Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery, Vol 2

Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon, Steve Schulze and PG Distributed Proofreaders WOMAN’S INSTITUTE LIBRARY OF COOKERY VOLUME TWO MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE EGGS VEGETABLES WOMENS INSTITUTE OF DOMESTIC ARTS AND SCIENCES, Inc. PREFACE This volume, which is the second of the Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery, deals with such essentials of diet as the
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Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon, Steve Schulze and PG Distributed Proofreaders

WOMAN’S INSTITUTE LIBRARY OF COOKERY

VOLUME TWO

MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE

EGGS

VEGETABLES

WOMENS INSTITUTE OF DOMESTIC ARTS AND SCIENCES, Inc.

PREFACE

This volume, which is the second of the Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery, deals with such essentials of diet as the dairy products–milk, butter, and cheese–the protein food, eggs, and the energy-producing nutrients, vegetables.

In _Milk, Butter, and Cheese_, Parts 1 and 2, are explained the place that milk occupies in the diet, its composition, grades, and the dishes for which it is used; the purchase, care, and use of butter and butter substitutes; and the characteristics, care, and varieties of both domestic and imported cheeses, as well as a number of excellent recipes for cheese dishes. A luncheon menu, in which a cheese dish is substituted for meat, is of interest in this connection, for it shows the housewife, early in her studies, not only how to combine dishes to produce a balanced meal, but also how to make up a menu in which meat is not needed.

In _Eggs_ are discussed the nutritive value of eggs, the ways in which to select, preserve, cook, and serve them, and how to utilize left-over eggs. So many uses have eggs in the diet and so nourishing is this food that too much attention cannot be paid to its preparation. In this lesson, also, is given a breakfast menu to afford practice in preparing several simple dishes usually served in this meal.

In _Vegetables_, Parts 1 and 2, every variety of vegetable is discussed as to food value, preparation, place in the meal, and proper methods of serving. With such a fund of knowledge, the housewife will be well equipped to give pleasing variety to her meals.

In addition to the instruction in these matters, there are a large number of illustrations, which make clear the important details in every process employed and in many recipes show certain steps as well as the finished result. With such detailed information, it is our desire that as many of the recipes as possible be tried, for it is only through constant practice that the rules and principles of cookery will become thoroughly instilled in the mind. Nothing is of more value to the housewife than such a knowledge of food and its preparation, for, as every one knows, proper diet is the chief requisite of good health.

To be of the greatest assistance to the woman in the home is the purpose of these volumes–to relieve her household tasks of much of their drudgery and to help her come to a realization of the opportunity for good that is hers. In no better way can she create happiness and contentment in her home than by preparing appetizing, nutritious meals and serving them in the most attractive manner.

CONTENTS

MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE
Milk in the Diet
Composition of Milk
Products Obtained from Milk
Characteristics of Wholesome Milk
Grades of Clean Milk
Preserved Milk
Milk in the Home
Recipes for Milk Dishes and Sauces Economical Use of Butter
Flavor and Composition of Butter
Purchase and Care of Butter
Cooking With Butter
Serving Butter
Butter Substitutes
Characteristics and Care of Cheese Imported Cheese
Domestic Cheese
Serving Cheese
Recipes for Cheese Dishes
Luncheon Menu

EGGS
Description of Eggs and Place in the Diet Nutritive Value of Eggs
Selection of Eggs
Preservation of Eggs
Cooking of Eggs
Serving of Eggs
Egg Recipes
Use of Left-Over Eggs
Breakfast Menu

VEGETABLES
Variety in Vegetables
Structure, Composition, and Food Value Purchase and Care of Vegetables
Classification of Vegetables
Methods of Preparing and Cooking Vegetables Sauces for Vegetables
Asparagus and Its Preparation
Beans and Their Preparation
Beets and Their Preparation
Brussels Sprouts and Their Preparation Cabbage and Its Preparation
Carrots and Their Preparation
Cauliflower and Its Preparation
Celery and Its Preparation
Corn and Its Preparation
Cucumbers and Their Preparation
Eggplant and Its Preparation
French Artichokes and Their Preparation Greens and Their Preparation
Jerusalem Artichokes and Their Preparation Kohlrabi and Its Preparation
Lentils and Their Preparation
Mushrooms and Their Preparation
Okra and Its Preparation
Onions and Their Preparation
Parsnips and Their Preparation
Peas and Their Preparation
Peppers and Their Preparation
White Potatoes and Their Preparation Sweet Potatoes and Their Preparation
Radishes and Their Preparation
Salsify and Its Preparation
Squash and Its Preparation
Tomatoes and Their Preparation
Turnips and Their Preparation
Vegetable Combinations
Serving Vegetables

* * * * *

MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE (PART 1)

* * * * *

MILK

MILK IN THE DIET

1. As is well understood, milk is the liquid that is secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. The word milk as it is commonly used, however, refers to _cow’s milk,_ because such milk is employed to a greater extent as human food than the milk from any other animal. Cow’s milk in its perfectly fresh raw state is a yellowish-white, opaque fluid, called _whole milk,_ and, as is well known, possesses a distinctly sweet taste and characteristic odor. When such milk is allowed to stand for some time without being disturbed, it separates into two distinct layers, an upper and a lower one. The upper layer, which is lighter than the lower one and occupies a smaller space, consists largely of globules of fat and is called _cream;_ the lower layer, which is white or bluish-white in color and is composed of water, solids, and protein, is, when separated from the cream, called _skim milk._

2. As an article of diet, milk is very important, because its sole function in nature is to serve as food. It is required by the infant; it is needed in the diet of all growing children; and it is desirable in the preparation of dishes for both young and old.

Milk is used to such a great extent because it fills many of the requirements of an ideal food. It is generally liked, requires little or no time for preparation, agrees with the majority of persons when used properly, and contains substances that supply energy and build and repair tissue. Still, it does not contain these substances in such proportions as to make it an ideal or exclusive article of diet for adults, and it must often be modified to suit the needs of infants, because it is ideal for only the young of the species for which it is intended. Therefore, while milk is often called a perfect food, in reality it is perfect for only the calf. When it is desired for the feeding of a very young child, it must be changed to meet the requirements before it can be used with good results.

3. So important is milk as an article of food that, outside of the purely rural districts, producing the milk supply is a business of considerable importance. This is due to the fact that the purity of milk must be constantly safeguarded in order that clean, safe milk may be provided for the countless numbers that depend on it. In fact, milk undoubtedly bears a closer relation to public health than any other food. To produce an adequate amount of clean, safe, pure milk is one of the food problems of the city and country alike. In the city much of the difficulty is overcome by the ordinances that provide standards of composition and cleanliness, as well as inspection to insure them; but such ordinances are rarely provided for in villages and country districts.

When there is no law to prevent it, unclean milk is sometimes used in the manufacture of butter and cheese, but when this happens, great injustice, if not positive harm, is done to the consumers of these articles. Then, too, unless milk is carefully inspected, tubercular milk is liable to be used in the making of butter, and such a condition will cause the spreading of tuberculosis as readily as the use of the contaminated milk itself.

4. With its various products, milk helps to form a very large part of the dietary in most homes, but while nothing can take the place of this food and while it is high in food value, there seems to be a general tendency to think of it as an addition to the bill of fare, rather than as a possible substitute for more expensive food. For instance, milk is very often served as a beverage in a meal in which the quantity of meat or other protein foods is not reduced. From an economical standpoint, as well as from the point of view of the needs of the body, this is really extravagant, for milk is itself largely a protein food. The serving of a glass of milk or of a dish that contains generous quantities of milk offers the housewife an opportunity to cut down considerably the allowance of meat and eggs. Because of this fact and because milk and its products may be used to add nutritive value to a food, to give variety, and to improve flavor, they deserve considerable study on the part of the housewife.

5. Since milk may be used in such a variety of ways, it may be easily included in the dietary for the family. Being liquid in form, it may always be served without any preparation as a beverage or with other beverages, cereals, and fruits. It also has numerous other uses, being employed in the making of sauces for vegetables and meats, in the place of stock for soups, and as the liquid for bread, cakes, puddings, custards, and many frozen desserts. Because of its extensive use, every housewife not only should know how to buy milk and care for it, but should be familiar with its composition, so that she may determine whether or not it suits the needs of her family. In addition, she should know the effect of heat on milk and the various methods of preparation if she would be able to judge what food combinations can be used with milk.

COMPOSITION OF MILK

6. As milk is usually taken into the body in liquid form, the common tendency is to regard it as a beverage, rather than as an important source of nourishing food material. However, a knowledge of its composition, as well as the fact that milk becomes a solid food in the stomach and must then be dissolved in the process of digestion, will serve to show that milk contains solids. That it possesses all the elements required to sustain life and promote health is proved by the fact that a child may live for months on milk alone and during this time increase in weight.

7. The solids contained in milk are proteins, fat, carbohydrate in the form of sugar, and mineral salts, besides which, of course, water occurs in large quantities. The sugar and fat of milk serve as fuel; the mineral salts are chiefly valuable for the growth of bones and teeth and for their effect on the liquids of the body; and the proteins, like the fat and sugar, serve as fuel, but they also make and repair the muscular tissues of the body.

In considering the food substances of milk, it will be well to note also that they vary according to the breed, feeding, and individual characteristics of the cow. Jerseys and Guernseys give milk rich in fat and total solids, and while Holstein cows give a greater quantity of milk, such milk has a smaller proportion of fat and total solids. As a rule, though, the composition of milk may be considered as approximately 3.3 per cent. protein, 4 per cent. fat, 5 per cent. carbohydrate, and .7 per cent. mineral matter, making a total of 13 per cent. This indicates the quantity of actual food material in milk, the remainder, or 87 per cent., being water.

8. PROTEIN IN MILK.–Because of the double usefulness of protein–to serve as fuel and to make and repair muscular tissue–this element is regarded as an important ingredient of milk. The protein in milk is called _casein_. The opaque whiteness of milk is largely due to the presence of this substance. As long as milk remains sweet, the lime salts it contains hold this casein in solution; but when it sours, the salts are made soluble and the casein thickens, or coagulates. In addition to casein, milk contains a small amount of protein in the form of _albumin_. This substance, upon being heated, coagulates and causes the formation of the skin that is always found on the top of milk that has been heated. The skin thus formed contains everything that is found in milk, because, as it forms, casein is dried with it and sugar and fat, too, are caught and held there. It is the protein of milk and its characteristic coagulation that are made use of in the making of cheese. In cooking, the protein of milk is probably more affected than any of the other substances, but the degree to which the digestion of milk is thus affected is not definitely known, this being a much disputed question.

