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frequent shampooing inadvisable? One probable reason why women are less frequently bald than men? What is the best general treatment for the hair and scalp? Upon what does the color of the hair mainly depend?

287. In cases of sudden blanching of the hair what is the effect upon the pigment? Give an illustration. How do the extra air bubbles find their way into the hair? Does air naturally exist in the hair? What relation do the nails bear to the scarfskin?

288. What causes the horny appearance of the nails? Describe the root of the nail in its relation to the sensitive and the scarfskin. Upon what does the nail rest? What is its appearance? What is the lunula? Why is it lighter than the rest of the nail? How does the nail increase in length? In thickness? Where is the greatest thickness? How does the growth of the nail during disease compare with its growth in health?

289. How long does it take the thumb nail to grow from its root to its free extremity? The great toe? Give general rules for the care of the nails. How does physical cleanliness promote moral purity? What does its neglect indicate?

290. What especial care should be taken in regard to the feet? Why? Are baths a modern refinement? What can you say about the ancient Greek and Roman baths? What constitutes the value of the Turkish bath?

291. What class of people should never use this bath? To what class of invalids is it particularly beneficial? Is sea bathing advisable for persons of all ages? How should an inexperienced sea bather begin? When should the sea bath be taken?

292. How long should a delicate person remain in the water? State the danger of bathing when overheated. Under what conditions of body and of temperature should sea or river bathing be avoided? Why? Give illustration of the English soldier. How should the temperature of the water, in bathing, compare with that of the air? Of the body?

293. Describe the bathers’ cramp. What are its causes? What precaution should be used by bathers in regard to the mouth and ears? Why?

294. How can a person who does not know how to swim, save himself from drowning?

295. What are the advantages of woolen clothing? Why is it particularly desirable in malarial countries? What double purpose does woolen clothing serve in semitropical climates?

296. Does the warmth of clothing depend on its weight? What errors are often made and with what effect? State what is said in regard to poisonous dyes in wearing apparel. Give illustration.

297. What effect has uncleanly attire on the health? Does this apply to outer as well as under garments?

RESPIRATION AND THE VOICE.

73. Name the organs of respiration and the voice. Describe the larynx. The epiglottis. The œsophagus. What is meant by food “going the wrong way”?

74. Describe the vocal cords. Their use. How is sound produced?

75. How are the higher tones of the voice produced? The lower? Upon what does loudness depend? A falsetto voice? What is the cause of the voice “changing”? What is speech? Is the tongue necessary to speech? Illustrate. (See also page 298.)

76. What is vocalization? How are talking machines made?

77. How is _a_ formed by the voice? What is _h_? Difference between a sigh and a groan? What vowel sounds are made in laughing? Does whistling depend on the voice? Tell how the various consonants are formed. What are the labials? The dentals? The linguals? What vowels does a child pronounce first?

78. Describe the windpipe. The bronchi. The bronchial tubes. Why is the trachea so called? Describe the structure of the lungs. What are the lungs of slaughtered animals called? Why will a piece of the lungs float on water?

79. Name the wrappings of the lungs. Describe the pleura. How is friction prevented? What are the cilia? Their use?

80. What two acts constitute respiration? In what two ways may the position of the ribs change the capacity of the chest? Describe the process of inspiration. Describe the diaphragm.

81. What is the process of expiration? How often do we breathe? What is sighing? Coughing? Sneezing? Snoring? Laughing? Crying?

82. Describe hiccough. Yawning. Its value? What is meant by the breathing capacity? How does it vary? How much, in addition, can the lungs expel forcibly? How much of the breathing capacity is available only through practice? Value of this extra supply? Can we expel all the air from our lungs? Value of this constant supply?

83. How constant is the need of air? What is the vital element of the air? Describe the action of the oxygen in our lungs. What does the blood give up? Gain? What are the constituents of the air? What are the peculiar properties and uses of each?

84. How can we test the air we exhale? What does its analysis reveal? Which is the most dangerous constituent? What occurs when we rebreathe exhaled air?

85. Describe its evil effects. What is denoted by the “Black Hole of Calcutta”? Give other illustrations of the dangers of bad air. Describe the need of ventilation. Will a single breath pollute the air?

86-95. How can we detect the floating impurities in the air? What is the influence of a fire or a light? Of a hot stove? When is the ventilation perfect? What diseases are largely owing to bad air? Should the windows and doors be tightly closed, if we have no other means of ventilation? Is not a draught of air dangerous? How can we prevent this, and yet secure fresh air? What is the general principle of ventilation? Must pure air necessarily be cold air? Are schoolrooms always properly ventilated? What is the effect? Are churches? Are our bedrooms? Should children or delicate people sleep in cold rooms? Can we, at night, breathe anything but night air? Is the night air out of doors ever injurious? _Ans_. In times and places of malaria, and also in very damp weather, it should be avoided, even at the risk of bad air in doors. Describe some of the wonders of respiration.

96. How is constriction of the lungs produced? When may clothing be considered tight? What are the dangers of tight lacing? Which would make the stronger, more vigorous, and longer-lived person, the form shown in _A_ or _B_, Fig. 33? Is it safe to run any risk in this dangerous direction?

97. What is Bronchitis? Pleurisy? Pneumonia? Consumption? What is one great cause of Consumption? How may a constitutional tendency to this disease be warded off in youth? _Ans_. Besides plenty of fresh air and exercise, care should be taken in the diet. Rich pastry, unripe fruit, salted meat, and acid drinks should be avoided, and a certain quantity of fat should be eaten at each meal.–BENNETT. What is asphyxia? Describe the process for restoring such a person. (See p. 264.)

98. What is diphtheria? Its peculiarities? Danger? The croup? Its characteristics? Remedy? (See p. 260.) Causes of stammering? How cured?

297. How does the singing voice differ from the speaking voice? How can you prove the effect of duration of sound in speaking and singing? How do the intonations of the voice affect the meaning of words?

298. Give illustrations of speech in persons without a tongue. What is the effect of alcohol and tobacco on the throat? Do they have an influence on the voice? Does the excessive use of tea and coffee ever affect the voice? How? To what is the hoarse tone of an inebriate due?

