greatest importance and should be noted by the housewife when she is purchasing meat. Whether the windows and doors are screened and all the meat is carefully covered during the fly season are also matters that should not be overlooked. Then, too, the cleanliness and physical condition of the persons who handle the meat should be of as great concern as the sanitary condition of the market. The housewife who desires to supply her family with the safest and cleanest meat should endeavor to purchase it in markets where all the points pertaining to the sanitary condition are as ideal as possible. If she is at all doubtful as to the freshness and cleanliness of what is sold to her, she should give it thorough cooking in the process of preparation so that no harm will be done to the persons who are to eat it.

19. CARE OF MEAT IN THE HOME.–Because of the perishable nature of meat, the care given it in the market must be continued in the home in order that no deterioration may take place before it is cooked. This is not much of a problem during cold weather, but through the summer months a cool place in which to keep it must be provided unless the meat can be cooked very soon after it is delivered. Meat that must be shipped long distances is frozen before it is shipped and is kept frozen until just before it is used. If such meat is still frozen when it enters the home, it should not be put into a warm place, for then it will thaw too quickly. Instead, it should be put in the refrigerator or in some place where the temperature is a few degrees above freezing point, so that it will thaw slowly and still remain too cold for bacteria to become active.

Even if meat is not frozen, it must receive proper attention after it enters the home. As soon as it is received, it should be removed from the wrapping paper or the wooden or cardboard dish in which it is delivered. If the meat has not been purchased personally, it is advisable to weigh it in order to verify the butcher’s bill. When the housewife is satisfied about the weight, she should place the meat in an earthenware, china, or enameled bowl, cover it, and then put it away in the coolest available place until it is used. Some persons put salt on meat when they desire to keep it, but this practice should be avoided, as salt draws out the juices from raw meat and hardens the tissues to a certain extent.

If such precautions are taken with meat, it will be in good condition when it is to be cooked. However, before any cooking method is applied to it, it should always be wiped with a clean, damp cloth. In addition, all fat should be removed, except just enough to assist in cooking the meat and give it a good flavor. Bone or tough portions may also be removed if they can be used to better advantage for soups or stews.

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20. It is in the preparation of food, and of meat in particular, that one of the marked differences between uncivilized and civilized man is evident. Raw meat, which is preferred by the savage, does not appeal to the appetite of most civilized persons; in fact, to the majority of them the idea of using it for food is disgusting. Therefore, civilized man prepares his meat before eating it, and the higher his culture, the more perfect are his methods of preparation.

While it is probably true that most of the methods of cookery render meat less easy to digest than in its raw condition, this disadvantage is offset by the several purposes for which this food is cooked. Meat is cooked chiefly to loosen and soften the connective tissue and thus cause the muscle tissues to be exposed more fully to the action of the digestive juices. Another important reason for cooking meat is that subjecting it to the action of heat helps to kill bacteria and parasites. In addition, meat is cooked to make it more attractive to the eye and to develop and improve its flavor.


21. The result desired when meat is cooked has much to do with the method of cookery to choose, for different methods produce different results. To understand this, it will be necessary to know just what the action of cooking is on the material that meat contains. When raw meat is cut, the tiny meat fibers are laid open, with the result that, in the application of the cooking process, the albuminous material either is lost, or, like the albumen of eggs, is coagulated, or hardened, and thus retained. Therefore, before preparing a piece of meat, the housewife should determine which of these two things she wishes to accomplish and then proceed to carry out the process intelligently.

The methods of cookery that may be applied to meat include broiling, pan broiling, roasting, stewing or simmering, braizing, frying, sautéing, and fricasseeing. All of these methods are explained in a general way in _Essentials of Cookery_, Part 1, but explanations of them as they apply to meat are here given in order to acquaint the housewife with the advantages and disadvantages of the various ways by which this food can be prepared.

22. BROILING AND PAN BROILING.–Only such cuts of meats as require short cooking can be prepared by the methods of broiling and pan broiling. To carry out these methods successfully, severe heat must be applied to the surface of the meat so that the albumin in the ends of the muscle fibers may be coagulated at once. This presents, during the remainder of the preparation, a loss of the meat juices.

Meat to which either of these methods is applied will be indigestible on the surface and many times almost uncooked in the center, as in the case of rare steak. Such meat, however, is more digestible than thin pieces that are thoroughly cooked at the very high temperature required for broiling.

23. ROASTING.–The process of roasting, either in the oven or in a pot on top of the stove, to be properly done, requires that the piece of meat to be roasted must first be seared over the entire surface by the application of severe heat. In the case of a pot roast, the searing can be done conveniently in the pot before the pot-roasting process begins. If the meat is to be roasted in the oven, it may be seared first in a pan on top of the stove. However, it may be seared to some extent by placing it in a very hot oven and turning it over so that all the surface is exposed. Then, to continue the roasting process, the temperature must be lowered just a little.

The roasting pan may be of any desirable size and shape that is convenient and sufficiently large to accommodate the meat to be prepared. A pan like that shown in Fig. 2 is both convenient and satisfactory. It is provided with a cover that fits tight. In this cover, as shown, is an opening that may be closed or opened so as to regulate the amount of moisture inside the pan. In the bottom of the pan is a rack upon which the meat may rest.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

24. To prepare meat for roasting, flour should be sprinkled or rubbed over its lean surface before it is put in the pan. This forms a paste that cooks into a crust and prevents the loss of juices from the meat. In roasting, the heat is applied longer and more slowly than in broiling or frying, so that there is more possibility for the connective tissue beneath the surface to soften. The surface is, however, as indigestible as that of broiled meat.

An important point for every housewife to remember in this connection is that the larger the roast the slower should be the fire. This is due to the fact that long before the heat could penetrate to the center, the outside would be burned. A small roast, however, will be more delicious if it is prepared with a very hot fire, for then the juices will not have a chance to evaporate and the tissues will be more moist and tasty.

25. FRYING AND SAUTÉING.–When meat is fried or sautéd, that is, brought directly in contact with hot fat, it is made doubly indigestible, because of the hardening of the surface tissues and the indigestibility of the fat that penetrates these tissues. This is especially true of meat that is sautéd slowly in a small quantity of hot fat. Much of this difficulty can be overcome, however, if meat prepared by these methods, like that which is broiled or roasted, is subjected quickly to intense heat. In addition, the fat used for cooking should be made hot before the meat is put into it.

26. BOILING.–To boil meat means to cook it a long time in water at a temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit. This method of preparing meat is not strongly advocated, for there is seldom a time when better results cannot be obtained by cooking meat at a lower temperature than boiling point. The best plan is to bring the meat to the boiling point, allow it to boil for a short time, and then reduce the temperature so that the meat will simmer for the remainder of the cooking.

In cooking meat by boiling, a grayish scum appears on the surface just before the boiling point is reached. This scum is caused by the gradual extraction of a part of the soluble albumin that is present in the hollow fibers of the muscle tissue. After its extraction, it is coagulated by the heat in the water. As it coagulates and rises, it carries with it to the top particles of dirt and other foreign material present in the water or on the surface of the meat. In addition, this scum contains a little blood, which is extracted and coagulated and which tends to make it grayish in color. Such scum should be skimmed off, as it is unappetizing in appearance.

27. Whether the meat should be put into cold water or boiling water depends on the result that is desired. It is impossible to make a rich, tasty broth and at the same time have a juicy, well-flavored piece of boiled meat. If meat is cooked for the purpose of making soup or broth, it should be put into cold water and then brought to a boil. By this method, some of the nutritive material and much of the flavoring substance will be drawn out before the water becomes hot enough to harden them. However, in case only the meat is to be used, it should be plunged directly into boiling water in order to coagulate the surface at once, as in the application of dry heat. If it is allowed to boil for 10 minutes or so and the temperature then reduced, the coating that is formed will prevent the nutritive material and the flavor from being lost to any great extent. But if the action of the boiling water is permitted to continue during the entire time of cooking, the tissues will become tough and dry.

28. STEWING OR SIMMERING.–The cheap cuts of meat, which contain a great deal of flavor and are so likely to be tough, cannot be prepared by the quick methods of cookery nor by the application of high temperature, for the result would be a tough, indigestible, and unpalatable dish. The long, slow cooking at a temperature lower than boiling point, which is known as stewing or simmering, should be applied. In fact, no better method for the preparation of tough pieces of meat and old fowl can be found than this process, for by it the connective tissue and the muscle fibers are softened. If the method is carried out in a tightly closed vessel and only a small amount of liquid is used, there is no appreciable loss of flavor except that carried into the liquid in which the meat cooks. But since such liquid is always used, the meat being usually served in it, as in the case of stews, there is no actual loss.

To secure the best results in the use of this method, the meat should be cut into small pieces so as to expose as much surface as possible. Then the pieces should be put into cold water rather than hot, in order that much of the juices and flavoring materials may be dissolved. When this has been accomplished, the temperature should be gradually raised until it nearly reaches the boiling point. If it is kept at this point for several hours, the meat will become tender and juicy and a rich, tasty broth will also be obtained.

29. BRAIZING.–Meat cooked by the method of braizing, which is in reality a combination of stewing and baking, is first subjected to the intense dry heat of the oven and then cooked slowly in the steam of the water that surrounds it. To cook meat in this way, a pan must be used that will permit the meat to be raised on a rack that extends above a small quantity of water. By this method a certain amount of juice from the meat is taken up by the water, but the connective tissue is well softened unless the cooking is done at too high a temperature.

