The World Factbook 1993

Central Intelligence Agency The World Factbook 1993 Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations A Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria Azerbaijan B Bahamas, The Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan
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Central Intelligence Agency

The World Factbook 1993

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations A
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

B
Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina
Burma
Burundi

C
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China (also see separate Taiwan entry) Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic

D
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

E
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island

F
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

G
Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

H
Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

I
Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Italy

J
Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry) Juan de Nova Island

K
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

L
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

M
Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

N
Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

O
Oman

P
Pacific Islands (Palau), Trust Territory of the Pacific Ocean 2
Pakistan
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Q
Qatar

R
Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

S
Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

T
Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

U
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan

V
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

W
Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa
World

Y
Yemen

Z
Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Taiwan

Appendixes
A: The United Nations System
B: Abbreviations for International Organizations and Groups C: International Organizations and Groups D: Weights and Measures
E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Reference Maps
The World
North America
Central America and the
Caribbean
South America
Europe
Ethnic Groups in Eastern
Europe
Middle East
Africa
Asia
Commonwealth of Independent States– European States
Commonwealth of Independent States–Central Asian States Southeast Asia
Oceania
Arctic Region
Antarctic Region
Standard Time Zones of the World

There have been some significant changes in this edition. Czechoslovakia has been superseded by the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia. The name of the Ivory Coast has been changed to Cote d’Ivoire and the Vatican City became the Holy See. New entries include Location, Map references, Abbreviation (often substituted for the country name), and Digraph (two-letter country code). Names is a new entry which includes long and short forms of both conventional and local names of countries as well as any former names. Most diacritical marks have been omitted. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of some entries in this edition have been changed. Additional changes will occur in the 1994 Factbook. Irrigated land is a new entry with the data separate from the Land use entry. The Disputes entry is now International disputes. The GNP/GDP entry was renamed National Product and the per capita and real growth rate data placed in separate entries. Similar changes were made in the Population and Diplomatic Representation entries.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations and groups)

avdp.
avoirdupois

c.i.f.
cost, insurance, and freight

CY
calendar year

DWT
deadweight ton

est.
estimate

Ex-Im
Export-Import Bank of the United States

f.o.b.
free on board

FRG
Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91

FY
fiscal year

GDP
gross domestic product

GDR
German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91

GNP
gross national product

GRT
gross register ton

GWP
gross world product

km
kilometer

km2
square kilometer

kW
kilowatt

kWh
kilowatt hour

m
meter

NA
not available

NEGL
negligible

nm
nautical mile

NZ
New Zealand

ODA
official development assistance

OOF
other official flows

PDRY
People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

UAE
United Arab Emirates

UK
United Kingdom

US
United States

USSR
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information dated before 25 December 1991

YAR
Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 km2, 69 miles 2) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2, 0.23 miles 2,146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.

Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1993 was used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 July 1993, with population growth rates estimated for calendar year 1993. Major political events have been updated through June 1993.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter “country code” that precisely identifies every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized geopolitical data element promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 10-3 by the National Bureau of Standards (US Department of Commerce) and maintained by the Office of the Geographer (US Department of State). The digraph is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful for interchanging data between databases.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 180 nations. The US has diplomatic relations with 174 of the 182 UN members (excluding the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia whose status in the UN is unclear)–the exceptions are Angola, Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Macedonia, North Korea, and Vietnam. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 7 nations that are not in the UN-Andorra, Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official development assistance (ODA), which is defined as government grants that are administered with the promotion of economic development and welfare of LDCs as their main objective and are concessional in character and contain a grant element of at least 25%, and other official flows (OOF) or transactions by the official sector whose main objective is other than development motivated or whose grant element is below the 25% threshold for ODA. OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration of intent.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. “Nation” refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. “Dependent area” refers to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are 266 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

NATIONS

182
UN members (excluding the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia whose status in the UN is unclear)

8
nations that are not members of the UN–Andorra, Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu

OTHER

1
Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS

6
Australia–Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

2
Denmark–Faroe Islands, Greenland

16
France–Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna

2
Netherlands–Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

3
New Zealand–Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

3
Norway–Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

1
Portugal–Macau

16
United Kingdom–Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

15
United States–American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS

6
Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

4
oceans–Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean

1
World

266
total

note: The US Government does not recognize the four so-called independent homelands of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa. Exchange rate: The value of a nation’s monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically in a given year.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically in a given year, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

