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CYR’IC _(St.)_, the saint to whom sailors address themselves. The St. Elmo of the Welsh.

The weary mariners
Called on St. Cyric’s aid.
Southey, _Madoc_, i. 4 (1805).

CYRUS AND TOM’YRIS. Cyrus, after subduing the eastern parts of Asia, was defeated by Tomyris queen of the Massage’tae, in Scythia. Tomyris cut off his head, and threw it into a vessel filled with human blood, saying, as she did so, “There, drink thy fill.” Dante refers to this incident in his _Purgatory_, xii.

Consyder Syrus …
He whose huge power no man might overthrowe, Tom’yris Queen with great despite hath slowe, His head dismembered from his mangled corps Herself she cast into a vessel fraught
With clotted bloud of them that felt her force. And with these words a just reward she taught– “Drynke now thy fyll of thy desired draught.” T. Sackville, _A Mirrour for Magistraytes_ (“The Complaynt,” 1587).

CYTHERE’A, Venus; so called from Cythe’ra (now _Cerigo_), a mountainous island of Laco’nia, noted for the worship of Aphrodite (or Venus). The tale is that Venus and Mars, having formed an illicit affection for each other, were caught in a delicate net made by Vulcan, and exposed to the ridicule of the court of Olympus.

He the fate [_May sing_]
Of naked Mars with Cytherea chained. Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_.

CYZE’NIS, the infamous daughter of Diomed, who killed every one that fell into her clutches, and compelled fathers to eat their own children.

CZAR (_Casar_), a title first assumed in Russia by Ivan III., who, in 1472, married a princess of the imperial Byzantine line. He also introduced the double-headed black eagle of Byzantium as the national symbol. The official style of the Russian autocrat is _Samoderjetz_. D’ACUNHA (_Teresa_), waiting-woman to the countess of Glenallan.–Sir W. Scott, _Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

DAFFODIL. When Perseph’one, the daughter of Deme’ter, was a little maiden, she wandered about the meadows of Enna in Sicily, to gather _white_ daffodils to wreathe into her hair, and being tired she fell asleep. Pluto, the god of the infernal regions, carried her off to become his wife, and his touch turned the white flowers to a golden yellow. Some remained in her tresses till she reached the meadows of Acheron, and falling off there grew into the asphodel, with which the meadows thenceforth abounded.

She stepped upon Sicilian grass,
Demeter’s daughter, fresh and fair, A child of light, a radiant lass,
And gamesome as the morning air.
The daffodils were fair to see,
They nodded lightly on the lea;
Persephone! Persephone!

Jean Ingelow, _Persephone_.

DAGON, sixth in order of the hierarchy of hell: (1) Satan, (2) Beelzebub, (3) Moloch, (4) Chemos, (5) Thammuz, (6) Dagon. Dagon was half man and half fish. He was worshipped in Ashdod, Gath, Ascalon, Ekron, and Gaza (the five chief cities of the Philistines). When the “ark” was placed in his temple, Dagon fell, and the palms of his hands were broken off.

Next came …
Dagon … sea-monster, upward man
And downward fish.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 457, etc. (1665).

DAG’ONET (_Sir_), King Arthur’s fool. One day Sir Dagonet, with two squires, came to Cornwall, and as they drew near a well Sir Tristram soused them all three in, and dripping wet made them mount their horses and ride off, amid the jeers of the spectators (pt. ii. 60).

King Arthur loved Sir Dagonet passing well, and made him knight; with his own hands; and at every tournament he made King Arthur laugh.–Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_. ii. 97 (1470).

Justice Shallow brags that he once personated Sir Dagonet, while he was a student at Clement’s Inn.–Shakespeare, 2 _Henry IV_. act ii. sc. 2 (1598).

[Illustration] Tennyson deviates in this, as he does in so many other instances, from the old romance. The _History_ says that King Arthur made Dagonet knight “with his own hands,” because he “loved him passing well;” but Tennyson says that Sir Gawain made him “a mock-knight of the Round Table.”–_The Last Tournament_, 1.

DAISY MILLER. Mrs. Miller, _nouvelle riche_ and in true American subjection to her children, is travelling abroad. Her only daughter is pretty, unconventional, and so bent upon having “a good time” that she falls under the most degrading suspicions. The climax of flirtation and escapade is a midnight expedition to the Colosseum, where she contracts Roman fever and dies.–Henry James, Jr., _Daisy Miller_ (1878).

DAL’DAH, Mahomet’s favorite white mule.

DALES (_The_), a family in Ashurst, where is laid the scene of _John Ward, Preacher_: By Margaret Deland. The wife is prim and dictatorial, a pattern housewife, with decided views upon all subjects, including religion and matrimony. The husband wears a cashmere dressing-gown, and spreads a red handkerchief over his white hair to protect his white head from draughts; reads “A Sentimental Journey;” looks at his wife before expressing an opinion, and makes an excellent fourth at whist (1888).

DALGA, a Lombard harlot, who tries to seduce young Goltho, but Goltho is saved by his friend Ulfinore.–Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1668).

DALGARNO (_Lord Malcolm of_), a profligate young nobleman, son of the earl of Huntinglen (an old Scotch noble family). Nigel strikes Dalgarno with his sword, and is obliged to seek refuge in “Alsatia.” Lord Dalgarno’s villainy to the Lady Hermione excites the displeasure of King James, and he would have been banished if he had not married her. After this, Lord Dalgarno carries off the wife of John Christie, the ship-owner, and is shot by Captain Colepepper, the Alsatian bully.–Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

DALGETTY (_Dugald_,) of Drumthwacket, the union of the soldado with the pedantic student of Mareschal College. As a soldier of fortune, he is retained in the service of the Earl of Monteith. The Marquis of Argyll (leader of the parliamentary army) tried to tamper with him in prison, but Dugald siezed him, threw him down, and then made his escape, locking the marquis in the dungeon. After the battle, Captain Dalgetty was knighted. This “Ritt-master” is a pedant, very conceited, full of vulgar assurance, with a good stock of worldly knowledge, a student of divinity, and a soldier who lets his sword out to the highest bidder. The character is original and well drawn.–Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

The original of this character was Munro, who wrote an account of the campaigns of that band of Scotch and English auxiliaries in the island of Swinemuende, in 1630. Munro was himself one of the band. Dugald Dalgetty is one of the best of Scott’s characters.

DALTON (_Mrs._), housekeeper to the Rev. Mr. Staunton, of Willingham Rectory.–Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

_Dalton (Beginald)_, the hero of a novel so called, by J. C. Lockhart (1832).

DALZELL (_General Thomas_), in the royal army of Charles II.–Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (1816).

DAME DU LAC, Vivienne le Fay. The lake was “en la marche de la petite Bretaigne;” “en ce lieu … avoit la dame moult de belles maisons et moult riches.”

_Dame du Lac_, Sebille (2 _syl_.). Her castle was surrounded by a river on which rested so thick a fog that no eye could see across it. Alexander the Great abode a fortnight with this fay, to be cured of his wounds, and King Arthur was the result of their amour. (This is not in accordance with the general legends of this noted hero. See ARTHUR.)–_Perceforest_, i. 42.

DAM’IAN, a squire attending on the Grand-Master of the Knights Templars.–Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

DAMIOT’TI (_Dr. Baptisti_), a Paduan quack, who exhibits “the enchanted mirror” to Lady Forester and Lady Bothwell. They see therein the clandestine marriage and infidelity of Sir Philip Forester.–Sir W. Scott, _Aunt Margaret’s Mirror_ (time, William III.). DAMIS _[]_, son of Orgon and Elmire (2 _syl_.), impetuous and self-willed.–Moliere, _Tartuffe_ (1664).


Damn with faint praise, assent with evil leer, And without sneering, teach the rest to sneer. Pope, _Prologue to the Satires_, 201 (1734).

DAMNO’NII, the people of Damnonium, that is, Cornwall, Devon, Dorsetshire, and part of Somersetshire. This region, says Richard of Cirencester (_Hist._ vi. 18), was much frequented by the Phoenician, Greek, and Gallic merchants, for the metals with which it abounded, and particularly for its tin.

Wherein our Devonshire now and fartherest Cornwal are, The old Danmonii [_sic_] dwelt.
Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xvi. (1613).

DAMARIS WAINRIGHT. A woman richly endowed by Nature and fortune, whose mother and brother have died insane. She comes to maidenly maturity under the impression which strengthens into belief that madness is her heritage. After long struggles she accepts the hand of one who has striven steadily to combat what he considers a morbid conviction, and makes ready for her marriage. When dressed for the ceremony she sits down to await her bridegroom, and the image of herself in a tarnished mirror suggests a train of melancholy musing that result in dementia.

“With a mad impulse to flee she sprang to her feet just as Lincoln knocked…. For an instant her failing reason struggled to consciousness as a drowning swimmer writhes a last time to the surface, and gasps a breath only to give it up in futile bubbles that mark the spot where he sank. With a supreme effort her vanquished will for a moment re-asserted itself. She knew her lover was at the door, and she knew also that the feet of doom had been swifter than those of the bridegroom…. She sprang forward and threw open the door.”

“‘I am mad!’ she shrieked, in a voice which pierced to every corner of the old mansion.”

Arlo Bates, _The Wheel of Fire_, (1885).

DAM’OCLES (3 _syl_.), a sycophant, in the court of Dionys’ius _the Elder_, of Syracuse. After extolling the felicity of princes, Dionysius told him he would give him experimental proof thereof. Accordingly he had the courtier arrayed in royal robes and seated at a sumptuous banquet, but overhead was a sword suspended by a single horsehair, and Damocles was afraid to stir, lest the hair should break and the sword fall on him. Dionysius thus intimated that the lives of kings are threatened every hour of the day.–Cicero.

Let us who have not our names in the Red Book console ourselves by thinking comfortably how miserable our betters may be, and that Damocles, who sits on satin cushions, and is served on gold plate, has an awful sword hanging over his head, in the shape of a bailiff, or hereditary disease, or family secret.–Thackeray, _Vanity Fair_, xlvii. (1848).

DAMOE’TAS, a herdsman. Theocritos and Virgil use the name in their pastorals.

And old Damoetas loved to hear our song. Milton, _Lycidas_ (1638).

DA’MON, a goat-herd in Virgil’s third _Eclogue_. Walsh introduces the same name in his _Eclogues_ also. Any rustic, swain, or herdsman.

DAMON AND DELIA. Damon asks Delia why she looks so coldly on him. She replies because of his attention to Belvidera. He says he paid these attentions at her own request, “to hide the secret of their mutual love.” Delia confesses that his prudence is commendable, but his acting is too earnest. To this he rejoins that she alone holds his heart; and Delia replies:

Tho’ well I might your truth mistrust, My foolish heart believes you just;
Reason this faith may disapprove,
But I believe, because I love.

Lord Lyttleton.