30. FRICASSEEING.–As has already been learned, fricasseeing is a combination of sautéing and stewing. The sautéing coagulates the surface proteins and prevents, to some extent, the loss of flavor that would occur in the subsequent stewing if the surface were not hardened. To produce a tender, tasty dish, fricasseeing should be a long, slow process. This method is seldom applied to tender, expensive cuts of meat and to young chickens, but is used for fowl and for pieces of meat that would not make appetizing dishes if prepared by a quicker method.


31. The length of time required for cooking various kinds of meat is usually puzzling to those inexperienced in cookery. The difference between a dry, hard beef roast and a tender, moist, juicy one is due to the length of time allowed for cooking. Overdone meats of any kind are not likely to be tasty. Therefore, it should be remembered that when dry heat is used, as in baking, roasting, broiling, etc., the longer the heat is applied the greater will be the evaporation of moisture and the consequent shrinkage in the meat.

A general rule for cooking meat in the oven is to allow 15 minutes for each pound and 15 minutes extra. If it is to be cooked by broiling, allow 10 minutes for each pound and 10 minutes extra; by boiling, 20 minutes for each pound and 20 minutes extra; and by simmering, 30 minutes for each pound. In Table I is given the number of minutes generally allowed for cooking 1 pound of each of the various cuts of beef, veal, mutton, lamb, and pork by the different cookery methods. This table should be referred to in studying the two Sections pertaining to meat.



Round Roasting 12 to 15 Ribs Roasting, well done 12 to 15 Ribs Roasting, rare 8 to 10
Rump Roasting 12 to 15 Sirloin Roasting, rare 8 to 10
Rolled roast Roasting 12 to 15 Steaks Broiling, well done 12 to 15 Steaks Broiling, rare 8 to 10
Fresh beef Boiling 20 to 25 Corned beef Boiling 25 to 30
Any cut Simmering 30
Chuck Braizing 25 to 30

Leg Roasting 20
Chops or steak Broiling 8 to 30 Shoulder Braizing 30 to 40

Leg Roasting 15 to 20
Shoulder Roasting 15 to 20 Leg Braizing 40 to 50
Leg Boiling 15 to 25
Chops Broiling 10 to 12

Loin or saddle Roasting 15 to 20 Leg Roasting 15 to 20
Chops Broiling 8 to 10

Shoulder or ribs Roasting 20 to 25 Ham Boiled 20 to 30
Chops Broiled 8 to 10

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32. As is generally known, BEEF is the flesh of a slaughtered steer, cow, or other adult bovine animal. These animals may be sold to be slaughtered as young as 1-1/2 to 2 years old, but beef of the best quality is obtained from them when they are from 3 to 4 years of age. Ranging from the highest quality down to the lowest, beef is designated by the butcher as prime, extra fancy, fancy, extra choice, choice, good, and poor. In a market where trade is large and varied, it is possible to make such use of meat as to get a higher price for the better qualities than can be obtained in other markets.

33. When the quality of beef is to be determined, the amount, quality, and color of the flesh, bone, and fat must be considered. The surface of a freshly cut piece of beef should be bright red in color. When it is exposed to the air for some time, the action of the air on the blood causes it to become darker, but even this color should be a good clear red. Any unusual color is looked on with suspicion by a person who understands the requirements of good meat. To obtain beef of the best quality, it should be cut crosswise of the fiber. In fact, the way in which meat is cut determines to a great extent the difference between tender and tough meat and, consequently, the price that is charged. This difference can be readily seen by examining the surface of a cut. It will be noted that the tender parts are made up of short fibers that are cut directly across at right angles with the surface of the meat, while the tougher parts contain long fibers that run either slanting or almost parallel to the surface.

34. The amount of bone and cartilage in proportion to meat in a cut of beef usually makes a difference in price and determines the usefulness of the piece to the housewife. Therefore, these are matters that should be carefully considered. For instance, a certain cut of beef that is suitable for a roast may cost a few cents less than another cut, but if its proportion of bone to meat is greater than in the more expensive piece, nothing is gained by purchasing it. Bones, however, possess some value and can be utilized in various ways. Those containing _marrow_, which is the soft tissue found in the cavities of bones and composed largely of fat, are more valuable for soup making and for stews and gravies than are solid bones.

In young beef in good condition, the fat is creamy white in color. However, as the animal grows older, the color grows darker until it becomes a deep yellow.

Besides the flesh, bone, and fat, the general shape and thickness of a piece of beef should be noted when its quality is to be determined. In addition, its adaptability to the purpose for which it is selected and the method of cookery to be used in its preparation are also points that should not be overlooked.

* * * * *



[Illustration: Fig. 3]

35. With the general characteristics of beef well in mind, the housewife is prepared to learn of the way in which the animal is cut to produce the different pieces that she sees in the butcher shop and the names that are given to the various cuts. The cutting of the animal, as well as the naming of the pieces, varies in different localities, but the difference is not sufficient to be confusing. Therefore, if the information here given is thoroughly mastered, the housewife will be able to select meat intelligently in whatever section of the country she may reside. An important point for her to remember concerning meat of any kind is that the cheaper cuts are found near the neck, legs, and shins, and that the pieces increase in price as they go toward the back.

[Illustration: Fig. 4 *divisions of a cow into cuts*]

36. The general method of cutting up a whole beef into large cuts is shown in Fig. 3. After the head, feet, and intestines are removed, the carcass is cut down along the spine and divided into halves. Each half includes an entire side and is known as a _side of beef_. Then each side is divided into _fore_ and _hind quarters_ along the diagonal line that occurs about midway between the front and the back. It is in this form that the butcher usually receives the beef. He first separates it into the large pieces here indicated and then cuts these pieces into numerous smaller ones having names that indicate their location. For instance, the piece marked _a_ includes the _chuck_; _b_, the _ribs_; _c_, the _loin_; _d_, the _round_; _e_, the _flank_; _f_, the _plate_; and _g_, the _shin_.

37. The cuts that are obtained from these larger pieces are shown in Fig. 4. For instance, from the chuck, as illustrated in (_a_), are secured numerous cuts, including the neck, shoulder clod, shoulder, and chuck ribs. The same is true of the other pieces, as a careful study of these illustrations will reveal. Besides indicating the various cuts, each one of these illustrations serves an additional purpose. From (_a_), which shows the skeleton of the beef, the amount and the shape of the bone that the various cuts contain can be readily observed. From (_b_), which shows the directions in which the surface muscle fibers run, can be told whether the cutting of the pieces is done across the fibers or in the same direction as the fibers. Both of these matters are of such importance to the housewife that constant reference to these illustrations should be made until the points that they serve to indicate are thoroughly understood.


38. So that a still better idea may be formed of the pieces into which a side of beef may be cut, reference should be made to Fig. 5. The heavy line through the center shows where the side is divided in order to cut it into the fore and hind quarters. As will be observed, the fore quarter includes the chuck, prime ribs, and whole plate, and the hind quarter, the loin and the round, each of these large pieces being indicated by a different color.

To make these large pieces of a size suitable for sale to the consumer, the butcher cuts each one of them into still smaller pieces, all of which are indicated in the illustration. The names of these cuts, together with their respective uses, and the names of the beef organs and their uses, are given in Table II.




Chuck……..Neck Soups, broths, stews Shoulder clod Soups, broths, stews, boiling, corning
Ribs (11th, 12th, Brown stews, braizing, and 13th) poor roasts
Ribs (9th and 10th) Braizing, roasts Shoulder Soups, stews, corning, roast Cross-ribs Roast
Brisket Soups, stews, corning Shin Soups

Prime Ribs…Ribs (1st to 8th, Roasts inclusive)

Whole Plate..Plate Soups, stews, corning Navel Soups, stews, corning

Loin………Short steak Steaks, roasts Porterhouse cuts Steaks, roasts Hip-bone steak Steaks, roasts
Flat-bone steak Steaks, roasts Round-bone steak Steaks, roasts Sirloin Steaks
Top sirloin Roasts
Flank Rolled steak, braizing, boiling Tenderloin Roast

Round……..Rump Roasts, corning Upper round Steaks, roasts
Lower round Steaks, pot roasts, stews Vein Stews, soups
Shank Soups

Beef Organs..Liver Broiling, frying Heart Baking, braizing
Tongue Boiling, baking, braizing Tail Soup

39. As will be observed from Fig. 5, the ribs are numbered in the opposite direction from the way in which they are ordinarily counted; that is, the first rib in a cut of beef is the one farthest from the head and the thirteenth is the one just back of the neck. The first and second ribs are called the _back ribs_; the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth, the _middle ribs_. To prepare the ribs for sale, they are usually cut into pieces that contain two ribs, the first and second ribs being known as the first cut, the third and fourth as _the second_ cut, etc. After being sawed across, the rib bones are either left in to make a _standing rib roast_ or taken out and the meat then rolled and fastened together with skewers to make a _rolled roast_. _Skewers,_ which are long wooden or metal pins that may be pushed through meat to fasten it together, will be found useful to the housewife in preparing many cuts of meat for cooking. They may usually be obtained at a meat market or a hardware store.

40. Certain of the organs of beef are utilized to a considerable extent, so that while they cannot be shown in Fig. 5, they are included in Table II. The heart and the tongue are valuable both because they are economical and because they add variety to the meat diet of the family. The tongue, either smoked or fresh, may be boiled and then served hot, or it may be pickled in vinegar and served cold. The heart may be prepared in the same way, or it may be stuffed and then baked. The tail of beef makes excellent soup and is much used for this purpose.

