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1638, “De Quatuor Linguis Commentatio,” 1650, “Of Credulity and Incredulity,” 1668. He died on July 14, 1671.]

[Footnote 16: Dr. John Williams was then Dean of Westminster. He held this Deanery _in Commendam_ during the whole time of his being Bishop of Lincoln, and likewise three years after his translation to York.]

[Footnote 17: Was born at Anstley, in Wiltshire, in 1590; he received his education in William of Wykeham’s school, near Winchester; was matriculated in the University of Oxford in 1608, and admitted Fellow of New College in 1609. He took the degree of LL.B. June 30, 1614, and that of LL.D. April 8, 1619. He no sooner had obtained his first degree than he became an Advocate in Doctors’ Commons. Through the influence of his noble kinsman, who was then Lord of the Cinque Ports, he was elected, in 1620, a Burgess to serve in Parliament for Hythe in Kent. In the same year he succeeded Dr. John Budden as Professor of Civil law; and in 1625, he was appointed Principal of Alban’s Hall. Though a layman, he held the Prebend of Shipston, in the Church of Salisbury, which was then first annexed to the Law Professorship by James I.

After the Restoration, Dr. Zouch, whose loyalty always remained unimpeached, had the honour of being named by the King, along with several other Commissioners, to restore the splendours and regulate the disorders of the University. He was re-instated in the Court of Admiralty; and if he had lived he would doubtless have attained those higher dignities in his profession, to which his integrity and great abilities entitled him. He died at his apartments in Doctors’ Commons, London, March 1, 1660.]

[Footnote 18: Let it ever be remembered to the honour of this Prelate, whom Charles I. was wont to call “the good man,” and whom he declared to be his greatest comfort in his most afflictive situation, that he delivered his sentiments without disguise to the King, on the subject of Lord Strafford’s fate, telling him plainly, that “he ought to do nothing with an unsatisfied conscience, upon any consideration in the world.” His character is thus beautifully pourtrayed by Sir Henry Wotton, in a letter to the Queen of Bohemia. “There is in him no tumour, no sourness, no distraction of thoughts; but a quiet mind, a patient care, free access, mild and moderate answers. To this I must add, a solid judgment, a sober plainness, and a most indubitable character of fidelity in his very face; so as there needs not much study to think him both a good man and a wise man.”]

[Footnote 19: This learned person went abroad in 1626, and spent four years in visiting Asia and Africa. He again left England, and travelled over several parts of Europe. He afterwards joined the Parliament against Charles I., whom he was appointed to attend from the very beginning of his imprisonment to the time of his death. He shewed himself a most faithful servant to the King, whose real character he soon discovered to be totally different from that which had been represented to him. In 1660, Charles II. advanced him to the Dignity of a Baronet, by the name of Thomas Herbert of Tinterne, in Monmouth “for faithfully serving his royal father during the two last years of his life.”–In 1678 he published “Threnodia Carolina; containing Memoirs of the two last Years of the reign of King Charles I.” This little work was reprinted in 1813, upon the opening the tomb of the royal martyr, by Mr. G. Nicoll of Pall Mall, with a “sensible and seasonable Preface.” Sir T. Herbert assisted Sir William Dugdale in compiling the third volume of his “Monasticon Anglicanum;” and died at York, his native place, 1682, leaving several MSS. to the public library at Oxford, and others to that of the Cathedral at York.]

[Footnote 20: This is supposed to have been Mr. Swinfen, an ancestor (on the female side) of the late Earl St. Vincent.]

[Footnote 21: They were all, except Dr. Wall, ejected in 1647. Dr. Samuel Fell died of grief, the day he was made acquainted with the murder of Charles I., viz. on Feb. 1, 1648-9. Dr. Gardner, Canon of the third stall, lived to be restored, and died in 1670. Dr. Paine, Canon of the fourth stall, died during the rebellion. Dr. Hammond, Sub-dean and Canon of the second stall, died in 1660. As for Dr. Wall, Canon of the seventh stall, he conformed no doubt to the measures of the Visitors. He died possessed of it in 1666.]