DAMON AND MUSIDO’RA, two lovers who misunderstood each other. Musidora was coy, and Damon thought her shyness indicated indifference; but one day he saw her bathing, and his delicacy so charmed the maiden that she at once accepted his proffered love.–Thomson, _The Seasons_ (“Summer,” 1727).

DA’MON AND PYTH’IAS. Damon, a senator of Syracuse, was by nature hot-mettled, but was schooled by Pythagore’an philosophy into a Stoic coldness and slowness of speech. He was a fast friend of the republic, and when Dionysius was made “King” by a vote of the senate, Damon upbraided the betrayers of his country, and pronounced Dionysius a “tryant.” For this he was seized, and as he tried to stab Dionysius, he was condemned to instant death. Damon now craved respite for four hours to bid farewell to his wife and child, but the request was denied him. On his way to execution, his friend Pythias encountered him, and obtained permission of Dionysius to become his surety, and to die in his stead, if within four hours Damon did not return. Dionysius not only accepted the bail, but extended the leave to six hours. When Damon reached his country villa, Lucullus killed his horse to prevent his return; but Damon, seizing the horse of a chance traveler, reached Syracuse just as the executioner was preparing to put Pythias to death. Dionysius so admired this proof of friendship, that he forgave Damon, and requested to be taken into his friendship.

This subject was dramatized in 1571 by Richard Edwards, and again in 1825 by John Banim.

(The classic name of _Pythias_ is “Phintias.”)

DAMSEL OR DAMOISEAU (in Italian, _donzel_; in Latin, _domisellus_); one of the gallant youths domiciled in the _maison du roi._ These youths were always sons of the greater vassals. Louis VII. _(le Jeune_) was called “The Royal Damsel;” and at one time the royal body-guard was called “The King’s Damsells.”

DAMSEL OF BRITTANY, Eleanor, daughter of Godffrey (second son of Henry II. of England). After the death of Arthur, his sister Eleanor was next in succession to the crown, but John, who had caused Arthur’s death, confined Eleanor in Bristol Castle, where she remained till her death, in 1241.

D’AMVILLE (2 _syl_), “the atheist,” with the assistance of Borachio, murdered Montferrers, his brother, for his estates.–Cyril Tourneur, _The Atheists Tragedy_ (seventeenth century).

DAM’YAN (2 _syl_.), the lover of May (the youthful bride of January, a Lombard knight, 60 years of age).–Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Merchant’s Tale,” 1388).

DAN OF THE HOWLET HIRST, the dragon of the revels at Kennaquhair Abbey.–Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ and _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

DAN’AE, (3 _syl_.), an Argive princess, visited by Zeus [Jupiter] in the form of a shower of gold, while she was confined in an inaccessible tower.

DANAID (3 _syl_), Dan’aus had fifty daughters, called the Danaids or Dana’ides. These fifty women married the fifty sons of AEgyptus, and (with one exception) murdered their husbands on the night of their espousals. For this crime they were doomed in Hades to pour water everlastingly into sieves.

Let not your prudence, dearest, drowse or prove The Danaid of a leaky vase.

Tennyson, _The Princess_, ii.

DANCING CHANCELLOR _(The)_, Sir Christopher Hatton, who attracted the attention of Queen Elizabeth by his graceful dancing, at a masque. She took him into favor, and made him both Chancellor and knight of the Garter (died 1591).

[Illustration] Mons. de Lauzun, the favorite of Louis XIV., owed his fortune to his grace in dancing in the king’s quadrille.

Many more than one nobleman owed the favor he enjoyed at court to the way he pointed his toe or moved his leg.–A. Dumas, _Taking the Bastile._

DANCING WATER _(The)_, from the Burning forest. This water had the power of imparting youthful beauty to those who used it. Prince Chery, aided by a dove, obtained it for Fairstar.

The dancing water is the eighth wonder of the world. It beautifies ladies, makes them young again, and even enriches them.–Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Princess Fairstar,” 1682).

DANDIES _(The Prince of_), Beau Brummel (1778-1840).

DANDIN _(George)_, a rich French tradesman, who marries Ang’elique, the daughter of Mons. le Baron de Sotenville, and has the “privilege” of paying-off the family debts, maintaining his wife’s noble parents, and being snubbed on all occasions to his heart’s content. He constantly said to himself; in self-rebuke, _Vous Vavez voulu, vous Vavez voulu, George Dandin!_ (“You have no one to blame but yourself! you brought it on yourself, George Dandin!”)

Vous l’avez voulu, vous l’avez voulu, George Dandin! vous l’avez voulu!… vous avez juste-ment ce que vous meritez.–Moliere, _George
Dandin_, i. 9 (1668).

“Well, _tu l’as voulu_, George Dandin,” she said, with a smile, “you were determined on it, and must bear the consequences.”–Percy Fitzgerald, _The Parvenu Family_, ii. 262.

[Illustration] There is no such phrase in the comedy as _Tu l’as voulu_, it is always _Vous Vavez voulu_.

DAN’DOLO _(Signor)_, a friend to Fazio in prosperity, but who turns from him when in disgrace. He says:

Signor, I am paramount
In all affairs of boot and spur and hose; In matters of the robe and cap supreme; In ruff disputes, my lord, there’s no appeal From my irrefragibility.

Dean Milman, _Fazio_, ii. I (1815).

DANGEAU _(Jouer a la_), to play as good a hand at cards as Phillippe de Courcillon, marquis de Dangeau (1638-1720).

DAN’GERFLELD _(Captain)_, a hired witness in the “Popish Plot”–Sir W. Scott, _Pe-veril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

DANGLE, a gentleman bitten with the theatrical mania, who annoys a manager with impertinent flattery and advice. It is said that Thomas Vaughan, a playwright of small reputation, was the original of this character.–Sheridan, _The Critic_ (see act i. I), (1779).

DAN’HASCH, one of the genii who did not “acknowledge the great Solomon.”

When the Princess Badoura in her sleep was carried to the bed of Prince Camaral’zaman that she might see him, Danhasch changed himself into a flea, and bit her lip, at which Badoura awoke, saw the prince sleeping by her side, and afterwards became his wife.–_Arabian Nights_ (“Camaralzarnan and Badoura.”)

DANIEL, son of Widow Lackitt; a wealthy Indian planter. A noodle of the softest mould, whom Lucy Weldon marries for his money.–Thomas Southern, _Oroonoko_ (1696).

DAN’NISCHEMEND, the Persian sorcerer, mentioned in Donnerhugel’s narrative.–Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

DANTE AND BEATRICE. Some say that Beatrice, in Dante’s _Divina Commedia_, merely personifies faith; others think it a real character, and say she was the daughter of the illustrious family of Portinari, for whom the poet entertained a purely platonic affection. She meets the poet after he has been dragged through the river Lethe _(Purgatory_, xxxi), and conducts him through paradise. Beatrice Portina’ri married Simon de Bardi, and died at the age of 24; Dante was a few months older.

Some persons say that Dante meant Theology By Beatrice, and not a mistress; I …
Deem this a commentator’s phantasy.

Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. 11 (1820).

DANTE AND-VIRGIL. Virgil was Dante’s poetic master and is described as conducting him through the realms depicted in the _Divina Commedia_.

[Illustration] The poet married Gemma, of the powerful house of Donati. (See LOVES).

_Dante’s Beard_. All the pictures of

Dante which I have seen represent him without any beard or hair on his face at all; but in _Purgatory_, xxxi., Beatrice says to him, “Raise thou thy beard, and lo! what sight shall do,” _i.e._ lift up your face and look about you; and he adds, “No sooner lifted I mine aspect up … than mine eyes _(encountered)_ Beatrice.”

DAN DEVEREUX. A young Nantucket giant married to a dainty waif rescued in infancy from the sea. He marries her because she is homeless and seems to be in love with him. When too late, he knows that his affections are another’s, and sees his wife fascinated by a handsome French adventurer. In an attempt to elope, the wife and her lover are wrecked, and clinging to a spar, are overtaken by the “terrible South Breaker–plunging and rearing and swelling, a monstrous billow, sweeping and swooping and rocking in.” Dan in later life, marries Georgia, his first love.–Harriet Prescott Spofford, _The South Breaker_ (1863).

DANTON OF THE CEVENNES. Pierre Seguier, prophet and preacher of Magistavols, in France. He was a leader amongst the Camisards.

DANVERS _(Charles)_, an embyro barrister of the Middle Temple.–C. Selby, _The Unfinished Gentleman._

DAPH’NE (2 _syl_.)., daughter of Sileno and Mysis, and sister of Nysa. The favorite of Apollo while sojourning on earth in the character of a shepherd lad named “Pol.”–Kate O’Hara, _Midas_ (a burletta, 1778).

(In classic mythology Daphne fled from the amorous god, and escaped by being changed into a laurel.)

DAPH’NIS, a beautiful Sicilian shepherd, the inventor of bucolic poetry. He was a son of Mercury, and friend both of Pan and Apollo.

_Daph’nis_, the modest shepherd.

This is that modest shepherd, he
That only dare salute, but ne’er could be Brought to kiss any, hold discourse, or sing, Whisper, or boldly ask.

John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherdess_, i. 3 (1610).

DAPH’NIS AND CHLO’E, a prose pastoral love story in Greek, by Longos (a Byzantine), not unlike the tale of _The Gentle Shepherd_, by Allan Ramsay. Gessner has also imitated the Greek romance in his idyll called _Daphnis_. In this lovestory Longos says he was hunting in Lesbos, and saw in a grove consecrated to the nymphs a beautiful picture of children exposed, lovers plighting their faith, and the incursions of pirates, which he now expresses and dedicates to Pan, Cupid, and the nymphs. Daphnis, of course, is the lover of Chloe.

DAPPER, a lawyer’s clerk, who went to Subtle “the alchemist,” to be supplied with “a familiar” to make him win in horse-racing, cards, and all games of chance. Dapper is told to prepare himself for an interview with the fairy queen by taking “three drops of vinegar in at the nose, two at the mouth, and one at either ear,” “to cry _hum_ thrice and _buzz_ as often.”–Ben Jonson, _The Alchemist_ (1610).

DAPPLE, the donkey ridden by Sancho Panza, in Cervantes’ romance of _Don Quixote_ (1605-1615).

DARBY AND JOAN. This ballad, called _The Happy Old Couple_, is printed in the _Gentleman’s Magazine_, v. 153 (March, 1735).

It is also in Plumtre’s _Collections of Songs_, 152 (Camb. 1805), with the music. The words are sometimes attributed to Prior, and the first line favors the notion: “Dear _Chloe_, while thus beyond measure;” only Prior always spells _Chloe_ without “h.”

Darby and Joan are an old-fashioned, loving couple, wholly averse to change of any sort. It is generally said that Henry Woodfall was the author of the ballad, and that the originals were John Darby (printer, of Bartholomew Close, who died 1730) and his wife Joan. Woodfall served his apprenticeship with John Darby.