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41. Steaks Obtained From the Loin.–The way in which a loin of beef is cut into steaks is shown in Fig. 6. From _a_ to _b_ are cut _Delmonico steaks;_ from _b_ to _c_, _porterhouse steaks;_ from _c_ to _d_, _hip-bone steaks;_ from _d_ to _e_, _flat-bone steaks;_ and from _e_ to _f_, _sirloin steaks_. The _loin_ is cut from the rump at _f_ and from the flank and plate at _h_ to _j_. When steaks are cut from the flesh of animals in good condition, they are all very tender and may be used for the quick methods of cookery, such as broiling. A very good idea of what each of these steaks looks like can be obtained from Figs. 7 to 11, inclusive. Each of these illustrations shows the entire section of steak, as well as one steak cut from the piece.

DELMONICO STEAK, which is shown in Fig. 7, is the smallest steak that can be cut from the loin and is therefore an excellent cut for a small family. It contains little or no tenderloin. Sometimes this steak is wrongly called a club steak, but no confusion will result if it is remembered that a _club steak_ is a porterhouse steak that has most of the bone and the flank end, or “tail,” removed.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

Porterhouse steak, which is illustrated in Fig 8, contains more tenderloin than any other steak. This steak also being small in size is a very good cut for a small number of persons.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

_Hip-bone steak_, shown in Fig. 9, contains a good-sized piece of tenderloin. Steak of this kind finds much favor, as it can be served quite advantageously.

Flat-bone steak, as shown in Fig. 10, has a large bone, but it also contains a considerable amount of fairly solid meat. When a large number of persons are to be served, this is a very good steak to select.

Sirloin steak is shown in Fig. 11. As will be observed, this steak contains more solid meat than any of the other steaks cut from the loin. For this reason, it serves a large number of persons more advantageously than the others do.

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

42. Steaks Obtained From the Round.–While the steaks cut from the loin are usually preferred because of their tenderness, those cut from the upper round and across the rump are very desirable for many purposes. If these are not so tender as is desired, the surface may be chopped with a dull knife in order to make tiny cuts through the fibers, or it may be pounded with some blunt object, as, for instance, a wooden potato masher. In Fig. 12, the entire round and the way it is sometimes subdivided into the upper and lower round are shown. What is known as a round steak is a slice that is cut across the entire round. However, such a steak is often cut into two parts where the line dividing the round is shown, and either the upper or the lower piece may be purchased. The upper round is the better piece and brings a higher price than the whole round or the lower round including the vein. The quick methods of cookery may be applied to the more desirable cuts of the round, but the lower round or the vein is generally used for roasting, braizing, or stewing.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

43. Broiled Beefsteak.–As has already been explained, the steaks cut from the loin are the ones that are generally used for broiling. When one of these steaks is to be broiled, it should never be less than 1 inch thick, but it may be from 1 to 2-1/2 inches in thickness, according to the preference of the persons for whom it is prepared. As the flank end, or “tail,” of such steaks is always tough, it should be cut off before cooking and utilized in the making of soups and such dishes as require chopped meats. In addition, all superfluous fat should be removed and then tried out. Beef fat, especially if it is mixed with lard or other fats, makes excellent shortening; likewise, it may be used for sautéing various foods.

When a steak has been prepared in this manner, wipe it carefully with a clean, damp cloth. Heat the broiler very hot and grease the rack with a little of the beef fat. Then place the steak on the rack, expose it directly to the rays of a very hot fire, and turn it every 10 seconds until each side has been exposed several times to the blaze. This is done in order to sear the entire surface and thus prevent the loss of the juice. When the surface is sufficiently seared, lower the fire or move the steak to a cooler place on the stove and then, turning it frequently, allow it to cook more slowly until it reaches the desired condition. The broiling of a steak requires from 10 to 20 minutes, depending on its thickness and whether it is preferred well done or rare. Place the broiled steak on a hot platter, dot it with butter, season it with salt and pepper, and serve at once.

44. Pan-Broiled Steak.–If it is impossible to prepare the steak in a broiler, it may be pan-broiled. In fact, this is a very satisfactory way to cook any of the tender cuts. To carry out this method, place a heavy frying pan directly over the fire and allow it to become so hot that the fat will smoke when put into it. Grease the pan with a small piece of the beef fat, just enough to prevent the steak from sticking fast. Put the steak into the hot pan and turn it as soon as it is seared on the side that touches the pan. After it is seared on the other side, turn it again and continue to turn it frequently until it has broiled for about 15 minutes. When it is cooked sufficiently to serve, dot it with butter and season it with salt and pepper. Serve hot.

45. ROLLED STEAK, OR MOCK DUCK.–To have a delicious meat, it is not always necessary to secure the tender, expensive cuts, for excellent dishes can be prepared from the cheaper pieces. For instance, steaks cut from the entire round or thin cuts from the rump can be filled with a stuffing and then rolled to make rolled steak, or mock duck. This is an extremely appetizing dish and affords the housewife a chance to give her family a pleasing variety in the way of meat. The steak used for this purpose should first be broiled in the way explained in Art. 43. Then it should be filled with a stuffing made as follows:


1 qt. stale bread crumbs
1 c. stewed tomatoes
1 small onion
1 Tb. salt
2 Tb. butter
1/4 Tb. pepper
1 c. hot water

[Illustration: FIG. 13] Mix all together. Pile on top of the broiled steak and roll the steak so that the edges lap over each other and the dressing is completely covered. Fasten together with skewers or tie by wrapping a cord around the roll. Strips of bacon or salt pork tied to the outside or fastened with small skewers improve the flavor of the meat. Place in a roasting pan and bake in a hot oven until the steak is thoroughly baked. This will require not less than 40 minutes. Cut into slices and serve hot.

46. SKIRT STEAK.–Lying inside the ribs and extending from the second or third rib to the breast bone is a thin strip of muscle known as a skirt steak. This is removed before the ribs are cut for roasts, and, as shown in Fig. 13, is slit through the center with a long, sharp knife to form a pocket into which stuffing can be put. As a skirt steak is not expensive and has excellent flavor, it is a very desirable piece of meat.

To prepare such a steak for the table, stuff it with the stuffing given for rolled steak in Art. 45, and then fasten the edges together with skewers. Bake in a hot oven until the steak is well done. Serve hot.

47. SWISS STEAK.–Another very appetizing dish that can be made from the cheaper steaks is Swiss steak. To be most satisfactory, the steak used for this purpose should be about an inch thick.

Pound as much dry flour as possible into both sides of the steak by means of a wooden potato masher. Then brown it on both sides in a hot frying pan with some of the beef fat. When it is thoroughly browned, pour a cup of hot water over it, cover the pan tight, and remove to the back of the stove. Have just enough water on the steak and apply just enough heat to keep it simmering very slowly for about 1/2 hour. As the meat cooks, the water will form a gravy by becoming thickened with the flour that has been pounded into the steak. Serve the steak with this gravy.

48. HAMBURGER STEAK.–The tougher pieces of beef, such as the flank ends of the steak and parts of the rump, the round, and the chuck, may be ground fine by being forced through a food chopper. Such meat is very frequently combined with egg and then formed into small cakes or patties to make Hamburger steak. Besides providing a way to utilize pieces of meat that might otherwise be wasted, this dish affords variety to the diet.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 lb. chopped beef
1 small onion, chopped
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1 egg (if desired)
1/4 tsp. pepper

Mix the ingredients thoroughly and shape into thin patties. Cook by broiling in a pan placed in the broiler or by pan-broiling in a hot, well-greased frying pan. Spread with butter when ready to serve.

49. PLANKED STEAK.–A dish that the housewife generally considers too complicated for her, but that may very readily be prepared in the home, is planked steak. Such a steak gets its name from the fact that a part of its cooking is done on a hardwood plank, and that the steak, together with vegetables of various kinds, is served on the plank. Potatoes are always used as one of the vegetables that are combined with planked steak, but besides them almost any combination or variety of vegetables may be used as a garnish. Asparagus tips, string beans, peas, tiny onions, small carrots, mushrooms, cauliflower, stuffed peppers, and stuffed tomatoes are the vegetables from which a selection is usually made. When a tender steak is selected for this purpose and is properly cooked, and when the vegetables are well prepared and artistically arranged, no dish can be found that appeals more to the eye and the taste.

To prepare this dish, broil or pan-broil one of the better cuts of steak for about 8 minutes. Butter the plank, place the steak on the center of it and season with salt and pepper. Mash potatoes and to each 2 cupfuls use 4 tablespoonfuls of milk, 1 tablespoonful of butter, and one egg. After these materials have been mixed well into the potatoes, arrange a border of potatoes around the edge of the plank. Then garnish the steak with whatever vegetables have been selected. Care should be taken to see that these are properly cooked and well seasoned. If onions, mushrooms, or carrots are used, it is well to sauté them in butter after they are thoroughly cooked. With the steak thus prepared, place the plank under the broiler or in a hot oven and allow it to remain there long enough to brown the potatoes, cook the steak a little more, and thoroughly heat all the vegetables.

