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Length thirteen to sixteen inches, according to the length of the tail, which is deeply forked with slender outside feathers, like a Barn Swallow’s.

Plumage pure white, with a black cap on the head, a pearl-blue mantle, and silver-black shades on the long wing-feathers, which look as if they had hoar frost on them.

Bill coral-red with a black tip, slender and very sharp, without any hook at the end. Feet coral-red, very small and weak, the front toes webbed like a Gull’s.

Young ones are patched with various colors before they grow their pearly, snowy, and jet-black feathers.

A Citizen of North America, chiefly its eastern portions, who travels far north in spring and far south in fall. He nests in large colonies on the sand or shingle of beaches, and cries very sadly when House People come to steal the eggs or kill the young ones. He belongs to the guild of Sea Sweepers, and eats little fishes.

The Loon or Great Northern Diver

Length two and a half to three feet, with a long neck like a Goose’s, and a stout straight black bill, very sharp-pointed.

Plumage glossy black above, with a necklace of white streaks and many square white spots on the back; under parts white from the root of the neck backwards, but the sides of the breast streaky.

Young ones are speckled gray and white, without any glossy black, and the bill is not black.

A Citizen of North America, who nests in the far North and migrates into the United States for the winter.

A famous Sea Sweeper, who can catch fish by chasing them under water. He can dive like a flash and fly more than a hundred yards under water before coming up to breathe, but is very awkward and top-heavy on land because his legs are so far back that he has to stand up on end. His nest is on the ground and his flesh is not fit to eat, being too rank and fishy. You can hear his mournful cry a mile off.

The Pied-billed Grebe, Dabchick, or Water Witch

Length thirteen inches.

Upper parts brownish-black. Breast and belly white, very smooth like satin. A black mark on the throat, and a black band on the bill, which is shaped like a Hen’s. Feathers on top of the head bristly.

Feet very strange: they stick out far behind, because Grebes have no tail to be seen, and the toes are different from those of any other bird you have in your tables, being scalloped with flaps of skin instead of webbed like those of most Swimming Birds.

A Citizen of North America, whose nest is a wet bed of broken-down reeds, sometimes floating on the water of the marsh. He can dive and swim under water as well as a Loon. If you could catch one alive, he would make his flapper-like feet go so fast you could not see anything of them but a hazy film, as the Hummingbird does his wings when he poises in front of a flower.

[Illustration: Pied-Billed Grebe.]

CHAPTER XXXII

CHORUS BY THE BIRDS

Swallows were perching on the same telegraph wires where they had met in May. Now it was September. There were Swallows of all kinds, both old and young, with whom a great many other birds stopped for a little chat.

“In a few weeks we must be off–how have you enjoyed the summer?” asked the Bank Swallow of his sharp-tailed brother from the barn.

“Excellently well! Times have changed for the better; not a single cat or rat has been seen in my hayloft all the season, and the window has been always open.”

“So you have changed your mind about House People?” said the Bank Swallow slyly.

“Yes–that is, about _some_ House People.”

“I wish so many of the Bird Brotherhood did not leave in the winter; it makes me quite sad,” murmured the Bluebird.

“Yes. Stay-at-homes, like yourself and Robins and Finches, must feel very lonely without us,” said Barney kindly; “but I think likely these House People will scatter food about, so that at least you will not be hungry–that is, unless they migrate too, as the Catbird says they sometimes do.” “Dear, dear! _Think_ of it, _think_ of it!” warbled the Bluebird.

“Zeay! zeay!” screamed the Catbird, flying up. “N-e-w-s! N-e-w-s! The House People are to stay at our farm all winter! The man who owns this farm, the big girl, and the little girl and boy–and the mother and father bird they belong to–they are all down in the orchard, talking about it now–how they are going to something they call ‘school,’ over in the village, and how that boy who hops along on one leg with a stick under his wing is going with them.”

“Did they say anything about the Bird Brotherhood?”

“No, but I heard them say that when the snow falls they are going up to those horrid dark Owl woods to see the foxes and little fur beasts–‘Four-footed Americans’ our House Man calls them.”

“He gave me a better name than that,” said the Barn Swallow, “one day when he was telling the children about the Brotherhood, over in the old barn. He looked straight at me and said a whole tree full of nice things.”

“What did he call you? What did he say about the Brotherhood?” asked all the others, crowding around Barney.

“He said that I swept the sky free of evil insects, that I was patriotic in coming back to my birthplace to nest, and that I worked to pay my rent and taxes, and–“

“And what?” cried the others in excitement.