“You may be a Darby _[Mr. Hardcastle]_, but I’ll be no Joan, I promise you.”–Goldsmith, _She Stoops to Conquer_, i. 1 (1773).

DRADU-LE’NA, the daughter of Foldath, general of the Fir-bolg or Belgae settled in the south of Ireland. When Foldath fell in battle,

His soul rushed to the vale of Mona, to Dardu-Lena’s dream, by Dalrutho’s stream, where she slept, returning from the chase of hinds. Her bow is near the maid, unstrung … Clothed in the beauty of youth, the love of heroes lay. Dark-bending from … the wood her wounded father seemed to come. He appeared at times, then hid himself in mist.
Bursting into tears, she arose. She knew that the chief was low … Thou wert the last of his race, O blue-eyed Dardu-Lena!–Ossian, _Temora_, v.

DARGO, the spear of Ossian, son of Fingal.–Ossian, _Calthon and Colmal_.

DAR’GONET, “the Tall,” son of Astolpho, and brother of Paradine. In the fight provoked by Oswald against Duke Grondibert, which was decided by four combatants against four, Dargonet was slain by Hugo the Little. Dargonet and his brother were rivals for the love of Lora.–Sir Wm. Davenant, _Gondibert_, i. (died 1668).

DARI’US AND HIS HORSE. The seven candidates for the throne of Persia agreed that he should be king whose horse neighed first. As the horse of Darius was the first to neigh, Darius was proclaimed king.

That brave Scythian
Who found more sweetness in his horse’s neighing Than all the Phrygian, Dorian, Lydian playing.

Lord Brooke.

DARLEMONT, guardian and maternal uncle of Julio of Harancour; formerly a merchant. He takes possession of the inheritance of his ward by foul means, but is proud as Lucifer, suspicious, exacting, and tyrannical. Every one fears him; no one loves him.–Thorn. Holcroft, _Deaf and Dumb_ (1785.)

DARLING _(Grace)_, daughter of William Darling, lighthouse-keeper on Longs tone, one of the Fame Islands. On the morning of September 7, 1838, Grace and her father saved nine of the crew of the _Forfarshire_ steamer, wrecked among the Fame Islands opposite Bamborough Castle (1815-1842).

DARNAY _(Charles)_, the lover and afterwards the husband of Lucie Manette. He bore a strong likeness to Sydney Carton, and was a noble character, worthy of Lucie. His real name was Evremonde.–C. Dickens, _A Tale of Two Cities_ (1859.)

DARNEL _(Aurelia)_, a character in Smollet’s novel entitled _The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves_ (1760).

DARNLEY, the _amant_ of Charlotte [Lambert], in _The Hypocrite_, by Isaac Bicker-staff. In Moliere’s comedy of _Tartuffe_, Charlotte is called “Mariane,” and Darnley is “Valere.”

DAR’-THULA, daughter of Colla, and “fairest of Erin’s maidens.” She fell in love with Nathos, one of the three sons of Usnoth, lord of Etha (in Argyllshire). Cairbar, the rebel was also in love with her, but his suit was rejected. Nathos was made commander of King Cormac’s army at the death of Cuthullin, and for a time upheld the tottering throne. But the rebel grew stronger and stronger, and at length found means to murder the young king; whereupon the army under Nathos deserted. Nathos was now obliged to quit Ireland, and Dar-Thula fled with him. A storm drove the vessel back to Ulster, where Cairbar was encamped, and Nathos, with his two brothers, being overpowered by numbers, fell. Dar-Thula was arrayed as a young warrior; but when her lover was slain “her shield fell from her arm; her breast of snow appeared, but it was stained with blood. An arrow was fixed in her side,” and her dying blood was mingled with that of the three brothers.–Ossian, _Dar-Thula_ (founded on the story of “Deirdri,” i. _Trans, of the Gaelic Soc_.)

DAR’TLE (_Rosa_), companion of Mrs. Steerforth. She loved Mrs. Steerforth’s son, but her love was not reciprocated. Miss Dartle is a vindictive woman, noted for a scar on her lip, which told tales when her temper was aroused. This scar was from a wound given by young Steerforth, who struck her on the lip when a boy.–C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

DARWIN’S MISSING LINK, the link between the monkey and man. According to Darwin, the present host of animal life began from a few elemental forms, which developed, and by natural selection propagated certain types of animals, while others less suited to the battle of life died out. Thus, beginning with the larvae of ascidians (a marine mollusc,) we get by development to fish lowly organized (as the lancelet), thence to ganoids and other fish, then to amphibians. From amphibians we get to birds and reptiles, and thence to mammals, among which comes the monkey, between which and man is a MISSING LINK.

DASHALL (_The Hon. Tom_), cousin of Tally-ho. The rambles and adventures of these two blades are related by Pierce Egan (1821-1822).

D’ASUMAR (_Count_), an old Nestor who fancied nothing was so good as when he was a young man.

“Alas! I see no men nowadays comparable to those I knew heretofore; and the tournaments are not performed with half the magnificence as when I was a young man….” Seeing some fine peaches served up, he observed, “In my time, the peaches were much larger than they are at present; natures degenerates every day.” “At that rate,” said his companion, smiling, “the peaches of Adam’s time must have been wonderfully large.”–Lesage, _Gil Blas_, iv. 7 (1724).

DAUGHTER (_The_), a drama by S. Knowles (1836). Marian, “daughter” of Robert, once a wrecker, was betrothed to Edward, a sailor, who went on his last voyage, and intended then to marry her. During his absence a storm at sea arose, a body was washed ashore, and Robert went down to plunder it. Marian went to look for her father and prevent his robbing those washed ashore by the waves, when she saw in the dusk some one stab a wrecked body. It was Black Norris, but she thought it was her father. Robert being taken up Marian gave witness against him, and he was condemned to death. Norris said he would save her father if she would marry him, and to this she consented; but on the wedding day Edward returned. Norris was taken up for murder, and Marian was saved.

DAUGHTER WITH HER MURDERED FATHER’S HEAD. Margaret Roper, daughter of Sir Thomas More, obtained privately the head of her father, which had been exposed for some days on London Bridge, and buried it in St. Dunstan’s Church, Canterbury (1835). Tennyson alludes to this in the following lines:–

Morn broadened on the borders of the dark, Ere I saw her who clasped in her last trance Her murdered father’s head.

The head of the young earl of Derwent-water was exposed on Temple Bar in 1716. His wife drove in a cart under the the arch, and a man, hired for the purpose, threw the young earl’s head into the cart, that it might be decently buried–Sir Bernard Burke Mdlle. de Sombreuil, daughter of the Comte de Sombreuil, insisted on the sharing her father’s prison during the “Reign of Terror,” and in accompanying him to the guillotine.

DAUPHIN _(Le Grand_), Louis duc de Bourgoyne, eldest son of Louis XIV., for whom was published the _Delphine Classics_ (1661-1711).

_Dauphin (Le Petit)_, son of the “Grand Dauphin” (1682-1712).

DAURA, daughter of Armin. She was betrothed to Armar, son of Armart, Erath a rival lover having been rejected by her. One day, disguised as an old grey-beard, Erath told Daura that he was sent to conduct her to Armar, who was waiting for her. Without suspicion she followed her guide, who took her to a rock in the midst of the sea, and there left her. Her brother Arindal, returning from the chase, saw Erath on the shore, and bound him to an oak; then pushing off the boat, went to fetch back his sister. At this crisis Armar came up, and discharged his arrow at Erath; but the arrow struck Arindal, and killed him. “The boat broke in twain,” and Armar plunged into the sea to rescue his betrothed; but a “sudden blast from the hills struck him, and he sank to rise no more.” Daura was rescued by her father, but she haunted the shore all night in a drenching rain. Next day “her voice grew very feeble; it died away; and spent with grief, she expired.” Ossian, _Songs of Selma_.

DAVENANT (_Lord_), a bigamist. One wife was Marianne Dormer, whom he forsook in three months. It was given out that he was dead, and Marianne in time married Lord Davenant’s son. His other wife was Louisa Travers, who was engaged to Captain Dormer, but was told that the Captain was faithless and had married another. When the villainy of his lordship could be no longer concealed he destroyed himself.

_Lady Davenant_, one of the two wives of Lord Davenant. She was “a faultless wife,” with beauty to attract affection, and every womanly grace.

_Charles Davenant_, a son of Lord Davenant, who married Marianne Dormer, his father’s wife.–Cumberland, _The Mysterious Husband_ (1783).

_Davenant (Will)_, a supposed descendant from Shakespeare, and Wildrake’s friend,–Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, the Commonwealth).

DAVENPORT (_Colonel_), a Revolutionary veteran who, fighting the battle of Long Island over again in Parson Cushing’s family, admits that General Washington poured out “a terrible volley of curses.”

“And he swore?” objects Parson Gushing.

“It was not profane swearing. It was not taking GOD’S name in vain, for it sent us back as if we had been chased by lightning. It was an awful hour, and he saw it. It was life or death; country or no country.”–Harriet Beecher Stowe, _Poganuc People_ (1878).

DAVID, in Dryden’s satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_ is meant for Charles II. As David’s beloved son Absalom rebelled against him, so the Duke of Monmouth rebelled against his father Charles II. As Achitophel was a traitorous counsellor to David, so was the Earl of Shaftesbury to Charles II. As Hushai outwitted Achitophel, so Hyde (duke of Eochester) outwitted the Earl of Shaftesbury, etc., etc.

Auspicious prince.
Thy longing country’s darling and desire, Their cloudy pillar, and their guardian fire … The people’s prayer, the glad diviner’s theme, The young men’s vision and the old men’s dream.

Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1681).

_David_, king of North Wales, eldest son of Owen, by his second wife. Owen died in 1169. David married Emma Plantagenet, a Saxon princess. He slew his brother Hoel and his half-brother Yorworth (son of Owen by his first wife), who had been set aside from the succession in consequence of a blemish in the face. He also imprisoned his brother Rodri, and drove others into exile. Madoc, one of his brothers, went to America, and established there a Welsh colony.–Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

DAVID SOVINE. Witness in a murder case in Edward Eggleston’s novel _The Graysons._ He is put upon the stand and tells a plausible story of “the shooting,” which he claims to have seen. The prosecutor then hands him over to the prisoner’s counsel, Abraham Lincoln, whose cross-examination of the wretched man concludes thus:

“Why does David Sovine go to all this trouble to perjure himself? Why does he wish to swear away the life of that young man who never did him any harm? Because that witness shot and killed George Lockwood himself. I move your honor that David Sovine be arrested at once for murder!” (1888).

DAVID SWAN. A native of New Hampshire, born of respectable parents who has had a “classic finish” by a year at Grilmanton Academy. He lies down to sleep at noon of a Summer’s day, pillowing his head on a bundle of clothing. While sound asleep in the shade, he is passed by many people on the road. Five or six pause to survey the youth and comment upon him. Awakened by the stage-coach, he mounts to the top, and bowls away, unconscious that a phantom of Wealth, of Love and of Death had visited him in the brief hour since he lay down to sleep.–Nathaniel Hawthorn, _Twice-told Tales_, (1851.)