299, 300. What was Adelina Patti’s advice with regard to stimulants and late hours? Does the respiration of woman differ from that of man? Give experiments with Indian women. What lessons do we draw from these facts? What rule should be observed in regard to the size of a bodice? What are bacteria or microbes? How is their existence revealed? What does the Germ Theory of Disease teach in regard to microbes?

301. What can you say about the microbe of putrefaction? How can you obtain it for examination? What office in Nature do bacteria seem to serve? Give the theory in regard to propagation of special disease germs. Do they always cause disease when taken into the body? [Footnote: Of the immense number and variety of microorganisms found in Nature, only very few are disease producing. Dr. Austin Flint says in _The Forum_, for December, 1888: “It is probable that future investigations into the physiology of digestion, will show that bacteria play an important part in this function. Pasteur has recently isolated no less than seventeen different microorganisms in the mouth, which were not destroyed by the gastric juice. Some of these dissolved albumen, gluten, and caseine, and some transformed starch into sugar. Bacteria normally exist in great number and variety in the intestines, although the part which they take in intestinal digestion has not been accurately determined.”–The number of spores introduced into the human system by respiration, when the health is perfectly sound, has been estimated at three hundred thousand a day.]

302. State some conditions which favor the growth of disease germs. Which prevent or retard their growth. Relate the effect of vaccination, according to the germ theory.

303. 304. If a drop of an infusion charged with bacteria be put in the extract of beef or mutton, what is the result? What would be the effect upon an open wound? Give Dr. Tyndall’s personal experience. Name some efficient antidote against the bacteria of putrefaction. _Ans_. Carbolic acid solution is extensively used for this purpose. How are disease germs often disseminated? State the necessity of disinfection in regard to soiled clothing.

305. Illustrate how disease has been communicated by clothing. What is the first necessary condition to a sanitary home? What is the meaning of the word malaria? What are three active agents in the production of malaria? A fourth? Describe a typical malarious locality. How does newly broken ground induce malaria?

306. State the different ways in which running water can be contaminated. What care should be taken in regard to the level of building site?

307. Give some of the results of a wet foundation. What rules should be observed in regard to shade? What is the effect of too dense foliage about a dwelling? In building a house, what precautions should be taken against dampness? What about the cellar? Sewerage? Plumbing? Ventilation? Fireplaces? Piazzas and balconies? Sleeping rooms?

308. What general purpose does a house serve? What care should be taken in regard to the dust or ash heap? What is the effect if liquids or table refuse be thrown upon it? Where should it be situated? How often should refuse be carted away? If its frequent removal be inexpedient, what precaution should be used? What are the best of all deodorizers? How should the back premises be cared for? What is the best way to dispose of household garbage?

309. How can this be done? With what additional advantage? Give Dr. Derby’s remarks in regard to sewers, their condition, and the results. How should traps and drains be cared for? How should bad smells be treated? Is a foul smell always the most dangerous? How do poisonous gases often find entrance to a house? What rule should be observed in regard to ventilating and soil pipes?

310. What precautions should be observed in digging about a dwelling? How do waste pipes often become closed? How may they be cleared? What dangers arise from unventilated waste pipes? How are washbasin pipes contaminated? Tell what came from a neighbor’s cesspool. Can you name similar instances which have come under your own observation?

311, 312. Describe the condition and effects of a neglected cellar. Tell what came from a crack in a cellar wall.

313. What effect have brick and mortar in keeping out gases? How do bed coverings take the place of day garments? What kind of bed covering is desirable? Is a comfortable bed necessary to perfect health? How often and for how long time should a bed be ventilated?

THE CIRCULATION.

105. Name the organs of the circulation. Does the blood permeate all parts of the body? What is the average amount in each person? Its composition? The plasma? The red corpuscles? The white?

106. What is the size of a red cell? Are the shape and size uniform? Value of this? Illustrate. Are the disks permanent? What substances are contained in the plasma? What is fibrin?

107. In what sense is the blood “liquid flesh”? What is the use of the red disks? What is the office of the oxygen in the body? Where is the blood purified?

108. What is transfusion? Is it of value?

109. Give some illustrations. What is the cause of coagulation of the blood? Value of this property? Has the fibrin any other use?

110. What organ propels the blood? What is the location of the heart? How large is it? Put your hand over it. What is the pericardium? Describe the systole.

111. The diastole. How many chambers in the heart? What is their average size? What is meant by the right and left heart? What are the auricles? Why so called? The ventricles?

112. What is the use of the auricles? The ventricles? Which are made the stronger? Show the need of valves in the ventricles. Why are there no valves in the auricles? Draw on the board the form of the valves. Name them.

113. Describe the tricuspid valve. The bicuspid. How are these valves strengthened?

114. What peculiarity in the attachment of these cords? Describe the semilunar valves. What are the arteries? Why so named? What is their use? Their structure? How does their elasticity act? What is meant by a “collateral circulation”?

115. How are the arteries protected? Where are they located? Give a general description of the arterial system. What is the aorta? What is the pulse? On which arteries can we best feel it? What is the average number of beats per minute? How and why does this vary?

116. Why does a physician feel a patient’s pulse? What are the veins? What blood do they carry? Describe the venous system. What vein does not lead toward the heart? Describe the valves of the veins. What valves of the heart do they resemble? What are varicose veins?

117. Where and how can we see the operation of these valves? What are the capillaries? What is the function of the capillaries? [Footnote: The distinctive function of the capillaries is to offer peripheral resistance to the circulation of the blood. This insures “blood pressure,” a condition indispensable to the “heart beat,” and also causes leakage (transudation). This leakage brings the nutriment in contact with the tissue cells, whereby they are renewed. In the same way the air passes from the blood to the cells.] What changes take place in this system?

118. Describe the circulation of the blood as seen in the web of a frog’s foot.

119. Who discovered the circulation of the blood? How was the discovery received? What remark did Harvey make? What does that show? Name the two divisions of the circulation. Describe the route of the blood by the diagram. 1. The lesser circulation. 2. The greater circulation.