9. FAT IN MILK.–The other substance in milk that serves as fuel, or to produce energy, is fat. It occurs in the form of tiny particles, each surrounded by a thin covering and suspended in the liquid. Such a mixture, which is called an _emulsion_, is the most easily digested form in which fat is found. The fat in milk varies more than the other food substances, it being sometimes as low as 2 per cent, and again as high as 6 per cent. However, the average of these two, or 4 per cent., is the usual amount found in most milk.

As has been mentioned, the fat globules of milk rise to the top because fat is lighter than water, so that when milk has been undisturbed for some time the top, which is known as _cream_, will be found to contain most of the fat. Because of the fat it contains, the cream is yellower in color than the milk underneath. If the cream is beaten, or churned, these fat particles will adhere in a mass, advantage of this fact being taken in the making of butter.

10. CARBOHYDRATE IN MILK.–The carbohydrate contained in milk is in the form of sugar called _lactose_. It is unlike other sugars in that it is not very sweet and does not disagree with most persons nor upset their digestion. For this reason, it is often given to children, invalids, and persons who have digestive disturbances. However, it is like other carbohydrates in that in solution it ferments. The result of the fermentation in this case is the production of _lactic acid_, which makes the milk sour. With the fat, lactose makes up the bulk of the energy-producing material of milk, and while this is important it is only secondary when compared to the tissue-building power of the protein and minerals. Besides being an important part of milk itself, lactose is a valuable by-product in the manufacture of cheese. After being taken from _whey_, which is the clear, straw-colored liquid that remains when the curd, or coagulated portion, is completely removed from the milk, the lactose is refined and sold in the form of a powder that is used for various kinds of infant and invalid feeding.

11. MINERAL MATTER IN MILK.–Considerable quantities of mineral salts, which are chiefly _lime_, _potash_, and _phosphates_, are found in milk. As has already been pointed out, these are important in the building of bone and hard tissue in the body, but in addition they help to keep the fluids of the body in the right condition. Because of the work they do, these mineral salts are necessary in the building of the bodies of growing children, and are useful for repair and the regulation of the body processes in adults. In cheese, butter, and cream, which are the products of milk, less of the mineral salts are found in proportion to the quantity than in whole milk, skim milk, and whey.

12. WATER IN MILK.–The percentage of water in milk is much greater than that of all the other food substances combined, there being more than six times as much. While this quantity seems very large, it is an advantage, for milk provides nourishment to persons when they can take neither solid nor more condensed food. On the other hand, the water is a disadvantage, for it is responsible for the rapid spoiling of milk. This fact is clearly shown in the case of condensed milk, where the water is partly or completely evaporated, for milk of this kind keeps much longer without spoiling than either whole or skim milk.

PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM MILK

13. Although milk is used extensively in its natural liquid form, considerable use is also made of the numerous products of milk, chief among which are cream, skim milk, buttermilk, sour milk, whey, butter, and cheese. In fact, all of these occupy such an important place in the dietary of the majority of homes that it is well for every housewife to understand their value. Butter and cheese are discussed in detail later, so that at this time no attention need be given to them. The other products, however, are taken up now, with the intention of enabling the housewife to familiarize herself with their production, nature, and use.

14. CREAM.–As has been pointed out, the particles of fat that rise to the top of milk when it is allowed to remain undisturbed for some time form the product known as cream. Cream may be removed from the milk by skimming it off, or it may be separated from the milk by means of machinery especially designed for the purpose. The greater the proportion of fat in milk, the thicker, or “heavier,” will be the cream.

Various grades of separated cream are placed on the market, the usual ones being those which contain 8, 12, 16, 20, and 40 per cent, of fat. Thin cream, which includes the grades that have only a small percentage of fat, contains a larger quantity of milk than the others and is not so desirable for many purposes. Still, it is used to some extent, because it is cheaper and there are definite uses to which it can be put. Medium-heavy cream is the kind to select when it is desired for _whipping_. This is a process that consists in beating the cream rapidly until a mass of tiny bubbles form and become stiff, very much as the white of egg does.

15. SKIM MILK.–After a part or all of the cream has been removed from whole milk, that which remains is called skim milk. While practically all of the fat is taken out when milk is skimmed, very little protein or sugar is removed. Therefore, skim milk is still a valuable food, it being used to a large extent for cheese making, for the manufacture of certain commercial foods, and for the feeding of animals. The housewife does not, as a rule, buy skim milk; indeed, in some localities the laws prevent its sale because it is considered an adulterated food. However, it is really a wholesome, valuable food that is cheaper than whole milk, and its use in the home should therefore be encouraged from an economical standpoint. Here it may be used in the preparation of many dishes, such as sauces, cakes, biscuits, muffins, griddle cakes, bread, etc., in which butter or other fats are used, and in custards, puddings, ices, and numerous other desserts.

16. BUTTERMILK.–The milk that remains in butter making after the butter fat has been removed from cream by churning is known by the name buttermilk. Such milk is similar to skim milk in composition, and unless butter is made of sweet cream, buttermilk is sour. Buttermilk is used considerably as a beverage, but besides this use there are numerous ways in which it may be employed in the preparation of foods, as is pointed out in various recipes. An advantage of buttermilk is that its cost is less than that of whole milk, so that the housewife will do well to make use of it in the preparation of those foods in which it produces satisfactory results.

17. ARTIFICIAL BUTTERMILK.–Several kinds of sour milk that are called buttermilk are to be had, particularly at soda fountains and restaurants. While they are similar to buttermilk they are not the same, because they are produced artificially from whole or skimmed sweet milk. The usual method employed in the making of these artificial buttermilks, as they may well be called, consists in adding to sweet milk tablets containing lactic acid or a certain culture of bacteria that induce fermentation, very much as yeast does, and then keeping it at about body temperature for a number of hours in order to allow the milk to thicken and sour. Such milks exert a beneficial action in the digestive tract, and their food value, provided they are made from whole milk, is just as high as that of the original sweet milk. Artificial buttermilks therefore prove a valuable source of food supply for persons who find them palatable and who do not care for sweet milk. Their food value may be increased by adding cream to them.

18. SOUR MILK.–Ordinary milk contains large numbers of bacteria that produce fermentation. When it is allowed to stand for some time, these bacteria act upon the sugar, or lactose, contained in the milk and change it into lactic acid. This acid gives to the milk a sour taste and at the same time causes the casein of the milk to become a mass known as _curd_, or _clabber_. This mass continues to grow sour and tough until all the milk sugar is converted into lactic acid, so that the longer the milk stands, the more acid it becomes. Sour milk, however, is useful in the preparation of various dishes, such as hot breads and griddle cakes.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

19. WHEY.–When the curd is completely removed from milk, as in making cheese, a clear, light, yellowish liquid known as whey remains. Whey is composed of water, minerals, and milk sugar or lactic acid, and is the least valuable part of the milk. The ingenious housewife will never be at a loss to make use of this product, for, while its food value is slight, the minerals it contains are important ones. Whey is sometimes used to furnish the liquid for bread making and, in addition, it may be used as a beverage for persons who cannot digest food as heavy as milk itself.

20. COMPARISON OF FOOD VALUES OF MILK PRODUCTS.–So that the housewife may become familiar with the food values of milk products, there is here given, in Fig. 1, a graphic table for the comparison of such products. Each glass is represented as containing approximately 1 pint or 1 pound of the milk product, and the figures underneath each indicate the number of calories found in the quantity represented. The triangle at the side of each indicates the proportion of ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and water, the percentage composition being given at the side. Housewives as a rule fully appreciate the food value that is to be found in whole milk and cream, but such products as skim milk, buttermilk, and whey are likely to be ignored.

CHARACTERISTICS OF WHOLESOME MILK

21. So far as the housewife is concerned, the qualities that characterize wholesome milk are without doubt of great interest. She may know of what use milk is in the diet and the food substances of which it is composed, but unless she understands just what constitutes milk of good quality, as well as the nature of inferior milk, she cannot very well provide her family with the kind it should have. Therefore, to assist her in this matter, the characteristics of wholesome milk are here discussed. Such milk, it will be well to note, must be of the right composition, must not be adulterated, must be fresh–that is, not older when delivered than is permitted by law–and must be as clean as possible.

22. STANDARD OF MILK COMPOSITION.–The housewife usually judges the quality of milk by the amount of cream that rises to the top when milk in a bottle is allowed to remain undisturbed for some time. This is really an excellent test, because milk that contains only a small amount of cream is of poorer quality than that which contains a larger amount; in other words, the more cream milk contains, the higher will be its food value and the greater its energy-producing ability. Then, too, milk that is rich in cream usually contains proportionately large amounts of protein and sugar.

While the composition of milk has much to do with the quality of this food, it varies, as should be noted, in different breeds and even in individual cows, depending on both the food and the care given to them. For this reason, milk that is mixed is preferable to the milk of a single cow, as the mixing of the milk of a number of cows insures a better average composition.

23. ADULTERATION OF MILK.–The composition of milk, and hence its quality, is seriously affected by its adulteration. By this is meant the extraction of any of the food substances from whole milk; the addition of anything that tends to weaken or lower its quality or strength; the use of coloring matter to make it appear of greater value than it actually is; or the use of preservatives to prevent it from souring as soon as it ordinarily would. It is, of course, illegal to adulterate milk, yet it is sometimes done. The most convenient and possibly the most common materials used to adulterate milk are water and skim milk. The addition of water to milk decreases the quantity of all its food substances, but the addition of skim milk reduces the quantity of fat only. The color of the milk is often affected by the use of these adulterants, but when this happens, yellow coloring is usually added to restore the original appearance.

Sometimes the milk that a dairyman markets contains more fat than the law requires; but even such milk cannot legally be skimmed nor diluted with skim milk. The only thing that may be done to it is to mix it with milk that is low in butter fat and thus obtain a milk that will average the legal percentage. For instance, if milk from a dairy averages 5 per cent, of butter fat, it may be diluted with milk that contains only 3 per cent, of butter fat, because the result of such mixing, which will be milk averaging 4 per cent, of this food substance, will be the legal standard.