50. VEGETABLES SERVED WITH STEAK.–If an attractive, as well as a tasty, dish is desired and the housewife has not sufficient time nor the facilities to prepare a planked steak, a good plan is to sauté a vegetable of some kind and serve it over the steak. For this purpose numerous vegetables are suitable, but onions, small mushrooms, and sliced tomatoes are especially desirable. When onions are used, they should be sliced thin and then sautéd in butter until they are soft and brown. Small mushrooms may be prepared in the same way, or they may be sautéd in the fat that remains in the pan after the steak has been removed. Tomatoes that are served over steak should be sliced, rolled in crumbs, and then sautéd.


[Illustration: FIG. 14]

51. FILLET OF BEEF.–A large variety of roasts can be obtained from a side of beef, but by far the most delicious one is the tenderloin, or fillet of beef. This is a long strip of meat lying directly under the chine, or back bone. It is either taken out as a whole, or it is left in the loin to be cut as a part of the steaks that are obtained from this section. When it is removed in a whole piece, as shown in Fig. 14, the steaks that remain in the loin are not so desirable and do not bring such a good price, because the most tender part of each of them is removed.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

Two different methods of cookery are usually applied to the tenderloin of beef. Very often, as Fig. 14 shows, it is cut into slices about 2 inches thick and then broiled, when it is called _broiled fillet_, or _fillet_ mignon. If it is not treated in this way, the whole tenderloin is roasted after being rolled, or larded, with salt pork to supply the fat that it lacks. Whichever way it is cooked, the tenderloin always proves to be an exceptionally tender and delicious cut of beef. However, it is the most expensive piece that can be bought, and so is not recommended when economy must be practiced.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

52. CHUCK ROASTS.–While the pieces cut from the chuck are not so desirable as those obtained from the loin or as the prime ribs, still the chuck yields very good roasts, as Figs. 15 and 16 show. The roast shown in Fig. 15 is the piece just back of the shoulder, and that illustrated in Fig. 16 is cut from the ribs in the chuck. These pieces are of a fairly good quality and if a roast as large as 8 or 10 pounds is desired, they make an economical one to purchase.

53. RIB ROASTS.–Directly back of the chuck, as has already been learned, are the prime ribs. From this part of the beef, which is shown in Figs. 17 and 18, the best rib roasts are secured. Fig. 17 shows the ribs cut off at about the eighth rib and Fig. 18 shows the same set turned around so that the cut surface is at about the first rib, where the best cuts occur. To prepare this piece for roasting, it is often cut around the dark line shown in Fig. 18, and after the back bone and ribs have been removed, is rolled into a roll of solid meat. The thin lower part that is cut off is used for boiling.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

54. When only a small roast is wanted, a single rib, such as is shown in Fig. 19, is often used. In a roast of this kind, the bone is not removed, but, as will be observed, is sawed in half. Such a roast is called a _standing rib roast_. Another small roast, called a _porterhouse roast_, is illustrated in Fig. 20. This is obtained by cutting a porterhouse steak rather thick. It is therefore a very tender and delicious, although somewhat expensive, roast. Other parts of the loin may also be cut for roasts, the portion from which sirloin steaks are cut making large and very delicious roasts.

[Illustration: FIG. 21]

55. RUMP ROASTS.–Between the loin and the bottom round lies the rump, and from this may be cut roasts of different kinds. The entire rump with its cut surface next to the round is shown in Fig. 21, and the various pieces into which the rump may be cut are illustrated in Figs. 22 to 25. These roasts have a very good flavor and are very juicy, and if beef in prime condition can be obtained, they are extremely tender. Besides these advantages, rump roasts are economical, so they are much favored. To prepare them for cooking, the butcher generally removes the bone and rolls them in the manner shown in Fig. 26.

56. ROAST BEEF.–The usual method of preparing the roasts that have just been described, particularly the tender ones, is to cook them in the oven. For this purpose a roasting pan, such as the one previously described and illustrated, produces the best results, but if one of these cannot be obtained, a dripping pan may be substituted. When the meat is first placed in the oven, the oven temperature should be 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, but after the meat has cooked for about 15 minutes, the temperature should be lowered so that the meat will cook more slowly.

[Illustration: FIG. 22]

[Illustration: FIG. 23]

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

[Illustration: FIG. 25]

Before putting the roast in the oven, wipe it thoroughly with a damp cloth. If its surface is not well covered with a layer of fat, place several pieces of salt pork on it and tie or skewer them fast. Then, having one of the cut sides up so that it will be exposed to the heat of the oven, set the piece of meat in a roasting pan or the utensil that is to be substituted. Dredge, or sprinkle, the surface with flour, salt, and pepper, and place the pan in the oven, first making sure that the oven is sufficiently hot. Every 10 or 15 minutes baste the meat with the fat and the juice that cooks out of it; that is, spoon up this liquid and pour it over the meat in order to improve the flavor and to prevent the roast from becoming dry. If necessary, a little water may be added for basting, but the use of water for this purpose should generally be avoided. Allow the meat to roast until it is either well done or rare, according to the way it is preferred. The length of time required for this process depends so much on the size of the roast, the temperature of the oven, and the preference of the persons who are to eat the meat, that definite directions cannot well be given. However, a general idea of this matter can be obtained by referring to the Cookery Time Table given in _Essentials of Cookery_, Part 2, and also to Table I of this Section, which gives the time required for cooking each pound of meat. If desired, gravy may be made from the juice that remains in the pan, the directions for making gravy being given later.

[Illustration: FIG. 26]

57. BRAIZED BEEF.–An excellent way in which to cook a piece of beef that is cut from the rump or lower round is to braize it. This method consists in placing the meat on a rack over a small quantity of water in a closed pan and then baking it in the oven for about 4 hours. Vegetables cut into small pieces are placed in the water and they cook while the meat is baking. As meat prepared in this way really cooks in the flavored steam that rises from the vegetables, it becomes very tender and has a splendid flavor; also, the gravy that may be made from the liquid that remains adds to its value. In serving it, a spoonful of the vegetables is generally put on the plate with each piece of meat.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 lb. beef from rump or lower round
2 thin slices salt pork
1/4 c. diced carrots
1/4 c. diced turnips
1/4 c. diced onions
1/4 c. diced celery
3 c. boiling water

Wipe the meat with a damp cloth, and dredge, or sprinkle, it with the flour, salt, and pepper. Try out the pork and brown the entire surface of the meat in the fat thus obtained. Then place the meat on a rack in a deep granite pan, an earthen bowl, or a baking dish, and surround it with the diced vegetables. Add the boiling water, cover the dish tight, and place in a slow oven. Bake for about 4 hours at a low temperature. Then remove the meat to a hot platter, strain out the vegetables, and make a thickened gravy of the liquid that remains, as explained later.

58. POT-ROASTED BEEF.–The usual, and probably the most satisfactory, method of preparing the cheaper cuts of beef is to cook them in a heavy iron pot over a slow fire for several hours. If the proper attention is given to the preparation of such a roast, usually called a pot roast, it will prove a very appetizing dish. Potatoes may also be cooked in the pot with the meat. This is a good plan to follow for it saves fuel and at the same time offers variety in the cooking of potatoes.

When a piece of beef is to be roasted in a pot, try out in the pot a little of the beef fat. Then wipe the meat carefully and brown it on all sides in the fat. Add salt, pepper, and 1/2 cupful of boiling water and cover the pot tightly. Cook over a slow fire until the water is evaporated and the meat begins to brown; then add another 1/2 cupful of water. Continue to do this until the meat has cooked for several hours, or until the entire surface is well browned and the meat tissue very tender. Then place the meat on a hot platter and, if desired, make gravy of the fat that remains in the pan, following the directions given later. If potatoes are to be cooked with the roast, put them into the pot around the meat about 45 minutes before the meat is to be removed, as they will be cooked sufficiently when the roast is done.

59. BEEF LOAF.–Hamburger steak is not always made into small patties and broiled or sautéd. In fact, it is very often combined with cracker crumbs, milk, and egg, and then well seasoned to make a beef loaf. Since there are no bones nor fat to be cut away in serving, this is an economical dish and should be used occasionally to give variety to the diet. If desired, a small quantity of salt pork may be combined with the beef to add flavor.

(Sufficient to Serve Ten)

3 lb. beef
2 Tb. salt
1/4 lb. salt pork
1/4 Tb. pepper
1 c. cracker crumbs
1 small onion
1 c. milk
2 Tb. chopped parsley
1 egg

Put the beef and pork through the food chopper; then mix thoroughly with the other ingredients. Pack tightly into a loaf-cake pan. Bake in a moderate oven for 2 1/2 to 3 hours. During the baking, baste frequently with hot water to which a little butter has been added. Serve either hot or cold, as desired.


60. Cuts Suitable for Stewing and Corning.–Because of the large variety of cuts obtained from a beef, numerous ways of cooking this meat have been devised. The tender cuts are, of course, the most desirable and the most expensive and they do not require the same preparation as the cheaper cuts. However, the poorer cuts, while not suitable for some purposes, make very good stews and corned beef. The cuts that are most satisfactory for stewing and coming are shown in Figs. 27 to 30. A part of the chuck that is much used for stewing and coming is shown in Fig. 27, _a_ being the upper chuck, _b_ the shoulder, and _c_ the lower chuck. Fig. 28 shows a piece of the shoulder cut off just at the leg joint, Fig. 29, the neck, and Fig. 30, a piece of the plate called a flat-rib piece. Besides these pieces, the brisket, the lower part of the round, and any of the other chuck pieces that do not make good roasts are excellent for this purpose. In fact, any part that contains bone and fat, as well as lean, makes well-flavored stew.