“He called me ‘Citizen Bird’! He said _all_ well-behaved birds, who have their own nests, and belong to the guilds of the Brotherhood, are American Citizens and should be protected!”

“How badly the Cowbirds must feel!” said the chorus.

“Hip, hip, hurrah! for Citizen Bird and friendly House People!” drummed the Downy Woodpecker, beating away for dear life on a telegraph pole.

Then all the Swallows and Flycatchers began to dash about the air, whispering “Citizen Bird! Citizen Bird!” And the Bluebird flew down to the garden bushes to tell his winter companion, the Song Sparrow, all about it.

CHAPTER XXXIII

THE PROCESSION OF BIRD FAMILIES

In which all the birds the children have learned in this little book are made to pass in orderly review, each bearing its scientific name, which the Wise Men write in Latin.

1. ORDER OF PERCHING BIRDS ORDER PAS’SERES

Which have their feet best fitted for perching, with three toes in front and one behind, all on the same level.

SUBORDER OF SINGING PERCHING BIRDS SUBORDER OS’CINES

Which have music-boxes in their throats, though not all of them can sing.

1. FAMILY OF THRUSHES FAMILY TUR’DIDAE

1. Bluebird Sia’lia sia’lis. 2. American Robin Mer’ula migrato’ria. 3. Wood Thrush Tur’dus musteli’nus. 4. Wilson’s Thrush Tur’dus fusces’cens. 5. Hermit Thrush Tur’dus aonalasch’kae pal’lasi.
6. Olive-backed Thrush Tur’dus ustula’tus swain’soni.

2. FAMILY OF OLD-WORLD WARBLERS FAMILY SYLVI’IDAE

7. Golden-crowned Kinglet Reg’ulus sat’rapa.

3. FAMILY OF NUTHATCHES FAMILY SIT’TIDAE

8. White-breasted Nuthatch Sit’ta carolinen’sis.

4. FAMILY of TITMICE FAMILY PAR’IDAE

9. Chickadee Par’us atricapil’lus.

5. FAMILY OF CREEPERS FAMILY CERTHI’IDAE

10. Brown Creeper Cer’thia familia’ris america’na.

6. FAMILY OF THRASHERS AND WRENS FAMILY TROGLODY’TIDAE

11. Sage Thrasher Oreoscop’tes monta’nus. 12. Mockingbird Mi’mus polyglot’tus. 13. Catbird Galeoscop’tes carolinen’sis. 14. Brown Thrasher Harporhyn’chus ru’fus. 15. Rock Wren Salpinc’tes obsole’tus. 16. House Wren Troglod’ytes ae’don. 17. Long-billed Marsh Wren Cistotho’rus palus’tris.

7. FAMILY OF AMERICAN WARBLERS FAMILY MNIOTIL’TIDAE

18. Black-and-white Warbler Mniotil’ta va’ria. 19. Yellow Warbler Dendroe’ca oesti’va. 20. Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroe’ca corona’ta. 21. Ovenbird Siu’rus auricapil’lus. 22. Maryland Yellow-throat Geoth’lypis tri’chas. 23. Yellow-breasted Chat Icter’ia vi’rens. 24. American Redstart Setoph’aga ruticil’la.

8. FAMILY OF GREENLETS FAMILY VIREON’DAE

25. Red-eyed Vireo Vi’reo oliva’ceus.

9. FAMILY OF SHRIKES FAMILY LANI’IDAE

26. Great Northern Shrike La’nius borea’lis.

10. FAMILY OF WAXWINGS FAMILY AMPE’LIDAE

27. Cedar Waxwing Am’pelis cedro’rum.

11. FAMILY OF SWALLOWS FAMILY HIRUNDIN’IDAE

28. Purple Martin Prog’ne su’bis. 29. Barn Swallow Cheli’don erythrogas’ter. 30. Tree Swallow Tachycine’ta bi’color. 31. Bank Swallow Clivi’cola ripa’ria.

