This page contains affiliate links. As Amazon Associates we earn from qualifying purchases.
FREE Audible 30 days

masters. No Christian is allowed to belong to a Mohammedan master, and no Mohammedan master is allowed to employ a Christian on his estate.

_Christian II_. (or _Christiern_), king of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. When the Dalecarlians rose in rebellion against him and chose Gustavus Vasa for their leader, a great battle was fought, in which the Swedes were victorious; but Gustavus allowed the Danes to return to their country. Christian then abdicated, and Sweden became an independent kingdom.–H. Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

_Chris’tian (Edward)_, a conspirator. He has two _aliases_, “Richard Gan’lesse” (2 _syl_.) and “Simon Can’ter.”

_Colonel William Christian_, Edward’s brother. Shot for insurrection.

_Fenella_ alias _Zarah Christian_, daughter of Edward Christian.–Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, George II.).

_Christian_ (_Fletcher_), mate of the _Bounty_, under the command of captain Bligh, and leader of the mutineers. After setting the captain and some others adrift, Christian took command of the ship, and, according to lord Byron, the mutineers took refuge in the island of Toobouai (one of the Society Islands). Here Torquil, one of the mutineers, married Neuha, a native. After a time a ship was sent to capture the mutineers. Torquil and Neuha escaped, and lay concealed in a cave; but Christian, Ben Bunting, and Skyscrape were shot. This is not according to fact, for Christian merely touched at Toobouai, and then, with eighteen of the natives and nine of the mutineers, sailed for Tahiti, where all soon died except Alexander Smith, who changed his name to John Adams, and became a model patriarch.–Byron, _The Island_.

CHRISTIAN DOCTOR (_Most_), John Charlier de Gerson (1363-1429).

CHRISTIAN ELOQUENCE (_The Founder of_), Louis Bourdaloue (1632-1704).

CHRISTIAN KING (_Most_). So the kings of France were styled. Pepin _le Bref_ was so styled by pope Stephen III. (714-768). Charles II. _le Chauve_ was so styled by the Council of Savonnieres (823, 840-877). Louis XI. was so styled by Paul II. (1423, 1461-1483).

CHRISTIAN’A (_ch = k_), the wife of Christian, who started with her children and Mercy from the City of Destruction long after her husband’s flight. She was under the guidance of Mr. Greatheart, and went, therefore, with silver slippers along the thorny road. This forms the second part of Bunyan’s _Pilgrim’s Progress_ (1684).

CHRIS’TIE (2 _syl_.) of the Clint Hill, one of the retainers of Julian Avenel (2 _syl_.).–Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Chris’tie_ (_John_), ship-chandler at Paul’s wharf.

_Dame Nelly Christie_, his pretty wife, carried off by lord Dalgarno.–Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

CHRISTI’NA, daughter of Christian II. king of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. She is sought in marriage by prince Arvi’da and by Gustavus Vasa; but the prince abandons his claim in favor of his friend. After the great battle, in which Christian is defeated by Gustavus, Christina clings to her father, and pleads with Gustavus on his behalf. He is sent back to Denmark, with all his men, without ransom, but abdicates, and Sweden is erected into a separate kingdom.–H. Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

CHRISTINA PURCELL, a happy, pure girl, whose sheltered life and frank innocence contrast strongly with the heavy shadows glooming over outcast “Nixy” in _Hedged In._

She [Nixy], looking in from the street at mother and child, wondered if the lady here and the white daughter were religious; if it were because people were white and religious that they all turned her from their doors,–then, abruptly, how _she_ would look sitting in the light of a porcelain lamp, with a white sack on.–Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, _Hedged In_ (1870).

CHRIS’TINE (2 _syl_.), a pretty, saucy young woman in the service of the countess Marie, to whom she is devotedly attached. After the recapture of Ernest (“the prisoner of state”), she goes boldly to king Frederick II., from whom she obtains his pardon. Being set at liberty, Ernest marries the countess.–E. Stirling, _The Prisoner of State_ (1847).

CHRISTINE DRYFOOS, the undisciplined, showy daughter of a self-made man in W. D. Howells’s _A Hazard of New Fortunes_ (1889).

She was self-possessed because she felt that a knowledge of her father’s fortune had got around, and she had the peace which money gives to ignorance. She is madly in love with Beaton, whose attentions have raised expectations he concluded not to fulfill. At their last meeting she felt him more than life to her, and knew him lost, and the frenzy that makes a woman kill the man she loves or fling vitriol to destroy the beauty she cannot have for all hers possessed her lawless soul…. She flashed at him, and with both hands made a feline pass at the face he bent towards her.

CHRISTMAS TREASURES. Eugene Field, in _A Little Book of Western Verse_, gives a father’s soliloquy over such treasures as

The little toy my darling knew,
A little sock of faded hue,
A little lock of golden hair,

all that remains to him who,

As he lisped his evening prayer
Asked the boon with childish grace, Then, toddling to the chimney-place,
He hung his little stocking there.


CHRIS’TOPHER _(St.)_, a saint of the Roman and Greek Churches, said to have lived in the third century. His pagan name was Offerus, his body was twelve ells in height, and he lived in the land of Canaan. Offerus made a vow to serve only the mightiest; so, thinking the emperor was “the mightiest,” he entered his service. But one day the emperor crossed himself for fear of the devil, and the giant perceived that there was one mightier than his present master, so he quitted his service for that of the devil. After awhile. Offerus discovered that the devil was afraid of the cross, whereupon he enlisted under Christ, employing himself in carrying pilgrims across a deep stream. One day, a very small child was carried across by him, but proved so heavy that Offerus, though a huge giant, was well-nigh borne down by the weight. This child was Jesus, who changed the giant’s name to _Christoferus_, “bearer of Christ.” He died three days afterwards, and was canonized.

Like the great giant Christopher, it stands Upon the brink of the tempestuous wave.

Longfellow, _The Lighthouse_.

CHRISTOPHER WRIGHT, otherwise “Uncle Christopher,” is the consequential oracle of the neighborhood, and the father of six daughters, in _Clovernook_, by Alice Cary (1851).

CHRIST’S VICTORY AND TRIUMPHS, a poem in four parts, by Giles Fletcher (1610): Part i. “Christ’s Victory in Heaven,” when He reconciled Justice with Mercy, by taking on Himself a body of human flesh; part ii. “Christ’s Triumph on Earth,” when He was led up into the wilderness, and was tempted by Presumption, Avarice, and Ambition; part iii. “Christ’s Triumph over Death,” when He died on the Cross; part iv. “Christ’s Triumph after Death,” in His resurrection and ascension. (See PARADISE REGAINED.)

CHRONICLERS _(Anglo-Norman)_, a series of writers on British history in verse, of very early date. Geffroy Gaimar wrote his Anglo-Norman chronicle before 1146. It is a history in verse of the Anglo-Saxon kings. Robert Wace wrote the _Brut d’Angleterre [i.e., Chronicle of England_] in eight-syllable verse, and presented his work to Henry II. It was begun in 1160 and finished in 1170.

_Chroniclers (Latin)_, historical writers of the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

_Chroniclers (Rhyming)_, a series of writers on English history, from the thirteenth century. The most noted are: Layamon (called “The English Ennius”) bishop of Ernleye-upon-Severn (1216). Robert of Gloucester, who wrote a narrative of British history from the landing of Brute to the close of the reign of Henry III. (to 1272). No date is assigned to the coming of Brute, but he was the son of Silvius Aene’as (the third generation from AEneas, who escaped from Troy, B.C. 1183), so that the date may be assumed to be B.C. 1028, thus giving a scope of 2300 years to the chronicle. (The verse of this chronicle is eight and six syllables displayed together, so as to form lines of fourteen syllables each.) Robert de Brunne’s chronicle is in two parts. The first ends with the death of Cadwallader, and the second with the death of Edward I. The earlier parts are similar to the Anglo-Norman chronicle of Wace. (The verse is octo-syllabic.)

CHRONICLES OF CANONGATE, certain stories supposed to have been written by Mrs. Martha Bethune Baliol, a lady of quality and fortune, who lived, when in Edinburgh, at Baliol Lodging, in the Canongate. These tales were written at the request of her cousin, Mr. Croftangry, by whom, at her death, they were published. The first series contains _The Highland Widow, The Two Drovers_, and _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ [afterwards removed from this series]. The second series contains _The Fair Maid of Perth_.–Sir W. Scott.

“Chronicles of Canongate” (introduction to _The Highland Widow_).

CHRONOLOGY _(The father of_), J. J. Scaliger (1540-1609).

CHRONON–HOTON–THOL’OGOS _(King)._ He strikes Bombardin’ian, general of his forces, for giving him hashed pork, and saying, “Kings as great as Chrononhotonthologos have made a hearty meal on worse.” The king calls his general a traitor. “Traitor in thy teeth!” retorts the general. They fight, and the king dies.–H. Carey, _Chrononhotonthologos_ (a burlesque).

CHRYSALDE’ (2 _syl_.), friend of Arnolphe.–Moliere, _L’Ecole des Femmes_ (1662).

CHRYSALE (2 _syl_.), a simple-minded, henpecked French tradesman, whose wife Philaminte (3 _syl_.) neglects her house for the learned languages, women’s rights, and the aristocracy of mind. He is himself a plain practical man, who has no sympathy with the _bas bleu_ movement. He has two daughters, Armande (2 _syl_.) and Henriette, both of whom love Clitandre; but Armande, who is a “blue-stocking,” loves him platonically; while Henriette, who is a “thorough woman,” loves him with a woman’s love. Chrysale sides with his daughter Henriette, and when he falls into money difficulties through the “learned proclivities” of his wife, Clitandre comes forward like a man, and obtains the consent of both parents to his marriage with Henriette.–Moliere, _Les Femmes Savantes_ (1672).

CHRYSA’OR _(ch = k)_, the sword of sir Ar’tegal, which “exceeded all other swords.” It once belonged to Jove, and was used by him against the Titans, but it had been laid aside till Astraea gave it to the Knight of Justice.

Of most perfect metal it was made, Tempered with adamant … no substance was so … hard But it would pierce or cleave whereso it came. Spenser, _Faery Queen_, v. (1596).

[Illustration] The poet tells us it was broken to pieces by Radigund queen of the Amazons (bk. v. 7), yet it reappears whole and sound (canto 12), when it is used with good service against Grantorto (_the spirit of rebellion_). Spenser says it was called Chrysaor because “the blade was garnished all with gold.”

_Chrysa’or_, son of Neptune and Medu’sa. He married Callir’rhoe (4 _syl._), one of the sea-nymphs.

Chrysaor rising out of the sea,
Showed thus glorious and thus emulous, Leaving the arms of Callirrhoe.
Longfellow, _The Evening Star_.

Chryseis [_Kri see’.iss_], daughter of Chryses priest of Apollo. She was famed for her beauty and her embroidery. During the Trojan war Chryseis was taken captive and allotted to Agamemnon king of Argos, but her father came to ransom her. The king would not accept the offered ransom, and Chryses prayed that a plague might fall on the Grecian camp. His prayer was answered, and in order to avert the plague Agamemnon sent the lady back to her father not only without ransom but with costly gifts.–Homer, _Iliad_, i.

CHRYSOSTOM, a famous scholar, who died for love of Marcella, “rich William’s daughter.”

CHUCKS, the boatswain under Captain Savage.–Captain Marryat, _Peter Simple_ (1833).

CHUFFEY, Anthony Chuzzlewit’s old clerk, almost in his dotage, but master and man love each other with sincerest affection.