_David (St.)_, son of Xantus, prince of Cereticu _(Cardiganshire)_ and the nun Malearia. He was the uncle of King Arthur. St. David first embraced the ascetic life in the Isle of Wight, but subsequently removed to Menevia, in Pembrokeshire, where he founded twelve convents. In 577 the archbishop of Caerleon resigned his see to him, and St. David removed the seat of it to Menevia, which was subsequently called St. David’s and became the metropolis of Wales. He died at the age of 146, in the year 642. The waters of Bath “owe their warmth and salutary qualities to the benediction of this saint.” Drayton says he lived in the valley of Ewias (2 _syl_.), between the hills of Hatterill, in Monmouthshire.

Here in an aged cell with moss and ivy grown, In which not to this day the sun hath ever shown. That reverend British saint in zealous ages past, To contemplation lived.

_Polyolbion_, iv. (1612.)

DAVID AND JONATHAN, inseparable friends. The allusion is to David the Psalmist and Jonathan the son of Saul. David’s lamentation at the death of Jonathan was never surpassed in pathos and beauty.–2 _Samuel_, i. 19-27.


So ofte thy neighbors banquet in thy hall, Till Davie Debet in thy parler stand,
And bids thee welcome to thine own decay.

G. Gascoigne, _Magnum Vectigal, etc_. (died 1775).

DAVIE OF STENHONSE, a friend of Hobbie Elliott.–Sir W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

DAVIES (_John_), an old fisherman employed by Joshua Geddes the quaker.–Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III).

DA’VUS, a plain, uncouth servitor; a common name for a slave in Greek and Roman plays, as in the _Andria_ of Terence.

His face made of brass, like a vice in a game. His gesture like Davus, whom Terence doth name.

T. Tusser, _Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry_, liv. (1557).

_Davus sum, non Oedipus._ I am a homely man, and do not understand hints, innuendoes, and riddles, like Oedipus. Oedipus was the Theban who expounded the riddle of the Sphinx, that puzzled all his countrymen. Davus was the stock name of a servant or slave in Latin comedies. The proverb is used by Terence, _Andria_, 1, 2, 23.

DAVY, the varlet of Justice Shallow, who so identifies himself with his master that he considers himself half host half varlet. Thus when he seats Bardolph and Page at table, he tells them they must take “his” good will for their assurance of welcome.–Shakespeare, 2 _Henry IV_. (1598).

DAW (_Sir David_), a rich, dunder-headed baronet of Monmouthshire, without wit, words, or worth, but believing himself somebody, and fancying himself a sharp fellow, because his servants laugh at his good sayings, and his mother calls him a wag. Sir David pays his suit to Miss [Emily] Tempest; but as the affections of the young lady are fixed on Henry Woodville, the baron goes to the wall.–Cumberland, _The Wheel of Fortune_ (1779).

_Daw (Marjorie)_ Edward Delaney, writing to another young fellow, John Flemming, confined in town in August by a broken leg, interests him in a charming girl, Marjorie Daw by name, whom he has met in his (Delaney’s) summering-place. His description of her ways, sayings and looks so works upon the imagination of the invalid that he falls madly in love with her–_without_ sight. As soon as he can travel he rushes madly down to “The Pines” where his friend is staying, and finds instead of Delaney a letter:

… “I tried to make a little romance to interest you, something soothing and idyllic, and by Jove! I’ve done it only too well … I fly from the wrath to come–when you arrive! For, O, dear Jack, there isn’t any colonial mansion on the other side of the road, there isn’t any piazza, there isn’t any hammock,–there isn’t any Marjorie Daw!”

Thomas Bailey Aldrich, _Marjorie Daw_ (1873).

DAWFYD, “the one-eyed” freebooter chief.–Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

DAWKINS (_Jack_), known by the sobriquet of the “Artful Dodger.” He is one of Fagin’s tools. Jack Dawkins is a young scamp of unmitigated villainy, and full of artifices, but of a cheery, buoyant temper.–C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_, viii. (1837).

DAWSON (_Bully_), a London sharper, bully, and debauchee of the seventeenth century.–See _Spectator_, No. 2.

Bully Dawson kicked by half the town, and half the town kicked by Bully Dawson.–Charles Lamb.

_Dawson (Jemmy)._ Captain James Dawson was one of the eight officers belonging to the Manchester volunteers in the service of Charles Edward, the young pretender. He was a very amiable young man, engaged to a young lady of family and fortune, who went in her carriage to witness his execution for treason. When the body was drawn, _i.e._ embowelled, and the heart thrown into the fire, she exclaimed, “James Dawson!” and expired. Shenstone has made this the subject of a tragic ballad.

Young Dawson was a gallant youth,
A brighter never trod the plain;
And well he loved one charming maid, And dearly was he loved again.

Shenstone, _Jemmy Dawson_.

_Dawson (Phoebe)_, “the pride of Lammas Fair,” courted by all the smartest young men of the village, but caught “by the sparkling eyes” and ardent words of a tailor. Phoebe had by him a child before marriage, and after marriage he turned a “captious tyrant and a noisy sot.” Poor Phoebe drooped, “pinched were her looks, as one who pined for bread,” and in want and sickness she sank into an early tomb. This sketch is one of the best in Crabbe’s _Parish Register_ (1807).

DAY (_Justice_), a pitiable hen-pecked husband, who always addresses his wife as “duck” or “duckie.”

_Mrs. Day_, wife of the “justice,” full of vulgar dignity, overbearing, and loud. She was formerly the kitchen-maid of her husband’s father; but being raised from the kitchen to the parlor, became my lady paramount.

In the comedy from which this farce is taken, “Mrs. Day” was the kitchen-maid in the family of Colonel Careless, and went by the name of Gillian. In her exalted state she insisted on being addressed as “Your honor” or “Your ladyship.”

Margaret Woffington [1718-1760], in “Mrs. Day,” made no scruples to disguise her beautiful face by drawing on it the lines of deformity, and to put on the tawdry habiliments and vulgar manners of an old hypocritical city vixen.–Thomas Davies.

_Abel Day_, a puritanical prig, who can do nothing without Obadiah. This “downright ass” (act i. I) aspires to the hand of the heiress Arabella.–T. Knight, _The Honest Thieves_.

This farce is a mere _rechauffe_ of _The Committee_, a comedy by the Hon. Sir R. Howard (1670). The names of “Day,” “Obadiah,” and “Arabella” are the same.

_Day (Ferquhard)_, the absentee from the clan Chattan ranks at the conflict.–Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

DAY OF THE DUPES, November 11, 1630. The dupes were Marie de Medicis, Anne of Austria, and Gaston, duc d’Orleans, who were outwitted by Cardinal Richelieu. The plotters had induced Louis XIII. to dismiss his obnoxious minister, whereupon the cardinal went at once to resign the seals of office; the king repented, re-established the cardinal, and he became more powerful than ever.


BECKET. Tuesday was Becket’s day. He was born on a Tuesday, and on a Tuesday was assassinated. He was baptized on a Tuesday, took his flight from Northampton on a Tuesday, withdrew to France on a Tuesday, had his vision of martydom on a Tuesday, returned to England on a Tuesday, his body was removed from the crypt to the shrine on a Tuesday, and on Tuesday (April 13, 1875) Cardinal Manning consecrated the new church dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket.

CROMWELL’S day was September 3. On September 3, 1650, he won the battle of Dunbar; on September 3, 1651, he won the battle of Worcester; on September 3, 1658, he died.

HAROLD’S day was October 14. It was his birthday, and also the day of his death. William the Conqueror was born on the same day, and, on October 14, 1066, won England by conquest.

NAPOLEON’S day was August 15, his birthday; but his his “lucky” day, like that of his nephew, Napoleon III., was the 2nd of the month. He was made consul for life on August 2, 1802; was crowned December 2, 1804; won his greatest battle, that of Austerlitz, for which he obtained the title of “Great,” December 2, 1805; married the archduchess of Austria, April 2, 1810; etc.

NAPOLEON III. The _coup d’etat_ was December 2, 1851. Louis Napoleon was made emperor December 2, 1852; he opened, at Saarbrueck, the Franco-German war August 2, 1870; and surrendered his sword to William of Prussia, September 2, 1870.

DAZZLE, in _London Assurance_, by D. Boucicault.

“Dazzle” and “Lady Gay Spanker” “act themselves,” and will never be dropped out of the list of acting plays.–Percy Fitzgerald.

DE BOURGO (_William_), brother of the earl of Ulster and commander of the English forces that defeated Felim O’Connor (1315) at Athunree, in Connaught.

Why tho’ fallen her brother kerne [_Irish infantry_] Beneath De Bourgo’s battle stern.

Campbell, _O’Connor’s Child_.

DE COURCY, in a romance called _Women_, by the Rev. C.R. Maturin. An Irishman, made up of contradictions and improbabilities. He is in love with Zaira, a brilliant Italian, and also with her unknown daughter, called Eva Wentworth, a model of purity. Both women are blighted by his inconstancy. Eva dies, but Zaira lives to see De Courcy perish of remorse (1822).

DE GARD, a noble staid gentleman, newly lighted from his travels; brother of Oria’na, who “chases” Mi’rabel “the wild goose,” and catches him.–Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Wild-goose Chase_ (1652).

DE L’EPEE (_Abbe_). Seeing a deaf and dumb lad abandoned in the streets of Paris, he rescues him, and brings him up under the name of Theodore. The foundling turned out to be Julio, count of Harancour.

“In your opinion, who is the greatest genius that France has ever produced?” “Science would decide for D’Alembert, Nature [_would_] say Buffon; Wit and Taste [_would_] present Voltaire; and Sentiment plead for Rousseau; but Genius and Humanity cry out for De l’Epee, and him I call the best and greatest of human creatures.”–Th. Holcroft, _The Deaf and Dumb_, iii. 2. (1785).

DE VALMONT (_Count_), father of Florian and uncle of Geraldine. During his absence in the wars, he left his kinsman, the Baron Longueville, guardian of his castle; but under the hope of coming into the property, the baron set fire to the castle, intending thereby to kill the wife and her infant boy. When De Valmont returned and knew his losses, he became a wayward recluse, querulous, despondent, frantic at times, and at times most melancholy. He adopted an infant “found in a forest,” who turned out to be his son. His wife was ultimately found, and the villainy of Longueville was brought to light.–W. Dimond, _The Foundling of the Forest._

Many “De Valmonts” I have witnessed in fifty-four years, but have never seen the equal of Joseph George Holman [1764-1817].–Donaldson.