12. FAMILY OF TANAGERS FAMILY TANAG’RIDAE

32. Scarlet Tanager Piran’ga erytho’melas. 33. Louisiana Tanager Piran’ga ludovicia’na.

13. FAMILY OF FINCHES, FAMILY FRINGIL’LIDAE BUNTINGS AND SPARROWS

34. Pine Grosbeak Pinic’ola enu’cleator. 35. American Crossbill Lox’ia curviros’tra mi’nor 36. American Goldfinch Spi’nus tris’tis. 37. Snowflake Plectrophe’nax niva’lis. 38. Vesper Sparrow Pooe’cetes gramin’eus. 39. White-throated Sparrow Zonotrich’ia albicol’lis. 40. Chipping Sparrow Spizel’la socia’lis. 41. Slate-colored Junco Jun’co hiema’lis. 42. Song Sparrow Melospi’za fascia’ta. 43. Towhee Bunting Pip’ilo erythrophthal’mus. 44. Cardinal Cardina’lis cardina’lis. 45. Rose-breasted Grosbeak Zamelo’dia ludovicia’na. 46. Indigo Bird Passeri’na cyan’ea.

14. FAMILY OF BLACKBIRDS AND ORIOLES FAMILY ICTER’IDAE

47. Bobolink Dolicho’nyx oryziv’orus. 48. Cowbird Mol’othrus a’ter. 49. Orchard Oriole Ic’terus spu’rius. 50. Baltimore Oriole Ic’terus gal’bula. 51. Meadowlark Sturnel’la mag’na. 52. Red-winged Blackbird Ageloe’us phoeni’ceus. 53. Purple Grackle Quis’calus quis’cula.

15. FAMILY OF CROWS AND JAYS FAMILY COR’VIDAE

54. American Crow Cor’vus america’nus 55. Blue Jay Cyanocit’ta crista’ta.

SUBORDER OF SONGLESS PERCHING BIRDS SUBORDER CLAMATO’RES

Which have no music-boxes in their throats, and therefore cannot sing, though some of them can twitter.

16. FAMILY OF FLYCATCHERS FAMILY TYRAN’NIDAE

56. Kingbird Tyran’nus tyran’nus. 57. Phoebe Sayor’nis phoe’be. 58. Wood Pewee Con’topus vi’rens.

II. ORDER OF PICARIAN BIRDS ORDER PICA’RIAE

Which have their feet fixed in various ways, but never quite like those of Perching Birds; though all of them can perch, none of them can sing.

SUBORDER OF HUMMINGBIRDS SUBORDER TROCH’ILI

Which make a humming sound with their wings when, they fly.

17. FAMILY OF HUMMINGBIRDS FAMILY TROCHIL’IDAE

59. Ruby-throated Hummingbird Troch’ilus col’ubris.

SUBORDER OF LONG-HANDED BIRDS SUBORDER CYP’SELI

Which can fly with great rapidity.

18. FAMILY OF SWIFTS FAMILY MICROPO’DIDAE

60. Chimney Swift Choetu’ra pelag’ica.

SUBORDER OF CORACIAN BIRDS SUBORDER CORA’CIAE

Which are peculiar in many respects that cannot be understood by children.

19. FAMILY OF GOATSUCKERS FAMILY CAPRIMUL’GIDAE

61. Nighthawk Chordei’les virginia’nus. 62. Whip-poor-will Antros’lomus vociferus.

SUBORDER OF PICINE BIRDS SUBORDER PI’CI

Which have two toes in front and two behind, and most of which can climb.

20. FAMILY OF WOODPECKERS FAMILY PIC’IDAE

63. Downy Woodpecker Dryob’ates pubes’cens. 64. Red-headed Woodpecker Melaner’pes erythroceph’alus.
65. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrap’icus va’rius. 66. Flicker Colap’tes aura’tus.

SUBORDER OF HALCYON BIRDS SUBORDER HALCY’ONES

Which have their front toes grown together so that they cannot walk on them.

21. FAMILY OF KINGFISHERS FAMILY ALCEDIN’IDAE

67. Belted Kingfisher Ceryle al’cyon.

SUBORDER OF CUCULINE BIRDS SUBORDER CU’CULI

Which have two toes in front and two behind, but which cannot climb like Woodpeckers.

22. FAMILY OF CUCKOOS FAMILY CUCU’LIDAE

68. Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccy’zus america’nus.

III. ORDER OF PARROTS ORDER PSIT’TACI

Which have two toes in front and two behind, and beaks hooked like those of birds of prey. But this place is vacant in the procession, because cruel men have almost exterminated the only kind of Parrot that lives in North America–so he was afraid to fall in line with the rest.

IV. ORDER OF BIRDS OF PREY ORDER RAPTO’RES

Which have strong hooked beaks and claws, to catch and kill their living prey, and some of which are cannibal birds.

SUBORDER OF DIURNAL BIRDS OF PREY SUBORDER ACCIP’ITRES

Which can see well to take their prey by day.