Chuffey fell back into a dark corner on one side of the fire-place, where he always spent his evenings, and was neither seen nor heard…. save once, when a cup of tea was given him, in which he was seen to soak his bread mechanically…. He remained, as it were, frozen up; if any term expressive of such a vigorous process can be applied to him–C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_, xi. (1843).

CHUNEE (_A la_), very huge and bulky. Chunee was the largest elephant ever brought to England. Henry Harris, manager of Covent Garden, bought it for L900 to appear in the pantomime of _Harlequin Padmenaba_, in 1810. It was subsequently sold to Cross, the proprietor of Exeter ‘Change. Chunee at length became mad, and was shot by a detachment of the Guards, receiving 152 wounds. The skeleton is preserved in the museum of the College of Surgeons. It is 12 feet 4 inches high.

CHURCH BUILT BY VOLTAIRE. Voltaire, the atheist, built, at Ferney, a Christian church, and had this inscription affixed to it “_Deo erexit Voltaire_.” Campbell, in the Life of Cowper (vol. vii., 358) says, “he knows not to whom Cowper alludes in these lines:”

Nor his who for the bane of thousands born, Built God a church, and laughed His word to scorn.

Cowper, _Retirement_ (1782).

CHURM. Guide, philosopher, and friend of Robert Byng, in _Cecil Dreeme_. A noted philanthropist, the fame of whose benevolence is the Open Sesame to an insane asylum in which his child is incarcerated. –Theodore Winthrop, _Cecil Dreeme_ (1861).

CHUZZLEWIT (_Anthony_), cousin of Martin Chuzzlewit, the grandfather. Anthony is an avaricious old hunks, proud of having brought up his son, Jonas, to be as mean and grasping as himself. His two redeeming points are his affection for his old old servant, Chuffey, and his forgiveness of Jonas after his attempt to poison him.

The old established firm of Anthony Chuzzlewit and Son, Manchester warehousemen … had its place of business in a very narrow street somewhere behind the Post Office…. A dim, dirty, smoky, tumble-down, rotten old house it was … but here the firm … transacted their business … and neither the young man nor the old one had any other residence.–Chap. xi.

_Jonas Chuzzlewit_, son of Anthony, of the “firm of Anthony Chuzzlewit and Son, Manchester warehousemen.” A consummate villain of mean brutality and small tyranny. He attempts to poison his old father, and murders Montague Tigg, who knows his secret. Jonas marries Mercy Pecksniff, his cousin, and leads her a life of utter misery. His education had been conducted on money-grubbing principles; the first word he was taught to spell was _gain_, and the second, _money_. He poisons himself to save his neck from the gallows.

This fine young man had all the inclination of a profligate of the first water, and only lacked the one good trait in the common catalogue of debauched vices–open-handedness–to be a notable vagabond. But there his griping and penurious habits stepped in.–Chap. xi.

_Martin Chuzzlewit, sen._, grandfather to the hero of the same name. A stern old man, whose kind heart has been turned to gall by the dire selfishness of his relations. Being resolved to expose Pecksniff, he goes to live in his house, and pretends to be weak in intellect, but keeps his eyes sharp open, and is able to expose the canting scoundrel in all his deformity.

_Martin Chuzzlewit, jun._, the hero of the tale called _Martin Chuzzlewit_, grandson to old Martin. His nature has been warped by bad training, and, at first, he is both selfish and exacting; but the troubles and hardships he undergoes in “Eden” completely transform him, and he becomes worthy of Mary Graham, whom he marries.–C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

CYNDO’NAX, a chief druid, whose tomb (with a Greek inscription) was discovered near Dijon, in 1598.

CIACCO’ (2 _syl._), a glutton, spoken to by Dante, in the third circle of hell, the place in which gluttons are consigned to endless woe. The word means “a pig,” and is not a proper name, but only a symbolical one.–Dante, _Hell_, vi. (1300).

Ciacco, thy dire affliction grieves me much. _Hell_, vi.

CICERO. When the great Roman orator was given up by Augustus to the revenge of Antony, it was a cobbler who conducted the sicarii to Formiae, whither Cicero had fled in a litter, intending to put to sea. His bearers would have fought, but Cicero forbade them, and one Herennius has the unenviable notoriety of being his murderer.

It was a cobbler that set the murderers on Cicero.–Ouida, _Ariadne_, i. 6.

_Cicero of the British Senate_, George Canning (1770-1827).

_Cicero of France_, Jean Baptiste Massillon (1663-1742).

_Cicero of Germany_, John, Elector of Brandenburg (1455, 1486-1499).

_Cicero’s Mouth_, Philippe Pot, Prime Minister of Louis XL (1428-1494).

_The British Cicero_, William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (1708-1778).

_The Christian Cicero_, Lucius Coelius Lactantius (died 330).

_The German Cicero_, Johann Sturm, printer and scholar (1507-1589).

CICELY (_Sweet_). Heroine of novel by Marietta Holley, better known as “Josiah Allen’s wife.” (1885).

_Cicely Humphreys_. Putative daughter of Bothwell and Marie Stuart; who is made the companion of her mother’s journeyings and captivity.–C.M. Yonge, _Unknown to History_ (1885).

CYCLINIUS, mistake in one only manuscript of Chaucer for Cyllenius, a name of Mercury, from his birth-place, Mt. Cyllene in Arcadia.

Cyclinius (Cyllenius) riding in his chevauchie. Chaucer, _Complaint of Mars and Venus_.

CID (_The_) = Seid or Signior, also called CAMPEADOR [’.dor_] or “Camp hero.” Rodrigue Diaz de Bivar was surnamed “the Cid.” The great hero of Castille, he was born at Burgos, 1030, and died, 1099. He signalized himself by his exploits in the reigns of Ferdinand, Sancho II., and Alphonso VI. of Leon and Castille. In the wars between Sancho II. and his brother (Alphonso VI.), he sided with the former; and, on the assassination of Sancho, was disgraced, and quitted the court. He then assembled his vassals and marched against the Moors, whom he conquered in several battles, so that Alphonso was necessitated to recall him. Both Corneille and Guilhem de Cantro have admirable tragedies on the subject; Ross Neil has an English drama called _The Cid_; Sanchez, in 1775, wrote a long poem of 1128 verses, called _Poema del Cid Campeador_. Southey, in his _Chronicle of the Cid_ (1808), has collected all that is known of this extraordinary hero. (It was _The Cid_ (1636) which gained for Corneille the title of “Le Grand Corneille.”)

_The Cid’s Father_, Don Diego Lainez.

_The Cid’s Mother_, Dona Teresa Nnnez.

_The Cid’s Wife_, Xime’na, daughter of the Count Lozano de Gormaz. The French called her _La Belle Chimene_, but the _role_ ascribed to her by Corneille is wholly imaginary.

Never more to thine own castle
Wilt thou turn Babieca’s rein;
Never will thy loved Ximena
See thee at her side again.
_The Cid_.

_The Cid’s Children_. His two daughters were Elvi’ra and Sol; his son, Diego Rodriquez, died young.

_The Cid’s Horse_ was Babieca [either _Bab.i.e’.keh_ or _Ba.bee.’keh]._ It survived its master two years and a half, but no one was allowed to mount it. Babieca was buried before the monastery gates of Valencia, and two elms were planted to mark the spot.

Troth it goodly was and pleasant
To behold him at their head,
All in mail on Babieca,
And to list the words he said.
_The Cid_.

(Here “Babieca” is 4 _syl_., but in the verse above it is only 3 _syl_.).

_The Cid’s Swords_, Cola’da and Tizo’na (“terror of the world”). The latter was taken by him from King Bucar.

_Cid (The Portuguese_), Nunez Alva’rez Perei’ra (1360-1431).

CID HAMET BENENGELI, the hypothetical author of _Don Quixote_. (See BENENGELI).

Spanish commentators have discovered this pseudonym to be only an Arabian version of _Signior Cervantes. Cid, i.e._, “signior;” _Hamet_, a Moorish prefix; and _Ben-en-geli_, meaning “son of a stag.” So _cervato_ (“a young stag”) is the basis of the name Cervantes.

CIDLI, the daughter of Jairus, restored to life by Jesus. She was beloved by Sem’ida, the young man of Nain, also raised by Jesus from the dead.–Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iv. (1771).

CIGARETTE. _Vivandiere_ in the French army in Algiers. Passionate, wilful, tender and brave, she gives her life to save that of the man she loves.–Ouida, _Under Two Flags_.

CIMMERIAN DARKNESS. Homer places the Cimmerians beyond the Oceanus, in a land of never-ending gloom; and immediately after Cimmeria, he places the empire of Hades. Pliny (_Historia Naturalis_, vi. 14) places Cimmeria near the Lake Avernus, in Italy, where “the sun never penetrates.” Cimmeria is now called _Kertch_, but the Cossacks call it _Prekla (Hell)._

CINCINNATUS, virtuous Roman patriot called from the plough to serve the State.

CINCINNA’TUS OF THE AMERICANS, George Washington (1732-1799).

CINDERELLA, the heroine of a fairy tale. She was the drudge of the house, “put upon” by her two elder sisters. While the elder sisters were at a ball, a fairy came, and having arrayed the “little cinder-girl” in ball costume, sent her in a magnificent coach to the palace where the ball was given. The prince fell in love with her, but knew not who she was. This, however, he discovered by means of a “glass slipper” which she dropped, and which fitted no foot but her own.

(This tale is substantially the same as that of _Rhodopis and Psammitichus_ in AElian _[Var. Hist_., xiii., 32]. A similar one is also told in Strabo _(Geog._ xvii).)

The _glass_ slipper should be the _fur_ slipper, _pantoufle en vair_, not _en verre_; our version being taken from the _Contes de Fees_ of C. Perrault (1697).

CINDY, maid-of-all-work in the Derrick household, in Susan Warner’s _Say and Seal._ With the freedom of Yankee help she is “‘boun’ to confess” whatever occurs to her mind in season and out of season. (1860).

CINNA, a tragedy by Pierre Corneille (1637). Mdlle. Rachel, in 1838, took the part of Emilie the heroine, and made a great sensation in Paris.

CINQ-MARS, (_H. Coiffier de Ruze, marquis de_), favorite of Louis XIII. and _protege_ of Richelieu (1620-1642). Irritated by the cardinal’s opposition to his marriage with Marie de Gonzague, Cinq-Mars tried to overthrow or to assassinate him. Gaston, the king’s brother, sided with the conspirator, but Richelieu discovered the plot, and Cinq-Mars, being arrested, was condemned to death. Alfred de Vigny published, in 1826, a novel (in imitation of Scott’s historical novels) on the subject, under the title of _Cinq-Mars._

CINQUECENTO (3 _syl_.), the fifteenth century of Italian notables. They were Ariosto (1474-1533), Tasso (1544-1595), and Giovanni Rucellai (1475-1526), _poets_; Raphael (1483-1520), Titian (1480-1576), and Michael Angelo (1474-1564), _painters_. These, with Machiavelli, Luigi Alamanni, Bernardo Baldi, etc., make up what is termed the “Cinquecentesti.” The word means the worthies of the ‘500 epoch, and it will be observed that they all flourished between 1500 and the close of that century. (See SEICENTA).

Ouida writes in winter mornings at a Venetian writing-table of cinquecento work that
would enrapture the souls of the virtuosi who haunt Christie’s.–E. Yates, _Celebrities_, xix.

CIPAN’GO OR ZIPANGO, a marvellous island described in the _Voyages_ of Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller. He described it as lying some 1500 miles from land. This island was an object of diligent search with Columbus and other early navigators, but belongs to that wonderful chart which contains the _El Dorado_ of Sir Walter Raleigh, the _Utopia_ of Sir Thomas More, the _Atlantis_ of Lord Bacon, the _Laputa_ of Dean Swift, and other places better known in story than in geography.