GNP/GDP methodology: In the “Economy” section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the OECD countries, the former Soviet republics, and the East European countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a PPP GNP/GDP estimate in dollars by the corresponding estimate in the local currency gives the PPP conversion rate. One thousand dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars–converted to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate– will buy in the other country. GNP/GDP estimates for the LDCs, on the other hand, are based on the conversion of GNP/GDP estimates in local currencies to dollars at the official currency exchange rates. Because currency exchange rates depend on a variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output, use of these rates is less satisfactory for calculating GNP/GDP than the PPP method. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. One additional caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures; similar problems exist when components are expressed in dollars under currency exchange rate procedures. Finally, as academic research moves forward on the PPP method, we hope to convert all GNP/GDP estimates to this method in future editions of The World Factbook.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs–narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical,
mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international boundaries and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the Department of State. References to other situations may also be included that are border or frontier relevant, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Irrigated land: The figure refers to the number of km 2 that is artifically supplied with water.

Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land–land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops–land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures–land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland land–under dense or open stands of trees; and other–any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert).

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not involved with the day- to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition–the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.

Maps: All maps will be available only in the printed version of The World Factbook for the foreseeable future.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; also, a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.

Captive register–A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register–A national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.

Flag state–The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.

Internal register–A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreignowned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.

Merchant ship–A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.

Register–The record of a ship’s ownership and nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual ships’ registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship’s ultimate owner.

Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National product: The total output of goods and services in a country in a given year. See Gross domestic product (GDP), Gross national product (GNP), and GNP/GDP methodology.

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY).

***

THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1993

*Afghanistan, Geography

Location:
South Asia, between Iran and Pakistan Map references:
Asia, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World Area:
total area:
647,500 km2
land area:
647,500 km2
comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none; landlocked
International disputes:
periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports clients in country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources may also be active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan’s civil war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line)
Climate:
arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers Terrain:
mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones Land use:
arable land:
12%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
46%
forest and woodland:
3%
other:
39%
Irrigated land:
26,600 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation, desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution, flooding Note:
landlocked

*Afghanistan, People

Population:
16,494,145 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.45% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
43.83 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate:
19.33 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate:
158.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
44.41 years
male:
45.09 years
female:
43.71 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.34 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality:
noun:
Afghan(s)
adjective:
Afghan
Ethnic divisions:
Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi’a Muslim 15%, other 1% Languages:
Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990) total population:
29%
male:
44%
female:
14%
Labor force:
4.98 million
by occupation:
agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

*Afghanistan, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Islamic State of Afghanistan
conventional short form:
Afghanistan
former:
Republic of Afghanistan
Digraph:
AF
Type:
transitional government
Capital:
Kabul
Administrative divisions:
30 provinces (velayat, singular – velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol note:
there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan) Independence:
19 August 1919 (from UK)
Constitution:
the old Communist-era constitution has been suspended; a new Islamic constitution has yet to be ratified
Legal system:
a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional government has declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari’a) National holiday:
Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August Political parties and leaders:
current political organizations include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party) Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Ali MAZARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI; a new northern organization consisting of resistance and former regional figures is Jonbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Rashid DOSTUM
note:
the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded Other political or pressure groups:
the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the countryside; shuras (councils) of commanders are now administering most cities outside Kabul; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders Suffrage:
undetermined; previously universal, male ages 15-50 Elections:
President: last held NA December 1992 (next to be held NA December 1994); results – Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected to a two-year term by a national shura

*Afghanistan, Government

Executive branch:
president, prime minister; Afghan leaders are still in the process of choosing a cabinet (May 1993)
Legislative branch:
a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members was chosen by the shura in January 1993; non-functioning as of June 1993 Judicial branch:
an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but a new court system has not yet been organized Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Burhanuddin RABBANI (since 2 January 1993); First Vice President Mohammad NABI Mohammadi (since NA); First Vice President Mohammad SHAH Fazli (since NA)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister-designate Gulbaddin HIKMATYAR (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Sulayman GAILANI (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Din MOHAMMAD (since NA); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad SHAH Ahmadzai (since NA) Member of:
AsDB (has previously been a member of), CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
(vacant); Charge d’Affaires Abdul RAHIM chancery:
2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:
(202) 234-3770 or 3771
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
(vacant)
embassy:
Ansari Wat, Wazir Akbar Khan Mina, Kabul mailing address:
use embassy street address
telephone:
62230 through 62235 or 62436
note:
US Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989 Flag:
a new flag of unknown description reportedly has been adopted; previous flag consisted of three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green, with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi, which is shorter and bears a radiant, rising red sun centered in the black band