23. FAMILY OF HAWKS AND EAGLES FAMILY FALCON’IDAE

69. Osprey Pandi’on haliak’tus carolinen’sis.
70. Bald Eagle Haliak’tus leucoceph’alus. 71. Golden Eagle Aq’uila chrysak’tus. 72. Red-shouldered Hawk Bu’teo linea’tus. 73. Marsh Hawk Cir’cus hudson’ius. 74. Sharp-shinned Hawk Accip’iter ve’lox. 75. Sparrow Hawk Fal’co sparve’rius.

SUBORDER OF NOCTURNAL BIRDS OF PREY SUBORDER STRI’GES

Which cannot see well in daylight, and mostly take their prey by night.

24. FAMILY OF OWLS FAMILY STRIG’IDAE

76. Screech Owl Meg’ascops a’sio. 77. Long-eared Owl A’sio wilsonia’nus. 78. Great Horned Owl Bubo Virginia’nus. 79. Snowy Owl Nyc’tea nyc’tea.

V. ORDER OF BIRDS THAT COO ORDER COLUM’BAE

Which drink without raising the head at every sip, and feed the young in the nest on the contents of the crop.

25. FAMILY OF COLUMBINE BIRDS FAMILY COLUM’BIDAE

80. Passenger Pigeon Ectopis’tes migrato’rius. 81. Mourning Dove Zenaidu’ra macru’ra.

VI. ORDER OF BIRDS THAT SCRATCH ORDER GALLI’NAE

Which when they drink raise the head at every sip, and whose young can run about and feed themselves almost as soon as they are hatched.

26. FAMILY or PARTRIDGES FAMILY PERDIC’IDAE

82. Bob White Coli’nus virginia’nus.

27. FAMILY OF GROUSE FAMILY TETRAON’IDAE

83. Ruffed Grouse Bona’sa umbel’lus.

VII. ORDER OF SHORE BIRDS ORDER LIMIC’OLAE

Which live in open places by the water’s edge, for the most part, and whose young can run about and feed themselves almost as soon as they are hatched, like little Chickens.

28. FAMILY OF PLOVERS FAMILY CHARADRI’IDAE

84. Golden Plover Charad’rius dominicus.

29. FAMILY OF TURNSTONES FAMILY ARENARI’IDAE

85. Turnstone Arena’ria inter’pres.

30. FAMILY OF SNIPES FAMILY SCOLOPAC’IDAE

86. Woodcock Philo’hela mi’nor. 87. Wilson’s Snipe Gallina’go delica’ta. 88. Spotted Sandpiper Acti’tis macula’ria. 89. Least Sandpiper Actodro’mas minutil’la.

VIII. ORDER OF MARSH BIRDS ORDER PALUDIC’OLAE

Which live for the most part in the thickest marshes, and whose young run about and food themselves almost as soon as they are hatched, like young shore birds. Cranes belong to this order, but are left out of the procession because there are no Cranes where the children lived.

SUBORDER OF RAILS SUBORDER RAL’LI

Which are much smaller than Cranes, lay more eggs, and hide away better in the marshes.

31. FAMILY OF RAILS FAMILY RAL’LIDAE

90. Virginia Rail Ral’lus virginia’nus.

IX. ORDER OF SWAMP BIRDS ORDER HERODIO’NES

Which live for the most part in swamps, and whose young have to be fed in the nest. All have very long legs and necks. Storks and Ibises belong to this order.

SUBORDER OF HERONS SUBORDER HERO’DII

32. FAMILY OF HERONS FAMILY ARDE’IDAE

91. American Bittern Botau’rus lentigino’sus. 92. Snowy Egret Garzet’ta candidis’sima. 93. Great Blue Heron Ar’dea hero’dias. 94. Black-crowned Night Heron Nyctico’rax nyctico’rax noe’vius.

X. ORDER OF SWIMMING BIRDS WITH TOOTHED BILLS ORDER AN’SERES

Which are web-footed birds that can strain out their food from the water they take in their mouths.

33. FAMILY OF DUCKS, GEESE, AND SWANS FAMILY ANAT’IDAE

95. Canada Goose Bran’ta canaden’sis. 96. Wood Duck Aex spon’sa.
97. Black Duck A’nas obscu’ra. 98. Mallard A’nas bos’cas.
99. Pintail Daf’ila acu’ta. 100. Green-winged Teal Net’tion carolinen’sis. 101. Blue-winged Teal Querqued’ula dis’cors. 102. Red-head AEthy’ia america’na. 103. Old Squaw Harel’da hiema’lis. 104. Hooded Merganser Lophod’ytes cucul’a’tus.