24. To prevent milk from souring, dishonest milk dealers often put into it such preservatives as soda, borax, and formaldehyde. There is no definite way of telling whether or not one of these has been used, except by a chemical analysis. However, if milk does not sour within a reasonable time when no precautions have been taken to keep it sweet, it should be looked on with suspicion, for it undoubtedly contains a preservative.

25. FRESHNESS OF MILK.–To be most satisfactory for all purposes, milk should be absolutely fresh. However, it is almost impossible to obtain milk in this condition, because it is generally sold at a distance from the source of supply. Milk that is sold in small towns and cities is usually 12 and often 18 to 21 hours old when it is delivered; whereas, in large cities, where the demand is so great that milk must be shipped from great distances, it is often 24 to 36 or even 48 hours old when it reaches the consumer. In order that milk may remain sweet long enough to permit it to be delivered at places so far removed from the source of supply, it must be handled and cared for in the cleanest possible way by the dealers. Likewise, if the housewife desires to get the best results from it, she must follow the same plan, cooling it immediately on delivery and keeping it cool until it is consumed. The freshness of milk can be determined only by the length of time it will remain sweet when proper care is given to it.

26. CLEANLINESS OF MILK.–Milk may be of the right composition, free from all adulteration, and as fresh as it is possible to obtain it, but unless it is clean, it is an injurious food. Milk is rendered unclean or impure by dirt. In reality, there are two kinds of dirt that may be present in milk, and it is important to know just what these are and what effect they have on milk.

27. The less harmful of the two kinds of dirt is the visible dirt that gets into the milk from the cow, the stable, the milker, the milking utensils, and similar sources when these are not scrupulously clean. If milk containing such dirt is allowed to stand long enough in pans or bottles for the heavier particles to settle, it will be found as sediment in the bottom of the receptacle. To say the least, the presence of such dirt is always disagreeable and frequently produces foreign flavors.

Straining the milk through clean absorbent cotton will reveal the presence of such dirt and another kind of dirt that does not show through the opaque fluid. This second kind of dirt is generally found in milk when the first kind is present in any quantity. It is more liable to be harmful than the other, because it enters the milk from the water used in cleaning the receptacles or from some contaminated source.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

28. Whenever dirt is present in milk, bacteria are sure to be there; and the greater the quantity of dirt the greater will be the number of bacteria. Should the housewife desire to compare the cleanliness of several lots of milk, she may filter a like quantity from each lot, say a quart or a pint, through small disks of absorbent cotton. If, after the milk has passed through the cotton disk, very little dirt remains on it, as in Fig. 2 (_a_), the milk may be considered as comparatively clean; if the cotton disk appears as in (_b_), the milk may be said to be only slightly dirty; if it appears as in (_c_), the milk is dirty; and if it appears as in (_d_), the milk is very dirty. Milk that leaves a stain like that in (_d_) contains more bacteria than milk that leaves a stain like that in (_c_), and so on through all the lots of milk. Filtering milk in this manner, however, does not indicate whether the bacteria are disease producing. Such information can be secured only by microscopic examination, and only then by persons who have a knowledge of such matters.

29. Since, as has been pointed out, bacteria cling to all dirt, the dirt that milk contains is one of the causes of souring and putrefaction of milk, and may be a cause of disease. Indeed, it is definitely known that dirty milk sours much more quickly than does clean milk. Actual tests in which clean milk was put in a cool place have proved that it will keep for weeks, whereas dirty milk will sour in a day or two, especially in warm weather. This information should point out clearly to the housewife that it is not merely heat that changes milk or causes it to sour. She should understand in addition, that bacteria grow and multiply very rapidly when conditions for their growth are provided. These conditions are moisture, warmth, and the right kind of food, and as all of these are found in milk, this product is really ideal for bacterial development. The only way in which to protect milk is to make sure that no bacteria enter it, or, if they do, to make it impossible for them to grow. This may be done by keeping the milk so cold that they cannot thrive, or by destroying them in various ways, which are taken up later.

30. In former times, there was not much danger of wide-spread disease from the milk supply, for it was cared for almost entirely by those who kept a few cows and distributed milk to a small number of customers. In fact, it has been only within the past 50 years that large quantities of milk are handled by separate dairies and shipped great distances from the source of supply and that the distribution of milk has become a great industry. When so much milk is handled in one place, it is more or less unsafe unless the dairy is kept extremely clean and is conducted in the most sanitary manner. Experience has shown that too much attention cannot be given to the care of milk, for the lives of great numbers of children have been sacrificed through the carelessness of dairymen and persons selling and distributing milk, as well as through the negligence of those who handle the milk after it has entered the home. To overcome much of this carelessness, both the Federal Government and the various states of this country have set standards for safe milk production, and in order to make their laws effective have established inspection service. Independently of these state and national laws, many of the cities, particularly the large ones, have made their own standards, which, as a rule, are very rigid. One of the usual requirements is to compel each person who wishes to sell milk in the city to buy a license, so that the city authorities may keep in touch with those handling milk and so that conditions may be investigated at any time. In view of the care required of dealers in handling milk, the housewife owes it to herself and the members of her family to keep the milk in the home in the best possible manner.

GRADES OF CLEAN MILK

31. Ever since milk has come to be a commercial product, authorities have been devising ways in which it may be brought to the consumer in a condition that will permit it to be used without causing ill results. Their efforts have been rewarded to such an extent that nowadays consumers have little to fear from the milk they purchase, provided they get it from dealers who live up to the laws. Chief among the different grades of clean milk is _certified milk,_ and next in order comes _pasteurized milk,_ followed by _sterilized milk_.

32. CERTIFIED MILK.–The grade of clean milk sold under the name of certified milk is simply natural, raw milk that is produced and marketed under conditions that permit it to be guaranteed as pure, wholesome, and of definite composition. Such milk is necessarily higher in price than milk that is less wholesome and sanitary, because of the extra cost to the dairyman in meeting the requirements that make it possible for him to produce clean milk under sanitary conditions. These requirements pertain to the health and cleanliness of those who handle the milk, to the health, housing condition, and care of the herd and the dairy cows, and to the handling and care of milk in the dairy and during transportation and delivery. They are usually established and enforced by an inspection commission appointed by the city, county, or state in which the milk is produced.

33. If a little careful thought is given to the milk situation, it will be admitted that such precautions are necessary if clean milk is to be the result. Such milk cannot be produced if the surroundings are dirty, because dust and flies, which are two sources of contamination, are practically always present in such places. A stable with poor ventilation, without screens to keep out flies, and with floors that will not permit of cleaning, but cause filth and refuse to accumulate, is sure to contaminate milk that is handled in it. In addition, cows that are not well fed, comfortably housed, or carefully groomed cannot be expected to give milk of as good quality as cows that are properly cared for. Likewise, if the persons who do the milking are not clean, the milk is subject to contamination from this source.

34. All such unfavorable conditions can be remedied, and must be in the production of certified milk; but the good accomplished in this direction will be lost if the milk is carelessly handled after milking. Therefore, in producing certified milk, only the cleanest water available is allowed to be used in the dairy. Impure water is a common source of the contamination of milk in such places. On some farms, the water supply comes from a well that is too near the barn or that is too shallow to avoid being made impure by the germs that filter into it from the barnyard or a cesspool. If vessels in which milk is placed are washed in such water, it is necessary to sterilize them by boiling or steaming before milk is put into them, in order to kill the germs that come from the water. If such a precaution as this is not observed, the germs will multiply rapidly in the milk and, provided they are disease-producing, will make the milk extremely dangerous.

Besides observing the precautions mentioned, it is necessary that all utensils used in a dairy, such as pails for milking, strainers, containers, etc., be kept scrupulously clean. Likewise, they must be sterilized by boiling each time they are used, for, while disease germs may be absent, those which cause the milk to sour are always present and must be destroyed. Finally, to prevent any germs that enter milk from multiplying, even when it is properly cared for, the milk has to be cooled to a temperature of 45 degrees Fahrenheit or lower immediately after milking and then bottled in sterilized bottles, sealed, and packed in ice, within 20 minutes after milking.

35. It is by giving attention to all such matters that certified milk is possible. Such milk, as will be understood from what has been said, is neither a cooked milk nor a dirty milk that is processed, but a natural, raw milk that is clean at all stages of its production and marketing. Because of this fact, it is the best and cleanest milk to be had and may be used without hesitation, not only by grown persons in good health, but for infants and invalids.

The sanitary condition of certified milk and the consequent length of time it will remain sweet was demonstrated conclusively as far back as 1900 at the Paris Exposition. At this time, two model dairies in the United States–one located at the University of Illinois and the other at Briarcliff Manor, Westchester County, New York–delivered to their booths at the Exposition milk that was bottled under the most sanitary conditions at their dairies. During its transit across the ocean the milk was kept at a temperature of 40 to 42 degrees Fahrenheit, and on its arrival, 2 weeks after leaving the dairies, it was found to be in a perfectly sweet condition. Similar experiments made at later dates, such as shipping certified milk from the East to California, serve to bear out the test made in 1900, and prove what can be done with milk so produced as to be as free as possible from bacteria or the conditions that permit their growth.

36. PASTEURIZED MILK.–While certified milk is undoubtedly the safest kind of milk to use and is constantly growing in favor, much of the milk received in the home is pasteurized. By pasteurized milk is meant milk that has been heated to a temperature of 140 to 155 degrees Fahrenheit, kept at this temperature for 15 to 20 minutes, and then cooled rapidly. The result of such a treatment is that any disease-producing germs that are present in the milk, as well as those which are likely to cause intestinal disturbances, are destroyed, and that the milk is rendered safe as food for a time. Pasteurizing does not materially change the taste of milk, nor does it seriously affect the digestive properties of this food. It is true, of course, that pasteurized milk is not so good as clean raw milk. Still it is better to use such milk than to run the risk of using milk that might be contaminated with the germs of tuberculosis, typhoid fever, scarlet fever, diphtheria, or any other of the numerous diseases that have been known to be carried to whole families and communities through the milk supply.