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

[Illustration: FIG. 28]

[Illustration: FIG. 29]

[Illustration: FIG. 30]

61. Beef Stew.–Any of the pieces of beef just mentioned may be used with vegetables of various kinds to make beef stew. Also left-over pieces of a roast or a steak may be utilized with other meats in the making of this dish. If the recipe here given is carefully followed, a very appetizing as well as nutritious stew will be the result.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

4 lb. beef
2/3 c. diced carrots
2 Tb. salt
1 small onion, sliced
1/4 Tb. pepper
3 c. potatoes cut into 1/4 in. slices 2/3 c. diced turnips
2 Tb. flour

Wipe the meat and cut it into pieces about 2 inches long. Try out some of the fat in a frying pan and brown the pieces of meat in it, stirring the meat constantly so that it will brown evenly. Put the browned meat into a kettle with the remaining fat and the bone, cover well with boiling water, and add the salt and pepper. Cover the kettle with a tight-fitting lid. Let the meat boil for a minute or two, then reduce the heat, and allow it to simmer for about 2 hours. For the last hour, cook the diced turnips, carrots, and onions with the meat, and 20 minutes before serving, add the potatoes. When the meat and vegetables are sufficiently cooked, remove the bones, fat, and skin; then thicken the stew with the flour moistened with enough cold water to pour. Pour into a deep platter or dish and serve with or without dumplings.

62. When dumplings are to be served with beef stew or any dish of this kind, they may be prepared as follows:


2 c. flour
2 Tb. fat
1/2 Tb. salt
3/4 to 1 c. milk
4 tsp. baking powder

Mix and sift the flour, salt, and baking powder. Chop in the fat with a knife. Add the milk gradually and mix to form a dough. Toss on a floured board and roll out or pat until it is about 1 inch thick. Cut into pieces with a small biscuit cutter. Place these close together in a buttered steamer and steam over a kettle of hot water for 15 to 18 minutes. Serve with the stew.

If a softer dough that can be cooked with the stew is preferred, 1 1/2 cupfuls of milk instead of 3/4 to 1 cupful should be used. Drop the dough thus prepared by the spoonful into the stew and boil for about 15 minutes. Keep the kettle tightly covered while the dumplings are boiling.

63. CORNED BEEF.–It is generally the custom to purchase corned beef, that is, beef preserved in a brine, at the market; but this is not necessary, as meat of this kind may be prepared in the home. When the housewife wishes to corn beef, she will find it an advantage to procure a large portion of a quarter of beef, part of which may be corned and kept to be used after the fresh beef has been eaten. Of course, this plan should be followed only in cold weather, for fresh meat soon spoils unless it is kept very cold.

To corn beef, prepare a mixture of 10 parts salt to 1 part saltpeter and rub this into the beef until the salt remains dry on the surface. Put the meat aside for 24 hours and then rub it again with some of the same mixture. On the following day, put the beef into a large crock or stone jar and cover it with a brine made by boiling 2-1/2 gallons of water into which have been added 2 quarts salt, 2 ounces saltpeter, and 3/4 pound brown sugar. Be careful to cool the brine until it entirely cold before using it. Allow the beef to remain in the brine for a week before attempting to use it. Inspect it occasionally, and if it does not appear to be keeping well, remove it from the brine, rub it again with the salt mixture, and place it in fresh brine. Beef that is properly corned will keep an indefinite length of time, but it should be examined, every 2 or 3 days for the first few weeks to see that it is not spoiling.

64. BOILED CORNED BEEF.–The usual way to prepare beef corned in the manner just explained or corned beef bought at the market is to boil it. After it becomes sufficiently tender by this method of cooking, it may be pressed into a desired shape and when cold cut into thin slices. Meat of this kind makes an excellent dish for a light meal such as luncheon or supper.

To boil corned beef, first wipe it thoroughly and roll and tie it. Then put it into a kettle, cover it with boiling water, and set it over the fire. When it comes to the boiling point, skim off the scum that forms on the top. Cook at a low temperature until the meat is tender enough to be pierced easily with a fork. Then place the meat in a dish or a pan, pour the broth over it, put a plate on top that will rest on the meat, and weight it down with something heavy enough to press the meat into shape. Allow it to remain thus overnight. When cold and thoroughly set, remove from the pan, cut into thin slices, and serve.

65. BOILED DINNER.–Corned beef is especially adaptable to what is commonly termed a boiled dinner. Occasionally it is advisable for the housewife to vary her meals by serving a dinner of this kind. In addition to offering variety, such a dinner affords her an opportunity to economize on fuel, especially if gas or electricity is used, for all of it may be prepared in the same pot and cooked over the same burner.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 lb. corned beef
1 c. sliced turnips
1 small head of cabbage cut into eighths 1 c. sliced potatoes
Pepper and salt
1 c. sliced carrots

Cook the corned beef in the manner explained in Art. 64. When it has cooked sufficiently, remove it from the water. Into this water, put the cabbage, carrots, turnips, and potatoes; then add the salt and pepper, seasoning to taste. Cook until the vegetables are tender. Remove the vegetables and serve them in vegetable dishes with some of the meat broth. Reheat the meat before serving.


66. BOILED TONGUE.–The tongue of beef is much used, for if properly prepared it makes a delicious meat that may be served hot or cold. It is usually corned or smoked to preserve it until it can be used. In either of these forms or in its fresh state, it must be boiled in order to remove the skin and prepare the meat for further use. If it has been corned or smoked, it is likely to be very salty, so that it should usually be soaked overnight to remove the salt.

When boiled tongue is desired, put a fresh tongue or a smoked or a corned tongue from which the salt has been removed into a kettle of cold water and allow it to come to a boil. Skim and continue to cook at a low temperature for 2 hours. Cool enough to handle and then remove the skin and the roots. Cut into slices and serve hot or cold.

67. PICKLED TONGUE.–A beef tongue prepared in the manner just explained may be treated in various ways, but a method of preparation that meets with much favor consists in pickling it. Pickled tongue makes an excellent meat when a cold dish is required for a light meal or meat for sandwiches is desired. The pickle required for one tongue contains the following ingredients:


1-1/2 c. vinegar
2 c. water
1/4 c. sugar
1 Tb. salt
1/4 Tb. pepper
6 cloves
1 stick cinnamon

Boil all of these ingredients for a few minutes, then add the tongue, and boil for 15 minutes. Remove from the stove and let stand for 24 hours. Slice and serve cold.

68. BRAIZED TONGUE.–The process of braizing may be applied to tongue as well as to other parts of beef. In fact, when tongue is cooked in this way with several kinds of vegetables, it makes a delicious dish that is pleasing to most persons.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 fresh tongue
1/3 c. diced carrots
1/3 c. diced onions
1/3 c. diced celery
1 c. stewed tomatoes
2 c. water in which tongue is boiled

Boil the tongue as previously directed, and then skin it and remove the roots. Place it in a long pan and pour over it the carrots, onions, celery, stewed tomatoes, and the water. Cover tight and bake in a slow oven for 2 hours. Serve on a platter with the vegetables and sauce.

69. STUFFED HEART.–If a stuffed meat is desired, nothing more appetizing can be found than stuffed heart. For this purpose the heart of a young beef should be selected in order that a tender dish will result.

After washing the heart and removing the veins and the arteries, make a stuffing like that given for rolled beefsteak in Art. 45. Stuff the heart with this dressing, sprinkle salt and pepper over it, and roll it in flour. Lay several strips of bacon or salt pork across the top, place in a baking pan, and pour 1 cupful of water into the pan. Cover the pan tight, set it in a hot oven, and bake slowly for 2 or 3 hours, depending on the size of the heart. Add water as the water in the pan evaporates, and baste the heart frequently. When it has baked sufficiently, remove to a platter and serve at once.


70. To meats prepared in various ways, gravy–that is, the sauce made from the drippings or juices that cook out of steaks, roasts, and stews, or from the broth actually cooked from the meat as for soup–is a valuable addition, particularly if it is well made and properly seasoned. A point to remember in this connection is that gravy should be entirely free from lumps and not too thick. It will be of the right thickness if 1 to 2 level tablespoonfuls of flour is used for each pint of liquid. It should also be kept in mind that the best gravy is made from the brown drippings that contain some fat.

To make gravy, remove any excess of fat that is not required, and then pour a little hot water into the pan in order to dissolve the drippings that are to be used. Add the flour to the fat, stirring until a smooth paste is formed. Then add the liquid, which may be water or milk, and stir quickly to prevent the formation of lumps. Season well with salt and pepper. Another method that also proves satisfactory is to mix the flour and liquid and then add them to the fat that remains in the pan in which the meat has been cooked.


71. The suet obtained from beef is a valuable source of fat for cooking, and it should therefore never be thrown away. The process of obtaining the fat from suet is called _trying_, and it is always practiced in homes where economy is the rule.

To try out suet, cut the pieces into half-inch cubes, place them in a heavy frying pan, and cover them with hot water. Allow this to come to a boil and cook until the water has evaporated. Continue the heating until all the fat has been drawn from the tissue. Then pour off all the liquid fat and squeeze the remaining suet with a potato masher or in a fruit press. Clean glass or earthen jars are good receptacles in which to keep the fat thus recovered from the suet.