DEAF AND DUMB (_The_), a comedy by Thomas Holcroft. “The deaf and dumb” boy is Julio, count of Harancour, a ward of M. Darlemont, who, in order to get possession of his ward’s property, abandons him when very young in the streets of Paris. Here he is rescued by the Abbe De l’Epee, who brings him up under the name of Theodore. The boy being recognized by his old nurse and others, Darlemont confesses his crime, and Julio is restored to his rank and inheritance.–Th. Holcroft, _The Deaf and Dumb_ (1785).

DEAN OF ST. PATRICK (_The_), Jonathan Swift, who was appointed to the deanery in 1713, and retained it till his death. (1667-1745).

DEANS (_Douce Davie_), the cowherd at Edinburgh, noted for his religious peculiarities, his magnanimity in affection, and his eccentricities.

_Mistress Rebecca Deans_, Douce Davie’s second wife.

_Jeanie Deans_, daughter of Douce Davie Deans, by his first wife. She marries Reuben Butler, the Presbyterian minister. Jeanie Deans is a model of good sense, strong affection, resolution, and disinterestedness. Her journey from Edinburgh to London is as interesting as that of _Elizabeth_ from Siberia to Moscow, or of Bunyan’s pilgrim.

_Effie [Euphemia] Deans_, daughter of Douce Davie Deans, by his second wife. She is betrayed by George [afterward Sir George] Staunton (called _Geordie Robertson_) and imprisoned for child-murder. Jeanie goes to the queen and sues for pardon, which is vouchsafed to her, and Staunton does what he can to repair the mischief he has done by marrying Effie, who thus becomes Lady Staunton. Soon after this Sir George is shot by a gypsy boy, who proves to be his own son, and Effie retires to a convent on the Continent.–Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II).

[Illustration] J.E.Millais has a picture of Effie Deans keeping tryst with George Staunton.

[Illustration] The prototype of Jeanie Deans was Helen Walker, to whose memory Sir W. Scott erected a tombstone in Irongray churchyard (Kirkcudbright).

DEAN (Elder). Rigid and puritaincal church, official who brings a charge of heretical opinions and blacksliding against his pastor’s wife in _John Ward, Preacher_, Margaret Deland (1888).

DEATH OR MORS. So did Tennyson call Sir Ironside the Red Knight of the Red Lands, who kept Lyonors (for Liones) captive in Castle Perilous. The name “Mors,” which is Latin, is very inconsistent with a purely British tale, and of course does not appear in the original story.–Tennyson, _Idylls_ (“Gareth and Lynette”); Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 134-137 (1470).


AEschylus was killed by the fall of a tortoise on his head from the claws of an eagle in the air.–Pliny, _Hist_. vii. 7.

Agath’ocles (4 _syl_.), tyrant of Sicily, was killed by a tooth-pick, at the age of 95.

Anacreon was choked by a grape stone.–Pliny, _Hist_. vii. 7.

Bassus (_Q. Lucilius_) died from the prick of a fine needle in his left thumb.

Chalchas, the soothsayer, died of laughter at the thought of his having outlived the time predicted for his death.

Charles VIII., conducting his queen into a tennis-court, struck his head against the lintel, and it caused his death.

Fabius, the Roman praetor, was choked by a single goat-hair in the milk which he was drinking.–Pliny, _Hist_. vii. 7.

Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales, died from the blow of a cricket ball.

Itadach died of thirst in the harvest field, because (in observance of the rule of St. Patrick) he refused to drink a drop of anything.

Louis VI. met with his death from a pig running under his horse, and causing it to stumble. Margutte died of laughter on seeing a monkey try ing to pull on a pair of his boots.

Philom’enes (4 _syl_.) died of laughter at seeing an ass eating the figs provided for his own dessert.–Valerius Maximus.

Placut (_Phillipot_) dropped down dead while in the act of paying a bill.–Backaberry the elder.

Quenelault, a Norman physician of Montpellier, died from a slight wound made in his hand in the extraction of a splinter.

Saufeius (_Spurius_) was choked supping up the albumen of a soft-boiled egg.

Zeuxis, the painter, died of laughter at sight of a hag which he had just depicted.

DEATH RIDE (_The_), the charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava, October 25, 1854. In this action 600 English horsemen, under the earl of Cardigan, charged a Russian force of 5,000 calvary and six batallions of infantry. They galloped through the battery of thirty guns, cutting down the artillerymen, and through the calvary, but then discovered the batallions and cut their way back again. Of the 670 who advanced to this daring charge, not 200 returned. This reckless exploit was the result of some misunderstanding in an order from the commander-in-chief. Tennyson has a poem on the subject called _The Charge of the Light Brigade_.

For chivalrous devotion and daring, “the Death Ride” of the Light Brigade will not easily be paralleled.–Sir Edw. Creasy, _The Fifteen Decisive Battles_ (preface).

DEB’ON, one of the companions of Brute. According to British fable, Devonshire is a corruption of “Debon’s-share”, or the share of the country assigned to Debon.

DEBORAH DEBBITCH, governante at Lady Peveril’s–Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

DEBORAH WOODHOUSE. The practical sister of the spinster pair who cherish (respectively) a secret attachment for Mr. Dermer. Miss Deborah is an admirable cook, and an affectionate aunt and considers that in religion a woman ought to think just as her husband does.–Margaret Deland, _John Ward, Preacher_ (1888).

DECEM SCRIPTORES, a collection of ten ancient chronicles on English history, edited by Twysden and John Selden. The names of the chroniclers are Simeon of Durham, John of Hexham, Richard of Hexham, Ailred of Rieval, Ralph De Diceto, John Brompton of Jorval, Gervase of Canterbury, Thomas Stubbs, William Thorn of Canterbury, and Henry Knighton of Leicester.

DECEMBER. A mother laments in the

“Darkest of all Decembers
Ever her life has known,”

the death of two sons, one of whom fell in battle, while the other perished at sea.

“Ah, faint heart! in thy anguish
What is there left to thee?
Only the sea intoning
Only the wainscot-mouse
Only the wild wind moaning
Over the lonely house!”

Thomas Bailey Aldrich, _Poems_, (1882).

DE’CIUS, friend of Antin’ous (4 _syl_.).–Beaumont and Fletcher, _Laws of Candy_ (1647).

DEDLOCK _(Sir Leicester), bart_., who has a general opinion that the world might get on without hills, but would be “totally done up” without Dedlocks. He loves Lady Dedlock, and believes in her implicity. Sir Leicester is honorable and truthful, but intensely prejudiced, immovably obstinate, and proud as “county” can make a man; but his pride has a most dreadful fall when the guilt of Lady Dedlock becomes known.

_Lady Dedlock_, wife of Sir Leicester, beautiful, cold, and apparently heartless; but she is weighed down with this terrible secret, that before marriage she had had a daughter by Captain Hawdon. This daughter’s name is Esther [Summerson] the heroine of the novel.

_Volumnia Dedlock_, cousin of Sir Leicester. A “young” lady of 60, given to rouge, pearl-powder, and cosmetics. She has a habit of prying into the concerns of others.–C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

DEE’S SPEC’ULUM, a mirror, which Dr. John Dee asserted was brought to him by the angels Raphael and Gabriel. At the death of the doctor it passed into the possession of the Earl of Peterborough, at Drayton; then to Lady Betty Grermaine, by whom it was given to John, last duke of Argyll. The duke’s grandson (Lord Frederic Campbell) gave it to Horace Walpole; and in 1842 it was sold, at the dispersion of the curiosities of Strawberry Hill, and bought by Mr. Smythe Pigott. At the sale of Mr. Pigott’s library, in 1853, it passed into the possession of the late Lord Londesborough. A writer in _Notes and Queries_ (p. 376, November 7, 1874) says, it “has now been for many years in the British Museum,” where he saw it “some eighteen years ago.”

This magic speculum is a flat _polished mineral, like cannel coal_, of a circular form, fitted with a handle.

DEERSLAYER (_The_), the title of a novel by J.F. Cooper, and the nickname of its hero, Natty or Nathaniel Bumppo. He is a model uncivilized man, honorable, truthful, and brave, pure of heart and without reproach.

DEERFIELD. The particulars of the captivity of the Williams family of Deerfield, (Mass.), are told by John Williams, the head of the household. The Indians entered the town before dawn Feb. 29, 1703, broke into the house, murdered two children and a servant and carried the rest into the wilderness. Mrs. Williams being weak from a recent illness, was killed on the journey.–John Williams, _The Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion_ (1707).

DEFARGE (_Mons._), keeper of a wine shop in the Faubourg St. Antoine, in Paris. He is a bull-necked, good-humored, but implacable-looking man.

_Mde. Defarge_, his wife, a dangerous woman, with great force of character; everlastingly knitting.

Mde. Defarge had a watchful eye that seldom seemed to look at anything.–C. Dickens, _A Tale of Two Cities_, i. 5 (1859).

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, the title first given to Henry VIII, by Pope Leo X., for a volume against Luther, in defence of pardons, the papacy, and the seven sacraments. The original volume is in the Vatican, and contains this inscription in the king’s handwriting; _Anglorum rex Henricus, Leoni X. mittit hoc opus et fidei testem et amicitiae_; whereupon the pope (in the twelfth year of his reign) conferred upon Henry, by bull, the title “Fidei Defensor,” and commanded all Christians so to address him. The original bull was preserved by Sir Robert Cotton, and is signed by the pope, four bishop-cardinals, fifteen priest-cardinals, and eight deacon-cardinals. A complete copy of the bull, with its seals and signatures, may be seen in Selden’s _Titles of Honor_, v. 53-57 (1672).

DEFOE writes _The History of the Plague of London_ as if he had been a personal spectator, but he was only three years old at the the time (1663-1731).

DEGGIAL, antichrist. The Mohammedan writers say he has but one eye and one eyebrow, and on his forehead is written CAFER (“infidel”)

Chilled with terror, we concluded that the Deggial, with his exterminating angels, had sent forth their plagues on the earth.–W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1784).

DEIRD’RI, an ancient Irish story similar to the _Dar-Thula_ of Ossian. Conor, king of Ulster, puts to death by treachery the three sons of Usnach. This leads to the desolating war against Ulster, which terminates in the total destruction of Eman. This is one of the three tragic stories of the Irish, which are: (1) The death of the children of Touran (regarding Tuatha de Danans); (2) the death of the children of Lear or Lir, turned into swans by Aoife; (3) the death of the children of Usnach (a “Milesian” story).

DEK’ABRIST, a Decembrist, from _Dekaber_, the Russian for December. It denotes those persons who suffered death or captivity for the part they took in the military conspiracy which broke out in St. Petersburg in December, 1825, on the accession of Czar Nicholas to the throne.

DELA’DA, the tooth of Buddah, preserved in the Malegawa temple at Kandy. The natives guard it with the greatest jealousy, from a belief that whoever possesses it acquires the right to govern Ceylon. When the English (in 1815) obtained possession of this palladium, the natives submitted without resistance.