CIRCE (2 _syl_.), a sorceress who metamorphosed the companions of Ulysses into swine. Ulysses resisted the enchantment by means of the herb _moly_, given him by Mercury.

Who knows not Circe,
The daughter of the sun, whose charmed cup Whoever tasted lost his upright shape,
And downward fell into a grovelling swine? Milton, _Comus_ (1634).

CIRCUIT _(Serjeant)_, in Foote’s farce called _The Lame Lover_.

CIS’LEY or CISS, any dairy-maid. Tusser frequently speaks of the “dairy-maid Cisley,” and in _April Husbandry_ tells Ciss she must carefully keep these ten guests from her cheeses: Gehazi, Lot’s wife, Argus, Tom Piper, Crispin, Lazarus, Esau, Mary Maudlin, Gentiles and bishops. (1)Gehazi, because a cheese should never be a dead white, like Gehazi the leper. (2) Lot’s wife, because a cheese should not be too salt, like Lot’s wife. (3) Argus, because a cheese should not be full of eyes, like Argus. (4) Tom Piper, because a cheese should not be “hoven and puffed,” like the cheeks of a piper. (5) Crispin, because a cheese should not be leathery, as if for a cobbler’s use. (6) Lazarus, because a cheese should not be poor, like the beggar Lazarus. (7) Esau, because a cheese should not be hairy, like Esau. (8) Mary Maudlin, because a cheese should not be full of whey, as Mary Maudlin was full of tears. (9) Gentiles, because a cheese should not be full of maggots or gentils. (10) Bishops, because a cheese should not be made of burnt milk, or milk “banned by a bishop.”–T. Tusser, _Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry_, (“April,” 1557).

CITIZEN _(The)_, a farce by Arthur Murphy. George Philpot is destined to be the husband of Maria Wilding, but as Maria Wilding is in love with Beaufort, she behaves so sillily to her betrothed that he refuses to marry her, whereupon she gives her hand to Beaufort (1757).

CITY MADAM _(The)_, a comedy by Philip Massinger (1633). She was the daughter of a farmer named Goodman Humble, and married a merchant, Sir John Frugal, who became immensely wealthy, but retired from business, and by a deed of gift transferred his wealth to his brother Luke, whereby madam and her daughter were both dependent on him. During her days of wealth the extravagance of Lady Frugal was unbounded, and her dress costly beyond conception; but Luke reduced her state to that of farmers’ daughters in general. Luke says to her:

You were served in plate;
Stirred not a foot without a coach, and going To church, not for devotion, but to show Your pomp.

_The City Madam_ is an extraordinarily spirited picture of actual life, idealized into a semi-comic strain of poetry.–Professor Spaulding.

CLADPOLE _(Tim)_, Richard Lower, of Chiddingly, author of _Tom Cladpole’s Journey to Lunnun_ (1831); _Jan Cladpole’s Trip to ‘Merricur_ (1844), etc.

CLAIMANT _(The)._ William Knollys, in in _The Great Banbury Case_, claimed the baronetcy, but was non-suited. This suit lasted 150 years (1660-1811).

Douglas _v_. Hamilton, in _The Great Douglas Case_, was settled in favor of the claimant, who was at once raised to the peerage under the name and title of Baron Douglas of Douglas Castle, but was not restored to the title of duke (1767-1769).

Tom Provis, a schoolmaster of ill repute, who had married a servant of Sir Hugh Smithes of Ashton Hall, near Bristol, claimed the baronetcy and estates, but was non-suited and condemned to imprisonment for twenty-one years (1853).

Arthur Orton, who claimed to be Sir Roger Tichborne (drowned at sea). He was non-suited and sentenced to fourteen years’ imprisonment for perjury (1871-1872).

CLAIRE TWINING, daughter of a refined man, the scion of an old English family and a vulgar woman who marries him to escape from poverty. After his death, the daughter begins her career of rising in the social scale, using a wealthy school-fellow as the first step, a well-born husband as the last. The emptiness and vanity of what she gained are well set forth in _An Ambitious Woman_, by Edgar Fawcett. (1883).

CLANDESTINE MARRIAGE _(The)._ Fanny Sterling, the younger daughter of Mr. Sterling, a rich city merchant, is clandestinely married to Mr. Lovewell, an apprentice in the house, of good family; and Sir John Melvil is engaged to Miss Sterling, the elder sister. Lord Ogleby is a guest in the merchant’s house. Sir John prefers Fanny to her elder sister, and, not knowing of her marriage, proposes to her, but is rejected. Fanny appeals to Lord Ogleby, who, being a vain old fop, fancies she is in love with him, and tells Sterling he means to make her a countess. Matters being thus involved, Lovewell goes to consult with Fanny about declaring their marriage, and the sister, convinced that Sir John is shut up in her sister’s room, rouses the house with a cry of “Thieves!” Fanny and Lovewell now make their appearance. All parties are scandalized. But Fanny declares they have been married four months, and Lord Ogleby takes their part. So all ends well.–G. Colman and D. Garrick (1766).

This comedy is a _rechauffe_ of _The False Concord_, by Rev. James Townley, many of the characters and much of the dialogue being preserved.

CLA’RA, in Otway’s comedy called _The Cheats of Scapin_, an English version of _Les Fourberies de Scapin_, by Moliere, represents the French character called “Hyacinthe.” Her father is called by Otway “Gripe,” and by Moliere “Geronte” (2 _syl_.); her brother is “Leander,” in French “Leandre;” and her sweetheart “Octavian” son of “Thrifty,” in French “Octave” son of “Argante.” The sum of money wrung from Gripe is L200, but that squeezed out of Geronte is 1,500 livres.

CLARA [D’ALMANZA], daughter of Don Guzman of Seville, beloved by Don Ferdinand, but destined by her mother for a cloister. She loves Ferdinand, but repulses him from shyness and modesty, quits home and takes refuge in St. Catherine’s Convent. Ferdinand discovers her retreat, and after a few necessary blunders they are married.–Sheridan, _The Duenna_ (1773).

_Clara (Donna)_, the troth-plight wife of Octavio. Her affianced husband, having killed Don Felix in a duel, was obliged to lie _perdu_ for a time, and Clara, assuming her brother’s clothes and name, went in search of him. Both came to Salamanca, both set up at the Eagle, both hired the same servant, Lazarillo, and ere long they met, recognized each other, and became man and wife.–Jephson, _Two Strings to your Bow_ (1792).

_Clara_ [DOUGLAS], a lovely girl of artless mind, feeling heart, great modesty, and well accomplished. She loved Alfred Evelyn, but refused to marry him because they were both too poor to support a house. Evelyn was left an immense fortune, and proposed to Georgina Vesey, but Georgina gave her hand to Sir Frederick Blount. Being thus disentangled, Evelyn again proposed to Clara, and was joyfully accepted.–Lord L. Bulwer Lytton, _Money_ (1840).

CLARCHEN _[Kler’.kn]_, a female character in Goethe’s _Egmont_, noted for her constancy and devotion.

CLARE _(Ada)_, cousin of Richard Carstone, both of whom are orphans and wards in Chancery. They marry each other, but Richard dies young, blighted by the law’s delays in the great Chancery suit of “Jarndyce _v_. Jarndyce.”–C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

CLARENCE _(George Duke of_), introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Anne of Geierstein_ (time Edward IV.).

CLARENCE AND THE MALMSEY BUTT. According to tradition, George, Duke of Clarence, having joined Warwick to replace Henry VI. on the throne, was put to death, and the choice being offered him, was drowned in a butt of malmsey wine (1478).

CLARENDON _(The Earl of_), Lord Chancellor to Charles II. Introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

CLARIBEL _(Sir)_, surnamed “The Lewd.” One of the six knights who contended for the false Florimel.–Spenser, _Faery Queen_, iv. 9 (1593).

_Clar’ibel_, the pseudonym of Mrs. Barnard, author of numerous popular songs (from 1865 to).

CLAR’ICE (3 _syl_.), wife of Rinaldo, and sister of Huon of Bordeaux. Introduced in the romances of Bojardo, Ariosto, Tasso, etc.

CLARIN OR CLARIN’DA, the confidential maid of Radigund, queen of the Am’azons. When the queen had got Sir Ar’tegal into her power, and made him change his armor for an apron, and his sword for a distaff, she fell in love with the captive, and sent Clarin to win him over by fair promises and indulgences. Clarin performed the appointed mission, but fell in love herself with the knight, and told the queen that Sir Artegal was obstinate, and rejected her advances with scorn.–Spenser, _Faery Queen_, v. 5 (1596).

CLARINDA, the heroine of Mrs. Centlivre’s drama _The Beau’s Duel_ (1703).

[Illustration] “Estifania,” in _Rule a Wife and Have a Wife_, by Beaumont and Fletcher.

_Clarin’da_, a merry, good-humored, high-spirited lady, in love with Charles Frankly. The madcap Ranger is her cousin.–Dr. Hoadly, _The Suspicious Husband_ (1747).

_Clarinda_ of Robert Burns, was Mrs. Maclehose, who was alive in 1833.

CLARION, the son and heir of Muscarol. He was the fairest and most prosperous of all the race of flies. Aragnol, the son of Arachne (the spider), entertained a deep and secret hatred of the young prince, and set himself to destroy him; so, weaving a most curious net, Clarion was soon caught, and Aragnol gave him his death-wound by piercing him under the left wing.–Spenser _Muiopotmos or The Butterfly’s Fate_ (1590).

CLARIS’SA, wife of Gripe the scrivener. A lazy, lackadaisical, fine city lady, who thinks “a woman must be of mechanic mold who is either troubled or pleased with anything her husband can do” (act i. 3). She has “wit and beauty, with a fool to her husband,” but though “fool,” a hard, grasping, mean old hunks.

_Claris’sa_, sister of Beverley, plighted to George Bellmont.–A. Murphy, _All in the Wrong_, (1761).


CLARK _(The Rev T.)_., the pseudonym of John Gall, the novelist (1779 1839).

CLARKE _(The Rev. C. C.)_, one of the many pseudonyms of Sir Richard Phillips, author of _The Hundred Wonders of the World_ (1818), _Readings in Natural Philosophy_.

CLARSIE, the mountain maid who, going out at dawn to “try her fortune,” discovers the “Harnt” that walks Chilhowee.–Charles Egbert Craddock (Mary Noailles Murfree), _In the Tennessee Mountains_ (1884).

CLA’THO, the last wife of Fingal and mother of Fillan, Fingal’s youngest son.

CLAUDE _(The English_), Richard Wilson (1714-1782).

CLAU’DINE (2 _syl_.), wife of the porter of the hotel Harancour, and old nurse of Julio “the deaf and dumb” count. She recognizes the lad, who had been rescued by De l’Epee from the streets of Paris, and brought up by him under the name of Theodore. Ultimately, the guardian Darlemont confesses that he had sent him adrift under the hope of getting rid of him; but being proved to be the count, he is restored to his rank and property.–Th. Holcroft, _The Deaf and Dumb_ (1785).

CLAUDIO _(Lord)_ of Florence, a friend of Don Pedro, Prince of Arragon, and engaged to Hero (daughter of Leonato, governor of Messina)–Shakespeare, _Much Ado about Nothing_ (1600).

_Claudio_, condemned to die for betraying his mistress Juliet, tries to buy his life at the sacrifice of his sister Isabella’s honor, shamefully pursued by Angelo, the Duke’s deputy.–Shakespeare, _Measure for Measure_.