To try out other fats, proceed in the same way as for trying out suet. Such fats may be tried by heating them in a pan without water, provided the work is done carefully enough to prevent them from scorching.


72. As has been shown, meat is both an expensive and a perishable food. Therefore, some use should be made of every left-over bit of it, no matter how small, and it should be disposed of quickly in order to prevent it from spoiling. A point that should not be overlooked in the use of left-over meats, however, is that they should be prepared so as to be a contrast to the original preparation and thus avoid monotony in the food served. This variation may be accomplished by adding other foods and seasonings and by changing the appearance as much as possible. For instance, what remains from a roast of beef may be cut in thin slices and garnished to make an attractive dish; or, left-over meat may be made very appetizing by cutting it into cubes, reheating it in gravy or white sauce, and serving it over toast or potato patties. Then there is the sandwich, which always finds a place in the luncheon. The meat used for this purpose may be sliced thin or it may be chopped fine, and then, to increase the quantity, mixed with salad dressing, celery, olives, chopped pickles, etc. An excellent sandwich is made by placing thin slices of roast beef between two slices of bread and serving hot roast-beef gravy over the sandwich thus formed. Still other appetizing dishes may be prepared from left-over beef as the accompanying recipes show.

73. MEXICAN BEEF–An extremely appetizing dish, known as Mexican beef, can be made from any quantity of left-over beef by serving it with a vegetable sauce. Such a dish needs few accompaniments when it is served in a light meal, but it may be used very satisfactorily as the main dish in a heavy meal.


2 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1 onion, chopped
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 red pepper
1 tsp. celery salt
1 green pepper
Thin slices roast beef
3/4 c. canned tomatoes

Brown the butter, add the chopped onion, and cook for a few minutes. Then add the chopped peppers, tomatoes, salt, pepper, and celery salt. Cook all together for a few minutes and add the thinly sliced roast beef. When the meat has become thoroughly heated, it is ready to serve.

74. COTTAGE PIE.–A very good way to use up left-over mashed potatoes as well as roast beef is to combine them and make a cottage pie. In this dish, mashed potatoes take the place of the crust that is generally put over the top of a meat pie. If well seasoned and served hot, it makes a very palatable dish.

To make a cottage pie, cover the bottom of a baking dish with a 2-inch layer of well-seasoned mashed potatoes. Over this spread left-over roast beef cut into small pieces. Pour over the meat and potatoes any left-over gravy and a few drops of onion juice made by grating raw onion. Cover with a layer of mashed potatoes 1 inch deep. Dot with butter and place in a hot oven until the pie has heated through and browned on top. Serve hot.

75. BEEF PIE.–No housewife need be at a loss for a dish that will tempt her family if she has on hand some left-over pieces of beef, for out of them she may prepare a beef pie, which is always in favor. Cold roast beef makes a very good pie, but it is not necessary that roast beef be used, as left-over steak or even a combination of left-over meats, will do very well.

Cut into 1-inch cubes whatever kinds of left-over meats are on hand. Cover with hot water, add a sliced onion, and cook slowly for 1 hour. Thicken the liquid with flour and season well with salt and pepper. Add two or three potatoes, cut into 1/4-inch slices, and let them boil for several minutes. Pour the mixture into a buttered baking dish and cover it with a baking-powder biscuit mixture. Bake in a hot oven until the crust is brown. Serve hot.

76. BEEF HASH.–One of the most satisfactory ways in which to utilize left-over roast beef or corned beef is to cut it into small pieces and make it into a hash. Cold boiled potatoes that remain from a previous meal are usually combined with the beef, and onion is added for flavor. When hash is prepared to resemble an omelet and is garnished with parsley, it makes an attractive dish.

To make beef hash, remove all skin and bone from the meat, chop quite fine, and add an equal quantity of chopped cold-boiled potatoes and one chopped onion. Season with salt and pepper. Put the mixture into a well-buttered frying pan, moisten with milk, meat stock, or left-over gravy, and place over a fire. Let the hash brown slowly on the bottom and then fold over as for an omelet. Serve on a platter garnished with parsley.

77. FRIZZLED BEEF.–While the dried beef used in the preparation of frizzled beef is not necessarily a left-over meat, the recipe for this dish is given here, as it is usually served at a meal when the preceding left-over beef dishes are appropriate. Prepared according to this recipe, frizzled beef will be found both nutritious and appetizing.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 Tb. butter
1/4 lb. thinly sliced dried beef
2 Tb. flour
1 c. milk
4 slices of toast

Brown the butter in a frying pan and add the beef torn into small pieces. Allow it to cock until the beef becomes brown. Add the flour and brown it. Pour the milk over all, and cook until the flour thickens the milk. Serve over the toast.



(1) (_a_) What is meat? (_b_) What substance in meat makes it a valuable food?

(2) (_a_) What do protein foods do for the body? (_b_) How does meat compare in cost with the other daily foods?

(3) What harm may occur from eating meat that is not thoroughly cooked?

(4) (_a_) Describe the structure of meat, (_b_) How do the length and the direction of the fibers affect the tenderness of meat?

(5) (_a_) How may gelatine be obtained from meat? (_b_) What use is made of this material?

(6) (_a_) Describe the two kinds of fat found in meat, (_b_) What does this substance supply to the body?

(7) (_a_) What is the value of water in the tissues of meat? (_b_) How does its presence affect the cookery method to choose for preparing meat?

(8) (_a_) What are extractives? (_b_) Why are they of value in meat?

(9) (_a_) Name the ways by which the housewife may reduce her meat bill, (_b_) How should meat be cared for in the home?

(10) Give three reasons for cooking meat.

(11) (_a_) Describe the effect of cooking on the materials contained in meat, (_b_) How does cooking affect the digestibility of meat?

(12) What methods of cookery are used for: (_a_) the tender cuts of meat? (_b_) the tough cuts? (_c_) Mention the cuts of meat that have the most flavor.

(13) (_a_) How should the temperature of the oven vary with the size of the roast to be cooked? (_b_) Give the reason for this.

(14) Describe beef of good quality.

(15) In what parts of the animal are found: (_a_) the cheaper cuts of beef? (_b_) the more expensive cuts?

(16) (_a_) Name the steaks obtained from the loin, (_b_) Which of these is best for a large family? (_c_) Which is best for a small family?

(17) Describe the way in which to broil steak.

(18) (_a_) What is the tenderloin of beef? (_b_) Explain the two ways of cooking it.

(19) (_a_) Name the various kinds of roasts, (_b_) Describe the roasting of beef in the oven.

(20) (_a_) What cuts of beef are most satisfactory for stews? (_b_) Explain how beef stew is made.

* * * * *


* * * * *



1. Veal is the name applied to the flesh of a slaughtered calf. This kind of meat is at its best in animals that are from 6 weeks to 3 months old when killed. Calves younger than 6 weeks are sometimes slaughtered, but their meat is of poor quality and should be avoided. Meat from a calf that has not reached the age of 3 weeks is called bob veal. Such meat is pale, dry, tough, and indigestible and, consequently, unfit for food. In most states the laws strictly forbid the sale of bob veal for food, but constant vigilance must be exercised to safeguard the public from unscrupulous dealers. A calf that goes beyond the age of 3 months without being slaughtered must be kept and fattened until it reaches the age at which it can be profitably sold as beef, for it is too old to be used as veal.

2. The nature of veal can be more readily comprehended by comparing it with beef, the characteristics of which are now understood. Veal is lighter in color than beef, being more nearly pink than red, and it contains very little fat, as reference to Fig. 1, _Meat_, Part 1, will show. The tissues of veal contain less nutriment than those of beef, but they contain more gelatine. The flavor of veal is less pronounced than that of beef, the difference between the age of animals used for veal and those used for beef being responsible for this lack of flavor. These characteristics, as well as the difference in size of corresponding cuts, make it easy to distinguish veal from beef in the market.


[Illustration: Fig. 1]

3. The slaughtered calf from which veal is obtained is generally delivered to the butcher in the form shown in Fig. 1; that is, with the head, feet, and intestines removed and the carcass split into halves through the spine. He divides each half into quarters, known as the _fore quarter_ and the _hind quarter_, and cuts these into smaller pieces.

4. FORE QUARTER.–The fore quarter, as shown in Fig. 1, is composed of the neck, chuck, shoulder, fore shank, breast, and ribs. Frequently, no distinction is made between the neck and the chuck, both of these pieces and the fore shank being used for soups and stews. The shoulder is cut from the ribs lying underneath, and it is generally used for roasting, often with stuffing rolled inside of it. The breast, which is the under part of the fore quarter and corresponds to the plate in beef, is suitable for either roasting or stewing. When the rib bones are removed from it, a pocket that will hold stuffing can be cut into this piece. The ribs between the shoulder and the loin are called the _rack_; they may be cut into chops or used as one piece for roasting.

5. HIND QUARTER.–The hind quarter, as Fig. 1 shows, is divided into the loin, flank, leg, and hind shank. The loin and the flank are located similarly to these same cuts in beef. In some localities, the part of veal corresponding to the rump of beef is included with the loin, and in others it is cut as part of the leg. When it is part of the leg, the leg is cut off just in front of the hip bone and is separated from the lower part of the leg, or hind shank, immediately below the hip joint. This piece is often used for roasting, although cutlets or steaks may be cut from it. The hind shank, which, together with the fore shank, is called a _knuckle_, is used for soup making. When the loin and flank are cut in a single piece, they are used for roasting.