*Afghanistan, Economy

Overview:
Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than 13 years of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million refugees and Iran about 1.3 million. Another 1 million probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Although reliable data are unavailable, gross domestic product is lower than 12 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport.
National product:
GDP – exchange rate conversion – $3 billion (1989 est.) National product real growth rate:
NA%
National product per capita:
$200 (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
over 90% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA Exports:
$236 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
commodities:
natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides, and pelts
partners:
former USSR, Pakistan
Imports:
$874 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
commodities:
food and petroleum products
partners:
former USSR, Pakistan
External debt:
$2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3% (FY91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP Electricity:
480,000 kW capacity; 1,000 million kWh produced, 60 kWh per capita (1992) Industries:
small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper Agriculture:
largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products – wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton Illicit drugs:
an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world’s second-largest opium producer (after Burma) and a major source of hashish
Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $510 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.1 billion; net official Western disbursements (1985-89), $270 million

*Afghanistan, Economy

Currency:
1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls
Exchange rates:
afghanis (Af) per US$1 – 1,019 (March 1993), 900 (November 1991), 850 (1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note – these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rates Fiscal year:
21 March – 20 March

*Afghanistan, Communications

Railroads:
9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya
Highways:
21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km bituminous-treated gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth and tracks Inland waterways:
total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to about 500 metric tons
Pipelines:
petroleum products – Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km
Ports:
Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports) Airports:
total:
41
usable:
36
with permanent-surface runways:
9
with runways over 3,659 m:
0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
11
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
16
Telecommunications:
limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; broadcast stations – 5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

*Afghanistan, Defense Forces

Branches:
the military still does not yet exist on a national scale; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias remain intact Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 4,094,481; fit for military service 2,196,136; reach military age (22) annually 153,333 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures:
the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget

*Albania, Geography

Location:
Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula between Serbia and Montenegro and Greece
Map references:
Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
28,750 km2
land area:
27,400 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
total 720 km, Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro) Coastline:
362 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf:
not specified
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Kosovo question with Serbia and Montenegro; Northern Epirus question with Greece
Climate:
mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Terrain:
mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel Land use:
arable land:
21%
permanent crops:
4%
meadows and pastures: 15%
forest and woodland:
38%
other:
22%
Irrigated land:
4,230 km2 (1989)
Environment:
subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast Note:
strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

*Albania, People

Population:
3,333,839 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.21% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
23.24 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate:
5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate:
-5.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate:
31.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73 years
male:
70.01 years
female:
76.21 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.85 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality:
noun:
Albanian(s)
adjective:
Albanian
Ethnic divisions:
Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
Religions:
Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note:
all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Languages:
Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek Literacy:
age 9 and over can read and write (1955) total population:
72%
male:
80%
female:
63%
Labor force:
1.5 million (1987)
by occupation:
agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

*Albania, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Republic of Albania
conventional short form:
Albania
local long form:
Republika e Shqiperise
local short form:
Shqiperia
former:
People’s Socialist Republic of Albania Digraph:
AL
Type:
nascent democracy
Capital:
Tirane
Administrative divisions:
26 districts (rrethe, singular – rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore
Independence:
28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire) Constitution:
an interim basic law was approved by the People’s Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992, but is still in process
Legal system:
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday:
Liberation Day, 29 November (1944) Political parties and leaders:
there are at least 18 political parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP), Eduard SELAMI, chairman; Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek minority party), leader NA (ran in 1992 election as Unity for Human Rights Party (UHP)); Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance Party (DAP), Spartak NGJELA, chairman
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal and compulsory Elections:
People’s Assembly:
last held 22 March 1992; results – DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats – (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2
Executive branch:
president, prime minister of the Council of Ministers, two deputy prime ministers of the Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral People’s Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor) Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992)

*Albania, Government

Head of Government:
Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992)
Member of:
BSEC, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Roland BIMO
chancery:
1511 K Street, NW, Washington, DC
telephone:
(202) 223-4942
FAX:
(202) 223-4950
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador William E. RYERSON
embassy:
Rruga Labinoti 103, room 2921, Tirane mailing address:
PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624
telephone:
355-42-32875, 33520
FAX:
355-42-32222
Flag:
red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