37. Although pasteurizing is done on a large scale in dairies, there is no reason why the housewife cannot pasteurize the milk she buys, provided it is raw milk and she feels that it is not safe to use. If pasteurizing is to be done frequently and large quantities of milk are to be treated, it would be advisable to purchase the convenient apparatus that is to be had. However, if only a small quantity of milk is to be pasteurized at a time, a simple improvised outfit will prove satisfactory, because milk pasteurized in the home may be heated in the bottles in which it is received. Such an outfit consists of a dairy thermometer, a deep vessel, and a perforated pie tin or a wire rack of suitable size.

38. To pasteurize milk in the home, proceed in the manner illustrated in Fig. 3. Place the rack or invert the perforated pie tin in the bottom of the vessel, and on it place the bottles of milk from which the caps have not been removed. Make a hole through the cap of one bottle, and insert the thermometer into the milk through this hole. Then fill the vessel with cold water to within an inch or so of the top of the bottles, taking care not to put in so much water as to make the bottles float. Place the vessel over the fire, heat it until the thermometer in the bottle registers a few degrees over 150 degrees Fahrenheit, and keep the milk at this temperature for 15 to 20 minutes. At the end of this time, the milk will be sufficiently pasteurized and may be removed from the fire. As soon as it is taken from the water, cool it as rapidly as possible by running cold water into the vessel slowly or by placing the bottles in several changes of water, taking care not to place the hot bottles in very cold water at first, as this may cause them to crack.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

When the milk has been cooled by some rapid method, keep it cool until it is used. This precaution is necessary because of the nature of pasteurized milk. The temperature at which milk is pasteurized is sufficient to kill all fully developed bacteria, but those which exist in an undeveloped state, or in the form of spores, develop very rapidly after pasteurization unless the milk is kept cold and clean. If these bacteria were allowed to develop, the purpose of pasteurization would be lost, and the milk would become as dangerous as it was originally. The advantage of cooling milk rapidly will be fully appreciated upon referring to Fig. 4, which illustrates the development of a single germ in milk that is cooled rapidly and in milk that is cooled slowly.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

39. STERILIZED MILK.–By sterilized milk is meant milk in which all germs are destroyed by sterilization. Such milk is not sold by dealers, but the process of sterilization is resorted to in the home when pasteurization is not sufficient to render milk safe. This process, which is the only positive means of destroying all germs, consists in bringing the milk to the boiling point, or 212 degrees Fahrenheit, allowing it to boil for three quarters of an hour, and then cooling it rapidly. One who undertakes to treat milk in this way should remember that it is difficult to boil milk, because the solids in the milk adhere to the bottom and sides of the vessel and soon burn. However, this difficulty can be overcome by sterilizing the milk in the bottles in which it is bought.

40. To sterilize milk, place the sealed bottles on a wire rack or a perforated pie tin in a deep vessel, as for the pasteurizing of milk, and pour cold water into the vessel until it nearly covers the bottles. Then raise the temperature of the water quickly to the boiling point, and after it has begun to bubble, allow it to boil for three quarters of an hour. At the end of this time, cool the milk rapidly and then keep it cool until it is used.

41. Although milk thus treated becomes safe, sterilization changes its flavor and digestibility. If milk of this kind must be used, some raw food should be given with it. A diet composed entirely of cooked food is not so ideal as one in which some raw food is included, because raw foods contain substances that are essential to health. The change that takes place in the composition of milk that has been sterilized can be easily observed. Such milk on becoming sour does not coagulate as does pasteurized or raw milk, owing to the fact that the lime salts in the milk are so changed by the high temperature as to prevent the thickening process from taking place. Then, too, sterilized milk is not likely to become sour even after considerable time. Still, such milk is not safe to use except when it is fresh, for instead of fermenting in the usual way it putrefies and is liable to cause such a dangerous sickness as ptomaine poisoning.

42. MODIFIED MILK.–For infants who cannot be fed their normal diet, cow’s milk must be used as a substitute, but in order to make it a more nearly ideal food for them it must usually be modified, or changed, by adding other materials. When it is so treated, it is known as modified milk. The materials used to modify milk are sterile water, lime water, barley water, cream, skim milk, milk sugar, or some other easily digested carbohydrate, one of these or a combination of them always being employed. The proportion of these ingredients to use varies with the age of the child that is to be fed and must be constantly changed to meet the child’s requirements. In the production of modified milk, a physician’s prescription and directions should always be followed closely. Only the best quality of milk should be used, and, in addition, the greatest care should be taken to have all the bottles, utensils, and materials used as clean and sterile as it is possible to make them. If such conditions cannot be met, it is advisable to pasteurize the modified-milk mixture after the materials have been put together.

PRESERVED MILK

43. Besides milk that is commonly sold by dairymen and milk dealers, it is possible to buy in the market many grades of so-called PRESERVED MILK. Such milk is produced by driving off all or part of the water contained in milk, and it is sold as _condensed, evaporated,_ and _powdered milk_. Usually, it is put up in tin cans, and while it is not used so extensively as regular milk, many firms are engaged in its preparation.

44. CONDENSED AND EVAPORATED MILK.–As has just been mentioned, condensed and evaporated milk is produced by the complete or partial evaporation of the water contained in milk. Such milk can be shipped long distances or kept for long periods of time, because it does not contain sufficient moisture to permit the growth of bacteria. In evaporating milk to produce these preserved milks, each gallon is diminished in quantity to about two and one quarter pints, the original 87 per cent. of water being reduced to about 25 per cent. Therefore, in order to use such milk, sufficient water must be added to restore it to its original composition. Sometimes comparatively large amounts of cane sugar are added to such milks, which, besides sweetening them, assist in their preservation. If cane sugar is not used, the milks are usually made sterile in order to prevent them from spoiling.

45. POWDERED MILK.–The form of preserved milk known as powdered milk is the result of completely evaporating the water in milk. Such milk has the appearance of a dry powdered substance. It does not spoil easily and is so greatly reduced in quantity that it can be conveniently stored. Because of these characteristics, this product, for which skim milk is generally used, is extensively manufactured. It is used chiefly by bakers and confectioners, and, as in the case of evaporated or condensed milk, the water that has been evaporated in the powdering process must be supplied when the milk is used.

STANDARD GRADING OF MILK AND CREAM

46. In order that a definite idea may be formed of the sanitary and bacteriological standards that are set by milk commissions, there are here given, in Table I, the regulations governing the grades and designation of milk and cream that may be sold in the city of New York. As will be observed from a study of this table, only definite grades of milk and cream can be sold in that city; likewise, it must conform to certain standards of purity and the producer must handle it in such a way that it may be delivered to the consumer in as clean and fresh a condition as possible.

Without doubt, a grading similar to this one will become general throughout the United States eventually, for this is the only way by which the housewife may know with certainty whether or not the milk she purchases is of the right composition and is safe, fresh, and sanitary in every respect. The different qualities of milk and cream as shown by this grading are, of course, sold at different prices, those which require the greatest care and expense in handling selling for the highest price.

MILK IN THE HOME

PURCHASE OF MILK

47. After the housewife has become familiar with the points that she should know concerning milk, she will be much better equipped to purchase milk of the right kind for her home. However, there are still some points for her to observe when she is purchasing milk if she would supply her family with the best quality of this food.

48. In the first place, she should buy milk from a reliable dealer who will not object to questioning, and, if possible, she should make an investigation of the dairy that supplies the milk that she uses. If she cannot investigate the dairy personally, she should at least endeavor to obtain information from those who are prepared to give it. If she learns that the conditions in the dairy that is supplying her with milk are not what they should be, she should try to obtain milk from some other source. Of course, she should remember that milk of the best and cleanest quality is the highest in price, because of the increased cost of production; but it is usually advisable to pay the higher price, especially if children are to be fed, because cheap milk is liable to be unsafe, at least for any purpose that will require it to be served without cooking. Should the income not allow the best quality of milk to be used for all purposes, a cheaper grade can be used for cooking, but it is always economical to purchase the best quality when this food is to be used as a beverage.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

49. In the next place, the housewife should purchase milk from a dealer who delivers cold milk, because, as has been mentioned, bacteria multiply rapidly in warm milk. She should also try to obtain milk put up in bottles, for such milk has advantages over milk dipped from a can in that it does not have the same chance to become dirty and it affords a greater opportunity to secure accurate measurement. The kind of caps used on milk bottles should also be observed. Caps that have to be pried out with a knife or a similar utensil are not nearly so satisfactory as those shown in Fig. 5 (_a_), which have small tabs _a_ that permit the cap to be lifted out. In addition to the caps, which serve to keep dirt out of the milk and permit it to be delivered without being spilled, some dealers use covers like that shown in (_b_). Such covers are held in place by a wire and serve further to protect the milk from contamination.

If milk purchased in bottles is clean, there should be no sediment in the bottom of the bottle after it has been allowed to stand for some time. Also, if it is fresh, it will not sour quickly after it is delivered, so that in case it is properly cared for and sours quickly, it may be known to be stale milk. However, if it does not sour in the normal length of time, it should be looked on with suspicion, for, as has been pointed out, such milk may have added to it a preservative to prevent souring. The housewife may expect milk that is delivered cold and is guaranteed to be sanitary and fresh to remain sweet at least 24 hours, provided, of course, it is placed in the refrigerator immediately upon delivery and kept there until used.

* * * * *

REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE GRADES AND DESIGNATION OF MILK AND CREAM WHICH MAY BE SOLD IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK

The following classifications apply to milk and cream. The regulations regarding bacterial content and time of delivery shall not apply to sour cream.

Grades of Milk or Cream Sold in the City of New York:

GRADE A Milk or cream (Raw)

Definition: Grade A milk or cream (raw) is milk or cream produced and handled in accordance with the minimum requirements, rules and regulations as herein set forth.

Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: 1. Only such cows shall be admitted to the herd as have not reacted to a diagnostic injection of tuberculin and are in good physical condition. 2. All cows shall be tested with tuberculin and all reacting animals shall be excluded from the herd.

Bacterial Contents: Grade A milk shall not contain more than 60,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter, and cream more than 300,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter when delivered to the consumer or at any time prior to such delivery.