CLAU’DIUS, King of Denmark, who poisoned his brother, married the widow, and usurped the throne. Claudius induced Laertes to challenge Hamlet to play with foils, but persuaded him to poison his weapon. In the combat the foils got changed, and Hamlet wounded Laertes with the poisoned weapon. In order still further to secure the death of Hamlet, Claudius had a cup of poisoned wine prepared, which he intended to give Hamlet when he grew thirsty with playing. The queen, drinking of this cup, died of poison, and Hamlet, rushing on Claudius, stabbed him and cried aloud, “Here, thou incestuous, murderous Dane…. Follow my mother!”–Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596). [Illustration] In the _History of Hamblet_, Claudius is called “Fengon,” a far better name for a Dane.

_Claudius_, the instrument of Appius the decemvir for entrapping Virginia. He pretended that Virginia was his slave, who had been stolen from him and sold to Virginius.–J. S. Knowles, _Virginius_ (1820).

_Claudius (Mathias)_, a German poet born at Rheinfeld, and author of the famous song called _Rheinweinlied_ (“Rhenish wine song”), sung at all convivial feasts of the Germans.

Claudius, though he sang of flagons, And huge tankards filled with Rhenish,
From the fiery blood of dragons
Never would his own replenish.
Longfellow, _Drinking Song_.

CLAUS _(Peter)._ (See under K.)

_Claus (Santa)_, a familiar name for St. Nicholas, the patron saint of children. On Christmas Eve German children have presents stowed away in their socks and shoes while they are asleep, and the little credulous ones suppose that Santa Claus or Klaus placed them there.

St. Nicholas is said to have supplied three destitute maidens with marriage portions by secretly leaving money with their widowed mother, and as his day occurs just before Christmas, he was selected for the gift-giver on Christmas Eve.–Yonge.

“CLAVERHOUSE,” or the Marquis of Argyll, a kinsman of Ravenswood, introduced by Sir W. Scott in _The Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

_Claver’house_ (3 _syl_.), John Graham of Claverhouse (Viscount Dundee), a relentless Jacobite, so rapacious and profane, so violent in temper and obdurate of heart, that every Scotchman hates the name. He hunted the Covenanters with real vindictiveness, and is a by-word for barbarity and cruelty (1650-1689).

CLAVIJO _(Don)_, a cavalier who “could touch the guitar to admiration, write poetry, dance divinely, and had a fine genius for making bird-cages.” He married the Princess Antonomesia of Candaya, and was metamorphosed by Malambruno into a crocodile of some unknown metal. Don Quixote disenchanted him “by simply attempting the adventure.”– Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. iii. 4, 5 (1615).

CLAVILEN’O, the wooden horse on which Don Quixote got astride in order to disenchant the Infanta Antonoma’sia, her husband, and the Countess Trifaldi (called the “Dolori’da Duena”). It was “the very horse on which Peter of Provence carried off the fair Magalone, and was constructed by Merlin.” This horse was called Clavileno or wooden Peg, because it was governed by a wooden pin in the forehead.–Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. iii. 4, 5 (1615).

There is one peculiar advantage attending this horse; he neither eats, drinks, sleeps, nor wants shoeing…. His name is not Pegasus, nor Bucephalus; nor is it Brilladoro, the name of the steed of Orlando Furioso; neither is it Bayarte, which belonged to Reynaldo de Montalbon; nor Bootes, nor Peritoa, the horses of the sun; but his name is Clavileno the Winged.–Chap. 4.

CLAYPOLE _(Noah), alias_ “Morris Bolter,” an ill-conditioned charity-boy, who takes down the shutters of Sowerberry’s shop and receives broken meats from Charlotte (Sowerberry’s servant), whom he afterwards marries.–C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

CLAY AND RANDOLPH. In his _Thirty Years’ View_, Thomas Hart Benton gives a graphic description of the famous duel between Henry Clay and John Randolph, of Roanoke (April 8, 1826).

After two shots had been exchanged without injury to either, the two statesmen shook hands, Randolph remarking: “You owe me a coat, Mr. Clay,” a bullet having passed through his; and Mr. Clay answered: “I am glad the debt is no greater!” (1854).

CLEANTE (2 _syl_.), brother-in-law of Orgon. He is distinguished for his genuine piety, and is both high-minded and compassionate.–Moliere, _La Tartuffe_ (1664).

_Cleante_ (2 _Syl._), son of Har’pagon the miser, in love with Mariane (3 _syl_.). Harpagon, though 60 years old, wished to marry the same young lady, but Cleante solved the difficulty thus: He dug up a casket of gold from the garden, hidden under a tree by the miser, and while Harpagon was raving about the loss of his gold, Cleante told him he might take his choice between Mariane and the gold. The miser preferred the casket, which was restored to him, and Cleante married Mariane.–Moliere, _L’Avar_ (1667).

_Cleante_ (2 _syl_.), the lover of Angelique, daughter of Argan the _malade imaginaire_. As Argan had promised Angelique in marriage to Thomas Diafoirus, a young surgeon, Cleante carries on his love as a music-master, and though Argan is present, the lovers sing to each other their plans under the guise of an interlude called “Tircis and Philis.” Ultimately, Argan assents to the marriage of his daughter with Cleante.–Moliere, _Le Malade Imaginaire_ (1673).

CLEAN’THE (2 _syl_.), sister of Siphax of Paphos.–Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_ (1617).

_Cleanthe_ (3 _syl_.), the lady beloved by Ion.–Talfourd, _Ion_ (1835).

CLEAN’THES (3 _syl_.), son of Leon’ides and husband of Hippolita, noted for his filial piety. The Duke of Epire made a law that all men who had attained the age of 80 should be put to death as useless incumbrances of the commonwealth. Simonides, a young libertine, admired the law, but Cleanthes looked on it with horror, and determined to save his father from its operation. Accordingly, he gave out that his father was dead, and an ostentatious funeral took place; but Cleanthes retired to a wood, where he concealed Leon’ides, while he and his wife waited on him and administered to his wants.–_The Old Law_ (a comedy of Philip Massinger, T. Middleton, and W. Rowley, 1620).

CLEGG _(Holdfast)_, a Puritan mill-wright.–Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

CLEISH’BOTHAM _(Jededi’ah)_, schoolmaster and parish clerk of Gandercleuch, who employed his assistant teacher to arrange and edit the tales told by the landlord of the Wallace Inn of the same parish. These tales the editor disposed in three series, called by the general title of _The Tales of My Landlord (q.v.)._ (See introduction to _The Black Dwarf_.) Of course the real author is Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832).

_Mrs. Dorothea Cleishbotham_, wife of the schoolmaster, a perfect Xantippe, and a “sworn sister of the Eumen’ides.”

CLE’LIA OR CLOE’LIA, a Roman maiden, one of the hostages given to Por’sena. She made her escape from the Etruscan camp by swimming across the Tiber. Being sent back by the Romans, Porsena not only set her at liberty for her gallant deed, but allowed her to take with her a part of the hostages. Mdlle. Scuderi has a novel on the subject, entitled _Clelie, Histoire Romaine_.

Our statues–not those that men desire– Sleek odalisques _[Turkish slaves_] … but The Carian Artemisia … _[See Artemisia_.] Clelia, Cornelia … and the Roman brows Of Agrippina.

Tennyson, _The Princess_, ii.

_Cle’lia_, a vain, frivolous female butterfly, with a smattering of everything. In youth she was a coquette; and when youth was passed, tried sundry means to earn a living, but without success.–Crabbe, _Borough_ (1810).

CLELIE (2 _syl_.), the heroine of a novel so called by Mdlle. Scuderi. (See CLELIA.)

CLEMENT, one of the attendants of Sir Reginald Front de Boeuf (a follower of Prince John).–Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

_Clem’ent (Justice)_, a man quite able to discern between fun and crime. Although he had the weakness “of justices’ justice.” he had not the weakness of ignorant vulgarity.

_Knowell_. They say he will commit a man for taking the wall of his horse.

_Wellbred_. Ay, or for wearing his cloak on one shoulder, or serving God. Anything, indeed, if it comes in the way of his humor.–B. Jonson, _Every Man in His Humor_, iii. 2 (1598).

CLEMENTI’NA _(The Lady_), an amiable, delicate, beautiful, accomplished, but unfortunate woman, deeply in love with Sir Charles Grandison. Sir Charles married Harriet Byron.–S. Richardson, _The History of Sir Charles Grandison_ (1753).

Cle’ofas (_Don_), the hero of a novel by Lesage, entitled _Le Diable Boiteux_ (_The Devil on Two Sticks_). A fiery young Spaniard, proud, high-spirited and revengeful; noted for gallantry but not without generous sentiment. Asmode’us (4 _syl_.) shows him what is going on in private families by unroofing the houses (1707).

CLEOM’BROTUS or Ambracio’ta of Ambrac’ia, (in Epirus). Having read Plato’s book on the soul’s immortality and happiness in another life, he was so ravished with the description that he leaped into the sea that he might die and enjoy Plato’s elysium.

He who to enjoy
Plato’s elysium leaped into the sea, Cleombrotus.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iii. 471, etc. (1665).

CLEOM’ENES (4 _syl_.), the hero and title of a drama by Dryden (1692). As Dryden came out of the theatre a young fop of fashion said to him: “If I had been left alone with a young beauty, I would not have spent my time like your Spartan hero.” “Perhaps not,” said the poet, “but you are not my hero.”–W. C. Russell, _Representative Actors_.

_Cleom’enes_ (4 _syl_.). “The Venus of Cleomenes” is now called “The Venus de Medici.” Such a mere moist lump was once … “the Venus of Cleomenes.”–Ouida, _Ariadne_, i. 8.

CLE’ON, governor of Tarsus, burnt to death with his wife Dionys’ia by the enraged citizens, to revenge the supposed murder of Mari’na, daughter of Per’icles, Prince of Tyre.–Shakespeare, _Pericles, Prince of Tyre_ (1608).

_Cle’on_, the personification of Glory.–Spenser, _Faery Queen_.

CLEOP’ATRA, Queen of Egypt, wife of Ptolemy Dionysius, her brother. She was driven from her throne, but re-established by Julius Caesar, B.C. 47. Antony, captivated by her, repudiated his wife, Octavia, to live with the fascinating Egyptian. After the loss of the battle of Actium, Cleopatra killed herself by an asp.

E. Jodelle wrote in French a tragedy called _Cleopatre Captive_ (1550); Jean Mairet one called _Cleopatre_ (1630); Isaac de Benserade (1670); J. F. Marmontel (1750), and Mde. de Girardin (1847) wrote tragedies in French on the same subject. S. Daniel (1600) wrote a tragedy in English called _Cleopatra_; Shakespeare one called _Antony and Cleopatra_ (1608); and Dryden one on the same subject, called _All for Love_ or _the World Well Lost_ (1682).

[Illustration] Mrs. Oldfield (1683-1730) and Peg (Margaret) Woffington (1718-1760) were unrivalled in this character.

_Cleopatra and the Pearl_. The tale is that Cleopatra made a sumptuous banquet, which excited the surprise of Antony; whereupon the queen took a pearl ear-drop, dissolved it in a strong acid and drank the liquor to the health of the triumvir, saying: “My draught to Antony shall exceed in value the whole banquet.”

[Illustration] When Queen Elizabeth visited the Exchange, Sir Thomas Gresham pledged her health in a cup of wine containing a precious stone crushed to atoms, and worth L15,000.

Here L15,000 at one clap goes Instead of sugar; Gresham drinks the pearl Unto his queen and mistress. Pledge it; love it!–Th. Heywood, _If You Know not Me. You Know Nobody_.