DELASERRE (_Captain Philip_), a friend of Harry Bertram.–Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

DE’LIA, Diana; so called from the island Delos, where she was born. Similarly, Apollo was called _Delius_. Milton says that Eve, e’en

Delia’s self,
In gait surpassed and goddess-like deport, Though not as she with bow and quiver armed.

_Paradise Lost_, ix. 338, etc. (1665).

_Delia_, any female sweetheart. She is one of the shepherdesses in Virgil’s _Eclogues_. Tibullus, the Roman poet, calls his lady-love “Delia,” but what her real name was is not certain.

_Delia_, the lady-love of James Hammond’s elegies, was Miss Dashwood, who died in 1779. She rejected his suit, and died unmarried. In one of the elegies the poet imagines himself married to her, and that they were living happily together till death, when pitying maids would tell of their wondrous loves.

DELIAN KING (_The_). Apollo or the sun is so called in the Orphic hymn,

Oft as the Delian king with Sirius holds The central heavens.

Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_ (1767).

DELIGHT OF MANKIND (_The_), Titus the Roman emperor, A.D.40, (79-81).

Titus indeed gave one short evening gleam, More cordial felt, as in the midst it spread Of storm and horror: “The Delight of Men.”

Thomson, _Liberty_, in. (1725).

DELLA CRUSCA SCHOOL, originally applied in 1582 to a society in Florence, established to purify the national language and sift from it all its impurities; but applied in England to a brotherhood of poets (at the close of the last century) under the leadership of Mrs. Piozzi. This school was conspicuous for affectation and high-flown panegyrics on each other. It was stamped out by Gifford, in _The Baviad_, in 1794, and _The Moeviad_, in 1796. Robert Merry, who signed himself _Della Crusca_, James Cobb, a farce-writer, James Boswell (biographer of Dr. Johnson), O’Keefe, Morton, Reynolds, Holcroft, Sheridan, Colman the younger, Mrs. H. Cowley, and Mrs. Robinson were its best exponents.

DEL’PHINE, (2 _syl._), the heroine and title of a novel by Mde. de Stael. Delphine is a charming character, who has a faithless lover, and dies of a broken heart. This novel, like _Corinne_, was written during her banishment from France by Napoleon I., when she travelled in Switzerland and Italy. It is generally thought that “Delphine” was meant for the authoress herself (1802).

DELPHINE CLASSICS (_The_), a set of Latin classics edited in France for the use of the grand dauphin (son of Louis XIV.). Huet was chief editor, assisted by Montausier and Bossuet. They had thirty-nine scholars working under them. The indexes of these classics are very valuable.

DELTA [Illustration] of _Blackwood_ is D.M.Moir (1798-1851).

DEL’VILLE (2 _syl_.), one of the guardians of Cecilia. He is a man of wealth and great ostentation, with a haughty humility and condescending pride, especially in his intercourse with his social inferiors.–Miss Burney, _Cecilia_ (1782). DEME’TIA, South Wales; the inhabitants are called Demetians.

Denevoir, the seat of the Demetian king.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, v. (1612).

DEME’TRIUS, a young Athenian, to whom Egeus (3 _syl_.) promised his daughter Hermia in marriage. As Hermia loved Lysander, she refused to marry Demetrius, and fled from Athens with Lysander. Demetrius went in quest of her, and was followed by Helena, who doted on him. All four fell asleep, and “dreamed a dream” about the fairies. On waking, Demetrius became more reasonable. He saw that Hermia disliked him, but that Helena loved him sincerely, so he consented to forego the one and take to wife the other. When Egeus, the father of Hermia, found out how the case stood, he consented to the union of his daughter with Lysander.–Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s Dream_ (1592).

_Deme’trius_, in _The Poetaster_, by Ben Jonson, is meant for John Marston (died 1633).

_Deme’trius_, (4 _syl_.), son of King Antig’onus, in love with Celia, _alias_ Enan’the.–Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Humorous Lieutenant_ (1647).

_Deme’trius_, a citizen of Greece during the reign of Alexius Comnenus.–Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

DEMIURGUS, that mysterious agent which, according to Plato, made the world and all that it contains. The Logos or “Word” of St. John’s Gospel (ch. i. I) is the demiurgus of platonizing Christians.

DEMOC’RITOS (in Latin _Democritus_), the laughing or scoffing philosopher, the Friar Bacon of his age. To “dine with Democ’ritos” is to go without dinner, the same as “dining with Duke Humphrey,” or “dining with the cross-legged knights.”

People think that we [_authors_] often dine with Democritos, but there they are mistaken. There is not one of the fraternity who is not welcome to some good table.–Lesage, _Gil Blas_, xii. 7 (1735).

DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR, Robert Burton, author of _The Anatomy of Melancholy_ (1576-1640).

DEMOD’OCOS (in Latin _Demodocus_), bard of Alcin’ous (4 _syl_.) king of the Phaea’cians.

Such as the wise Demodicos once told In solemn songs at King Alcinous’ feast, While sad Ulysses’ soul and all the rest Are held, with his melodious harmony,
In willing chains and sweet captivity.

Milton, _Vacation Exercise_ (1627).

DEM’OGOR’GON, tyrant of the elves and fays, whose very name inspired terror; hence Milton speaks of “the dreaded name of Demogorgon” (_Paradise Lost_, ii. 965). Spenser says he “dwells in the deep abyss where the three fatal sisters dwell” (_Faery Queen_, iv. 2); but Ariosto says he inhabited a splendid palace on the Himalaya Mountains. Demogorgon is mentioned by Statius in the _Thebaid_, iv. 516.

He’s the first-begotten of Beelzebub, with a face as terrible as Demogorgon.–Dryden, _The Spanish Fryar_, v. 2 (1680).

DEMON. Increase Mather tells a long and circumstantial story of _The Demon at William Morse His House_, time of visitation being 1679. “The true story of these strange disturbances is as yet not certainly known,” he says. “Some (as has been hinted), did suspect Morse’s wife to be guilty of witchcraft.”–Increase Mather, _An Essay for the Eecording of Illustrious Providences_ (1681). DEMOPH’OON (4 _syl._) was brought up by Demeter, who anointed him with ambrosia and plunged him every night into the fire. One day, his mother, out of curiosity, watched the proceeding, and was horror-struck; whereupon Demeter told her that her foolish curiosity had robbed her son of immortal youth.

[Illustration] This story is also told of Isis.–Plutarch, _De Isid. et Osirid_., xvi. 357.

[Illustration] A similar story is told of Achilles. His mother Thet’is was taking similar precautions to render him immortal, when his father Pe’leus (2 _syl_.) interfered.–Apollonius Rhodius, _Argonautic Exp_., iv. 866.

DEMOS’THENES OF THE PULPIT. Dr. Thomas Rennell, dean of Westminster, was so called by William Pitt (1753-1840).

DENDIN (_Peter_), an old man, who had settled more disputes than all the magistrates of Poitiers, though he was no judge. His plan was to wait till the litigants were thoroughly sick of their contention, and longed to end their disputes; then he would interpose, and his judgment could not fail to be acceptable.

_Tenot Dendin_, son of the above, but, unlike the father, he always tried to crush quarrels in the bud; consequently, he never succeeded in settling a single dispute submitted to his judgment.–Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, in. 41 (1545).

(Racine has introduced the same name into his comedy called _Les Plaideurs_ (1669), and Lafontaine in his _Fables_ 1668).

DENNET (_Father_), an old peasant at the Lists of St. George.–Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

DENNIS the hangman, one of the ringleaders of the “No Popery Riots;” the other two were Hugh, servant of the Maypole inn, and the half-witted Barnaby Rudge. Dennis was cheerful enough when he “turned off” others, but when he himself ascended the gibbet he showed a most grovelling and craven spirit.–C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

_Dennis (John)_, “the best abused man in English literature.” Swift lampooned him; Pope assailed him in the _Essay on Criticism_; and finally he was “damned to everlasting fame” in the _Dunciad_. He is called “Zo’ilus” (1657-1733).

DENNISON _(Jenny)_, attendant on Miss Edith Bellenden. She marries Cuddie Headrigg.–Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

DERMER _(Mr.)_, a little bachelor lawyer, whose face has “a pinched, wistful look” under the curls of his brown wig. He lives in a dreary house, with a testy housekeeper, and a timid little nephew-ward, and spends many of his lonely hours in trying to decide if he loves Miss Deborah Woodhouse the utilitarian, or aesthetic Miss Ruth. On his death-bed, he gives an old daguerreotype of himself to Miss Ruth.

“Not that I have–have changed my mind, but it is not improper, I am sure that Miss Deborah’s sister should give me–if she will be
so good–her hand, that I may say ‘goodbye'”–Margaret Deland, _John Ward, Preacher_

D’EON DE BEAUMONT (_Le Chevalier_), a person notorious for the ambiguity of his sex; said to be the son of an advocate. His face was pretty, without beard, moustache, or whiskers. Louis XV. sent him as a woman to Russia on a secret mission, and he presented himself to the czarina as a woman (1756). In the Seven Years’ War he was appointed captain of dragoons. In 1777 he assumed the dress of a woman again, which he maintained till death (1728-1810).

DERBY (_Earl of_), third son of the Earl of Lancaster, and near kinsman of Edward III. His name was Henry Plantagenet, and he died 1362. Henry Plantagenet, earl of Derby, was sent to protect Guienne, and was noted for his humanity no less than for his bravery. He defeated the Comte de l’Isle at Bergerac, reduced Perigord, took the castle of Auberoche, in Gascony, overthrew 10,000 French with only 1000, taking prisoners nine earls and nearly all the barons, knights, and squires (1345). Next year he took the fortresses of Monsegur, Montpezat, Villefranche, Miraumont, Tonneins, Damazin, Aiguillon, and Reole.

That most deserving Earl of Derby, we prefer Henry’s third valiant son, the Earl of Lancaster. That only Mars of men,

Dayton, _Polyolbion_, xviii. (1613).

_Derby (Countess of)_, Charlotte de la Tremouille, Countess of Derby and Queen of Man.

_Philip (earl of Derby)_, King of Man, son of the countess.–Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

DANIEL DERONDA, pure young fellow whose influence for good over men and women is marvellous, and explicable only upon the principle that virtue is mightier than vice. “You could not have seen his face thoroughly meeting yours without believing that human creatures had done nobly in times past and might do more nobly in time to come.”–George Eliot, _Daniel Deronda_.

DER’RICK, hangman in the first half of the seventeenth century. The crane for hoisting goods is called a derrick, from this hangman.

_Derrick (Faith)._ The rural heroine of Susan Warner’s novel _Say and Seal_ (1860).

_Derrick (Tom)_, quarter-master of the pirate’s vessel.–Sir W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

DERRY DOWN TRIANGLE _(The)_, Lord Castlereagh; afterwards marquis of Londonderry; so called by William Hone. The first word is a pun on the title, the second refers to his lordship’s oratory, a triangle being the most feeble, monotonous, and unmusical of all musical instruments. Tom Moore compares the oratory of Lord Castlereagh to “water spouting from a pump.”