Necessary Scores: Equip. 25, Meth. 50, Total 75

Time of Delivery: Shall be delivered within 36 hours after production.

Bottling: Unless otherwise specified in the permit, this milk or cream shall be delivered to consumers only in bottles.

Labeling: Outer caps of bottles shall be white and shall contain the words Grade A, Raw, in black letters in large type, and shall state the name and address of the dealer.

Pasteurization: None.

Milk or cream (Pasteurized)

Definition: Grade A milk or cream (pasteurized) is milk or cream handled and sold by dealers holding permits therefor from the Board of Health, and produced and handled in accordance with the requirements, rules, and regulations as herein set forth.

Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: No tuberculin test required, but cows must be healthy as disclosed by physical examination made annually.

Bacterial Contents: Grade A milk (pasteurized) shall not contain more than 30,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter and cream (pasteurized) more then 150,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter when delivered to the consumer or at any time after pasteurization and prior to such delivery. No milk supply averaging more than 200,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter shall be pasteurized for sale under this designation.

Necessary Scores: Equip. 25, Meth. 43, Total 68.

Time of Delivery: Shall be delivered within 36 hours after pasteurization.

Bottling: Unless otherwise specified in the permit, this milk or cream shall be delivered to the consumer only in bottles.

Labeling: Outer cap of bottles shall be white and contain the word Grade A in black letters in large type, date and hours between which pasteurization was completed; place where pasteurization was performed; name of the person, firm, or corporation offering for sale, selling, or delivering same.

Pasteurization: Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees Fahrenheit for not less than 30 minutes.

Grade B Milk or cream (Pasteurized)

Definition: Grade B milk or cream (pasteurized) is milk or cream produced and handled in accordance with the minimal requirements, rules, and regulations herein set forth and which has been pasteurized in accordance with the requirements and rules and regulations of the Department of Health for pasteurization.

Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: No tuberculin test required, but cows must be healthy as disclosed by physical examination made annually.

Bacterial Contents: No milk under this grade shall contain more than 100,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter and no claim shall contain more than 500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter when delivered to the consumer or at anytime after pasteurization and prior to such delivery. No milk supply averaging more than 1,500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter shall be pasteurized in this city for sale under this designation. No milk supply averaging more than 300,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter shall be pasteurized outside of the city for sale under this designation.

Necessary Scores: Equip. 20, Meth. 35, Total 55

Time of Delivery: Milk shall be delivered within 36 hours and cream within 48 hours after pasteurization.

Bottling: May be delivered in cans or bottles.

Labeling: Outer caps of bottles containing milk and tags affixed to cans containing milk or cream shall be white and marked Grade B in bright green letters in large type, date pasteurization was completed, place where pasteurization was performed, name of the person, firm, or corporation offering for sale, selling, or delivering same. Bottles containing cream shall be labeled with caps marked Grade B in bright green letters, in large type and shall give the place and date of bottling and shall give the name of person, firm, or corporation offering for sale, selling, or delivering same.

Pasteurization: Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees Fahrenheit for not less than 30 minutes.

Grade C Milk or cream (Pasteurized) (For cooking and manufacturing purposes only.)

Definition: Grade C milk or cream is milk or cream not conforming to the requirements of any of the subdivisions of Grade A or Grade B and which has been pasteurized according to the requirements and rules and regulations of the Board of Health or boiled for at least two (2) minutes.

Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: No tuberculin test required, but cows must be healthy as disclosed by physical examination made annually.

Bacterial Contents: No milk of this grade shall contain more than 300,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter and no cream of this grade show contain more than 1,500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter after pasteurization.

Necessary Scores: Score 40

Time of Delivery: Shall be delivered within 48 hours after pasteurization.

Bottling: May be delivered in the cans only.

Labeling: Tags affixed to cans shall be white and shall be marked in red with the words, Grade C in large type and “for cooking” in plainly visible type, and cans and shall have properly sealed metal collars, painted red on necks.

Pasteurization: Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized as has been subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees Fahrenheit for not less than 30 minutes.

NOTE.–Sour milk, buttermilk, sour cream, kumyss, matzoon, zoolac, and similar products shall not be made from any milk of a less grade than that designated for Grade B and shall be pasteurized before being put through the process of souring. Sour cream shall not contained a less percentage of fats than that designated for cream.

No other words than those designated herein shall appear on the label of any container containing milk or cream or milk or cream products except the word certified when authorized under the State law.

* * * * *

CARE OF MILK

50. NECESSITY FOR CARE IN THE HOME.–If milk of good quality is bought, and, as has been suggested, this should be done whenever it is possible, the next thing to do is to care for it in such a way that it may be fed to the family in the same condition as it was when delivered. It is, of course, of prime importance that the dairyman deliver clean fresh milk, but this is not sufficient; the milk must remain in this condition until it is used, and this can occur only when the housewife knows how to care for it properly after it enters the home. It is possible to make safe milk unsafe and unsafe milk positively dangerous unless the housewife understands how to care for milk and puts into practice what she knows concerning this matter. Indeed, some of the blame laid to the careless handling of milk by dairymen really belongs to housewives, for very often they do not take care of milk in the right way after delivery. As too much attention cannot be given to this matter, explicit directions are here outlined, with the idea of assisting the housewife in this matter as much as possible.

51. KEEPING MILK CLEAN IN THE HOME.–Immediately upon delivery, the bottle containing the milk should be placed in the coolest place available, never being allowed to stand on the porch in the sun or where such animals as cats or dogs may come in contact with it. When the milk is to be used, the paper cap should be carefully wiped before it is removed from the bottle, so that any dirt that may be on top will not fall into the milk. If not all the milk is used and the bottle must be returned to the cool place where it is kept, it should be covered by means of an inverted drinking glass or, as shown in Fig. 6, by a glass or porcelain cover. Such covers, or _sanitary milk_ _caps_, as they are called, are very convenient for this purpose and may be purchased at a slight cost.

52. Another precaution that should be taken is never to mix stale milk with fresh milk, because the entire quantity will become sour in the same length of time as the stale milk would. Also, milk that has been poured into a pitcher or any other open vessel and allowed to stand exposed to the air for some time should never be put back into the bottle with the remaining milk. Such milk is sure to be contaminated with the germs that are always present in the dust constantly circulating in the air. It is sometimes necessary to keep milk in a vessel other than the bottle in which it is delivered. In such an event, the vessel that is used should be washed thoroughly, boiled in clean water, and cooled before the milk is poured into it.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

53. Particular care should be taken of the empty milk bottles. They should never be used for anything except milk. Before they are returned to the dairyman to be used again, they should first be rinsed with cold water, then washed thoroughly with hot, soapy water, and finally rinsed with hot water. If there is illness in the home, the washed bottles should be put into a pan of cool water, allowed to come to a boil, and permitted to boil for a few minutes. Such attention will free the bottles from any contamination they might have received. The dairyman, of course, gives the bottles further attention before he uses them again, but the housewife should do her part by making sure that they are thoroughly cleansed before they are collected by him.

54. KEEPING MILK COOL IN THE HOME.–As has been pointed out, milk should, upon being received, be kept in the coolest place available, which, in the majority of homes at the present time, is the refrigerator. In making use of the refrigerator for this purpose, the housewife should put into practice what she learned in _Essentials of Cookery_, Part 2, concerning the proper placing of food in the refrigerator, remembering that milk should be placed where it will remain the coolest and where it is least likely to absorb odors. She should also bear in mind that the temperature inside of a refrigerator varies with that of the surrounding air. It is because of this fact that milk often sours when the temperature is high, as in summer, for instance, even though it is kept in the refrigerator.

55. In case a refrigerator is not available, it will be necessary to resort to other means of keeping milk cool. A cool cellar or basement is an excellent substitute, but if milk is kept in either of these places, it must be tightly covered. Then, too, the spring house with its stream of running water is fully as good as a refrigerator And is used extensively in farming districts. But even though a housewife has none of these at her disposal, she need not be deprived of fresh milk, for there are still other ways of keeping milk cool and consequently fresh. A very simple way in which to keep milk cool is to weight down the bottles in a vessel that is deeper than they are and then pour cold water into the vessel until it reaches the top of the bottles, replacing the water occasionally as it becomes warm. A still better way, however, so far as convenience and results are concerned, is that illustrated in Fig. 7. As shown, wrap the bottle in a clean towel or piece of cotton cloth so that one corner of it is left loose at the top. Then place this end in a pan of cold water that stands higher than the bottle. Such an arrangement will keep the cloth wet constantly and by the evaporation of the water from it will cause the milk to remain cool.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

COOKING MILK

56. POINTS TO BE OBSERVED IN COOKING MILK.–Because of the nature of milk and its constituents, the cooking of this liquid is a little more difficult than would appear at first thought. In fact, heating milk to a temperature greater than 155 degrees Fahrenheit causes several changes to occur in it, one of which, the coagulation of the albumin, has already been mentioned. As the albumin hardens into the layer that forms on the top of boiled milk, a certain amount of fat, sugar, and casein becomes entangled in it, and if the coagulated skin is rejected, these food substances, in addition to the albumin, are lost. Another change that results from boiling is in the fat globules that remain, for these separate and exist no longer in the form of cream.

57. When milk that is not perfectly fresh is cooked with other materials or soups, sauces, and puddings it sometimes curdles. To prevent curdling, the milk should be heated as rapidly as possible before it is used with the other ingredients. While the separate heating of the milk involves a little more work, time may be gained by heating the milk while the remaining ingredients are being prepared. The curdling of comparatively fresh milk is often caused by the addition of salt, especially if the salt is added when the milk is hot. However, if a pinch of bicarbonate of soda is added to the milk before it is heated, it will not be likely to curdle even though it is not absolutely fresh. When tomato is to be used in soup that contains milk or cream, curdling can be prevented if the milk or the cream to be used is thickened with flour or corn starch or a little soda is added to the tomato before the two are mixed. The mixing is accomplished by pouring the _tomato into the milk_ instead of the milk into the tomato. When acid fruit juices are to be added to milk or cream and the mixture then frozen, curdling can be prevented by thoroughly chilling the milk or cream in the freezer can before combining it with the juices.