_Cleopatra in Hades_. Cleopatra, says Rabelais, is “a crier of onions” in the shades below. The Latin for a pearl and onion is _unio_, and the pun refers to Cleopatra giving her _pearl_ (or _onion_) to Antony in a draught of wine, or, as some say, drinking it herself in toasting her lover.–Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. 30 (1553).

_Cleopat’ra_, Queen of Syria, daughter of Ptolemy Philome’ter, King of Egypt. She first married Alexander Bala, the usurper (B.C. 149); next Deme’trius Nica’nor. Demetrius, being taken prisoner by the Parthians, married Rodogune (3 _syl_.), daughter of Phraa’tes (3 _syl_.) the Parthian king, and Cleopatra married Antiochus Sidetes, brother of Demetrius. She slew her son Seleucus (by Demetrius) for treason, and as this produced a revolt, abdicated in favor of her second son, Anti’ochus VIII., who compelled her to drink poison which she had prepared for himself. P. Corneille has made this the subject of his tragedy called _Rodogune_ (1646).

[Illustration] This is not the Cleopatra of Shakespeare’s and Dryden’s tragedies.

_Cleopatra_. In his _Graffiti d’Italia_, William Wetmore Story gives a passionate soliloquy of the Egyptian Queen, beginning:–

“Here, Charmian, take my bracelets;
They bar with a purple stain
My arms.”


CLERE’MONT (2 _syl_.), a merry gentleman, the friend of Dinant’.–“Beaumont and Fletcher” _The Little French Lawyer_ (1547).

CLER’IMOND, niece of the Green Knight, sister of Fer’ragus the giant, and bride of Valentine the brave.–_Valentine and Orson_.

CLERKS _(St. Nicholas’s)_, thieves, also called “St. Nicholas’s Clergymen,” in allusion to the tradition of “St. Nicholas and the thieves.” Probably a play on the words _Nich-olas_ and _Old Nick_ may be designed.–See Shakespeare, 1 _Henry IV_. act ii. sc. 1 (1597).

CLESS’AMMOR, son of Thaddu and brother of Morna (Fingal’s mother). He married Moina, daughter of Reutha’mir (the principal man of Balclutha, on the Clyde). It so happened that Moina was beloved by a Briton named Reuda, who came with an army to carry her off. Reuda was slain by Clessammor; but Clessammor, being closely pressed by the Britons, fled, and never again saw his bride. In due time a son was born, called Carthon; but the mother died. While Carthon was still an infant, Fingal’s father attacked Balclutha, and slew Reuthama (Carthon’s grandfather). While the boy grew to manhood, he determined on vengeance; accordingly he invaded Morven, the kingdom of Fingal, where Clessammor, not knowing who he was, engaged him in single combat, and slew him. When he discovered that it was his son, three days he mourned for him, and on the fourth he died.–Ossian, _Carthon_.

CLEVE’LAND _(Barbara Villiers, Duchess of)_, one of the mistresses of Charles II., introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Peveril of the Peak_.

_Cleve’land_ (Captain Clement), alias Vaughan [_Vawn_], “the pirate,” son of Norna of the Fitful Head. He is in love with Minna Troil (daughter of Magnus Troil, the udaller of Zetland).–Sir W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III).

CLEVER, the man-servant of Hero Sutton, “the city maiden.” When Hero assumed the guise of a quaker, Clever called himself Obadiah, and pretended to be a rigid quaker also. His constant exclamation was “Umph! “–S. Knowles, _Woman’s Wit, etc_. (1838).

Clifford _(Sir Thomas_), betrothed to Julia (daughter of Master Walter “the hunchback”). He is wise, honest, truthful, and well-favored, kind, valiant, and prudent.–S. Knowles, _The Hunchback_ (1831).

_Clifford, (Mr.)_, the heir of Sir William Charlton in right of his mother, and in love with Lady Emily Gayville. The scrivener Alscrip had fraudulently got possession of the deeds of the Charlton estates, which he had given to his daughter called “the heiress,” and which amounted to L2000 a year; but Rightly, the lawyer, discovered the fraud, and “the heiress” was compelled to relinquish this part of her fortune. Clifford then proposed to Lady Emily, and was accepted.–General Burgoyne, _The Heiress_. (1781).

_Clifford (Paul)_, a highwayman, reformed by the power of love.–Lord Lytton, _Paul Clifford_ (1830).

_Clifford (Rosamond)_, usually called “The Fair Rosamond,” the favorite mistress of Henry II.; daughter of Walter Lord Clifford. She is introduced by Tennyson in his tragedy _Becket_. Miss Terry acted the part. Dryden says:

_Jane_ Clifford was her name, as books aver, “Fair Rosamond” was but her _nom de guerre.

Epilogue to Henry II_.

_Clifford (Henry Lord_), a general in the English army.–Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

CLIFTON (_Harry_), lieutenant of H.M. ship _Tiger_. A daring, dashing, care-for-nobody young English sailor, delighting in adventure, and loving a good scrape. He and his companion Mat Mizen take the side of El Hyder, and help to re-establish the Chereddin, Prince of Delhi, who had been dethroned by Hamlet Abdulerim.–Barrymore, _El Hyder, Chief of the Ghaut Mountains_.


CLINK (_Jem_), the turnkey at Newgate.–Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II).

CLINKER (_Humphry_), a poor work-house lad, put out by the parish as apprentice to a blacksmith, and afterwards employed as an ostler’s assistant and extra postilion. Being dismissed from the stables, he enters the service of Mr. Bramble, a fretful, grumpy, but kind-hearted and generous old gentleman, greatly troubled with gout. Here he falls in love with Winifred Jenkins, Miss Tabitha Brambles’s maid, and turns out to be a natural son of Mr. Bramble.–T. Smollett, _The Expedition of Humphry Clinker_ (1771.)

CLIP’PURSE (_Lawyer_), the lawyer employed by Sir Everard Waverley to make his will.–Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

CLIQUOT (_Klee’ko_), a nickname given by _Punch_ to Frederick William IV. of Prussia, from his love of champagne of the “Cliquot brand” (1795, 1840-1861).

CLITANDRE, a wealthy bourgeois, in love with Henriette, “the thorough woman,” by whom he is beloved with fervent affection. Her elder sister, Armande (2 _syl_.), also loves him, but her love is of the platonic hue, and Clitandre prefers in a wife the warmth of woman’s love to the marble of philosophic ideality.–Moliere, _Les Femmes Savantes_ (1672).

CLOACI’NA, the presiding personification of city sewers. (Latin, _cloaca_, “a sewer.”)

…Cloacina, goddess of the tide,
Whose sable streams beneath the city glide.

Gay, _Trivia_, ii. (1712).

CLOD’DIPOLE (3 _syl_.), “the wisest lout of all the neighboring plain.” Appointed to decide the contention between Cuddy and Lobbin Clout.

From Cloddipole we learn to read the skies, To know when hail will fall, or winds arise; He taught us erst the heifer’s tail to view, When struck aloft that showers would straight ensue. He first that useful secret did explain, That pricking corns foretell the gathering rain; When swallows fleet soar high and sport in air, He told us that the welkin would be clear.

Gay, _Pastoral_, i. (1714).

(Cloddipole is the “Palaemon” of Virgil’s _Ecl._ iii.).

CLO’DIO _(Count)_, governor. A dishonorable pursuer of Zeno’cia, the chaste troth-plight wife of Arnoldo.–Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Custom of the Country_ (1647).

_Clodio_, the younger son of Don Antonio, a coxcomb and braggart. Always boasting of his great acquaintances, his conquests, and his duels. His snuff-box he thinks more of than his lady-love, he interlards his speech with French, and exclaims “Split me!” by way of oath. Clodio was to have married Angelina, but the lady preferred his elder brother, Carlos, a bookworm, and Clodio engaged himself to Elvira of Lisbon.–C. Cibber, _Love Makes a Man_ (1694).

CLO’E, in love with the shepherd, Thenot, but Thenot rejects her suit out of admiration of the constancy of Clorinda for her dead lover. She is wanton, coarse, and immodest, the very reverse of Clorinda, who is a virtuous, chaste, and faithful shepherdess. (“Thenot,” the final _t_ is sounded.)–John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherdess_ (1610). (See CHLOE).

CLO’RA, sister of Fabrit’io, the merry soldier, and the sprightly companion of Frances (sister to Frederick).–Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Captain_ (1613).

CLORIDA’NO, a humble Moorish youth, who joined Medo’ro in seeking the body of King Dardinello to bury it. Medoro being wounded, Cloridano rushed madly into the ranks of the enemy and was slain.–Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

CLORIN’DA, daughter of Sena’pus of Ethiopia (a Christian). Being born white, her mother changed her for a black child. The Eunuch Arse’tes (3 _syl_.) was entrusted with the infant Clorinda, and as he was going through a forest, saw a tiger, dropped the child, and sought safety in a tree. The tiger took the babe and suckled it, after which the eunuch carried the child to Egypt. In the siege of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, Clorinda was a leader of the Pagan forces. Tancred fell in love with her, but slew her unknowingly in a night attack. Before she expired she received Christian baptism at the hands of Tancred, who greatly mourned her death.–Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, xii. (1675).

(The story of Clorinda is borrowed from the _Theag’anes and Charicle’a_ of Heliodorus Bishop of Trikka).

_Clorinda_, “the faithful shepherdess” called “The Virgin of the Grove,” faithful to her buried love. From this beautiful character Milton has drawn his “lady” in _Comus_. Compare the words of the “First Brother” about chastity, in Milton’s _Comus_, with these lines of Clorinda:

Yet I have heard (my mother told it me), And now I do believe it, if I keep
My virgin flower uncropt, pure, chaste, and fair, No goblin, wood-god, fairy, elf, or fiend, Satyr, or other power that haunts the groves Shall hurt my body, or by vain illusion Draw me to wander after idle fires,
Or voices calling me in dead of night To make me follow and so tole me on
Through mire and standing-pools, to find my ruin. …Sure there’s a power
In the great name of Virgin that binds fast All rude, uncivil bloods…. Then strong Chastity, Be thou my strongest guard.

–J. Fletcher,–_The Faithful Shepherdess_ (1610).

CLORIS, the damsel beloved by Prince Prettyman.–Duke of Buckingham, _The Rehearsal_ (1671).

CLOTAIRE (2 _syl_). The King of France exclaimed on his death-bed: “Oh, how great must be the King of Heaven, if He can kill so mighty a monarch as I am!”–_Gregory of Tours_, iv. 21.

CLOTEN or CLOTON, King of Cornwall, one of the five kings of Britain after the extinction of the line of Brute (1 _syl_.).–Geoffrey, _British History_, ii. 17 (1142).

_Cloten_, a vindictive lout, son of the second wife of Cymbeline by a former husband. He is noted for “his unmeaning frown, his shuffling gait, his burst of voice, his bustling insignificance, his fever-and-ague fits of valor, his froward tetchiness, his unprincipled malice, and occasional gleams of good sense.” Cloten is the rejected lover of Imogen (the daughter of his father-in-law by his first wife), and is slain in a duel by Guiderius.–Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

CLOTHA’RIUS or CLOTHAIRE, leader of the Franks after the death of Hugo. He is shot with an arrow by Clorinda.–Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, xi. (1675).

_Cloud (St.)_, patron saint of nail-smiths. A play on the French word _clou_ (“a nail”).