120. What is the velocity of the blood? How long does it require for all the blood to pass through the heart? How long does it take the blood to make the tour of the body? What is the average temperature of the body? How much does this vary in health? _Ans_. Not more than 2°, even in the greatest extremes of temperature.–FLINT.

121. How and where is the heat of the body generated? How is it distributed? In what diseases is the variation of temperature marked? How is the temperature of the body regulated?

122. In what way does life exist through death? Is not this as true in the moral as in the physical world? What does it teach? How rapidly do our bodies change? What are the three vital organs?

123. Name some of the wonders of the heart.

124-126. What is the lymphatic circulation? What is the thoracic duct? The lymph? The glands? What is the office of the lymphatics? What are the lacteals? Give some illustrations of the action of the lymphatics of the different organs. Should we use care in selecting wall paper? What is meant by the subcutaneous insertion of morphine? How do hibernating animals live during the winter? What is a congestion? Its cause?

127. What is blushing? Why does terror cause one to grow cold and pale? How is an inflammation caused? Name its four characteristics.

128. How may severe bleeding be stopped? How can you tell whether the blood comes from an artery or a vein? Why should you know this? What is the scrofula? What are “kernels”?

129, 130. How may a scrofulous tendency of the system be counteracted? What kinds of food stimulate this disease? What is the cause of a “cold”? Why does exposure sometimes cause a cold in the head, sometimes on the lungs, and at others bring on a rheumatic attack? Why is a cold dangerous? _Ans_. It weakens the system and paves the way for other diseases. What is the theory of treating a cold? Describe the method. What is catarrh? Cause?

131, 132. How is alcohol produced? Is alcohol present in domestic wines and home-brewed ales? Are they, then, harmless drinks? What is a ferment? (See also pp. 300, 301.) What is the difference between ferments, bacteria, microbes, and fungi? _Ans_. A few investigators still look upon the microorganisms known as bacteria and microbes as animal existences, but the larger part now concede them to be vegetable.

133. What is the effect of fermentation? What can you say concerning yeast?

134. Explain the process of making beer. Wine. What is distillation?

135, 136. Is there more than one kind of alcohol? What can you say of methyl alcohol? Amyl? Ethyl? Which is the ordinary alcohol of commerce? What is the peculiar effect of fusel oil? Is it often found in wines and spirits? Has alcohol any beneficial properties?

137, 138. Describe one of the striking effects of alcohol. What is the effect of alcohol on plant and animal life?

139, 140. What is the difference between the alcohol present in beer and cider, and that in gin and whiskey? Name another dangerous effect of alcoholic drinks. What business consideration should deter young men from liquor drinking?

141-143. Illustrate the general effect of alcohol upon the circulation. Upon the heart. Is alcohol a stimulant or a narcotic? Describe how alcohol becomes the “Genius of Degeneration.” Explain what is meant by “Vascular Enlargement.”

144, 145. Describe the effect of alcohol upon the membranes. Upon the blood. Does it render the blood thin or heavy? What is the difference between pure and alcoholized blood?

145-147. Describe the effect of alcohol upon the lungs. What form of consumption does it induce? Are liquor drinkers more or less liable to epidemic diseases?

314. How does the pulse felt by the finger correspond with the beat of the heart? Name some agencies that influence the pulse beat? Which part of the body has the most varied form of pulsation?

315. Compare the pulses of the wrist and brain in the sleeping and the waking states. How do catarrhal colds generally arise? How are they best cured?

316. What is said of the vitality of catarrh germs? What is a popular fallacy with regard to the care of sick rooms? Give Dr. Austin Flint’s remarks in this connection.

DIGESTION AND FOOD.

151. Why do we need food? Why will a person starve without food? Are the current stories of people who live without food to be relied upon? How much food is needed per day by an adult in active exercise?

152. How much in a year? How does this amount vary? Describe the body as a mold. As an eddy. What does food do for us? What does food contain?

153. How is this force set free? What force is this? How can it be turned into muscular motion, mental vigor, etc.? Do we then draw all our power from nature? What becomes of these forces when we are done with them? Do we destroy the force we use? _Ans_. No matter has been destroyed, so far as we know, since the creation, and force is equally indestructible. Compare our food to a tense spring.

154. What three kinds of food do we need? What is nitrogenous food? Name the common forms. What is the characteristic of nitrogenous food? Why called albuminous? What is carbonaceous food? Its two kinds? Constituents of sugar? Where are starch and gum ranked? Why? Use of carbonaceous food? What becomes of this heat? Composition of fat? How does fat compare with sugar in producing heat?

155. Name the other uses of carbonaceous food. From what kind of food does the body derive the greatest strength? Name the mineral matters which should be contained in our food. What can you say of the abundance and necessity of water? Ought we not to exercise great care in selecting the water we drink? [Footnote: Water which has passed through lead pipes is apt to contain salts of that metal, and is therefore open to suspicion. Metallic lined ice pitchers, galvanized-iron reservoirs, and many soda- water fountains, are liable to the same objection. (See pp. 317, 318.)] Does the character of our food influence the quantity of water we need?

156. What are the uses of the different minerals contained in food? Illustrate the importance of salt. Could a person live on one kind of food alone? Illustrate.

157. Describe the effect of living on lean meat. Show the necessity of a mixed diet. Illustrate. Show the need of digestion. Illustrate.

158. What is assimilation? Describe the general plan of digestion. What did Berzelius call digestion? Why? What amount of liquid is daily secreted by the alimentary canal? What is the alimentary canal? How is it lined? How does the amœba digest its food?

159. The hydra? Define secretion. Describe the saliva. How is it secreted? What is the amount? Its organic principle? Its use? How soon does it act? How long? What tends to check or increase the flow of saliva?

160. Describe the process of swallowing. The stomach. Its size. Its construction. What is the peristaltic movement?

162. What is the pylorus? For what does this open? What is the gastric juice? How abundant is it? To what is its acidity due? What organic principle does it contain? How is pepsin prepared? How is the flow of gastric juice influenced?