58. As has already been learned, great care must be taken in the heating of milk, because the solids that it contains adhere quickly to the bottom of the pan and cause the milk to scorch. For this reason, milk should never be heated directly over the flame unless the intention is to boil it, and even if it must be boiled every precaution should be taken to prevent it from burning. It should be remembered, too, that a very small scorched area will be sufficient to make a quantity of milk taste burned. The utensil in which milk can be heated in the most satisfactory way is the double boiler, for the milk does not come in direct contact with the heat in this utensil. If a double boiler is not available, good results can be obtained by setting one pan into another that contains water.

59. Milk is often used in place of water for cooking cereals, beverages, puddings, soups, etc. This is good practice and should be followed whenever possible, for when milk is added it serves to increase the nutritive value of the food. It should be observed, however, that more time is required to cook grains or cereals in milk than to cook them in water, because milk contains more solid matter than water and is not absorbed so quickly. Another frequent use of milk is in breads and biscuits, where, as is explained in _Bread_ and _Hot Breads_, it produces a browner and more tender crust than water.

60. VARIETY OF WAYS TO USE MILK IN COOKING.–Because of the numerous purposes for which milk is required in the preparation of foods, the smallest amount of it, whether sweet or sour, can be utilized in cooking; therefore, no milk need ever be wasted. A few of the uses to which this food is oftenest put are mentioned briefly in order that the housewife may be familiar enough with them to call them to mind whenever she desires to carry out a recipe that calls for milk or when she has occasion to utilize milk that she has on hand.

Milk thickened slightly with flour and flavored with such material as corn, asparagus, celery, tomatoes, beans, peas, or fish makes a delicious soup. In bisques, or thickened soups, and in chowders, the liquid used need not be milk, but these are made very appetizing if milk is used for part or all of the liquid. Then, too, sauces or gravies made with milk, thickened with flour, and made rich with butter or other fat lend themselves to a variety of uses. Dice of vegetables, meat, fish, or game added to a sauce of this kind and served in pastry cases or over toast provide dishes that are delightful additions to any meal. Milk is also used as the basis for custards, blanc manges, ices, sherbets, ice creams, and tapioca, rice, and bread puddings in which eggs, starchy materials, and flavorings are added and the mixture then baked, steamed, boiled, or frozen, as the desired result may require. As is well known, milk is practically indispensable in the making of cakes, cookies, quick breads, and in fact nearly all dough mixtures. Even if it has soured, it can be used with soda to take the place of cream of tartar in mixtures that are to be made light, the lactic acid in the sour milk acting with the soda as leavening. Left-over milk in comparatively large quantities may also be used in the home for the making of cheese, although this product of milk is usually produced commercially.

RECIPES FOR MILK DISHES AND SAUCES

FOODS CONTAINING MILK

61. From the discussion given up to this point, it will be noted that milk is used in a large variety of ways and in the making of numerous dishes. However, most of the dishes in which this liquid occurs involve other important materials, so that the recipes for them are usually listed under some other ingredient or division of cookery. For instance, milk is used in the making of ice cream, but as the ice creams are included among cold desserts, recipes for them would naturally come in the Section pertaining to this subject. Milk is also an important ingredient in puddings, but the recipes for such dishes are given in the Section in which puddings and their sauces are discussed.

Because of this fact, there are only a few recipes that have milk as their basis, and this accounts for the small number of recipes here given. Chief among the recipes that involve principally milk are those for junket and white sauce, and while the number of these is small and the use of the dishes not so general as some kinds of food, just as much attention should be given to them as if they occurred in greater numbers and were used more commonly. Junket is very easily made and should therefore cause the housewife no concern; likewise, little difficulty will be experienced if the directions here given for white sauces are followed explicitly.

RECIPES FOR JUNKET

62. Plain Junket.–In the stomachs of all animals that use milk as food is found a digestive ferment known as _rennin_. This is taken from the stomachs of calves, made up commercially, and sold in the form of tablets called _junket_. When these tablets are used properly with milk, they coagulate the milk and make an excellent dessert that resembles custard and that is very easy to digest. Because of its nature and qualities, this kind of dessert is used largely for invalids and children. The following recipe gives the proportion and directions for making this dessert in its simplest form.

PLAIN JUNKET
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 junket tablet
1 Tb. cold water
1 qt. milk
4 Tb. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. vanilla or other flavoring

Dissolve the junket tablet in the cold water. Warm the milk very slowly to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, testing the temperature to make sure that it is right. If a thermometer is not on hand, this can be done by dropping a drop on the back of the hand. When neither heat nor cold can be felt from this drop of milk, it may be known to be very near the body temperature, the temperature at which rennin is active. If temperature is found to be too high, the milk must be cooled before the tablet is added. When the desired temperature has been reached, add the sugar, the alt, the junket dissolved in the water, and the flavoring. Then pour all into individual molds and keep it where it will remain warm for about 10 minutes, at the end of which it should be firm like a custard and may be cooled. Keep the junket cool until it is to be served, when it may be turned out of the mold or served in it. As junket will turn to whey if it is broken with a spoon to any extent, serving it in the mold is the better plan.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

63. Junket With. Fruit.–The addition of fruit to junket, as in the dish illustrated in Fig. 8, makes an attractive dessert for both sick and well people. If the fruit used is permissible in the diet of an invalid, its combination with junket adds variety to the diet. In the making of this dessert, all juice should be carefully drained from the fruit before the junket is poured over it. Canned or fresh fruits may be used with equally good results.

JUNKET WITH FRUIT
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 junket tablet
1 Tb. cold water
1 qt. milk
1/4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
Flavoring
8 halves of canned peaches or
1 c. of berries or small fruit

Make a junket as directed in the preceding recipe. Drain all juice from the fruit and place a half peach or a spoonful of fruit in the bottom of each of the eight molds and pour the junket over it to fill the mold. Let it solidify and serve cold.

64. CHOCOLATE JUNKET.–Chocolate added to plain junket not only varies the junket dessert, but also adds food value, since chocolate contains a large quantity of fat that is easily digested by most persons. Where the flavor of chocolate is found agreeable, such junket may be served in place of the plain junket.

CHOCOLATE JUNKET
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. milk
2 sq. chocolate
6 Tb. sugar
3/4 c. water
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. vanilla
1 junket tablet

Heat the milk to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, testing in the manner explained in Art. 62. Melt the chocolate in a saucepan, add to it the sugar and 1 cupful of water, and cook until smooth; then cool and add to the warm milk, putting in the salt, vanilla, and junket tablet dissolved in cupful of the water. Turn the junket into a dish or into molds and let stand in a warm place until set; then chill and serve. In preparing this recipe, it will be well to note that if sweet chocolate is used less sugar than is specified may be employed.

65. CARAMEL JUNKET.–In the making of caramel junket, browned, or caramelized, sugar and water take the place of part of the milk, and while a certain amount of the sugar is reduced in the browning, the caramel is still very high in food value and adds nutritive material to the dessert. There is nothing about caramel junket to prevent its being given to any one able to take plain junket, and if it is made correctly it has a very delightful flavor.

CARAMEL JUNKET
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. milk
1/2 c. sugar
1/2 c. boiling water
1/4 tsp. salt
1 tsp. vanilla
1 junket tablet
Whipped cream
1/4 c. chopped nuts

Heat the milk to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Caramelize the sugar by melting it in a saucepan directly over the flame until it is a light-brown color; then stir in the boiling water and cook until the caramel and the water become a sirup, after which cool and add to the milk Add the salt, the vanilla, and the junket tablet dissolved in a tablespoonful of cold water Pour the mixture into a dish, let it stand in a warm place until it sets; then chill, cover with sweetened whipped cream, sprinkle with chopped nuts, and serve.

RECIPES FOR WHITE SAUCE

66. Three white sauces are commonly used for different purposes, and in each one of them milk is the basis. These sauces differ from one another in thickness, and include _thin white sauce_, which is used for cream toast and soups; _medium white sauce_, which is used for dressing vegetables and is flavored in various ways to accompany meats, patties, or croquettes; and _thick white sauce_, which is used to mix with the materials used for croquettes in order to hold them together. To insure the best results, the proportion of flour and liquid should be learned for each kind, and to avoid the formation of lumps the proper method of mixing should be carefully followed out. A white sauce properly made is perfectly smooth, and since only little care is needed to produce such a result it is inexcusable to serve a lumpy sauce. Also, nothing is more disagreeable than thick, pasty sauce, but this can be avoided by employing the right proportion of flour and milk. The ingredients and their proportions for the various kinds of white sauce are as follows:

THIN WHITE SAUCE

1 c. milk
1 Tb. butter
1 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt

MEDIUM WHITE SAUCE

1 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt

THICK WHITE SAUCE

1 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1/4 c. (4 Tb.) flour
1/2 tsp. salt

It will be easy to remember the proportions for these three sauces if it is observed that each one doubles the previous one in the quantity of flour used, the thin one having 1 tablespoonful to 1 cupful of milk, the medium one 2 tablespoonfuls to 1 cupful of milk, and the thick one 4 tablespoonfuls to 1 cupful of milk. To produce these sauces the ingredients may be combined in three different ways, each of which has its advantages. These methods, which are here given, should be carefully observed, for they apply not only to the making of this particular sauce, but to the combining of fat, starch, and liquid in any sauce.

_Method 1_.–Heat the milk, being careful that it does not scorch. Brown the butter slightly in a saucepan, add the flour and salt, and stir the mixture until it is perfectly smooth and has a deep cream color. Then add the hot milk gradually, stirring to prevent the formation of lumps. Cook 5 minutes, stirring constantly to prevent the sauce from scorching. Sauce made according to this method does not require long cooking because the flour added to the hot fat cooks quickly. In fact, it is a very desirable method, for the browned butter and the flour lend flavor to the sauce. Many otherwise unattractive or rather tasteless foods can be made much more appetizing by the addition of white sauce made in this way.

_Method 2_.–Put the milk on to heat. While this is heating, stir the butter, flour, and salt together until they are soft and well mixed; then add the hot milk to them slowly, stirring constantly. Place over the heat and finish cooking, or cook in a double boiler. Sauce made by this method requires longer cooking than the preceding one and it has less flavor.