_Q_. Why is a pump like viscount Castlereigh? _A_. Because it is a slender thing of wood, That up and down its awkward arm doth sway, And coolly spout, and spout, and spout away, In one weak, washy, everlasting flood.

T. Moore.

DERVISH (“_a poor man_”), a sort of religious friar or mendicant among the Mohammedans.

DESBOROUG-H _(Colonel)_, one of the parliamentary commissioners.–Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

DESDEMO’NA, daughter of Brabantio, a Venetian senator, in love with Othello the Moor (general of the Venetian army). The Moor loves her intensely, and marries her; but Iago, by artful villainy, induces him to believe that she loves Cassio too well. After a violent conflict between love and jealousy, Othello smothers her with a bolster, and then stabs himself.–Shakespeare, _Othello_ (1611.)

The soft simplicity of Desdemona, confident of merit and conscious of innocence, her artless perseverance in her suit, and her slowness to suspect that she can be suspected, are proofs of Shakespeare’s skill in human nature.–Dr. Johnson.

DESERT FAIRY _(The)_. This fairy was guarded by two lions, that could be pacified only by a cake made of millet, sugar-candy, and crocodiles’ eggs. The Desert Fairy said to Allfair, “I swear by my coif you shall marry the Yellow Dwarf, or I will burn my crutch.”–Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The Yellow Dwarf,” 1682).

DESERTED DAUGHTER _(The)_, a comedy by Holcroft. Joanna was the daughter of Mordent, but her mother died, and Mordent married Lady Anne. In order to do so he ignored his daughter and had her brought up by strangers, intending to apprentice her to some trade. Item, a money-lender, acting on the advice of Mordent, lodges the girl with Mrs. Enfield, a crimp, where Lennox is introduced to her, and obtains Mordent’s consent to run away with her. In the interim Cheveril sees her, falls in love with her, and determines to marry her. Mordent repents, takes the girl home, acknowledges her to be his daughter, and she becomes the wife of the gallant young Cheveril (1784).

[Illustration] This comedy has been recast, and called _The Steward_.

DESERTER _(The)_, a musical drama by Dibdin (1770). Henry, a soldier, is engaged to Louisa, but during his absence some rumors of gallantry to his disadvantage reach the village, and to test his love, Louisa in pretence goes with Simkin as if to be married. Henry sees the procession, is told it is Louisa’s wedding day, and in a fit of desperation gives himself up as a deserter, and is condemned to death. Lousia goes to the king, explains the whole affair, and returns with his pardon as the muffled drums begin to beat.

DESMAS. The repentant thief is so called in _The Story of Joseph of Arimathea_; but Dismas in the apocryphal _Gospel of Nicodemus._ Longfellow, in _The Golden Legend_, calls him Dumachus. The impenitent thief is called Gestas, but Longfellow calls him Titus.

Imparibus meritis pendent tria corpora ramis: _Dismas et Gesmas_, media est Divina Potestas; Alta petit Dismas, infelix infima Gesmas; Nos et res nostras conservet Summa Potestas.

Of differing merits from three trees incline Dismas and Gesmas and the Power Divine; Dismas repents, Gesmas no pardon craves, The power Divine by death the sinner saves.

DESMONDS OF KILMALLOCK (Limerick). The legend is that the last powerful head of this family, who perished in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, still keeps his state under the waters of Lough Gur, that every seventh year he re-appears fully armed, rides round the lake early in the morning, and will ultimately return in the flesh to claim his own again. (See BARBAROSSA.)–Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_.

DESPAIR (_Giant_), lived in Doubting Castle. He took Christian and Hopeful captive for sleeping on his grounds, and locked them in a dark dungeon from Wednesday to Saturday, without “one bit of bread, or drop of drink, or ray of light.” By the advice of his wife, Diffidence, the giant beat them soundly “with a crab-tree cudgel.” On Saturday night Christian remembered he had a key in his bosom, called “Promise,” which would open any lock in Doubting Castle. So he opened the dungeon door, and they both made their escape with speed.–John Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, i. (1678).

DEUCE IS IN HIM (_The_) a farce by George Colman, senior. The person referred to is Colonel Tember, under which name the plot of the farce is given (1762).

DEUGA’LA, says Ossian, “was covered with the light of beauty, but her heart was the house of pride.”

DEVE’TA, plu. Devetas, inferior or secondary deities in Hindu mythology.

DEVIL (_The_). Olivier le Daim, the tool of Louis XL, and once the king’s barber, was called _Le Diable_, because he was as much feared, was as fond of making mischief, and was far more disliked than the prince of evil. Olivier was executed in 1484.

_Devil (The French)_, Jean Bart, an intrepid French sailor, born at Dunkirk (1650-1702).

_Devil (The White)_. George Castriot, surnamed “Scanderbeg,” was called by the Turks “The White Devil of Wallachia” (1404-1467).

_Devil (The Printer’s)_. Aldus Manutius, a printer in Venice to the holy Church and the doge, employed a negro boy to help him in his office. This little black boy was believed to be an imp of Satan, and went by the name of the “printer’s devil.” In order to protect him from persecution, and confute a foolish superstition, Manutius made a public exhibition of the boy, and announced that “any one who doubted him to be flesh and blood might come forward and pinch him.”

_Devil (Robert the)_, of Normandy; so called because his father was said to have been an incubus or fiend in the disguise of a knight (1028-1035).

[Illustration] Robert Francois Damiens is also called _Robert le Diable_, for his attempt to assassinate Louis XV. (1714-1757).

_Devil (Son of the)_, Ezzeli’no, chief of the Gibelins, governor of Vicenza. He was so called for his infamous cruelties (1215-1259).

DEVIL DICK, Richard Porson, the critic, (1759-1808).

DEVIL ON TWO STICKS, (_The_), that is _Le Diable Boiteux_, by Lesage (1707). The plot of this humorous satirical tale is borrowed from the Spanish, _El Diabolo Cojuelo_, by Gueva’ra (1635). Asmode’us (_le diable boiteux_) perches Don Cle’ofas on the steeple of St. Salvador, and stretching out his hand, the roofs of all the houses open, and expose to him what is being done privately in every dwelling.

_Devil on Two Sticks (The)_, a farce by S. Foote; a satire on the medical profession.

DEVIL TO PAY, (_The_), a farce by C. Coffey. Sir John Loverule has a termagant wife, and Zackel Jobson, a patient grissel. Two spirits named Nadir and Ab’ishog transform these two wives for a time, so that the termagant is given to Jobson, and the patient wife to Sir John. When my lady tries her tricks on Jobson, he takes his strap to her and soon reduces her to obedience. After she is well reformed, the two are restored to their original husbands, and the shrew becomes an obedient, modest wife (died, 1745).

DEVIL’S AGE (_The_). A wealthy man once promised to give a poor gentleman and his wife a large sum of money if at a given time they could tell him the devil’s age. When the time came, the gentleman at his wife’s suggestion, plunged first into a barrel of honey and then into a barrel of feathers, and walked on all fours. Presently up came his Satanic majesty, and said, “_X and x_ years have I lived,” naming the exact number, “yet never saw I an animal like this.” The gentlemen had heard enough, and was able to answer the question without difficulty.–Rev. W. Webster, _Basque Legends_, 58 (1877).

DEVIL’S CHALICE (_The_). A wealthy man gave a poor farmer a large sum of money on this condition: at the end of a twelvemonth he was either to say “of what the devil made his chalice,” or else give his head to the devil. The poor farmer as the time came round, hid himself in the crossroads, and presently the witches assembled from all sides. Said one witch to another, “You know that Farmer So-and-so has sold his head to the devil, for he will never know of what the devil makes his chalice. In fact I don’t know myself.” “Don’t you?” said the other; “why, of the parings of finger-nails trimmed on Sundays.”–The farmer was overjoyed, and when the time came round was quite ready with his answer.–Rev. W. Webster, _Basque Legends_, 71 (1877).

DEVIL’S DYKE, BRIGHTON (_The_). One day, as St. Cuthman was walking over the South Downs, and thinking to himself how completely he had rescued the whole country from paganism, he was accosted by his sable majesty in person. “Ha, ha!” said the prince of darkness; “so you think by these churches and convents to put me and mine to your ban, do you? Poor fool! why, this very night will I swamp the whole land with the sea.” “Forewarned is forearmed,” thought St. Cuthman, and hies him to sister Celia, superior of a convent which then stood on the spot of the present Dyke House. “Sister,” said the saint, “I love you well. This night, for the grace of God, keep lights burning at the convent windows from midnight to day-break, and let masses be said by the holy sisterhood.” At sundown came the devil with pickaxe and spade, mattock: and shovel, and set to work in right good earnest to dig a dyke which should let the waters of the seas into the downs. “Fire and brim-stone!”–he exclaimed, as a sound of voices rose and fell in sacred song–“Fire and brim-stone! What’s the matter with me?” Shoulders, feet, wrists, loins, all seemed paralyzed. Down went mattock and spade, pickaxe and shovel, and just at that moment the lights at the convent windows burst forth, and the cock, mistaking the blaze for daybreak, began to crow most lustily. Off flew the devil, and never again returned to complete his work. The small digging he effected still remains in witness of the truth of this legend of the “Devil’s Dyke.”

DEVIL’S PARLIAMENT (_The_), the parliament assembled by Henry VI. at Conventry, 1459. So called because it passed attainders on the duke of York and his chief supporters.

DEVIL SACRAMENT. This blasphemous rite whereby those who would practice witchcraft were initiated into the diabolical mysteries is described by Deodat Lawson in 1704.

“At their cursed supper they were said to have red bread and red drink, and when they pressed an afflicted person to eat and drink thereof she turned away her head and spit at it, and said, ‘I will not eat, I will not drink. It is blood.’ … Thus horribly doth Satan endeavor to have his kingdom and administrations to resemble those of our Lord Jesus Christ.”–Deodat Lawson, _Christ’s Fidelity the only Shield against Satan’s Malignity_ (1704).

DEVONSHIRE, according to historic fable, is a corruption of “Debon’s-share.” This Debon was one of the companions of Brute, the descendent of Aene’as. He chased the giant Coulin till he came to a pit eight leagues across. Trying to leap this chasm, the giant fell backwards and lost his life.

… that ample pit, yet far renowned For the great leap which Debon did compel Coulin to make, being eight lugs of ground, Into the which retourning back he fell … And Debon’s share was that is Devonshire.

Spenser, _Faery Queen_, ii. 10 (1590).

DE’VORGOIL (_Lady Jane_), a friend of the Hazlewood family.–Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

DEWLAP (_Dick_), an anecdote teller, whose success depended more upon his physiognomy than his wit. His chin and his paunch were his most telling points.

I found that the merit of his wit was founded upon the shaking of a fat paunch, and the tossing up of a pair of rosy jowls.–Richard Steele.

DEXTER, (_Gregory_), the typical Successful Man who is first suitor, then the generous friend of Anne Douglas, in Constance Fennimore Woolson’s _Anne_.