163. What is its use? Appearance of the food as it passes through the pylorus? Why is not the stomach itself digested? What is the construction of the intestines? How are the intestines divided? What is the duodenum? Why so called? What juices are secreted here?

164. What is the bile? Describe the liver. What is its weight? Its construction? _Ans_. It consists of a mass of polyhedral cells only 1/100 to 1/2000 of an inch in diameter, filling a mesh of capillaries. The capillaries carry the blood to and fro, and the cells secrete the bile. What is the cyst? What does the liver secrete from the blood besides the bile? Is the bile necessary to life? Illustrate. What is its use?

165. What is the pancreatic juice? Its organic principle? Its use? Appearance of the food when it leaves the duodenum? Describe the small intestine. What is absorption? In what two ways is the food absorbed?

166. Where does the process commence? How long does it last? Describe the lacteals. Of what general system do they form a part? What do the veins absorb? Where do they carry the food? How is it modified?

167. What is glycogen? Describe the complexity of the process of digestion. What length of time is required for digestion in the stomach?

168. May not food which requires little time in the stomach need more in the other organs, and _vice versa_? Tell the story of Alexis St. Martin. What time was required to digest an ordinary meal? Apples? Eggs, raw and cooked? Roast beef? Pork? Which is the king of the meats? What is the nutritive value of mutton? Lamb? How should it be cooked? Objection to pork? What is the trichina?

169. Should ham ever be eaten raw? Value of fish? Oysters? Milk? Cheese? Eggs? Bread? Brown bread? Are warm biscuit and bread healthful? Nutritive value of corn?

170. Of the potato? Of ripe fruits? Of coffee? To what is its stimulating property due? Its influence on the system? When should it be discarded? Should children use any stimulants?

171. Effects of tea? Influence of strong tea? What is the active principle of tea? Nutritive value of chocolate? What is its active principle? Story of Linnæus? How should tea be made? What is the effect of cooking food? What precaution in boiling meat? In roasting? Object of this high temperature? What precaution in making soup? Why is frying an unhealthful mode of cooking?

172. State the five evil results of rapid eating. What disease grows out of it? If one is compelled to eat a meal rapidly, as at a railroad station, what should he take? Why? Why does a child need more food proportionately than an old person? State the relation of waste to repair in youth, in middle, and in old age. What kind and quantity of food does a sedentary occupation require? What caution should students who have been accustomed to manual labor observe? Must a student starve himself?

173. Is there not danger of overeating? Would not an occasional abstinence from a meal be beneficial? Do not most people eat more than is for their good? How should the season regulate our diet? The climate? Illustrate. What does a natural appetite indicate? How are we to judge between a natural and an artificial longing? What does the craving of childhood for sugar indicate? [Footnote: It does not follow from this, however, that the free use of sugar in its separate form is desirable. The ordinary articles of vegetable food contain sugar (or starch, which in the body is converted into sugar), in large proportion; and there is good reason to believe that in its naturally combined form it is both more easily digested, and more available for the purposes of nutrition, than when crystallized. The ordinary sugar of commerce, moreover, derived from the sugar cane, is not capable of being directly applied to physiological purposes. Cane sugar is converted within the body into another kind of sugar, identical with that derived from the grape, before it can enter into the circuit of the vital changes.]

174. What is the effect upon the circulation of taking food? Should we labor or study just before or after a meal? Why not? What time should intervene between our meals? Is “lunching” a healthful practice? Eating heartily just before retiring? Is it never wise to eat at this time? (See p. 337.) Why should care be banished from the table? Will a regular routine of food be beneficial?

175, 176. Describe some of the wonders of digestion. What are the principal causes of dyspepsia? How may we avoid that disease?

177. What are the mumps? What care should be taken? Is alcohol a food? Illustrate.

178-187. Compare the action of alcohol with that of water. Is the alcohol taken into the stomach eliminated unchanged? Does alcohol contain any element needed by the body? What is the effect of alcohol upon the digestion? Will pepsin act in the presence of alcohol? What is the effect of alcohol upon the liver? What is “Fatty Degeneration”? What is the effect of alcohol upon the kidneys? Does alcohol impart heat to the body? Does it confer strength? What does Dr. Kane say? Describe Richardson’s experiments. Tell what peculiar influence alcohol exerts. What is alcoholism? What is heredity?

317. What characteristics should good drinking water possess? Are these always proof of its purity? Will filters remove all danger of contamination? How may a river infect the entire population of a town? State how well water may become a dangerous drink.

318. Relate how cases of fever have been caused by carelessness in dairies. How should suspected water be treated? Describe a convenient portable filter. Tell how water is affected by foul air.

319. Tell how ice may breed disease. What caution should be observed in engaging ice for our summer supply? Illustrate the structure of the glandular coat of the stomach.

320. What is the office of the cells? Describe the life history of a cell. How does the stomach weep, and what is the character of its tears?

321. What is tyrotoxicon? Give Dr. Vaughan’s experiments with cheese, milk, and ice cream. Tell how milk may be poisoned.

322. Compare the vigor of exclusively fish-eating with flesh-eating people. What is the peculiar value of fish as a diet? To what class of people is it best suited? Name examples. Describe the principles contained in coffee. What is the effect of caffeone? Of caffeine? Give some of the specific effects of coffee. How does tea differ from coffee? Describe the injurious effects of excessive tea drinking.

324. Compare theine and cocaine. Should children drink tea and coffee?

325. Give some causes of indigestion. Why are nervous people prone to dyspepsia? Give the comparative digestibility of various meats.

326. Describe how our food sustains our bodies. Illustrate the energy contained in one gramme of beef fat. Why is there danger in a “high- pressure” style of living? Illustrate.

327. State the effects of gluttony. Why is it unkindness to indulge inordinate appetites in children? What should be the rule in regard to their food? What effects would follow its observance?

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.

191. What are the organs of the nervous system? What is the general use of this system? How does it distinguish animals from plants? What are the vegetative functions? What is the gray matter? Its use? The white matter? Its use?