[Footnote 22: Mr. Thomas Brightman, born at Nottingham, and educated at Queen’s College in Cambridge, was Rector of Hawnes in Bedfordshire. He died suddenly Aug. 24, 1607.

Mr. Thomas Cartwright, the noted Puritan, in allusion to the name of Mr. Brightman, considers him as full of illumination as “a bright star in the Church of God.” Though no favourable opinion can be entertained of his writings, yet the acknowledged innocence of his life and conversation entitles him to every encomium.]

[Footnote 23: Honest Walton rather overstates the case. Thucydides simply says that attendance on the sick promoted the spread of the pestilence. (Lib. II. c. 51.)]

[Footnote 24: This amiable philosopher was born Jan. 25th, 1626-17, at Lismore, in the province of Munster, in Ireland. He was a scholar, a gentleman, a Christian of the most exalted piety and charity, and a very eminent Natural philosopher. He died Dec. 30th, 1691.]

[Footnote 25: Dr. Thomas Barlow was born in 1607, at Orton, in Westmoreland, was made Bishop of Lincoln, in 1675, and died at Buckden, in 1691. His character appears to have been vacillating; he was not among the venerable Prelates who stood forth the Protectors of the Protestant Religion in 1688. His theological learning was considerable.]

[Footnote 26: Richard Baxter was born at Rowton, in Shropshire, 1615, and was a Chaplain in the Parliamentary Army, though he was a defender of Monarchy. He refused the Bishopric of Hereford, and died in 1691. His “Saint’s Everlasting Rest” and “Call to the Unconverted” are his most famous books.]

[Footnote 27: Dr. Peter Gunning was a loyalist Divine, who suffered considerably for the Royal cause, and died Bishop of Ely, in 1684.]

[Footnote 28: Dr. John Pearson was the author of the famous “Exposition of the Creed;” in 1661, he was made Lady Margaret’s Professor of Divinity, at Cambridge, and died Bishop of Chester, in 1686, aged 74.]

[Footnote 29: Dr. William Bancroft, born at Freshingfield, in Suffolk, in 1616, and educated at Emanuel College, Cambridge, where he was deprived of his Fellowship in 1649, for refusing to take the engagement. He was made Archbishop in 1677, and in 1688, he was one of the seven Prelates sent to the Tower by James II. At the Revolution he refused taking the Oaths to the new government, for which he was suspended and deprived. He died in retirement Nov. 14th, 1693.]

[Footnote 30: Bishop Sanderson’s Will is recorded in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, in the volume called Juxon, Article 37. After his death, it was industriously reported that he repented of his writing against the Presbyterians, and would not suffer a Church Minister to pray by him, which is refuted by the narrative of Mr. Pullin’s giving him the Sacrament.]

[Footnote 31: Mr. John Pullin, B.D., and formerly Fellow of Magdalen College, Cambridge. His name is subscribed to a copy of commendatory Latin verses prefixed to “Duport’s Greek Version of Job.” He was a Prebendary, and also Chancellor of Lincoln.]


[Sidenote: Letters from Sanderson]


At my return to this place, I made a yet stricter search after the letters long ago sent me from our most excellent Dr. Sanderson, before the happy restoration of the King and Church of England to their several rights: in one of which letters more especially, he was pleased to give me a narrative both of the rise and the progress, and reasons also, as well of his younger, as of his last and riper judgment, touching the famous points controverted between the Calvinians and the Armenians, as they are commonly (though unjustly and unskilfully) miscalled on either side.