CLOUDES’LEY _(William of_), a famous north-country archer, the companion of Adam Bell and Clym of the Clough. Their feats of robbery were chiefly carried on in Englewood Forest, near Carlisle. William was taken prisoner at Carlisle, and was about to be hanged, but was rescued by his two companions. The three then went to London to ask pardon of the King, which at the Queen’s intercession was granted. The King begged to see specimens of their skill in archery, and was so delighted therewith, that he made William a “gentleman of fe,” and the other two “yemen of his chambre.” The feat of William was very similar to that of William Tell _(q.v.)._–Percy, _Reliques_, I. ii. 1.

CLOUT _(Colin)_, a shepherd loved by Marian “the parson’s maid,” but for whom Colin (who loved Cicily) felt no affection. (See COLIN CLOUT).

Young Colin Clout, a lad of peerless meed, Full well could dance, and deftly tune the reed; In every wood his carols sweet were known, At every wake his nimble feats were shown.

Gay, _Pastoral_, ii. (1714).

_Clout (Loblin)_, a shepherd in love with Blouzelinda. He challenged Cuddy to a contest of song in praise of their respective sweethearts, and Cloddipole was appointed umpire. Cloddipole was unable to award the prize, for each merited “an oaken staff for his pains.” “Have done, however, for the herds are weary of the song, and so am I.”–Gay, _Pastoral_, i. (1714).

CLOYSE _(Goody)._ A pious and exemplary dame, especially well-versed in the catechism, who, in Goodman Brown’s fantasy of the witches’ revel in the forest, joins him on his way thither, and croaks over the loss of her broomstick, which was “all anointed with the juice of small-age and cinquefoil and wolf’s bane–” “Mingled with fine wheat and the fat of a new-born babe,” says another shape.–Nathaniel Hawthorne, _Mosses from an Old Manse_ (1854).

CLUB-BEARER _(The)_, Periphe’tes, the robber of Ar’golis, who murdered his victims with an iron club.–_Greek Fable_.

CLUMSEY _(Sir Tunbelly_), father of Miss Hoyden. A mean, ill-mannered squire and justice of the peace, living near Scarborough. Most cringing to the aristocracy, whom he toadies and courts. Sir Tunbelly promises to give his daughter in marriage to Lord Foppington, but Tom Fashion, his lordship’s younger brother, pretends to be Lord Foppington, gains admission to the family and marries her. When the real Lord Foppington arrives he is treated as an imposter, but Tom confesses the ruse. His lordship treats the knight with such ineffable contempt, that Sir Tunbelly’s temper is aroused, and Tom is received into high favor.–Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_ (1777).

[Illustration] This character appears in Vanbrugh’s _Relapse_, of which comedy the _Trip to Scarborough_ is an abridgment and adaptation.

CLU’RICAUNE (3 _syl_.), an Irish elf of evil disposition, especially noted for his knowledge of hidden treasure. He generally assumes the appearance of a wrinkled old man.

CLUTTERBUCK (_Captain_), the hypothetical editor of some of Sir Walter Scott’s novels, as _The Monastery_ and _The Fortunes of Nigel_. Captain Clutterbuck is a retired officer, who employs himself in antiquarian researches and literary idleness. _The Abbot_ is dedicated by the “author of _Waverley_” to “Captain Clutterbuck,” late of his majesty’s–infantry regiment.

CLYM OF THE CLOUGH (“_Clement of the Cliff_”), noted outlaw, associated with Adam Bell and William of Cloudesley, in Englewood Forest, near Carlisle. When William was taken prisoner at Carlisle, and was about to be hanged, Adam and Clym shot the magistrates, and rescued their companion. The mayor with his _posse_ went out against them, but they shot the mayor, as they had done the sheriff, and fought their way out of the town. They then hastened to London to beg pardon of the king, which was granted them at the queen’s intercession. The king, wishing to see a specimen of their shooting, was so delighted at their skill that he made William a “gentleman of fe,” and the other two “yemen of his chambre.”–Percy, _Reliques_ (“Adam Bell,” etc., I. ii. 1).

CLY’TIE, a water-nymph in love with Apollo. Meeting with no return, she was changed into a sunflower, or rather a _tournesol_, which still turns to the sun, following him through his daily course.

The sunflower does not turn to the sun. On the same stem may be seen flowers in every direction, and not one of them shifts the direction in which it has first opened. T. Moore (1814) says:

The sunflower turns on her god when he sets, The same look which she turned when he rose.

This may do in poetry, but it is not correct. The sunflower is so called simply because the flower resembles a pictured sun.

Lord Thurlow (1821) adopted Tom Moore’s error, and enlarged it:

Behold, my dear, this lofty flower,
That now the golden sun receives;
No other deity has power,
But only Phoebus, on her leaves;
As he in radiant glory burns,
From east to west her visage turns.

_The Sunflower_.

CLYTUS, an old officer in the army of Philip of Macedon, and subsequently in that of Alexander. At a banquet, when both were heated with wine, Clytus said to Alexander, “Philip fought men, but Alexander women,” and after some other insults, Alexander in his rage stabbed the old soldier; but instantly repented and said:

What has my vengeance done?
Who is it thou hast slain? Clytus? What was he The faithfullest subject, worthiest counsellor, The bravest soldier. He who saved my life Fighting bare-headed at the river Granic. For a rash word, spoke in the heat of wine, The poor, the honest Clytus thou hast slain,– Clytus, thy friend, thy guardian, thy preserver!

N. Lee, _Alexander the Great_, iv. 2 (1678).

CNE’US, the Roman officer in command of the guard set to watch the tomb of Jesus, lest the disciples should steal the body, and then declare that it had risen from the dead.–Klopstock, _The Messiah_, xiii. (1771). CO’AN (_The_), Hippocrates, the “Father of Medicine” (B.C. 460-357).

… the great Coan, him whom Nature made To serve the costliest creature of her tribe [_man_].

Dante, _Purgatory_, xxix. (1308).

CO’ANOCOT’ZIN (_5 syl_.), King of the Az’tecas. Slain in battle by Madoc.–Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

CO’ATEL, daughter of Acul’hua, a priest of the Az’tecas, and wife of Lincoya. Lincoya, being doomed for sacrifice, fled for refuge to Madoc, the Welsh Prince, who had recently landed on the North American coast, and was kindly treated by him. This gave Coatel a sympathetic interest in the White strangers, and she was not backward in showing it. Then, when young Hoel was kidnapped, and confined in a cavern to starve to death, Coatel visited him and took him food. Again, when Prince Madoc was entrapped, she contrived to release him, and assisted the prince to carry off young Hoel. After the defeat of the Az’tecas by the White strangers, the chief priest declared that some one had proved a traitor, and resolved to discover who it was by handing round a cup, which he said would be harmless to the innocent, but death to the guilty. When it was handed to Coatel, she was so frightened that she dropped down dead. Her father stabbed himself, and “fell upon his child,” and when Lincoya heard thereof, he flung himself down from a steep precipice on to the rocks below.–Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

COBB (_Ephraim_), in Cromwell’s troop.–Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

COBBLER-POET (_The_), Hans Sachs, of Nuremberg. (See TWELVE WISE MASTERS).

COBHAM (_Eleanor_), wife of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, and aunt of King Henry VI., compelled to do penance barefoot in a sheet in London, and after that to live in the Isle of Man in banishment, for “sorcery.” In _2 Henry VI_., Shakespeare makes Queen Margaret “box her ears,” but this could not be, as Eleanor was banished three years before Margaret came to England.

Stand forth, dame Eleanor Cobham, Gloster’s wife … You, madam … despoiled of your honor … Shall, after three days’ open penance done, Live in your country, here in banishment, With Sir John Stanley, in the Isle of Man.

Shakespeare, _2 Henry VI_. act ii. sc. 3 (1591).

COCK OF WESTMINSTER (_The_). Castell, a shoemaker, was so called from his very early hours. He was one of the benefactors of Christ’s Hospital (London).

COCKER (_Edward_), published a useful treatise on arithmetic, in the reign of Charles II., which had a prodigious success, and has given rise to the proverb, “According to Cocker” (1632-1675).

COCKLE (_Sir John_), the miller of Mansfield, and keeper of Sherwood Forest. Hearing a gun fired one night, he went into the forest, expecting to find poachers, and seized the king (Henry VIII.), who had been hunting and had got separated from his courtiers. When the miller discovered that his captor was not a poacher, he offered him a night’s lodging. Next day the courtiers were brought to Cockle’s house by under-keepers, to be examined as poachers, and it was then discovered that the miller’s guest was the king. The “merry monarch” knighted the miller, and settled on him 1000 marks a year.–R. Dodsley, _The King and the Miller of Mansfield_ (1737).

Cockney (_Nicholas_), a rich city grocer, brother of Barnacle. Priscilla Tomboy, of the West Indies, is placed under his charge for her education.

_Walter Cockney_, son of the grocer, in the shop. A conceited young prig, not yet out of the quarrelsome age. He makes boy-love to Priscilla Tomboy and Miss La Blond; but says he will “tell papa” if they cross him.

_Penelope Cockney_, sister of Walter.–_The Romp_ (altered from Bickerstaff’s _Love in the City_).

Coelebs’ Wife, a bachelor’s ideal of a model wife. Coelebs is the hero of a novel, by Mrs. Hannah Moore, entitled _Coelebs in Search of a Wife_ (1809).

In short, she was a walking calculation, Miss Edgworth’s novels stepping from their covers, Or Mrs. Trimmer’s books on education.
Or “Coelebs’ wife” set out in quest of lovers. Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 16 (1819).

COEUR DE LION, Surname of Richard of England (1157-1199.) Also conferred upon Louis VIII. of France.

COFFIN (_Long Tom_), the best sailor character ever drawn. He is introduced in _The Pilot_, a novel by J. Fenimore Cooper. Cooper’s novel has been dramatized by E. Fitzball, under the same name, and Long Tom Coffin preserves in the burletta his reckless daring, his unswerving fidelity, his simple-minded affection, and his love for the sea.

COGIA HOUSSAIN, the captain of forty thieves, outwitted by Morgiana, the slave. When, in the guise of a merchant, he was entertained by Ali Baba, and refused to eat any salt, the suspicions of Morgiana was aroused, and she soon detected him to be the captain of the forty thieves. After supper she amused her master and his guest with dancing; then playing with Cogia’s dagger for a time, she plunged it suddenly into his heart and killed him.–_Arabian Nights_ (“Ali Baba or the Forty Thieves”).

COL’AX. Flattery personified in _The Purple Island_ (1633), by Phineas Fletcher. Colax “all his words with sugar spices … lets his tongue to sin, and takes rent of shame … His art [_was_] to hide and not to heal a sore.” Fully described in canto viii. (Greek, _kolax_, “a flatterer or fawner.”)

COLBRAND or COLEBROND (_2 syl_.), the Danish giant, slain in the presence of King Athelstan, by Sir Guy of Warwick, just returned from a pilgrimage, still “in homely russet clad,” and in his hand a “hermit’s staff.” The combat is described at length by Drayton, in his _Polyolbion_, xii.

One could scarcely bear his axe …
Whose squares were laid with plates, and riveted with steel, And armed down along with pikes, whose hardened points … had power to tear the joints
Of cuirass or of mail.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. (1613).

COLDSTREAM (_Sir Charles_), the chief character in Charles Mathew’s play called _Used up_. He is wholly _ennuye_, sees nothing to admire in anything; but is a living personification of mental inanity and physical imbecility.

COLE (_1 syl._), a legendary British king, described as “a merry old soul,” fond of his pipe, fond of his glass, and fond of his “fiddlers three.” There were two kings so called–Cole (or Coil I.) was the predecessor of Porrex; but Coil II. was succeeded by Lucius, “the first British king who embraced the Christian religion.” Which of these two mythical kings the song refers to is not evident.