_Method 3_.–Heat the milk, reserving a small portion. Stir the flour smooth with the cold milk and add it to the hot milk, stirring rapidly. Add the butter and the salt, and continue to stir if cooked over the heat; if cooked in a double boiler, stir only until the mixture is completely thickened and then continue to cook for 10 or 15 minutes. When butter is added to the mixture in this way, it is likely to float on top, especially if too much is used. A better sauce may be made according to this method by using thin cream for the liquid and omitting the butter.

MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE (PART 1)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) When milk is used in a meal, what kinds of food may be omitted?

(2) Name the chief uses of milk in the dietary.

(3) Why is it possible for a child to remain in normal condition if given only milk for a long period of time?

(4) Name the solids contained in milk and tell for what each one is valuable.

(5) What causes milk to sour?

(6) What are the characteristics of wholesome milk?

(7) What is meant by the adulteration of milk?

(8) What quality of milk is of the most importance to the health of those using milk?

(9) (_a_) Why is dirty milk dangerous? (_b_) Pour a quart of the milk you purchase regularly through a pad of cotton. Note the result and report the condition of the milk by comparing the cotton with the disks shown in Fig. 2.

(10) Name some of the ways in which milk is likely to become contaminated.

(11) What is the safest kind of market milk to buy?

(12) Describe the conditions under which milk of this kind is marketed.

(13) (_a_) What is pasteurized milk? (_b_) What is the purpose of pasteurization?

(14) How may milk be pasteurized in the home?

(15) (_a_) When should milk be sterilized? (_b_) What changes take place in the sterilization of milk?

(16) What points should be considered in the purchase of milk?

(17) Why is it necessary to give milk considerable care in the home?

(18) Mention the precautions that should be observed in caring for milk.

(19) (_a_) How is milk affected by cooking? (_b_) Describe the best way to heat milk.

(20) Give the proportions of flour and liquid required in each of the three varieties of white sauce.

* * * * *

BUTTER AND BUTTER SUBSTITUTES (PART 2)

* * * * *

BUTTER

1. BUTTER is the fatty constituent of milk. It is obtained by skimming or separating the cream from milk and churning it in order to make the particles of fat adhere to one another. Butter is used largely in the household as an article of food, for it is one of the most appetizing and digestible forms of fat.

To supply the demand for butter, it is produced domestically in the home and on farms and commercially in dairies and large establishments. The principle of all churns used for butter making is practically the same. They simply agitate the cream so that the butter-fat globules in it are brought together in masses of such size as to enable the butter maker to separate them from the buttermilk. Butter is seasoned, or salted, to give it a desirable flavor and to improve its keeping qualities; it is washed, or worked, in order to distribute the salt evenly, to separate from it as much of the curd and other non-fatty constituents of the cream as can be conveniently removed, to bring it into a compact, waxy mass, and to give it texture. The United States authorities have set a standard for the composition of butter, which allows this product to contain not more than 16 per cent. of water and requires it to have at least 82.5 per cent. of butter fat.

2. ECONOMICAL USE OF BUTTER.–In the home, butter is used on the table and in the cooking of many foods. Hardly any article of food has such general use as this one; in fact, a meal is usually considered to be incomplete without it, both as an accompaniment to bread, rolls, biscuits, or whatever variety of these is used, and as an ingredient in the cooking of some foods that require fat. But butter is not cheap, so that the wise and economical use of this food in the home is a point that should not be overlooked by the housewife. This precaution is very important, it having been determined that butter, as well as other fats, is wasted to a great extent; and still it is true that no other material can be so economically utilized. The very smallest amount of any kind of fat should be carefully saved, for there are numerous uses to which it can be put. Even though it is mixed with other food, it can always be melted out, clarified–that is, freed from foreign substances–and then used for some purpose in cooking. The chief way in which butter is wasted is in the unnecessary and improper use of it, points that a little careful thought will do much to remedy.

3. FLAVOR AND COMPOSITION OF BUTTER.–That the housewife may have an understanding of the food substances found in butter and also learn how to determine the quantity of butter needed for her family, she should become familiar with the composition of this food. The flavor of butter depends to a great extent on the kind of cream from which it is made, both sweet and sour cream being used for this purpose. Of these two kinds, sour cream is the preferable one, because it gives to the butter a desirable flavor. Still, the unsalted butter that is made from sweet cream is apparently growing in favor, although it is usually more expensive than salted butter. The difference in price is due to the fact that unsalted butter spoils readily.

4. So far as its food substances are concerned, butter is composed largely of fat, but it also contains water, protein in the form of casein, and mineral matter. The quantity of water contained in butter determines to a large extent the weight of butter, since water is heavier than fat; but as only 16 per cent, of water is allowed, butter that contains more water than this is considered to be adulterated. As very little milk is retained in butter, only a small percentage of protein is found in this food. However, a considerable quantity of mineral salts are present, and these make it more valuable than most of the other fats. Because of the nature of its composition–a very high percentage of fat and a low percentage of protein–butter is distinctly a fuel food, that is, a heat-producing food. Of course, there are cheaper fats, some of which are even better heat-producing foods than butter, but as their flavor is not especially agreeable to some persons, they are not used so extensively.

In view of the nature of the composition of this food, an ounce of butter a day is the average allowance for each person when the diet of a family contains meat and such other fats as lard, olive oil, etc. At the most, 1/2 pound of butter should be purchased each week for each member of the family for table use, and fats cheaper than butter should be used for cooking purposes.

5. PURCHASING BUTTER.–As in the case of milk, in order that the housewife may judge the quality of the butter she purchases, she will do well to look into the cleanliness and sanitary condition of the dairy that produces it. Too much attention cannot be given to this matter, for if cream becomes contaminated from careless handling, the same contamination is liable to occur in the butter made from it. Butter that is produced in dairies that make large quantities of it usually has not much opportunity to become contaminated before it reaches the consumer, for it is generally pressed into 1-pound prints, and each one of these is then wrapped and placed in a paper carton. On the other hand, the farmer and the dairyman doing a small business do not find it profitable to install the equipment required to put up butter in this way, so they usually pack their butter into firkins or crocks or make it into rolls. When such butter goes to market, it is generally placed in a refrigerator with more butter of the same sort, some of which is good and some bad. As butter absorbs any strong odor present in the refrigerator and is perhaps cut and weighed in a most unsanitary manner, the good becomes contaminated with the bad. While butter of this kind is perhaps a few cents cheaper than that which is handled in a more sanitary way, it is less desirable, and if possible should be avoided by the housewife. In case butter is obtained from a certain farm, the conditions on that farm should be looked into for the same reason that the conditions in a dairy are investigated.

6. To be able to select good butter, the housewife should also be familiar with its characteristics. In color, butter to be good should be an even yellow, neither too pale nor too bright, and should contain no streaks. The light streaks that are sometimes found in butter indicate insufficient working. As to odor, butter should be pleasing and appetizing, any foreign or strong, disagreeable odor being extremely objectionable. Stale butter or that which is improperly kept develops an acid called _butyric acid_, which gives a disagreeable odor and flavor to butter and often renders it unfit for use.

7. CARE OF BUTTER.–The precautions that the farmer and dairyman are called on to observe in the making and handling of butter should be continued by the housewife after she purchases butter for home use. The chief point for her to remember is that butter should be kept as cold as possible, because a low temperature prevents it from spoiling, whereas a high one causes it to become soft and less appetizing. The most satisfactory place in which to keep butter is the refrigerator, where it should be placed in the compartment located directly under the ice and in which the milk is kept, for here it will not come in contact with foods that might impart their flavors to it. Should no refrigerator be available, some other means of keeping butter cold must be resorted to, such as a cool cellar or basement or a window box.

The way in which butter is bought determines to a certain extent the method of caring for it. If it is bought in paper cartons, it should be rewrapped and replaced in the carton each time some is cut off for use. In case it is bought in bulk, it should never be allowed to remain in the wooden dish in which it is often sold; rather, it should be put into a crock or a jar that can be tightly covered.

8. Attention should also be given to butter that is cut from the supply for the table or for cooking purposes and that is not entirely used. Such butter should never be returned to the original supply, but should be kept in a separate receptacle and used for cooking. If it contains foreign material, it can be clarified by allowing it to stand after it has melted until this has settled and then dipping or pouring the clear fat from the top. Butter that has become rancid or has developed a bad flavor need not be wasted either, for it can be made ready for use in cooking simply by pouring boiling water over it, allowing it to cool, and then removing the layer of fat that comes to the top. Such butter, of course, cannot be used for serving on the table. Still, consideration on the part of the housewife to just such matters as these will prevent much of the waste that prevails in the household in the use of this food.

9. COOKING WITH BUTTER.–While some housewives make it a practice to use butter in cooking of all kinds, there are uses in which other fats are preferable; or, in case butter is desired, there are certain points to be observed in its use. For instance, butter is rendered less digestible by cooking it at a high temperature, as in frying or sautéing; also, it cannot be used to any extent for the frying of foods, as it burns very readily. If it is used for sautéing, the dish is made much more expensive than is necessary, so that in most cases a cheaper fat should be employed for this purpose. In addition, a point to remember is that this fat should not be used to grease the pans in which cakes and hot breads are baked unless it is first melted, because the milk contained in the butter burns easily; after it is melted, only the top fat should be used. When butter is desired for very rich cakes and for pastry, it is usually washed in cold water to remove the milk. To neutralize the sour milk contained in butter that is used for baking purposes, a little soda is sometimes employed.

Further economy can be exercised in the use of butter if a little thought is given to the matter. For instance, when butter is melted and poured over meat or fish that has been broiled or over vegetables that have been cooked in a plain way, much of it usually remains in the dish and is wasted. Such butter can be utilized again. Since butter undergoes a change when it is cooked, it should be mixed with cooked foods to flavor them, rather than be subjected to the temperature necessary for cooking.

When butter is used for spreading sandwiches, it usually will be found advisable to soften the butter by creaming it with a spoon, but it should never be melted for this purpose.

10. SERVING BUTTER.–When butter is used for the table, some consideration must be given to the serving of it. Probably the most usual way of serving butter is to place a slice of it on a plate and then pass the plate with a knife to each person at the table. The advantage of this method is that each person can take the amount desired and thus prevent waste. However, a still more desirable way of serving butter that is to be passed is to cut it into small cubes or squares or to shape it into small balls and then serve it with a fork or a butter knife. To prevent the pieces or balls of butter from melting in warm weather, cracked ice may be placed on the butter dish with them. Butter cut into cubes or squares may also be served on an individual butter dish or an individual bread-and-butter plate placed at each person’s place before the meal is served. Whichever plan is adopted, any fragments of butter that remain on the plates after a meal should be gathered up and used for cooking purposes.