[Sidenote: Dr. Hammond’s book]

The whole letter I allude to does consist of several sheets, whereof a good part had been made public long ago, by the most learned, most judicious, most pious Dr. Hammond, (to whom I sent it both for his private, and for the public satisfaction, if he thought fit,) in his excellent book, entitled, “A Pacific Discourse of God’s Grace and Decrees, in full accordance with Dr. Sanderson:” to which discourse I refer you for an account of Dr. Sanderson and the history of his thoughts in his own hand-writing, wherein I sent it to Westwood, as I received it from Boothby Pannel. And although the whole book, (printed in the year 1660, and reprinted since with his other tracts in folio,) is very worthy of your perusal; yet, for the work you are about, you shall not have need to read more at present than from the 8th to the 23rd page, and as far as the end of section 33. There you will find in what year the excellent man, whose life you write, became a Master of Arts: how his first reading of learned Hooker had been occasioned by certain puritanical pamphlets; and how good a preparative he found it for his reading of Calvin’s Institutions, the honour of whose name (at that time especially) gave such credit to his errors: how he erred with Mr. Calvin, whilst he took things upon trust in the sublapsarian way: how, being chosen to be a Clerk of the Convocation for the Diocese of Lincoln, 1625, he reduced the Quinquarticular Controversy into five schemes or tables; and thereupon discerned a necessity of quitting the sublapsarian way, of which he had before a better liking, as well as the supralapsarian, which he could never fancy. There you will meet with his two weighty reasons against them both, and find his happy change of judgment to have been ever since the year 1625, even thirty-four years before the world either knew, or, at least, took notice of it; and more particularly his reasons for rejecting Dr. Twiss, (or the way he walks in,) although his acute and very learned and ancient friend.

[Sidenote: Arriba discussed]

I now proceed to let you know from Dr. Sanderson’s own hand,[1] which was never printed, (and which you can hardly know from any, unless from his son, or from myself,) that, when that Parliament was broken up, and the convocation therewith dissolved, a gentleman of his acquaintance, by occasion of some discourse about these points, told him of a book not long before published at Paris, (A.D. 1623,) by a Spanish Bishop,[2] who had undertaken to clear the differences in the great controversy _De Concordia Gratiae et Liberi Arbitrii_. And because his friend perceived he was greedily desirous to see the book, he sent him one of them, containing the four first books of twelve which he intended then to publish. “When I had read,” says Dr. Sanderson, in the following words of the same letter, “his Epistle Dedicatory to the Pope (Gregory XV.), he spake so highly of his own invention, that I then began rather to suspect him for a mountebank, than to hope I should find satisfaction from his performances. I found much confidence and great pomp of words, but little matter as to the main knot of the business, other than had been said an hundred times before, to wit, of the co-existence of all things past, present, and future [Latin] _in mente divina realiter ab aeterno_, which is the subject of his whole third book: only he interpreteth the word _realiter_ so as to import not only _praesentialitatem objectivam,_ (as others held before him,) but _propriam et actualem existentiam_; yet confesseth it is hard to make this intelligible. In his fourth book he endeavours to declare a twofold manner of God’s working _ad extra_; the one _sub ordine praedestinationis_, of which eternity is the proper measure: the other _sub ordine gratia_, whereof time is the measure; and that God worketh _fortiter_ in the one (though not _irresistibiliter_) as well _suamter_ in the other, wherein the free will hath his proper working also. From the result of his whole performance I was confirmed in this opinion; that we must acknowledge the work of both grace and free will in the conversion of a sinner; and so likewise in all other events, the consistency of the infallibility of God’s foreknowledge at least (though not with any absolute, but conditional predestination) with the liberty of man’s will, and the contingency of inferior causes and effects. These, I say, we must acknowledge for the [Greek: hoti] but for the [Greek: to pos], I thought it bootless for me to think of comprehending it. And so came the two _Acta Synodalia Dordrechtana_ to stand in my study, only to fill up a room to this day.”