_Cole (Mrs.)_. This character is designed for Mother Douglas, who kept a “gentlemen’s magazine of frail beauties” in a superbly furnished house at the north-east corner of Covent Garden. She died 1761.–S. Foote, _The Minor_ (1760).

COLEIN (_2 syl._), the great dragon slain by Sir Bevis of Southampton.–Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

COLEMI’RA (_3 syl._), a poetical name for a cook. The word is compounded of _coal_ and _mire_.

“Could I,” he cried “express how bright a grace Adorns thy morning hands and well-washed face, Thou wouldst, Colemira, grant what I implore, And yield me love, or wash thy face no more.”

Shenstone, _Colemira_ (an eclogue).

COLE’PEPPER (_Captain_) or CAPTAIN PEPPERCULL, the Alsatian bully.–Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

COLIN, or in Scotch CAILEN, _Green Colin_, the laird of Dunstaffnage, so called from the green colour which prevailed in his tartan.

COLIN AND ROSALINDE. In _The Shephearde’s Calendar_ (1579), by Edm. Spenser, Rosalinde is the maiden vainly beloved by Colin Clout, as her choice was already fixed on the shepherd Menalcas. Rosalinde is an anagram of “Rose Danil,” a lady beloved by Spenser (_Colin Clout_), but Rose Danil had already fixed her affections on John Florio the Resolute, whom she subsequently married.

And I to thee will be as kind
As Colin was to Rosalinde,
Of courtesie the flower.

M. Drayton, _Dowsabel_ (1593)

COLIN CLOUT, the pastoral name assumed by the poet Spenser, in _The Shephearde’s Calendar, The Ruins of Time, Daphnaida_, and in the pastoral poem called _Colin Clout’s come home again_ (from his visit to Sir Walter Raleigh). Ecl. i. and xii. are soliloquies of Colin, being lamentations that Rosalinde will not return his love. Ecl. vi. is a dialogue between Hobbinol and Colin, in which the former tries to comfort the disappointed lover. Ecl. xi. is a dialogue between Thenot and Colin, Thenot begs Colin to sing some joyous lay; but Colin pleads grief for the death of the sheperdess Dido, and then sings a monody on the great sheperdess deceased. In ecl. vi. we are told that Rosalinde has betrothed herself to the shepherd Menalcas (1579).

In the last book of the _Faery Queen_, we have a reference to “Colin and his lassie,” (Spenser and his wife) supposed to be Elizabeth, and elsewhere called “Mirabella” See CLOUT, etc.

_Colin Clout and his lassie_, referred to in the last book of the _Faery Queen_, are Spenser and his wife Elizabeth, elsewhere called “Mirabella” (1596).

COLIN CLOUT’S COME HOME AGAIN. “Colin Clout” is Spenser, who had been to London on a visit to “the Shepherd of the Ocean” (Sir Walter Raleigh), in 1589; on his return to Kilcolman, in Ireland, he wrote this poem. “Hobbinol,” his friend (Gabriel Harvey, L.L.D.), tells him how all the shepherds had missed him, and begs him to relate to him and them his adventures while abroad. The pastoral contains a eulogy of British contemporary poets, and of the court beauties of Queen Elizabeth (1591). (See COLYN.)

COLIN TAMPON, the nickname of a Swiss, as John Bull means an Englishman, etc.

COLKITTO (_Young_), or “Vich Alister More,” or “Alister M’Donnell,” a Highland chief in the army of Montrose.–Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

COLLEAN (_May_), the heroine of a Scotch ballad, which relates how “fause Sir John” carried her to a rock for the purpose of throwing her down into the sea; but May outwitted him, and subjected him to the same fate he had designed for her.

COLLEEN’, _i.e._ “girl;” Colleen bawn (“the blond girl”); Colleen rhue (“the red-haired girl”), etc.

[Illustration] Dion Boucicault has a drama entitled _The Colleen Bawn_, founded upon Gerald Griffin’s novel _The Collegians_.

COLLIER _(Jem)_, a smuggler.–Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.)

COLLINGWOOD AND THE ACORNS. Collingwood never saw a vacant place in his estate, but he took an acorn out of his pocket and popped it in.–Thackeray, _Vanity Fair_ (1848).

COLMAL, daughter of Dunthalmo, Lord of Teutha _(the Tweed_). Her father, having murdered Rathmor in his halls, brought up the two young sons of the latter, Calthon and Colmar, in his own house; but when grown to manhood he thought he detected a suspicious look about them, and he shut them up in two separate caves on the banks of the Tweed, intending to kill them. Colmal, who was in love with Calthon, set him free, and the two made good their escape to the court of Fingal. Fingal sent Ossian with 300 men to liberate Colmar; but when Dunthalmo heard thereof, he murdered the prisoner. Calthon, being taken captive, was bound to an oak, but was liberated by Ossian, and joined in marriage to Colmal, with whom he lived lovingly in the halls of Teutha.–Ossian, _Calthon and Colmal_.

COLMAR, brother of Calthon. When quite young their father was murdered by Dunthalmo, who came against him by night, and killed him in his banquet hall; but moved by pity, he brought up the two boys in his own house. When grown to manhood, he thought he observed mischief in their looks, and therefore shut them up in two separate cells on the banks of the Tweed. Colmal the daughter of Dunthalmo, who was in love with Calthon, liberated him from his bonds, and they fled to Fingal to crave aid on behalf of Colmar; but before succor could arrive, Dunthalmo had Colmar brought before him, “bound with a thousand thongs,” and slew him with his spear.–Ossian, _Calthon and Colmal._

COLNA-DONA (“_love of heroes_”), daughter of King Car’ul. Fingal sent Ossian and Toscar to raise a memorial on the banks of the Crona, to perpetuate the memory of a victory he had obtained there. Carul invited the two young men to his hall, and Toscar fell in love with Colna-Dona. The passion being mutual, the father consented to their espousals.–Ossian, _Colna-Dona._

COLOGNE _(The three kings of_), the three Magi, called Gaspar, Melchior, and Baltha’zar. Gaspar means “the white one.” Melchior, “king of light;” Balthazar, “lord of treasures.” Klop-stock, in _The Messiah_, says there were six Magi, whom he calls Hadad, Sel’ima, Zimri, Mirja, Beled, and Sunith.

[Illustration] The “three” Magi are variously named; thus one tradition gives them as Apellius, Amerus, and Damascus; another calls them Magalath, Galgalath, and Sarasin; a third says they were Ator, Sator, and Perat’oras. They are furthermore said to be descendants of Balaam the Mesopotamian prophet.

COLON, one of the rabble leaders in _Hudibras_, is meant for Noel Perryan or Ned Perry, an ostler. He was a rigid puritan “of low morals,” and very fond of bear-baiting.

COLONNA (_The Marquis of_), a high-minded, incorruptible noble of Naples. He tells the young king bluntly that his oily courtiers are vipers who would suck his life’s blood, and that Ludovico, his chief minister and favorite, is a traitor. Of course he is not believed, and Ludovico marks him out for vengeance. His scheme is to get Colonna, of his own free will, to murder his sister’s lover and the king. With this view he artfully persuades Vicentio, the lover, that Evadne (the sister of Colonna) is the king’s wanton. Vicentio indignantly discards Evadne, is challanged to fight by Colonna, and is supposed to be killed. Colonna, to revenge his wrongs on the king, invites him to a banquet with intent to murder him, when the whole scheme of villainy is exposed: Ludovico is slain, and Vicentio marries Evadne.–Shiel, _Evadne, or the Statue_ (1820).

COLOSSOS (Latin, _colossus_), a gigantic brazen statue 126 feet high, executed by Charles for the Rhodians. Blaise de Vignenere says it was a striding figure, but Comte de Caylus proves that it was not so, and did not even stand at the mouth of the Rhodian port. Philo tells us that it _stood_ on a _block of white marble_, and Lucius Ampellius asserts that it _stood in a car_. Tiekell makes out the statue to be so enormous in size, that–

While at one foot the thronging galleys ride, A whole hour’s sail scarce reached the further side; Betwixt the brazen thighs in loose array, Ten thousand streamers on the billows play.

Tickell, _On the Prospect of Peace_.

COLOSSUS. Negro servant in G.W. Cable’s “Posson Jone.” He vainly tries to dissuade his master from drinking, and, in the end, restores to him the money lost during the drunken bout.

“In thundering tones” the parson was confessing himself a “plum fool from whom the conceit had been jolted out, and who had been made to see that even his nigger had the longest head of the two.”

COL’THRED (_Benjamin_) or “Little Benjie,” a spy employed by Nixon (Edward Redgauntlet’s agent).–Sir. W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.)

COLUMB (_St._) or _St. Columba_, was of the family of the kings of Ulster; and with twelve followers founded amongst the Picts and Scots 300 Christian establishments of presbyterian character; that in Iona was founded 563.

The Pictish men by St. Columb taught.

Campbell, _Rewllura_.

COLUMBUS (_Christopher_), Genoese navigator who was fitted out by Ferdinand and Isabella for a voyage of discovery resulting in the sight of the New World (1492). His ships were the _Santa Maria_, the _Pinta_ and the _Nina_, all small.–Washington Irving, _Life of Columbus_.

COLYN CLOUT (_The Boke of_), a rhyming six-syllable tirade against the clergy, by John Skelton, poet-laureate (1460-1529).

COMAL AND GALBI’NA. Comal was the son of Albion, “chief of a hundred hills.” He loved Galbi’na (daughter of Conlech), who was beloved by Grumal also. One day; tired out by the chase, Comal and Galbina rested in the cave of Roman; but ere long a deer appeared, and Comal went forth to shoot it. During his absence, Galbina dressed herself in armor “to try his love,” and “strode from the cave.” Comal thought it was Grumal, let fly an arrow, and she fell. The chief too late discovered his mistake, rushed to battle, and was slain.–Ossian, _Fingal_, ii.

COM’ALA, daughter of Sarno, king of Inistore (_the Orkneys_). She fell in love with Fingal at a feast to which Sarno had invited him after his return from Denmark or Lochlin (_Fingal_, iii.). Disguised as a youth, Comala followed him, and begged to be employed in his wars; but was detected by Hidallan, son of Lamor, whose love she had slighted. Fingal was about to marry her when he was called to oppose Caracul, who had invaded Caledonia. Comala witnessed the battle from a hill, thought she saw Fingal slain, and though he returned victorious, the shock on her nerves was so great that she died.–Ossian, _Comala_.

COMAN’CHES (3 _syl_.), an Indian tribe of the Texas. (See CAMANCHES.)

COMB (_Reynard’s Wonderful_), said to be made of Pan’thera’s bone, the perfume of which was so fragrant that no one could resist following it; and the wearer of the comb was always of a merry heart. This comb existed only in the brain of Master Fox.–_Reynard the Fox_, xii. (1498).

CO’ME (_St_.), (see Cosme,) a physician, and patron saint of medical practitioners.

“By St. Come!” said the surgeon, “here’s a pretty adventure.”–Lesage, (_Gil Blas_, vii. 1 1735).

COME AND TAKE THEM. The reply of Leon’idas, king of Sparta, to the messengers of Xerxes, when commanded by the invader to deliver up his arms.

COM’EDY (_The Father of_), Aristoph’anes the Athenian (B.C. 444-380).

_Comedy (Prince of Ancient)_, Aristoph’anes (B.C. 444-380).

_Comedy (Prince of New)_, Menander (B.C. 342-291).