193. Describe the brain. What is its office? Its size? How does it vary? Illustrate. Name its two divisions.

194, 195. Describe the cerebrum. The convolutions. The membranes which bind the brain together. What can you say of the quantity of blood which goes to the brain? What does it show? What do the convolutions indicate? What is the use of the two halves of the brain? What theories have been advanced concerning it? Is every injury to the brain fatal? Illustrate. Compare the human brain with the brains of some animals.

196. What is the effect of removing the cerebrum? Describe the cerebellum. What is the arbor vitæ? What does this part of the brain control? What are the peculiar functions of the cerebellum? Give Dr. Bastian’s remarks.

197. What is the effect of an injury to the cerebellum? Describe the spinal cord. What is the medulla oblongata? Describe the nerves. Is each part of the body supplied with its own nerve? Prove it.

198. What are the motory nerves? The sensory? When will motion be lost and feeling remain, and _vice versa?_ What is meant by a transfer of pain? Illustrate.

199. Name the three classes of nerves. What are the spinal nerves? Describe the origin of the spinal nerve.

199-201. What are the cranial nerves? How many pairs are there? Describe them.

201, 202. Describe the sympathetic system. What is its use? How does the brain control all the vital processes? What is meant by the crossing of the cords? What is the effect? What exception in the seventh pair of cranial nerves?

203, 204. What is reflex action? Give illustrations. Give instances of the unconscious action of the brain. [Footnote: The cerebellum has its unconscious action in the processes of respiration and in the involuntary movements which are made in response to the senses, as in winking, starting back at a sound, etc. The cerebrum acts automatically in oases familiar to all. A large part of our mental activity consists of this unconscious brain work. There are many cases in which the mind has obviously reasoned more clearly and more successfully in this automatic condition, when left entirely to itself, than when we have been cudgeling our brains, so to speak, to get the solution. Oliver Wendell Holmes has aptly expressed this fact. “We wish,” he says, “to remember something in the course of conversation. No effort of the will can reach it; but we say, ‘Wait a minute, and it will come to me,’ and we go on talking. Some minutes later, the idea we are in search of comes all at once into the mind, delivered like a prepaid parcel, or like a foundling in a basket, laid at the door of consciousness. How it came there, we know not. The mind must have been at work, groping and feeling for it in the dark; it can not have come of itself. Yet, all the while, our consciousness, _so far as we are conscious of our consciousness_, was busy with other thoughts.”

Some interesting personal experiences upon this point are given in an article entitled “The Antechamber of Consciousness,” by Francis Speir, Jr., in the _Popular Science Monthly_ for March, 1888.] Can there be feeling or motion in the lower limbs when the spinal cord is destroyed? What does the story told by Dr. John Hunter show? Give illustrations of the independent action of the spinal cord in animals. What are the uses of reflex action?

205. State its value in the formation of habits. How does the brain grow? What laws govern it? What must be the effect of constant light reading? Of overstudy or mental labor?

206. State the relation of sleep to repair and waste. How many hours does each person need? What kind of work requires most sleep?

206-208. What is the influence of sunlight on the body? Illustrate. Name some of the wonders of the brain.

208-213. What four stages are there in the effect of alcohol on the nervous system? Describe each. Does alcohol confer any permanent strength? What is the physiological effect of alcohol on the brain? On the mental and moral powers? What is the Delirium Tremens? Should a man be punished for a crime he commits while drunk?

214-218. What are the principal constituents of tobacco? What are its physiological effects? Who are most likely to escape injury? Is tobacco a food? What is its influence upon youth? Why are cigarettes specially injurious? What effect does tobacco have on the sensibilities? Name illustrations of the injurious effect of tobacco on young men.

219-221. How is opium obtained? What is its physiological effect? Which form of using it is most injurious? Can one give up the use of opium when he pleases? How do people sometimes take opium without knowing it?

221. What is the harmful influence of chloral hydrate? Describe its different physiological effects.

222. Compare its influence with that of alcohol. How is chloroform obtained? Does its use require great caution? Illustrate its effects.

223, 224. What is cocaine? What is its value? Its physiological effect? Its dangers?

331-333. What is the effect of extreme anger? Give the physiological explanation of this deterioration. What two organs particularly suffer? Illustrate. To what cause are many suicides referable? How can one secure a calm and tranquil life? What is the effect of forcing the brain in childhood?

334. Illustrate. How should a child be taught?

334, 335. Why should we not exhaust our energies to the last degree? What warnings does Nature give us? Do stimulants supply force? What is the effect of mental exhaustion? Which is the most common, overwork or worry? Most dangerous? What is worry? Its effect? What other causes often induce insanity?

336-338. State some curiosities of sleep. Some conditions necessary to sound and healthful slumber. How may we acquire the habit of early rising?

338, 339. Give some of the results of dungeon life.

339-347. What can you say of the growth and power of poison habits? Illustrate. How does physiological ignorance often cause intemperance? What is the usual result of a stimulant habit? In what virtue lies the peril of narcotics? Balance the good and the evil in their use. Illustrate how death often results from chloroform and chloral. What common result is worse than death? Compare the demoralization in the cases of the opium user and the alcohol drinker. What principle of heredity attaches to the use of opium? Give instances of deaths from tobacco, opium, etc. What can you say of cigarette smoking? Chloral hydrate? The bromides? Absinthe? Hasheesh?

THE SPECIAL SENSES.

229, 230. What is a sense? Name the five senses. To what organ do all the senses minister? If the nerve leading to any organ of sense be cut, what would be the effect? [Footnote: Each, organ is adapted to receive a peculiar kind of impression. Hence we can not smell with, the eyes nor see with the nose. Thus, if the nerve communicating between the brain and any organ be destroyed, that means of knowledge is cut off.] Sometimes persons lose feeling in a limb, but retain motion; why is this? What is the sense of touch sometimes called? Describe the organ of touch. What are the papillæ? Where are they most abundant? [Footnote: If we apply the points of a compass blunted with cork to different parts of the body, we can distinguish the two points at one twenty-fourth of an inch apart on the tongue, one sixteenth, of an inch on the lips, one twelfth of an inch on the tips of the fingers, and one half inch on the great toe; while, if they are one inch on the cheek, and two inches on the back, they will scarcely produce a separate sensation.–HUXLEY.] What are the uses of this sense? What special knowledge do we obtain by it? Why do we always desire to handle any curious object? Can the sense of touch always be relied upon? Illustrate. What is the _tactus eruditus_? Tell how one sense can take the place of another. Give illustrations of the delicacy of touch possessed by the blind.