XI. ORDER OF SWIMMING BIRDS WITH LONG WINGS ORDER GA’VIAE

Which are web-footed birds without any teeth along the edges of the bill.

34. FAMILY OF GULLS AND TERNS FAMILY LAR’IDAE

105. American Herring Gull Larus argenta’tus smithsonia’nus.
106. Common Tern Ster’na hirun’do.

XII. ORDER OF DIVING BIRDS ORDER PYGOP’ODES

Which can dive like a flash and swim very far under water.

35. FAMILY OF WEB-FOOTED DIVERS FAMILY URINATOR’IDAE

107. Loon Urina’tor im’ber.

36. FAMILY or LOBE-FOOTED DIVERS FAMILY COLYM’BIDAE

108. Pied-billed Grebe Podilym’bus pod’iceps.

INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES

Latin names will be found in Procession of Bird Families, page 420.

Bee Martin
Bittern, American
Blackbird, Crow
Blackbird, Red-winged
Bluebird
Bobolink
Bob White
Bunting, Bay-winged
Bunting, Indigo
Bunting, Snow
Butcher Bird

Cardinal
Catbird
Cedar Bird
Chat, Yellow-breasted
Chewink
Chickadee
Chippy
Cowbird
Creeper, Black-and-white
Creeper, Brown
Crossbill, American
Crow, American
Cuckoo, Yellow-billed

Dove, Mourning
Duck, Black or Dusky
Duck, Blue-winged Teal
Duck, Green-winged Teal
Duck, Hooded Merganser
Duck, Mallard
Duck, Old Squaw
Duck, Pintail
Duck, Red-head
Duck, Wood
Ducks

Eagle, Bald
Eagle, Golden
Eagle, White-headed Sea
Egret, Snowy

Finch, Grass
Flicker

Goldfinch, American
Goose, Canada
Goose, Wild
Grackle, Purple
Grebe, Pied-billed
Grosbeak, Pine
Grosbeak, Rose-breasted
Grouse, Ruffed
Gull, Herring
Gulls

Hawk, American Sparrow
Hawk, Marsh
Hawk, Red-shouldered
Hawk, Sharp-shinned
Heron, Black-crowned Night
Heron, Great Blue
Heron, Snowy
High-hole
Hummingbird

Indigo Bird

Jay, Blue
Junco, Slate-colored

Kingbird
Kingfisher
Kinglet, Golden-crowned
Kinglet, Ruby-crowned
Loon

Mallard
Martin Bee
Martin, Purple
Martin, Sand
Meadowlark
Merganser, Hooded
Mockingbird

Nighthawk
Nuthatch, White breasted

Old Squaw
Old Wife
Oriole, Baltimore
Oriole, Orchard
Osprey, American
Ovenbird
Owl, American Long-eared
Owl, Great Horned
Owl, Screech
Owl, Snowy

Pewee, Wood
Phoebe
Pigeon, Passenger
Pigeon, Wild
Pintail
Plover, American Golden

Quail

Rail, Virginia
Red-head
Redstart
Reedbird
Ricebird
Robin, American
Robin, Ground

Sandpiper, Least
Sandpiper, Spotted
Sapsucker, Yellow bellied
Shrike, Northern
Snipe, Wilson’s
Snowbird
Snowflake
Sparrow, Chipping
Sparrow, English
Sparrow, Song
Sparrow, Vesper
Sparrow, White-throated
Stake-driver
Swallow
Swift, Chimney

Tanager, Louisiana
Tanager, Scarlet
Teal, Blue-winged
Teal, Green winged
Tern, Common
Terns
Thistlebird
Thrasher, Brown
Thrasher, Sage
Thrush, Golden-crowned
Thrush, Hermit
Thrush, Olive backed
Thrush, Song (Brown Thrasher)
Thrush, Wilson’s
Thrush, Wood
Titmouse, Black capped
Towhee
Turnstone

Veery
Vireo, Red eyed

Warbler, Black and white
Warbler, Myrtle
Warbler, Yellow
Warbler, Yellow rumped
Waxwing, Cedar
Whip-poor-will
Woodcock
Woodpecker, Downy
Woodpecker, Golden-winged
Woodpecker, Red headed
Wren, House
Wren, Long-billed Marsh
Wren, Rock
Wren, Winter

Yellowbird, Summer
Yellow throat, Maryland