[Sidenote: “Vindiciae Gratiae” discussed]

And yet see the restless curiosity of man. Not many years after, to wit, A.D. 1632, out cometh Dr. Twiss’s[3] _Vindiciae Gratiae_, a large volume, purposely writ against Arminius: and then, notwithstanding my former resolution, I must need be meddling again. The respect I bore to his person and great learning, and the acquaintance I had had with him in Oxford, drew me to the reading of that whole book. But from the reading of it (for I read it through to a syllable) I went away with many and great dissatisfactions. Sundry things in that book I took notice of, which brought me into a greater dislike of his opinion than I had before: but especially these three: First, that he bottometh very much of his discourse upon a very erroneous principle, which yet he seemeth to be so deeply in love with, that he hath repeated it, I verily believe, some hundreds of times in that work: to wit this; That whatsoever is first in the intention is last in execution, and _e converso._ Which is an error of that magnitude, that I cannot but wonder how a person of such acuteness and subtilty of wit could possibly be deceived with it. All logicians know there is no such universal maxim as he buildeth upon. The true maxim is but this: _Finis qui primus est in intentione, est ultimus in executione_. In the order of final causes, and the means used for that end, the rule holdeth perpetually: but in other things it holdeth not at all, or but by chance; or not as a rule, and necessarily. Secondly, that, foreseeing such consequences would naturally and necessarily follow from his opinion, as would offend the ear of a sober Christian at the very first sound, he would yet rather choose not only to admit the said harsh consequences, but professedly endeavour also to maintain them, and plead hard for them in large digressions, than to recede in the least from that opinion which he had undertaken to defend. Thirdly, that seeing (out of the sharpness of his wit) a necessity of forsaking the ordinary sublapsarian way, and the supralapsarian too, as it had diversely been declared by all that had gone before him, (for the shunning of those rocks, which either of those ways must unavoidably cast him upon,) he was forced to seek out an untrodden path, and to frame out of his own brain a new way, (like a spider’s web wrought out of her own bowels,) hoping by that device to salve all absurdities, that could be objected; to wit, by making the glory of God (as it is indeed the chiefest, so) the only end of all other his decrees, and then making all those other decrees to be but one entire co-ordinate medium conducing to that one end, and so the whole subordinate to it, but not any one part thereof subordinate to any other of the same. Dr. Twiss should have done well to have been more sparing in imputing the _studium partlum_ to others, wherewith his own eyes, though of eminent perspicacity, were so strangely blindfolded, that he could not discern how this his new device, and his old dearly beloved principle, (like the _Cadmean Sparti_,) do mutually destroy the one the other.

This relation of my past thoughts having spun out to a far greater length than I intended, I shall give a shorter account of what they now are concerning these points.

[Sidenote: Hammond and Sanderson]

For which account I refer you to the following parts of Dr. Hammond’s book aforesaid, where you may find them already printed: and for another account at large of Bishop Sanderson’s last judgment concerning _God’s concurrence_ or _non-concurrence_ with the _actions of men_, and the _positive entity of sins of commission_, I refer you to his letters already printed by his consent, in my large Appendix to my Impartial Enquiry into the Nature of Sin, sec. 68, p. 193, as far as p. 200.

“Sir, I have rather made it my choice to transcribe all above out of the letters of Dr. Sanderson, which lie before me, than venture the loss of my originals by post or carrier, which, though not often, yet sometimes fail. Make use of as much or as little as you please, of what I send you from himself (because from his own letters to me) in the penning of his life, as your own prudence shall direct you: using my name for your warranty in the account given of him, as much or as little as you please too. You have a performance of my promise, and an obedience to your desires from

“Your affectionate

“Humble Servant,


“North Tidworth,

“March 5, 1677-8.”

[Footnote 1: Sir, I pray note, that all that follows between inverted commas are Dr. Sanderson’s own words, excellently worthy, but no where else extant; and commend him as much as any thing you can say of him. T.P.]

[Footnote 2: Arriba.]

[Footnote 3: This learned nonconformist was born at Reading about 1575, and educated at Winchester School, and New College, Oxford. He had been Chaplain to the Princess Elizabeth. He died at Newbury, July 20, 1646. Wood says, “his plain preaching was esteemed good; his solid disputations were accounted better; but his pious life was reckoned best of all.”]