230-232. Describe the sense of taste. How can you see the papillæ of taste? What causes the velvety look of the tongue? Why do salt and bitter flavors induce vomiting? Why does an acid “pucker” the face? What substances are tasteless? Illustrate. Has sulphur any taste? Chalk? Sand? What is the use of this sense? Does it not also add to the pleasures of life? Why are the acts of eating, drinking, etc., thus made sources of happiness?

232, 233. Describe the organ of smell. State the intimate relation which exists between the senses of smell and taste. Name some common mistakes which occur in consequence. Must the object to be smelled touch the nose? What is the theory of smell? How do you account for the statement made in the note concerning musk and ambergris? What are the uses of this sense? Are agreeable odors healthful, and disagreeable ones unhealthful?

234-236. Describe the organ of hearing. Describe the external ear. What is the tympanum or drum of the ear? Describe the middle ear. Name the bones of the ear. Describe their structure. Describe the internal ear. By what other name is it known? What substances float in the liquid which fills the labyrinth? What is their use? Describe the fibers of Corti. What do they form? Use of this microscopic harp? Give the theory of sound. Where is the sound, in the external object or in the mind? Can there be any sound, then, where there is no mind? What advice is given concerning the care of the ear? How can insects be removed? Which sense would you rather lose, hearing or sight? Does not a blind person always excite more sympathy than a deaf one? How does the sight assist the hearing? [Footnote: In _hearing_, the attention is more or less characteristic. If we wish to distinguish a distant noise, or perceive a sound, the head inclines and turns in such a manner as to present the external ear in the direction of the sound, at the same time the eyes are fixed and partially closed. The movement of the lips of his interlocutor is the usual means by which the deaf man supplies the want of hearing; the eyes and the entire head, from its position, having a peculiar and painful expression of attention. In looking at the portrait of La Condamine, it was easily recognized as that of a deaf person. Even when hearing is perfect, the eyes act sometimes as auxiliaries to it. In order to understand an orator perfectly, it seems necessary to see him–the gestures and the expression of the face seeming to add to the clearness of the words. The lesson of a teacher can not be well understood if any obstacle is interposed between him and the eyes of the listening pupil. So that if a pupil’s eyes wander, we know that he is not attentive.– _Wonders of the Human Body_.]

236, 237. Describe the eye. Name the three coats of which it is composed. Is it a perfect sphere? _Ans_. The cornea projects in front, and the optic nerve at the back sticks out like a handle, while the ball itself has its longest diameter from side to side. How is the interior divided? Object of the crystalline lens? How is the crystalline lens kept in place? Describe the liquids which fill the eye.

238. What is the pupil? Describe the eyelids. Why is the inner side of the eyelid so sensitive? What is the cause of a black eye? Use of the eyelashes? Where are the oil glands located? What is their use? Describe the lachrymal gland. The lachrymal lake. What causes the overflow in old age?

239. Explain the structure of the retina. Use of the rods and cones. What is the blind spot?

240. Illustrate. What is the theory of sight? Illustrate.

241, 242. State the action of the crystalline lens. Its power of adaptation. Do children ever need spectacles?

243. What is the cataract? How cured? What is color blindness? Illustrate. What care should be taken of the eyes? Should one constantly lean forward over his book or work? What special care should nearsighted children take? By what carelessness may we impair our sight?

244. How is squinting caused? Cured? What care should be used after an illness? Should we ever read or write at twilight? Danger of reading upon the ears? What course should we take when objects get into the eye? How may they be removed?

245. Are “eyestones” useful? Why should we never use eyewashes except upon the advice of a competent physician? What rule should be observed with regard to the direction of the light when we are at work? Name some causes of near-sightedness. Remedies.

346. Give the account of Laura Bridgman.

347-350. Describe the anatomy of the nose. In what part of the nose is the function of smell performed? Why do we “sniff” when our attention is attracted by an odor? Give some experiments which illustrate the connection between smell, taste, and touch. Why should we retain our food in the mouth as long as possible? Of what use are gastronomic odors?

350. Why should a child’s ear never be boxed? Illustrate. How can we detect inattention from deafness in a child? What should we consider in this respect?

351. Why should we avoid direct draughts in the ear? Explain the use of earwax. What common habit is very injurious? Why?

352, 353. What is the office of the Eustachian tube? Illustrate.

353, 354. Describe the action of the “eye curtain.” Give experiments. What are “Purkinje’s Figures”? Describe experiment.

HEALTH AND DISEASE.

251-254. State some of the benefits of health. Contrast it with sickness. How were diseases formerly supposed to be caused? What remedies were used? What does modern science teach us to be the nature of disease? Give some illustrations showing how diseases may be prevented. Is it probable that the body was intended to give out in any one of its organs? What is the first step to be taken in the cure of a disease? What should be the object of medicine? What is now the chief dependence of the best physicians? What do you think concerning the common use of patent nostrums? Ought we not to use the greatest care in the selection of our physician?

GLOSSARY.

Ab do’ men (_abdo_, I conceal). The largest cavity in the body, in which are hidden the intestines, stomach, etc.

Ab sorb’ ent (_ab_, from _sorbeo_, I suck up).

Ac’ e tab’ u lum (_acetum_, vinegar). The socket for holding the head of the thigh bone, shaped like an ancient vinegar vessel.

A ce’ tic (_acetum_, vinegar).

Ad’ i pose. Fatty.

Al bu’ men (_albus_, white). A substance resembling the white of egg.

Al bu’ mi nous substances contain much albumen.

Al’ i men’ ta ry. Pertaining to food.

Al’ ka line (-lin) substances neutralize acids.

An’ æs thet’ ic. A substance that destroys the feeling of pain.

A or’ ta. The largest artery of the body.

Ap’ o plex y (pleks y). A disease marked by loss of sensation and voluntary motion.