6. VEAL ORGANS.–Certain of the organs of the calf, like those of beef animals, are used for food. They include the heart, tongue, liver, and kidneys, as well as the thymus and thyroid glands and the pancreas. The heart and tongue of veal are more delicate in texture and flavor than those of beef, but the methods of cooking them are practically the same. The liver and kidneys of calves make very appetizing dishes and find favor with many persons. The thymus and thyroid glands and the pancreas are included under the term _sweetbreads_. The thymus gland, which lies near the heart and is often called the _heart sweetbread_, is the best one. The thyroid gland lies in the throat and is called the _throat sweetbread_. These two glands are joined by a connecting membrane, but this is often broken and each gland sold as a separate sweetbread. The pancreas, which is the _stomach sweetbread_, is used less often than the others.

7. Table of Veal Cuts.–The various cuts of veal, together with their uses, are arranged for ready reference in Table I. Therefore, so that the housewife may become thoroughly familiar with these facts about veal, she is urged to make a careful study of this table.




/ Head Soup, made dishes, gelatine | Breast Stew, made dishes, gelatine Fore Quarter | Ribs Stew, made dishes, chops | Shoulder Stew, made dishes \ Neck Stew or stock, made dishes

/ Loin Chops, roasts Hind Quarter | Leg Cutlets or fillet, sautéing, or roasting \ Knuckle Stocks, stews

/ Brains Made dishes, chafing dish | Liver Broiling, sautéing Veal Organs | Heart Stuffed, baked | Tongue Broiled, braised | Sweetbreads Made dishes, chafing dish \ Kidneys Boiled, stew



8. In the preparation of veal, an important point to remember is that meat of this kind always requires thorough cooking. It should never be served rare. Because of the long cooking veal needs, together with the difficulty encountered in chewing it and its somewhat insipid flavor, which fails to excite the free flow of gastric juice, this meat is more indigestable than beef. In order to render it easier to digest, since it must be thoroughly cooked, the long, slow methods of cookery should be selected, as these soften the connective tissue. Because of the lack of flavor, veal is not so good as beef when the extraction of flavor is desired for broth. However, the absence of flavor makes veal a valuable meat to combine with chicken and the more expensive meats, particularly in highly seasoned made dishes or salads. Although lacking in flavor, veal contains more gelatine than other meats. While this substance is not very valuable as a food, it lends body to soup or broth and assists in the preparation of certain made dishes. To supply the flavor needed in dishes of this kind, pork is sometimes used with the veal.

9. Veal Steaks or Cutlets.–Strictly speaking, veal cutlets are cut from the ribs; however, a thin slice cut from the leg, as shown in Fig. 2, while in reality a steak, is considered by most housewives and butchers as a cutlet. A piece cut from the leg of veal corresponds to a cut of round steak in beef.

10. Pan-Broiled Veal Steak or Cutlets.–Several methods of preparing veal steak or cutlets are in practice, but a very satisfactory one is to pan-broil them. This method prevents the juices from being drawn out of the meat and consequently produces a tender, palatable dish.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

To pan-broil veal steak or cutlets, grease a hot frying pan with fat of any desirable kind, place the pieces of meat in it, and allow them to sear, first on one side and then on the other. When they are completely seared, lower the temperature, and broil for 15 to 20 minutes, or longer if necessary. Season well with salt and pepper. When cooked, remove to a platter and, just before serving, pour melted butter over the meat.

11. Veal Cutlets in Brown Sauce.–To improve the flavor of veal cutlets, a brown sauce is often prepared and served with them. In fact, the cutlets are cooked in this sauce, which becomes thickened by the flour that is used to dredge the meat.

To cook cutlets in this way, dredge them with flour, season them with salt and pepper, and sauté them in hot fat until the flour is quite brown. Then pour 1 cupful of milk and 1 cupful of water over the meat, cover the pan securely, and allow to cook slowly for about 3/4 hour. The sauce should be slightly thick and quite brown. Serve the cutlets in the brown sauce.

12. Veal Roasts.–Several different cuts of veal make very good roasts. The most economical one is a 5 or 6-inch slice cut from the leg of veal in the same way as the steak shown in Fig. 2.

[Illustration: FIG. 3, Shoulder of veal.]

Both the loin and the best end of the neck are excellent for roasting. The shoulder of veal, which is shown in Fig. 3, is sometimes roasted, but it is more often used for stew. Veal breast from which the ribs have been removed and veal rack, which is the portion of the ribs attached to the neck, may also be used for roasting. When they are, they are usually cut so as to contain a deep slit, or pocket, that may be filled with stuffing. In fact, whenever it is possible, the bone is removed from a piece of roasting veal and stuffing is put in its place.

To roast any of these pieces, wipe the meat, dredge it with flour, and season it with salt and pepper. Place it in a roasting pan and put it into a hot oven. Bake for 15 minutes; then lower the temperature of the oven and continue to bake slowly until the meat is well done, the length of time depending on the size of the roast. Baste frequently during the roasting. Remove the roast to a hot platter. Then place the roasting pan over the flame, and make gravy by browning 2 tablespoonfuls of flour in the fat that it contains, adding to this 1-1/2 cupfuls of water, and cooking until the flour has thickened the water. Serve the gravy thus prepared in a gravy bowl.

13. Stuffed Veal Breast.–A breast of veal in which a pocket has been cut for stuffing is shown in Fig. 4. When such a piece is desired for roasting, it is advisable to have the butcher prepare it. The stuffing required should be made as follows:

[Illustration: FIG. 4]


4 Tb. butter or bacon or ham fat
1/2 Tb. salt
1/8 Tb. pepper
1 Tb. celery salt
2 sprigs of parsley, chopped
1 pimiento, chopped
1-1/2 c. water
1 qt. stale bread crumbs

Melt the fat, and to it add the salt, pepper, celery salt, parsley, pimiento, and water. Pour this mixture over the crumbs, and mix all thoroughly. Stuff into the opening in the breast. Place the meat thus stuffed in a baking pan and bake in a moderately hot oven for 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

14. Veal Potpie.–A good way in which to impart the flavor of meat to a starchy material and thus not only economize on meat, but also provide an appetizing dish, is to serve meat with dumplings in a veal potpie. For such a dish, a piece of veal from the shoulder, like that shown in Fig. 3, is the best cut. To give variety, potatoes may be used, and to improve the flavor at least one onion is cooked with the meat.

To prepare a veal potpie, wipe the meat, cut it into pieces of the right size for serving, and to it add a few pieces of salt pork or bacon. Put these over the fire in enough cold water to cover the meat well and add a small onion, sliced. Bring to the boiling point and skim; then simmer until the meat is tender. Season with salt and pepper a few minutes before the meat has finished cooking. Next, make a baking-powder biscuit dough, roll it 1/4 inch thick, and cut it into 1-1/2-inch squares. Then examine the meat to see how much of the liquid has evaporated. If the liquid is too thick, add boiling water to thin it. Drop in the squares of dough, cover the pot tight, and boil for 15 minutes without uncovering.

If potatoes are desired in a pie of this kind, cut them into thick slices and add the slices about 10 minutes before the dough is to be put into the broth, so that they will have sufficient time in which to cook.

15. Veal Stew.–The cheaper cuts of veal can be used to advantage for making veal stew. Such a dish is prepared in the same way as beef stew, which is explained in _Meat_, Part 1, except that veal is substituted for the beef. Vegetables of any desired kind may be used in veal stew, and the stewed or boiled dumplings mentioned in the beef-stew recipe may or may not be used. As the vegetables and the dumplings, provided dumplings are used, increase the quantity of meat-flavored food, only small portions of the meat need be served.

16. Jellied Veal.–The large amount of gelatine contained in veal may be utilized in the preparation of jellied veal. The most satisfactory piece for making jellied veal is the knuckle, or shank. No more attractive meat dish than this can be found for luncheon or supper, for it can be cut into thin slices and served on a nicely garnished platter.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Knuckle of veal
1 Tb. salt
1/4 c. chopped celery
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1 Tb. chopped onion

Put the knuckle in a pot and add enough water to cover it. Add the salt, celery, parsley, and onion. Cook until the meat is very tender and then strain off the liquid. Cut the meat from the bones and chop it very fine. Boil the liquid until it is reduced to 1 pint, and then set aside to cool. Place the meat in a mold and when cold pour the broth over it. Keep in a cool place until it has set. Slice and serve cold.


17. Getting Sweetbreads Ready for Cooking–The throat glands and the pancreas of calves, which, as has already been learned, are called sweetbreads, can be cooked in various ways for the table. The first process in their preparation, however, is the same for all recipes. When this is understood, it will be a simple matter to make up attractive dishes in which sweetbreads are used. It is generally advisable to buy sweetbreads in pairs, as the heart and throat sweetbreads are preferable to the one that lies near the stomach. Sweetbreads spoil very quickly. Therefore, as soon as they are brought into the kitchen, put them in cold water and allow them to remain there for 1/2 hour or more. Then put them to cook in boiling water for 20 minutes in order to parboil them, after which place them in cold water again. Unless they are to be used immediately, keep them in cold water, as this will prevent them from discoloring. Before using sweetbreads in the recipes that follow, remove the skin and stringy parts.

18. Broiled Sweetbreads.–Because of their tenderness, sweetbreads are especially suitable for broiling. When prepared in this way and served with sauce of some kind, they are very palatable.