*Albania, Economy

Overview:
The Albanian economy, already providing the lowest standard of living in Europe, contracted sharply in 1991, with most industries producing at only a fraction of past levels and an unemployment rate estimated at 40%. For over 40 years, the Stalinist-type economy operated on the principle of central planning and state ownership of the means of production. Fitful economic reforms begun during 1991, including the liberalization of prices and trade, the privatization of shops and transport, and land reform, were crippled by widespread civil disorder. Following its overwhelming victory in the 22 March 1992 elections, the new Democratic government announced a program of shock therapy to stabilize the economy and establish a market economy. In an effort to expand international ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the major republics of the former Soviet Union and the US and has joined the IMF and the World Bank. The Albanians have also passed legislation allowing foreign investment, but not foreign ownership of real estate. Albania possesses considerable mineral resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient in food; however, the breakup of cooperative farms in 1991 and general economic decline forced Albania to rely on foreign aid to maintain adequate supplies. In 1992 the government tightened budgetary contols leading to another drop in domestic output. The agricultural sector is steadily gaining from the privatization process. Low domestic output is supplemented by remittances from the 200,000 Albanians working abroad.
National product:
GDP – purchasing power equivalent – $2.5 billion (1992 est.) National product real growth rate:
-10% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$760 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
210% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
40% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.) Exports:
$45 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
partners:
Italy, Macedonia, Germany, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary
Imports:
$120 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
machinery, consumer goods, grains
partners:
Italy, Macedonia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece
External debt:
$500 million (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -55% (1991 est.)
Electricity: 1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 1,520 kWh per capita (1992)

*Albania, Economy

Industries:
food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Agriculture:
arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; over 60% of arable land now in private hands; one-half of work force engaged in farming; wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route Economic aid:
recipient – $190 million humanitarian aid, $94 million in loans/guarantees/credits
Currency:
1 lek (L) = 100 qintars
Exchange rates:
leke (L) per US$1 – 97 (January 1993), 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Albania, Communications

Railroads:
543 km total; 509 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34 km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Serbia and Montenegro) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986 Highways:
16,700 km total; 6,700 km highways, 10,000 km forest and agricultural cart roads (1990)
Inland waterways:
43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991) Ports:
Durres, Sarande, Vlore
Merchant marine:
11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT Airports:
total:
12
usable:
10
with permanent-surface runways:
3
with runways over 3,659 m:
0 with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
6
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
4
Telecommunications:
inadequate service; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations – 13 AM, 1 TV; 514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)

*Albania, Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 896,613; fit for military service 739,359; reach military age (19) annually 32,740 (1993 est.)
Defense expenditures:
215 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note – conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

*Algeria, Geography

Location:
Northern Africa, along the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia Map references:
Africa, Europe
Area:
total area:
2,381,740 km2
land area:
2,381,740 km2
comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas Land boundaries:
total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km Coastline:
998 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria; land boundary disputes with Tunisia under discussion
Climate:
arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer Terrain:
mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc Land use:
arable land:
3%
permanent crops:
0%
meadows and pastures:
13%
forest and woodland:
2%
other:
82%
Irrigated land:
3,360 km2 (1989 est.)
Environment:
mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification Note:
second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

*Algeria, People

Population:
27,256,252 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.34% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
30.38 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate:
6.41 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate:
-0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate:
54 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
67.35 years
male:
66.32 years
female:
68.41 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.96 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality:
noun:
Algerian(s)
adjective:
Algerian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1% Religions:
Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1% Languages:
Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1990) total population: 57%
male:
70%
female:
46%
Labor force:
6.2 million (1992 est.)
by occupation:
government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

*Algeria, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria conventional short form:
Algeria
local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza’iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah local short form:
Al Jaza’ir
Digraph:
AG
Type:
republic
Capital:
Algiers
Administrative divisions:
48 provinces (wilayast, singular – wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M’Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen Independence:
5 July 1962 (from France)
Constitution:
19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised February 1989 Legal system:
socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954) Political parties and leaders:
Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR; National Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, Secretary General
note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 30 legal parties existed Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
National People’s Assembly:
first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992); results – percent of vote by party NA; seats – (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first round; note – elections (municipal and wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results – FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating President of the High State Committee:
next election to be held December 1993 Executive branch:
President of the High State Committee, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National People’s Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani)

*Algeria, Government

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
High State Committee President Ali KAFI (since 2 July 1992) Head of Government:
Prime Minister Belaid ABDESSELAM (since 8 July 1992) Member of:
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mohamed ZARHOUNI
chancery:
2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:
(202) 265-2800
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY
embassy:
4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address:
B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone:
[213] (2) 601-425 or 255, 186
FAX:
[213] (2) 603979
consulate: Oran
Flag:
two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