[Illustration: FIG 1]

11. Butter that comes in pound prints lends itself readily to the cutting of small cubes or squares for serving. Such butter may be cut by drawing a string through the print or by using a knife whose cutting edge is covered with paper, a small piece of the oiled paper such as that in which the butter is wrapped answering very well for this purpose.

If butter balls are desired for serving, they may be rolled with butter paddles in the manner shown in Fig. 1. To make butter balls, put wads of the butter to be used into ice water so as to make them hard. Then place each wad between the paddles, as shown, and give the paddles a circular motion. After a little practice, it will be a simple matter to make butter balls that will add to the attractiveness of any meal. Paddles made especially for this purpose can be purchased in all stores that sell kitchen utensils.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

12. Sometimes, for practical purposes, it is desired to know the quantity of butter that is served to each person. In the case of print butter, this is a simple matter to determine. As shown in Fig. 2, first mark the pound print in the center in order to divide it in half; after cutting it into two pieces, cut each half into two, and finally each fourth into two. With the pound print cut into eight pieces, divide and cut each eighth into four pieces. As there will be thirty-two small pieces, each one will represent one thirty-second of a pound, or 1/2 ounce.

BUTTER SUBSTITUTES

13. In about the year 1870, through a desire to procure a cheaper article than butter for the poorer classes of France, came the manufacture of the first substitute for butter. Since that time the use of butter substitutes has gradually increased, until at the present time millions of pounds are consumed every year. A certain amount of prejudice against their use exists, but much of this is unnecessary for they are less likely to be contaminated with harmful bacteria than the poorer qualities of butter. Then, too, they do not spoil so readily, and for this reason they can be handled with greater convenience than butter.

14. OLEOMARGARINE.–The best substitute for butter and the one most largely used is called oleomargarine, which in the United States alone constitutes about two and 1/2 per cent. of all the fat used as butter. This fat is called by various other names, such as _margarine,_ and _butterine_, but oleomargarine is the name by which the United States authorities recognize the product. It is made by churning fats other than butter fat with milk or cream until a butterlike consistency is obtained. Originally, pure beef fat was employed for this purpose, and while beef fat is used to a great extent at present, lard, cottonseed oil, coconut oil, and peanut oil are also used. Whatever fats are selected are churned with milk, cream, and, for the finest grades, a considerable percentage of the very best pure butter. After they are churned, the oleomargarine is worked, salted, and packed in the same manner as butter.

15. The manufacture and sale of butter substitutes are controlled by laws that, while they do not specify the kind of fat to be used, state that all mixtures of butter with other fats must be sold as oleomargarine. They also require that a tax of 10 cents a pound be paid on all artificially colored oleomargarine; therefore, while coloring matter is used in some cases, this product is usually sold without coloring. In such an event, coloring matter is given with each pound of oleomargarine that is sold. Before using the oleomargarine, this coloring matter is simply worked into the fat until it is evenly colored.

16. RENOVATED BUTTER.–Another substitute that is sometimes used to take the place of the best grades of butter is renovated, or process, butter. This is obtained by purifying butter that is dirty and rancid and that contains all sorts of foreign material and then rechurning it with fresh cream or milk. The purifying process consists in melting the butter, removing the scum from the top, as well as the buttermilk, brine, and foreign materials that settle, and then blowing air through the fat to remove any odors that it might contain. Butter that is thus purified is replaced on the market, but in some states the authorities have seen fit to restrict its sale. While such restrictions are without doubt justifiable, it is possible to buy butter that is more objectionable than renovated, or process, butter, but that has no restriction on it.

17. METHOD OF TESTING BUTTER SUBSTITUTES.–Very often oleomargarine and process butter bear such a close resemblance to genuine butter that it is almost impossible to detect the difference. However, there is a simple test by which these substitutes can always be distinguished from butter, and this should be applied whenever there is any doubt about the matter. To make this test, place the fat in a tablespoon or a small dish and heat it directly over the flame until it boils, stirring it occasionally to assist in the melting. If it is oleomargarine or process butter, it will sputter noisily and take on a curdled appearance; whereas, if it is butter, it will melt and even boil without sputtering although it foams to a certain extent.

* * * * *

CHEESE

CHARACTERISTICS AND CARE OF CHEESE

18. ORIGIN, PRODUCTION, AND USE OF CHEESE.–Cheese is a product that is manufactured from the solids of milk, and it provides a valuable food. The making of cheese was known in ancient times, it having probably originated through a desire to utilize an oversupply of milk. When cheese was first made, the fact that bacteria were present was not known, nor were the reasons for the spoiling of milk understood; but it was learned that milk can be kept if most of its water is removed. This discovery was very important, for it led to various methods of making cheese and proved that cheese making was a satisfactory and convenient means of storing nourishment in a form that was not bulky and that would keep for long periods of time. From a very small beginning, the different methods of making cheese became popular, until at the present time more than three hundred varieties are made and their manufacture forms one of the large industries of the world.

In the United States, nearly all the cheese used up to about 50 years ago was made on farms, and to a great extent by housewives, but about that time a factory for the making of this product was started in the state of New York, and it proved a profitable enterprise. From this beginning, the business of making cheese commercially in this country has grown until now cheese is almost entirely a factory-made product, in the manufacture of which the states of New York and Wisconsin lead.

19. In either the commercial or the home production of cheese, skim milk with all or part of the cream removed is used for some varieties, while whole milk is used for others, the composition depending largely on the kind of milk that is employed. Rennet is added to the milk to coagulate it, and then the curd, from which nearly all the water is removed, is allowed to ripen. To produce characteristic odors, flavors, and consistency, various coloring and flavoring materials, as well as bacteria, are added to the curd. The action of these bacteria is really the chief factor in the making of cheese and they are therefore not only desirable but necessary. Non-desirable bacteria, however, result in the formation of bad odors, flavors, and gases in the finished product and these must be carefully guarded against by cheese makers.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

20. Cheese offers a valuable source of nutriment for the body, because its food value ranks high. As is shown in Fig. 3, the food value in 1 pound of cheese is equivalent to that in 2 pounds of beef, that in 24 eggs, or that in 4 pounds of fish. The use of cheese, however, is not nearly so great as its food value warrants, the amount used in the United States per capita being only about 3-1/2 pounds annually. This is a condition that should be overcome, for there is a large variety of ways in which cheese can be used to advantage in the diet. When eaten raw, it is very appetizing, and when used with soups, sauces, and foods that have a bland taste, it lends additional flavor and makes an especially attractive dish. In addition, the fact that it is an economical food and can be conveniently kept and stored should recommend its frequent use.

21. COMPOSITION OF CHEESE.–Since cheese is a product of milk, it is somewhat similar to milk in composition, but the change that occurs in the formation of cheese causes some differences. Nearly all the water present in milk is removed during the manufacture of cheese, so that this product becomes a concentrated food made up of all the nourishment that milk contains except small amounts of albumin, milk sugar, and mineral matter. These, because they are in solution in the water, are lost when the whey is separated from the curd. The food substances that occur in the largest amounts are fat and protein in the form of casein, which is the tissue-building material of milk. Cheese made from milk that contains some cream has in it a greater amount of fat than that made from completely skimmed milk. Besides these two chief food substances, cheese contains a small amount of milk sugar, mineral matter, and water.

22. On account of the large quantity of protein found in cheese, this food can readily take the place of meat in the diet; in fact, it has some decided advantages over meat. As has been pointed out, cheese yields more than twice as much food value as an equal weight of beef. Then, too, the buying and care of cheese are much simpler matters than the buying and care of meat. As it does not require the low temperature that meat requires and does not spoil so readily, it can be bought in considerable quantity and used as desired without danger of spoiling and loss. In addition, the use of cheese as food does not require so much skill in preparation as meat does, nor is there loss of flavor and nutriment in its preparation, as is often the case with meat.

23. QUALITY OF CHEESE.–Every variety of cheese has its own standard and quality, some being hard and dry, others moist, and still others very soft. The difference in quality is due to the way in which the curd is coagulated, the amount of pressure that is put on it, and the ripening of the cheese. The holes that often occur in cheese and give it a porous appearance are formed by gas, which is the product of the growth of bacteria. A large number of very small holes in cheese indicate that the milk used to make it was not clean and contained many kinds of bacteria. This condition could be overcome by the use of absolutely clean milk; indeed, milk of this kind is as necessary for the production of good cheese as it is for the making of good butter. Certain cheeses, such as Limburger and Roquefort, have a typical odor and flavor, the odor being due to bacteria and the flavor to mold. These are carefully grown and introduced into the cheese during its manufacture.

24. CARE OF CHEESE.–The very strong odor and flavor that characterize cheese make it necessary that care be given to cheese in the home in order to prevent it from coming in contact with other foods and transmitting its odor and flavor to them. The best place to keep cheese, particularly the soft varieties, is in the refrigerator, where it should be placed in a closed receptacle and kept as far as possible from foods that are easily tainted. It is well to avoid a damp place for the keeping of cheese, as mold frequently develops on the outside when too much moisture is present; but in case mold does appear it can be removed by cutting a thin slice from the side on which it has grown. On the other hand, cheese that is kept in a dry place becomes hard and dry unless it is wrapped in oiled paper or a damp cloth. However, such cheese need not be thrown away, for there are numerous uses, particularly in cooking, to which it can be put.

* * * * *

KINDS OF CHEESE

CLASSIFICATION OF VARIETIES

25. The cheese used in the United States may be included under two leading classes, namely, _foreign cheese_ and _domestic cheese_. Since the foreign cheeses are imported, they are more expensive than the cheeses made here, and should not be bought if cheese is to be used as an economical article of food. They are valuable chiefly for their flavor and are generally bought for this reason. The domestic cheeses can be used in larger quantities, for, besides being less expensive, they are usually of a milder type and are more easily digested. To enable the housewife to become familiar with the principal varieties of each of these classes, a discussion of them, including their names,