COMEDY OF ERRORS, by Shakespeare (1593), Aemilia, wife of AEgeon, had two sons at a birth, and named both of them Antipholus. When grown to manhood, each of these sons had a slave named Dromio, also twin-brothers. The brothers Antipholus had been shipwrecked in infancy, and being picked up by different vessels, were carried one to Syracuse and the other to Ephesus. The play supposes that Antipholus of Syracuse goes in search of his brother, and coming to Ephesus with his slave, Dromio, a series of mistakes arises from the extraordinary likeness of the two brothers and their two slaves. Adriana, the wife of the Ephesian, mistakes the Syracusan for her husband; but he behaves so strangely that her jealousy is aroused, and when her true husband arrives he is arrested as a mad man. Soon after, the Syracusan brother being seen, the wife, supposing it to be her mad husband broken loose, sends to capture him; but he flees into a convent. Adriana now lays her complaint before the duke, and the lady abbess comes into court. So both brothers face each other, the mistakes are explained, and the abbess turns out to be Aemilia, the mother of the twin brothers. Now, it so happened that AEgeon, searching for his son, also came to Ephesus, and was condemned to pay a fine or suffer death, because he, a Syracusan, had set foot in Ephesus. The duke, however, hearing the story, pardoned him. Thus AEgeon found his wife in the abbess, the parents their twin sons, and each son his long-lost brother.

[Illustration] The plot of this comedy is copied from the _Menaechmi_ of Plautus.

COMHAL or COMBAL, son of Trathal, and father of Fingal. His queen was Morna, daughter of Thaddu. Comhal was slain in battle, fighting against the tribe of Morni, the very day that Fingal was born.–Ossian.

Fingal said to Aldo, “I was born in the battle.”

Ossian, _The Battle of Lora_.

COMINES [_Cum’.in_]. Philip des Comines, the favorite minister of Charles, “the Bold,” Duke of Burgundy, is introduced by Sir W. Scott, in _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

COMMANDER OF THE FAITHFUL (_Emir al Mumenin_), a title assumed by Omar I., and retained by his successors in the caliphate (581, 634-644).

COMMINGES (_2 syl_.) (_Count de_), the hero of a novel so-called by Mde. de Tencin (1681-1749).

COMMITTEE (_The_), a comedy by the Hon. Sir R. Howard. Mr. Day, a Cromwellite, is the head of a Committee of Sequestration, and is a dishonest, canting rascal, under the thumb of his wife. He gets into his hands the deeds of two heiresses, Anne and Arbella. The former he calls Ruth, and passes her off as his own daughter; the latter he wants to marry to his booby son Able. Ruth falls in love with Colonel Careless, and Arbella with colonel Blunt. Ruth contrives to get into her hands the deeds, which she delivers over to the two colonels, and when Mr. Day arrives, quiets him by reminding him that she knows of certain deeds which would prove his ruin if divulged (1670).

T. Knight reproduced this comedy as a farce under the title of _The Honest Thieves_.

COMMON (_Dol_), an ally of Subtle the alchemist.–Ben Jonson, _The Alchemist_ (1610).

COMMONER (_The Great_), Sir John Barnard, who in 1737 proposed to reduce the interest of the national debt from 4 per cent. to 3 per cent., any creditor being at liberty to receive his principal in full if he preferred it. William Pitt, the statesman, is so called also (1759-1806).

COMNE’NUS (_Alexius_), emperor of Greece, introduced by Sir. W. Scott in _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

_Anna Comne’na_ the historian, daughter of Alexius Comnenus, emperor of Greece.–Same novel.

COMPEYSON, a would-be gentleman and a forger. He duped Abel Magwitch and ruined him, keeping him completely under his influence. He also jilted Miss Havisham.–C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

COM’RADE (_2 syl_.), the horse given by a fairy to Fortunio.

He has many rare qualities … first he eats but once in eight days; and then he knows what’s past, present, and to come [and speaks with the voice of a man].–Comtesse DAunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Fortunio.” 1682).

COMUS, the god of revelry. In Milton’s “masque” so called, the “lady” is lady Alice Egerton, the younger brother is Mr. Thomas Egerton, and the elder brother is Lord Viscount Brackley (eldest son of John, earl of Bridgewater, president of Wales). The lady, weary with long walking, is left in a wood by her two brothers, while they go to gather “cooling fruit” for her. She sings to let them know her whereabouts, and Comus, coming up, promises to conduct her to a cottage till her brothers could be found. The brothers, hearing a noise of revelry, become alarmed about their sister, when her guardian spirit informs them that she has fallen into the hands of Comus. They run to her rescue, and arrive just as the god is offering his captive a potion; the brothers seize the cup and dash it on the ground, while the spirit invokes Sabri’na, who breaks the spell and releases the lady (1634).

CONACH’AR, the Highland apprentice of Simon Glover, the old glover of Perth. Conachar is in love with his master’s daughter, Catharine, called “the fair maid of Perth;” but Catharine loves and ultimately marries Henry Smith, the armorer. Conachar is at a later period Ian Eachin [_Hector_] M’Ian, chief of the clan Quhele.–Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

CONAR, son of Trenmor, and first “king of Ireland.” When the Fir-bolg (or belgae from Britain settled in the _south_ of Ireland) had reduced the Cael (or colony of Caledonians settled in the _north_ of Ireland) to the last extremity by war, the Cael sent to Scotland for aid. Trathel (grandfather of Fingal) accordingly sent over Conar with an army to their aid; and Conar, having reduced the Fir-bolg to submission, assumed the title of “king of Ireland.” Conar was succeeded by his son Cormac I.; Cormac I. by his son Cairbre; Cairbre by his son Artho; Artho by his son Cormac II. (a minor); and Cormac (after a slight interregnum) by Ferad-Artho (restored by Fingal).–Ossian.

CONCORD HYMN, by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and beginning:

“By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood And fired the shot heard round the world.”

was sung on the Anniversary of the Battle of Concord, April 19, 1836.

CONKEY CHICKWEED, the man who robbed himself of 327 guineas, in order to make his fortune by exciting the sympathy of his neighbors and others. The tale is told by detective Blathers.–C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

CON’LATH, youngest son of Morni, and brother of the famous Gaul (_a man’s name_). Coiilath was betrothed to Cutho’na, daughter of Ruma, but before the espousals Toscar came from Ireland to Mora, and was hospitably received by Morni. Seeing Cuthona out hunting, Toscar carried her off in his skiff by force, and being overtaken by Conlath they both fell in fight. Three days afterwards Cuthona died of grief.–Ossian, _Conlath and Cuthona_.

CONNAL, son of Colgar, petty king of Togorma, and intimate friend of Cuthullin, general of the Irish tribes. He is a kind of Ulysses, who counsels and comforts Cuthullin in his distress, and is the very opposite of the rash, presumptuous, though generous Calmar.–Ossian, _Fingal_.

CON’NEL (_Father_), an aged Catholic priest full of gentle affectionate feelings. He is the patron of a poor vagrant boy called Neddy Fennel, whose adventures furnished the incidents of Banim’s novel called _Father Connell_ (1842).

_Father Connell_ is not unworthy of association with the Protestant _Vicar of Wakefield_.–R. Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 612.

CONINGSBY, a novel by B. Disraeli. The characters are meant for portraits; thus: “Croker” represents Rigby; “Menmouth,” Lord Hertford; “Eskdale,” Lowther; “Ormsby,” Irving; “Lucretia,” Mde. Zichy; “Countess Colonna,” Lady Strachan; “Sidonia,” Baron A. de Rothschild; “Henry Sidney,” Lord John Manners; “Belvoir,” Duke of Rutland, second son of Beaumanoir. The hero is of noble birth, he loves Edith Millbank, the daughter of a wealthy manufacturer, is returned for Parliament and marries Edith.

CONQUEROR (_The_). Alexander the Great, _The Conqueror of the World_ (B.C. 356, 336-323), Alfonso of Portugal (1094, 1137-1185). Aurungzebe the Great, called _Alemgir_ (1618, 1659-4707), James of Aragon (1206, 1213-1276). Othman or Osman I., founder of the Turkish Empire (1259, 1299-1326). Francisco Pizarro, called _Conquistador_, because he conquered Peru (1475-1541). William, duke of Normandy, who obtained England by conquest (1027,1066-1137).

CON’RAD (_Lord_), the corsair, afterwards called Lara. A proud, ascetic but successful pirate. Hearing that the Sultan, Seyd [Seed], was about to attack the pirates, he entered the palace in the disguise of a dervise, but being found out was seized and imprisoned. He was released by Gulnare (_2 syl_.), the sultan’s favorite concubine, and fled with her to the Pirates’ Isle, but finding Medo’ra dead, he left the island with Gulnare, returned to his native land, headed a rebellion, and was shot.–Lord Byron, _The Corsair_, continued in _Lara_ (1814). CONRAD DRYFOOS, the son of a rich man, the backer and virtual proprietor of _Every Other Week_, in W. D. Howells’s novel, _A Hazard of New Fortunes_.

“He’s got a good head and he wanted to study for the ministry when they were all living together out on the farm … You know they used
to think that any sort of stuff was good enough to make a preacher out of; but they wanted the good timber for business, and so the old man wouldn’t let him.”

Foiled in this purpose, Conrad becomes a reformer and receives a mortal wound in the attempt to protect an old Socialist against the police, who are trying to quell a mob of strikers (1890).

CON’RADE (_2 syl._), a follower of Don John (bastard brother of Don Pedro, Prince of Aragon).–Shakespeare, _Much Ado About Nothing_ (1600).

_Conrade_ (_2 syl._), Marquis of Montserrat, who, with the grand-master of the Templars, conspired against Richard Coeur de Lion. He was unhorsed in combat, and murdered in his tent by the Templar.–Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

CONSTANCE, mother of Prince Arthur, and widow of Geoffrey Plantagenet.–Shakespeare, _King John_ (1598).

Mrs. Bartley’s “Lady Macbeth,” “Constance,” and “Queen Katherine” [_Henry VIII._], were powerful embodiments, and I question if they have ever since been so finely portrayed (1785-1850).–J. Adolphus, _Recollections_.

_Constance_, daughter of Sir William Fondlove, and courted by Wildrake, a country squire, fond of field sports. “Her beauty rich, richer her grace, her mind yet richer still, though richest all.” She was “the mould express of woman, stature, feature, body, limb;” she danced well, sang well, harped well. Wildrake was her childhood’s playmate, and became her husband.–S. Knowles, _The Love Chase_ (1837).

_Constance_, daughter of Bertulphe, provost of Bruges, and bride of Bouchard, a knight of Flanders. She had “beauty to shame young love’s most fervent dream, virtue to form a saint, with just enough of earth to keep her woman.” By an absurd law of Charles “the Good,” earl of Flanders, made in 1127, this young lady, brought up in the lap of luxury, was reduced to serfdom, because her grandfather was a serf; her aristocratic husband was also a serf because he married her (a serf). She went mad at the reverse of fortune, and died.–S. Knowles, _The Provost of Bruges_ (1836).

_Constance Varley_. American girl traveling in the East with friends, and bearing with her everywhere the memory of a man she has loved for years in secret. She meets him at Damascus and after some days of pleasant companionship, he resolves to offer his hand to her. The words are upon his tongue, when an unfortunate misunderstanding divides them forever. A year later she marries another man who loves her sincerely without appreciating the finest part of her nature.

A woman quotes at sight of Constance’s portrait:

“I discern
Infinite passion and the pain
Of finite hearts that yearn.”

“There was a singular suggestion of sadness about the grave sweet eyes, and on the small close mouth.”–Julia C. Fletcher, _Mirage_ (1882).

CONSTANS, a mythical king of Britain. He was the eldest of the three sons of Constantine, his two brothers being Aurelius Ambrosius and