“A little indifference to outside opinion would have made him a contented, as he was a successful man. But there was a surface of personal vanity over his better qualities which led him to desire a tribute of universal liking.” (1882).

DHU (_Evan_) of Lochiel, a Highland chief in the army of Montrose.

_Mhich-Connel Dhu_. or M’Ilduy, a Highland chief in the army of Montrose.–

Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

DHUL’DUL, the famous horse of Ali, son-in-law of Mahomet.

DHU’L KARNEIN (“_the two-horned_,”) a true believer according to the Mohammedan notion, who built the wall to prevent the incursions of Gog and Magog.–_Al Koran_, xviii.

Commentators say the wall was built in this manner: The workman dug till they found water; and having laid the foundation of stone and melted brass, they built the superstructure of large pieces of iron, between which they packed wood and coal, till the whole equalled the height of the mountains [_of Armenia_]. Then setting fire to the combustibles, and by the use of bellows, they made the iron red hot, and poured molten brass over to fill up the interstices.

–Al Beidawi.

DHU’LNUN, the surname of Jonah.; so called because he was _swallowed by a fish_.

Remember Dhu’lnun, when he departed in wrath, and thought that we could not exercise our power over him.–_Al Koran_, xxi.

DIAFOIRUS (_Thomas_), son of Dr. Diafoirus. He is a young medical milksop, to whom Argan has promised his daughter Angelique in marriage. Diafoirus pays his compliments in cut-and-dried speeches, and on one occasion, being interrupted in his remarks, says, “Madame, vous m’avez interrompu dans le milieu de ma periode, et cela m’a trouble la memoire.” His father says, “Thomas, reservez cela pour une autre fois.” Angelique loves Cleante (2 _syl_.), and Thomas Diafoirus goes to the wall.

Il n’a jamais eu l’imagination bien vive, ni ce feu d’esprit qu’on remarque dans quelques uns,…. Lorsqui’il etait petit, il n’a jamais ete ce qu’on appelle mievre et eveille; on le voyait toujours doux, paisible, et taciturne, ne disant jamais mot, et ne jouant jamais a tons ces petits jeux que l’on nomme enfantins.–Moliere, _Le Malade Imaginaire_, ii.6 (1673).

DI’AMOND, one of three brothers, sons of the fairy Agape. Though very strong, he was slain in single fight by Cambalo. His brothers were Pri’amond and Tri’amond.–Spenser, _Faery Queen_, iv. (1596).

DIAMOND JOUSTS, nine jousts instituted by Arthur, and so called because a diamond was the prize. These nine diamonds were all won by Sir Launcelot, who presented them to the queen, but Guinevere, in a tiff, flung them into the river which ran by the palace.–Tennyson, _Idylls of the King_ (“Elaine”).

DIAMOND SWORD, a magic sword given by the god Syren to the king of the Gold Mines.

She gave him a sword made of one entire diamond, that gave as great lustre as the sun.–Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The Yellow Dwarf,” 1682).

DIANA, the heroine and title, a pastoral of Montemayor, imitated from the _Daphnis_ and _Chloe_ of Longos (fourteenth century).

_Dian’a_, daughter of the widow of Florence with whom Hel’ena lodged on her way to the shrine of St. Jacques le Grand. Count Bertram wantonly loved Diana, but the modest girl made this attachment the means of bringing about a reconciliation between Bertram and his wife Helena.–Shakespeare, _All’s Well that Ends Well_ (1598).

DIAN’A DE LASCOURS, daughter of Ralph and Louise de Lascours, and sister of Martha, _alias_ Ogari’la. Diana was betrothed to Horace de Brienne, whom she resigns to Martha.–E. Stirling, _The Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).

DIAN’A THE INEXORABLE. (1) She slew Orion with one of her arrows, for daring to make love to her. (2) She changed Actaeon into a stag and set her own dogs on him to worry him to death, because he chanced to look upon her while bathing. (3) She shot with her arrows the six sons and six daughters of Niobe, because the fond mother said she was happier than Latona, who had only two children.

Dianae non movenda numina.

Horace, _Epode_, xvii.

DIANA THE SECOND OF SALMANTIN, a pastoral romance by Gil Polo.

“We will preserve that book,” said the cure, “as carefully as if Apollo himself had been its author.”–Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i. 6 (1605).

DIANA _(the Temple of_), at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of antiquity, was set on fire by Herostratos to immortalize his name.

DIANA OF THE STAGE, Mrs. Anne Brace-girdle (1663-1748).

DIAN’A’S FORESTERS, “minions of the moon,” “Diana’s knights,” etc., highwaymen.

Marry, then, sweet wag, when thou art king, let not us that are “squires of the night’s body” be called _thieves_ … let us be “Diana’s foresters,” “Gentlemen of the shade,” “minions of the moon.”–Shakespeare, I _Henry IV_. act i. sc. 2 (1597).

DIANO’RA, wife of Gilberto of Friu’li, but amorously loved by Ansaldo. In order to rid herself of his importunities, she vowed never to yield to his suit till he could “make her garden at midwinter as gay with flowers as it was in summer” (meaning _never_). Ansaldo, by the aid of a magician, accomplished the appointed task; but when the lady told him that her husband insisted on her keeping her promise, Ansaldo, not to be outdone in generosity, declined to take advantage of his claim, and from that day forth was the firm and honorable friend of Gilberto.–Bocaccio, _Decameron_, x.5.

The _Franklin’s Tale_ of Chaucer is substantially the same story. (See DORIGEN).

DIARMAID, noted for his “beauty spot,” which he covered up with his cap; for if any woman chanced to see it, she would instantly fall in love with him.–Campbell, _Tales of the West Highlands_ (“Diarmaid and Grainne”).

DIAV’OLO (_Fra_), Michele Pezza, Insurgent of Calabria (1760-1806).–Auber, _Fra Diavolo_ (libretto by Scribe, 1836).

DIBBLE (_Davie_), gardener at Monkbarns.–Sir W. Scott, _Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

_Dibu’tades_ (4 _syl_.), a potter of Sicyon, whose daughter traced on the wall her lover’s shadow, cast there by the light of a lamp. This, it is said, is the origin of portrait painting. The father applied the same process to his pottery, and this, it is said, is the origin of sculpture in relief.

Will the arts ever have a lovelier origin than that fair daughter of Dibutades tracing the beloved shadow on the wall!–Ouida, _Ariadne_, i. 6.

DICAE’A, daughter of Jove, the “accusing angel” of classic mythology.

Forth stepped the just Dicaea, full of rage.

Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, vi. (1633).

DICCON THE BEDLAMITE, a half-mad mendicant, both knave and thief. A specimen of the metre will be seen by part of Diccon’s speech:

Many amyle have I walked, divers and sundry waies, And many a good man’s house have I bin at in my dais; Many a gossip’s cup in my tyme have I tasted, And many a broche and spyt have I both turned and basted … When I saw it booted nit, out at doores I hyed mee, And caught a slyp of bacon when I saw none spyd mee Which I intend not far hence, unless my purpose fayle, Shall serve for a shooing home to draw on two pots of ale.

_Gammer Gurton’s Needle_ (1575).

DICIL’LA, one of Logistilla’s handmaids, noted for her chastity.–Ariosto, _Orlanda Furioso_ (1516).

DICK, ostler at the Seven Stars inn, York.–Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, Greorge II.).

_Dick_, called “The Devil’s Dick of Hellgarth;” a falconer and follower of the earl of Douglas.–Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

_Dick (Mr.)_, an amiable, half-witted man, devoted to David’s “aunt,” Miss Betsey Trotwood, who thinks him a prodigious genius. Mr. Dick is especially mad on the subject of Charles I.–C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

DICK AMLET, the son of Mrs. Amlet, a rich, vulgar tradeswoman. Dick assumes the airs of a fine gentleman, and calls himself Colonel Shapely, in which character he gets introduced to Corinna, the daughter of Gripe, a rich scrivener. Just as he is about to elope, his mother makes her appearance, and the deceit is laid bare; but Mrs. Amlet promises to give her son L10,000, and so the wedding is adjusted. Dick is a regular scamp, and wholly without principle; but being a dashing young blade, with a handsome person, he is admired by the ladies.–Sir John Vanbrugh, _The Confederacy_ (1695).

DICK SHAKEBAG, a highwayman in the gang of Captain Colepepper (the Alsatian bully).–Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I).

DICKSON (_Thomas_) farmer at Douglasdale.

_Charles Dickson_, son of the above, killed in the church.–Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

DICTA’TOR OF LETTERS, Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire, called the “Great Pan” (1694-1778).

DICTIONARY (_A Living_). Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646-1716) was so called by George I.

[Illustration] Longinus was called “The Living Cyclopaedia” (213-273).

[Illustration] Daniel Huet, chief editor of the _Delphine Classics_, was called a _Porcus Literarum_ for his unlimited knowledge (1630-1721).

DIDDLER (_Jeremy_), an artful swindler; a clever, seedy vagabond, who borrows money or obtains credit by his songs, witticisms, or other expedients.–Kenny, _Raising the Wind_.

DIDERICK, the German form of Theodorick, king of the Goths. As Arthur is the centre of British romance, and Charlemagne of French romance, so Diderick is the central figure of the German minnesingers. DIDIER (_Henri_), the lover of Julie Les-urques (2 _syl_.); a gentleman in feeling and conduct, who remains loyal to his _fiancee_ through all her troubles.–Ed. Stirling, _The Courier of Lyons_ (1852).

DIDO, _daughter of Belus, king of Tyre_. She bought “as much land in Africa as a bull’s hide could cover,” shred the hide into strings, and enclosed a large tract. AEneas was wrecked upon her coast, and a love affair ensued. He deserted her, and she killed herself after watching his ship until it was out of sight.

DIE’GO, the sexton to Lopez the “Spanish curate.”–Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Spanish Curate_ (1622).

_Die’go (Don)_, a man of 60, who saw a country maiden named Leonora, whom he liked, and intended to marry if her temper was as amiable as her face was pretty. He obtained leave of her parents to bring her home and place her under a duenna for three months, and then either return her to them spotless, or to make her his wife. At the expiration of the time, he went to settle the marriage contract; and, to make all things sure, locked up the house, giving the keys to Ursula, but to the outer door he attached a huge padlock, and put the key in his pocket. Leander, being in love with Leonora, laughed at locksmiths and duennas, and Diego (2 _syl_.), found them about to elope. Being a wise man, he not only consented to their union, but gave Leonora a handsome marriage portion.–I. Bickerstaff, _The Padlock._

DIES IRAE. The name generally given from the opening words to a mediaeval hymn on the Last Judgment. The author is unknown, but the hymn is now generally ascribed to a monk of the Abruzzi, in Naples, Thomas de Celano, who died about 1255.

Dies irae, dies ilia
Sol vet sseclum in favilla
Teste David cum Sibylla.