*Algeria, Economy

Overview:
The oil and natural gas sector forms the backbone of the economy, hydrocarbons accounting for nearly all export receipts, about 30% of government revenues, and nearly 25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in oil prices led to a booming economy and helped to finance an ambitious program of industrialization. Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the mismanagement of Algeria’s highly centralized economy, has brought the nation to its most serious social and economic crisis since full independence in 1988. The current government has put reform, including privatization of some public sector companies and an overhaul of the banking and financial system, on hold, but has continued efforts to admit private enterprise to the hydrocarbon industry. National product:
GDP – exchange rate conversion – $42 billion (1992 est.) National product real growth rate:
2.8% (1992 est.)
National product per capita:
$1,570 (1992 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
55% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
35% (1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $14.4 billion; expenditures $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1992 est.) Exports:
$11.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
petroleum and natural gas 97%
partners:
Italy, France, US, Germany, Spain
Imports:
$8.2 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
commodities:
capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer goods 11.8% (1990) partners:
France, Italy, Germany, US, Spain
External debt:
$26 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
6,380,000 kW capacity; 16,834 million kWh produced, 630 kWh per capita (1992)
Industries:
petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for 10.8% of GDP (1991) and employs 22% of labor force; products- wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, cattle; net importer of food – grain, vegetable oil, sugar Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), -$375 million Currency:
1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

*Algeria, Economy

Exchange rates:
Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 – 22.787 (January 1993), 21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988) Fiscal year:
calendar year

*Algeria, Communications

Railroads:
4,060 km total; 2,616 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,188 km 1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215 km double track Highways:
90,031 km total; 58,868 km concrete or bituminous, 31,163 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth (1990)
Pipelines:
crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km Ports:
Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mers el Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
Merchant marine:
75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 oil tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized tanker Airports:
total:
141
usable:
124
with permanent-surface runways:
53
with runways over 3,659 m:
2
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
32
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
65
Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the south; 822,000 telephones; broadcast stations – 26 AM, no FM, 18 TV; 1,600,000 TV sets; 5,200,000 radios; 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; satellite earth stations – 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, l ARABSAT, and 12 domestic; 20 additional satellite earth stations are planned

*Algeria, Defense Forces

Branches:
National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense Manpower availability:
males age 15-49 6,610,342; fit for military service 4,063,261; reach military age (19) annually 291,685 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion – $1.36 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1993 est.)

*American Samoa, Header

Affiliation:
(territory of the US)

*American Samoa, Geography

Location:
in the South Pacific Ocean, 3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Map references:
Oceania
Area:
total area:
199 km2
land area:
199 km2
comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC note:
includes Rose Island and Swains Island Land boundaries:
0 km
Coastline:
116 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
24 nm
continental shelf:
200 m or depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
territorial sea:
12 nm
International disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation Terrain:
five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island) Natural resources:
pumice, pumicite
Land use:
arable land:
10%
permanent crops:
5%
meadows and pastures:
0%
forest and woodland:
75%
other:
10%
Irrigated land:
NA km2
Environment:
typhoons common from December to March Note:
Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

*American Samoa, People

Population:
53,139 (July 1993 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.9% (1993 est.)
Birth rate:
37 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate:
4 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate:
6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate:
19 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
73 years
male:
71 years
female:
75 years (1993 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.41 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality:
noun:
American Samoan(s)
adjective:
American Samoan
Ethnic divisions:
Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5% Religions:
Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30%
Languages:
Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English; most people are bilingual
Literacy:
age 15 and over can read and write (1980) total population:
97%
male:
97%
female:
97%
Labor force:
14,400 (1990)
by occupation:
government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

*American Samoa, Government

Names:
conventional long form:
Territory of American Samoa
conventional short form:
American Samoa
Abbreviation:
AS
Digraph:
AQ
Type:
unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs Capital:
Pago Pago
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of the US)
Independence:
none (territory of the US)
Constitution:
ratified 1966, in effect 1967
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900) Political parties and leaders:
NA
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Elections:
Governor:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results – A. P. LUTALI was elected (percent of vote NA) House of Representatives:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results – representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; seats – (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swains Island) Senate:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results – senators elected by village chiefs from 12 senate districts; seats – (18 total) number of seats by party NA
US House of Representatives:
last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1994); results – Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate Executive branch:
popularly elected governor and lieutenant governor Legislative branch:
bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) consists of an upper house or Senate (appointed by county village chiefs) and a lower house or House of Representatives (elected)
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) Head of Government:
Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993); Lieutenant Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993)

*American Samoa, Government

Member of:
ESCAP (associate), INTERPOL (subbureau), IOC, SPC Diplomatic representation in US:
none (territory of the US)
Flag:
blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club