In order to broil sweetbreads, first parboil them in the manner just explained. Then split each one lengthwise and broil them over a clear fire for 5 minutes or pan-broil them with a small amount of butter until both surfaces are slightly browned. Season with salt and pepper. Serve hot.

19. Creamed Sweetbreads.–If an especially dainty dish is desired for a light meal, sweetbreads may be creamed and then served over toast or in patty shells or timbale cases, the making of which is taken up later. If desired, mushrooms may be combined with sweetbreads that are served in this way. Diced cold veal or calves’ brains creamed and served in this way are also delicious. Instead of creaming sweetbreads and calves’ brains, however, these organs are sometimes scrambled with eggs.

To prepare creamed sweetbreads, parboil them and then separate them into small pieces with a fork or cut them into cubes. Reheat them in a cupful of white sauce, season well, and then serve them in any of the ways just mentioned. If mushrooms are to be used, cook and dice them before combining them with the sweetbreads.

20. Kidneys.–The kidneys of both lamb and veal are used for food. The cooking of them, however, must be either a quick, short process or a long, slow one. When a quick method is applied, the tissues remain tender. Additional cooking renders them tough, so that a great deal more cooking must be done to make them tender again. Whatever method is applied, kidneys must always be soaked in water for 1 hour or more so as to cleanse them, the outside covering then pared off, and the meat sliced or cut into cubes or strips. After being thus prepared, kidneys may be broiled or sautéd, or, if a long method of cookery is preferred, they may be boiled or stewed with or without vegetables.

21. Calves’ Liver and Bacon.–Beef liver is sometimes used for food, but it is not so good as liver from the calf. In fact, calves’ liver, especially when combined with bacon, is very appetizing. The bacon supplies the fat that the liver lacks and at the same time provides flavor.

To prepare calves’ liver and bacon, cut the liver into 1/2-inch slices, cover these with boiling water, and let them stand for 5 minutes. Remove from the water, dip into flour, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. For each slice of liver pan-broil a slice of bacon. Remove the bacon to a hot platter, and then place the slices of liver in the bacon fat and sauté them for about 10 minutes, turning them frequently. Serve the liver and bacon together.


22. Veal Rolls.–The portion of a veal roast that remains after it has been served hot can be combined with dressing to make veal rolls, a dish that will be a pleasing change from the usual cold sliced meat.

To make veal rolls, slice the veal and into each slice roll a spoonful of stuffing. Tie with a string, roll in flour, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Brown the rolls in hot butter. Then pour milk, stock, or gravy over the rolls and simmer for 10 minutes. Remove the strings and serve on toast.

23. Left-Over Jellied Veal.–While jellied veal is usually made from a piece of veal bought especially for this purpose, it can be made from the left-overs of a veal roast. However, when the roast is purchased, some veal bones should be secured. Wash these bones, cover them with cold water, and to them add 1 onion, 1 bay leaf, and 1 cupful of diced vegetables, preferably celery, carrots, and turnips. Allow these to simmer for 2 hours. To this stock add the bones that remain after the roast has been served and simmer for 1 or 2 hours more. Strain the stock, skim off the fat, and season well with salt and pepper. Chop fine the left-over veal and 2 hard-cooked eggs. Put in a loaf-cake pan and pour the stock over it. When it has formed a mold, slice and serve cold.

24. Creamed Veal on Biscuits.–A very good substitute for chicken and hot biscuits is creamed veal served on biscuits. This is an especially good dish for a light meal, such as luncheon or supper. Any left-over veal may be chopped or cut up into small pieces and used for this purpose. After the veal has been thus prepared, reheat it with white sauce and season it well with paprika, salt, and pepper. Make baking-powder biscuits. To serve, split the hot biscuits, lay them open on a platter or a plate, and pour the hot creamed veal over them.

25. Scalloped Veal with Rice.–A very palatable dish can be prepared from left-over veal by combining it with rice and tomatoes. To prepare such a dish, season cooked rice with 1 teaspoonful of bacon fat to each cupful of rice. Place a layer of rice in a baking dish, and over it put a layer of chopped veal. Pour a good quantity of stewed tomatoes over the veal and season well with salt and pepper. Over the tomatoes put a layer of rice, and cover the top with buttered crumbs. Set in a hot oven and bake until the crumbs are browned and the ingredients thoroughly heated.

26. Veal Salad.–A salad is always a delightful addition to a meal and so usually finds favor. When it is made of meat, such as veal, it can be used as the main dish for luncheon or supper. As shown in the accompanying recipe, other things, such as celery, peas, and hard-cooked eggs, are usually put in a salad of this kind.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. cold diced veal
1 c. diced celery
1/2 c. canned peas
3 hard-cooked eggs
4 Tb. olive oil
2 Tb. vinegar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Combine the veal, celery, peas, and eggs chopped fine. Mix the olive oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper to make a dressing. Marinate the ingredients with this dressing. Serve on lettuce leaves with any salad dressing desired.



[Illustration: FIG. 5]

27. The term mutton is usually applied to the flesh of a sheep that is 1 year or more old, while lamb is the flesh of sheep under 1 year of age. The popularity of these meats varies very much with the locality. In the United States, a preference for lamb has become noticeable, but in England mutton is more popular and is more commonly used. Both of these meats, however, are very palatable and nutritious, so that the choice of one or the other will always be determined by the taste or market conditions.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

28. Lamb that is 6 weeks to 3 months old is called _spring lamb_, and usually comes into the market in January or February. The meat of sheep 1 year old is called _yearling_. Good mutton is cut from sheep that is about 3 years old. Lamb may be eaten as soon as it is killed, but mutton requires ripening for 2 or 3 weeks to be in the best condition for food. Mutton differs from lamb very much as beef differs from veal, or as the meat of any other mature animal differs from a young one of the same kind. In mutton there is a smaller percentage of water and a larger percentage of fat, protein, extractives, and flavoring substances.

There is also a difference in the appearance of these two meats. Lamb is pink and contains only small amounts of fat, while mutton is brick red and usually has considerable firm white fat. The bones of lamb are pink, while those of mutton are white. The outside of lamb is covered with a thin white skin that becomes pink in mutton. The size of the pieces of meat often aids in distinguishing between these two meats, mutton, of course, coming in larger pieces than lamb.

29. If there is any question as to whether the meat from sheep is lamb or mutton, and it cannot be settled by any of the characteristics already mentioned, the front leg of the dressed animal may be examined at the first joint above the foot. Fig. 5 shows this joint in both lamb and mutton. In lamb, which is shown at the left, the end of the bone can be separated from the long bone at the leg, as indicated, while in mutton this joint grows fast and looks like the illustration at the right. The joint is jagged in lamb, but smooth and round in mutton.



30. Mutton and lamb are usually cut up in the same way, the dressed animal being divided into two pieces of almost equal weight. The line of division occurs between the first and second ribs, as is indicated by the heavy middle line in Fig. 6. The back half of the animal is called the _saddle_ and the front half, the _rack_. In addition to being cut in this way, the animal is cut down the entire length of the backbone and is thus divided into the fore and hind quarters.

The method of cutting up the racks and saddles varies in different localities, but, as a rule, the method illustrated in Fig. 7 is the one that is used. As here shown, the rack, or fore quarter, is cut up into the neck, chuck, shoulder, rib chops, and breast; and the saddle, or hind quarter, is divided into the loin, flank, and leg.

The way in which the front and the back of a dressed sheep appear is shown in Fig. 8. The membrane, which extends from the legs down over the ribs, is the omentum, or covering of the intestines, and is known as the _caul_. This must be removed from any part that it covers before the meat is cooked. The kidneys incased in fat are also shown in the view at the left.


31. Distinguishing Features of Cuts.–When the uses of the cuts of lamb and mutton are to be considered, attention must be given to the anatomy of the animal and the exercise that the different parts have received during life. This is important, because the continued action of the muscles tends to make the flesh tough, but, at the same time, it increases the amount of extractives or flavoring material. Therefore, meat taken from a part that has been subjected to much muscular action is likely to need longer cooking than that taken from portions that have not been exercised so much.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

In lamb and mutton, as in beef and veal, the hind quarter is exercised less in life than the fore quarter and consequently is, on the average, more tender. The cuts from this part are therefore more expensive and more suitable for roasting and broiling. The fore quarter, although having the disadvantage of containing more bone and being tougher, is more abundantly supplied with extractives and flavoring materials. Most of the pieces obtained from this portion are particularly suitable for broths, soups, stews, etc. The rib is an exception, for this is usually higher in price than the hind-quarter pieces and is used for chops and roasts.

32. Table of Mutton and Lamb Cuts.–The various cuts of mutton and lamb and the uses to which they can be put are given in Table II, which may be followed as a guide whenever there is doubt as to the way in which a cut of either of these meats should be cooked.



Neck……………….Broth, stew Chuck……………… Stew, steamed Shoulder…………….Boiled, steamed, braised, roast Rack ribs……………Chops, crown roast Breast……………… Stew, roast, braised, stuffed

Hind quarter:
Loin……………….. Seven chops, roast, boiling Flank………………. Stew
Leg………………… Roast, braising, broiling Saddle……………… Roast



33. The cookery processes applied in preparing mutton and lamb for the table do not differ materially from those applied in the preparation of other meats. However, directions for cooking mutton and lamb in the most practical ways are here given, so that the housewife may become thoroughly familiar with the procedure in preparing roasts, chops, and stews.