A’ que ous (a’-kwe-us). Watery.

A rach’ noid (_arachne_, a spider; _eidos_, form). A membrane like a spider’s web covering the brain.

Ar’ bor vi’tæ means “the tree of life.”

Ar’ tery (_aer_, air; _tereo_, I contain). So named because after death the arteries contain air only, and hence the ancients supposed them to be air tubes leading through the body.

Ar tic’ u late (_articulo_, I form a joint).

Ar tic’ u la tion. A joint.

As phyx’ ia (-fix-i-a). Literally, no pulse; apparent death.

As sim’ i la’ tion is the process of changing food into flesh, etc.

At’ las. So called because, as in ancient fable the god Atlas supported the globe on his shoulders, so in the body this bone bears the head.

Au’ di to ry Nerve. The nerve of hearing.

Au’ ri cle (-kl) (_auris_, ear) of the heart. So named from its shape.

Bi’ ceps. A muscle with two heads, or origins.

Bi cus’ pid. Tooth with two points; also a valve of the heart.

Bron’ chi (-ki). The two branches of the windpipe.

Bron’ chi al Tubes. Subdivisions of bronchi.

Bur sa (a purse). Small sac containing fluid near a joint.

Ca nine’ (_canis_, a dog) teeth are like dog’s teeth.

Cap’ il la ries (_capillus_, a hair). A system of tiny blood vessels.

Car’ bon. Pure charcoal.

Car bon’ ic Acid. A deadly gas given off by the lungs and by fires.

Ca rot’ ids (_karos_, lethargy). Arteries of the neck, so named because the ancients supposed them to be the seat of sleep.

Car’ pus. The wrist.

Car’ ti lage. Gristle.

Cell. A minute sac, usually with soft walls and fluid contents.

Cel’ lu lar (_cellula_, a little cell). Full of cells.

Cer’ e bel’ lum. The little brain.

Cer’ e brum. A Latin word meaning brain.

Cer’ vi cal. Relating to the neck.

Chlo’ ral (klo) Hy’ drate. A drug used to induce sleep.

Cho’ roid. The second coat of the eye.

Chyle (kile). A milky juice formed in digestion.

Chyme (kime). From _chumos_, juice.

Cir’ cu la’ tion. The course of the blood through the body.

Cil’ i a (the plural of _cilium_, an eyelash). Hair-like projections in the air passages.

Clav’ i cle (klav’-i-kl). From _clavis_, a key.

Co ag’ u la’tion. A clotting of blood.

Coc’ cyx (a cuckoo). A bony mass below the sacrum.

Coch’ le a. A Latin word meaning snail shell. See Ear

Com’ pound. A substance composed of two or more elements.

Con ta’ gious diseases are those caught by contact, the breath, etc.

Con’ trac til’ i ty (_con_, together; _traho_, I draw).

Con’ vo lu’ tion (_con_, together; _volvo_, I roll).

Cor’ ne a (_cornu_, a horn). A transparent, horn-like window in the eye.

Cor’ pus cle (kor’-pus-l). From a Latin word meaning a little body. It is applied to the disks of the blood.

Cra’ ni al. Relating to the skull.

Crys’tal line (_crystallum_, a crystal).

Cu ta’ ne ous (_cutis_, skin). Pertaining to the skin.

Cu’ ti cle (ku’-ti-kl). From a Latin word meaning little skin.

Cu’ tis, the true skin.

Den’ tal (_dens, dentis_, a tooth).

Di’ a phragm (-fram). The muscle dividing the abdomen from the chest.

Di as’ to le (_diastello_, I put asunder). Dilation of the heart.

Dis’ lo ca’ tion. A putting out of joint.

Dor’ sal (_dorsum_, the back).

Duct. A small tube.

Du o de’ num (_duodeni_, twelve each).

Du’ ra Ma’ ter (_durus_, hard; _mater_, mother). The outer membrane of the brain.

Dys pep’ si a is a difficulty of digestion

E lim’ i nate. To expel.

Ep’ idem’ ic. A disease affecting a great number of persons at once.

Ep’ i der’ mis. The cuticle.

Ep’ i glot’ tis (_epi_, upon; _glottis_, the tongue). The lid of the windpipe.

Ep’ i the’ li um. The outer surface of mucous or serous membranes.

Eu sta’ chi an (u-sta’-ki-an) Tube. So named from its discoverer, an Italian physician.

Ex cre’ tion. Waste particles thrown off by the excretory organs.

Fer’ men ta’ tion. The process by which sugar is turned into alcohol.

Fi’ brin (_fibra_, a fiber).

Fil’ a ment (_filum_, a thread).

Func’ tion. See Organ.

Gan’ gli on (gang’-gli-on). From _ganglion_, a knot; plu. ganglia.

Gas’ tric (_gaster_, stomach).

Glands (_glandz_). From _glans_, a Latin word meaning acorn. Their object, is to secrete in their cells some liquid from the blood.

Glot’ tis. The opening at the top of the larynx.

Hu’ me rus. The arm bone.

Hu’ mor. A Latin word meaning moisture.

Hy’ dro gen. The lightest gas known, and one of the elements of water.

Hy’ gi ene. From a Greek word meaning health.

Hyp’ o glos’ sal. Literally “under the tongue”; a nerve of the tongue.

In ci’ sor (_incido_, I cut) teeth are cutting teeth.

In’ spi ra’ tion (_in_ and _spiro_, I breathe in).

In tes’ tine (-tin). From _intus_, within.

Lach’ ry mal (_lachryma_, a tear). Pertaining to tears.

Lac’ te al (_lac_, _lactis_, milk). So called from the milky look of the chyle during digestion.

La cu’ na, plu. lacunæ (_lakos_, a hole). Cavities in the bone structure.

Lar’ ynx (lar’-inx). The upper part of the windpipe.

Lig’ a ments (_ligo_, I bind) tie bones together.

Lu’ bri cate. To oil in order to prevent friction.

Lum’ bar (_lumbus_, a loin). Pertaining to the loins.

Lymph (limf). From _lympha_, pure water.

Lym phat’ ic (lim-fat-ik).

Mas’ ti ca’ tion. The act of chewing.

Me dul’ la Ob lon ga’ ta. The upper part of the spinal cord.

Mam’ brane. A thin skin, or tissue.

Mes’ en tery. The membrane by which the intestines are fastened to the spine.

Met’ a car’ pal (_meta_, after; _karpos_, wrist).

Met’ a tar’ sal (_meta_, after; _tarsos_, the instep).

Mi’ cro scope (_mikros_, small; _skopeo_, I see).

Mo’lar (_mola_, a mill) teeth are the grinders.

Morp’ hine (_Morpheus_, the Greek god of sleep).

Mo’ tor. Giving motion.

Mu’ cous (-kus) Membrane. A thin tissue, or skin, covering the open cavities of the body. See Serous.

Mu’ cous. A fluid secreted by a membrane and serving to lubricate it.

Mus’ cle (mus-l). A bundle of fibers covered by a membrane.

My o’ pi a (_muo_, I contract; _ops_, the eye).

Nar cot’ ic. A drug producing sleep.

Na’ sal (na’-zal). From _nasus_, the nose.

Nerve (neuron, a cord).

Ni’ tro gen Gas is the passive element of the air.

Ni trog’ e nous. Containing nitrogen.

Nu tri’ tion. The process by which the body is nourished.

Œ soph’ agus (e-sof’-a-gus). The gullet; literally, a “food-carrier.”

Ol fac’ to ry. Pertaining to the smell.

Or’ gan. An organ is a portion of the body designed for a particular use, which is called its _function_; thus the heart circulates the blood.

Os’ se ous. Bone-like.

Os’ si fy (_ossa_, bones; _facio_, I make).

Ox i da’ tion. The process of combining with oxygen.

Ox’ y gen. The active element of the air.

Pal’ ate (_palatum_, the palate). Roof of the mouth.

Pan’ cre as (_pas_, all; _kreas_, flesh). An organ of digestion.

Pa pil’ la, plu. papillæ. Tiny cone-like projections.

Pa ral’ y sis. A disease in which one loses sensation, or the power of motion, or both.

Pa rot’ id (_para_, near; _ous_, _otos_, ear). One of the salivary glands.

Pa tel’ la (a little dish). The kneepan.

Pec’ to ral. Pertaining to the chest.

Pep’ sin (_pepto_, I digest). The chief constituent of the gastric juice.

Per’ i car’ di um (_peri_, around; _kardia_, the heart). The membrane wrapping the heart.

Per’ i os’ te um (_peri_, around; _osteon_, bone). The membrane around the bone.

Per’ i stal’ tic (_peri_, round; _stallein_, to arrange). Applied to the worm-like movement of the alimentary canal.

Phar’ ynx (far’-inx). From _pharugx_, the throat.

Pi’ a Ma’ ter (tender mother). See Brain.

Pig’ ment. A paint.

Plas’ ma (plaz’-ma). The nutritious fluid of the blood.

Pleu’ ra (plu’-ra). From _pleuar_, a rib. The membrane that lines the chest and wraps the lungs.

Pres by o’ pi a (_presbus_, old; _ops_, the eye). A defect in the eye common to old age.

Proc’ ess. A projection. Sometimes it retains its ordinary meaning of “operation.”

Py lo’ rus (a gate). The doorway through which the food passes from the stomach.

Pul’ mo na ry (_pulmo_, the lungs). Pertaining to the lungs.

Ra’ di us. A Latin word meaning the spoke of a wheel, a ray, etc.

Ram’ i fy. To spread like the branches of a tree.

Res’ pi ra´ tion (_re_, again; _spiro_, I breathe). Act of breathing.

Ret’ i na (_rete_, a net). The expansion of the optic nerve in the eye.

Sa’ crum (sacred). So named, it is said, because this bone of the pelvis was anciently offered in sacrifice.

Sa li’ va. A Latin word meaning spittle; the fluid secreted by the salivary glands.

Scap’ u la. The shoulder blade.

Scav’ en ger. A street sweeper.

Sele rot’ ic (skie-rot’-ic). The outer coat of the eye.

Se cre’ tion (_secretum_, to separate).

Sed’ en ta ry persons are those who sit much.

Sen’ so ry Nerves. The nerves of feeling.

Se’ rous Membrane. A thin tissue, or skin, covering the cavities of the body that are not open to the external air.

Se’ rum. The thin part of the blood.

Sub cla’ vi an. Located under the clavicle.

Sub lin’ gual (_sub_, under: _lingua_, the tongue). The salivary gland located under the tongue.

Sub max’ il la ry (_sub_, under; _maxilla_, jawbone). The salivary gland located under the jaw.

Syn o’ vi a (_sun_, with; _oon_, egg). A fluid that lubricates the joints.

Syn o’ vi al Membrane packs the joints.

Sys’ to le (_sustello_, I contract). Contraction of the heart.

Tem’ po ral. An artery on the temple (_tempus_, time), so called because, as is said, the hair whitens first at that point.

Ten’ dons (_tendo_, I stretch). The cords conveying motion from the muscle to the bone.

Tho’ rax (a breastplate). The cavity containing the lungs, etc.

Tib’ ia. The shin-bone.

Tis’ sue. A general term applied to the textures of which the different organs are composed; osseous tissue forms bones.

Tra’ che a (tra’-ke-a). Means rough, alluding to the roughened surface of the windpipe.

Tri’ ceps. A muscle with three heads, or origins.

Tri’ cus’ pid (_tres_, three; _cuspis_, point). A valve of the heart.

Tym’ pa num (a drum) of the ear.

Vas’ cu lar (_vasculum_, little vessel). Full of small blood vessels.

Ven’ tri cle (-kl). A cavity of the heart.

Ver’ te bra, plu. vertebræ (_verto_, I turn). A term applied to each one of the bones of the spine.

Vil’ lus (_villus_, tuft of hair), plu. villi.

Vi’ ti ate. To taint. To spoil.

Vit’ re ous (_vitrium_, glass). Glassy.

Vo’ mer (plowshare). A bone of the nose.