[Sidenote: Sanderson’s Life]

[Sidenote: Erroneous doctrines]


I am heartily glad, that you have undertaken to write the Life of that excellent person, and, both for learning and Piety, eminent Prelate, Dr. Sanderson, late Bishop of Lincoln; because I know your ability to know, and integrity to write truth: And sure I am, that the life and actions of that pious and learned Prelate will afford you matter enough for his commendation, and the imitation of posterity. In order to the carrying on your intended good work, you desire my assistance, that I would communicate to you such particular passages of his life, as were certainly known to me. I confess I had the happiness to be particularly known to him for about the space of twenty years; and, in Oxon, to enjoy his conversation, and his learned and pious instructions while he was Regius Professor of Divinity there. Afterwards, when (in the time of our late unhappy confusions) he left Oxon, and was retired into the country, I had the benefit of his letters; wherein, with great candour and kindness, he answered those doubts I proposed, and gave me that satisfaction, which I neither had nor expected from some others of greater confidence, but less judgment and humility. Having, in a letter, named two or three books writ (_ex professo_) against the being of any original sin; and that Adam, by his fall, transmitted some calamity only, but no crime to his posterity; the good old man was exceedingly troubled, and bewailed the misery of those licentious times, and seemed to wonder (save that the times were such) that any should write, or be permitted to publish any error so contradictory to truth, and the doctrine of the Church of England, established (as he truly said) by clear evidence of Scripture, and the just and supreme power of this nation, both sacred and civil. I name not the books, nor their authors, which are not unknown to learned men (and I wish they had never been known) because both the doctrine and the unadvised abettors of it are, and shall be, to me apocryphal.

[Sidenote: “De Conscientia”]

Another little story I must not pass in silence, being an argument of Dr. Sanderson’s piety, great ability, and judgment, as a casuist. Discoursing with an honourable person[1] (whose piety I value more than his nobility and learning, though both be great) about a case of conscience concerning oath and vows, their nature and obligation; in which, for some particular reasons, he then desired more fully to be informed; I commended to him Dr. Sanderson’s book “De Juramento;” which having read, with great satisfaction, he asked me,–“If I thought the Doctor could be induced to write Cases of Conscience, if he might have an honorary pension allowed him to furnish him with books for that purpose?” I told him I believed he would: And, in a letter to the Doctor, told him what great satisfaction that honourable person, and many more, had reaped by reading his book “De Juramento;” and asked him “whether he would be pleased, for the benefit of the Church, to write some tract of Cases of Conscience;” He replied, “That he was glad that any had received any benefit by his books:” and added further, “That if any future tract of his could bring such benefit to any, as we seemed to say his former had done, he would willingly, though without any Pension, set about that work.” Having received this answer, that honourable person, before mentioned, did, by my hands, return 50_l_. to the good Doctor, whose condition then (as most good men’s at that time were) was but low; and he presently revised, finished, and published that excellent book, “De Conscientia:” a book little in bulk, but not so if we consider the benefit an intelligent reader may receive by it. For there are so many general propositions concerning conscience, the nature and obligation of it, explained and proved, with such firm consequence and evidence of reason, that he who reads, remembers, and can with prudence pertinently apply them _hic et nunc_ to particular cases, may, by their light and help, rationally resolve a thousand particular doubts and scruples of conscience. Here you may see the charity of that honourable person in promoting, and the piety and industry of the good Doctor, in performing that excellent work.

[Sidenote: A good casuist:]

[Sidenote: his equipment]

And here I shall add the judgment of that learned and pious Prelate concerning a passage very pertinent to our present purpose. When he was in Oxon, and read his public lectures in the school as Regius Professor of Divinity, and by the truth of his positions, and evidences of his proofs, gave great content and satisfaction to all his hearers, especially in his clear resolutions of all difficult cases which occurred in the explication of the subject-matter of his lectures; a person of quality (yet alive) privately asked him, “What course a young Divine should take in his studies to enable him to be a good casuist?” His answer was, “That a convenient under of the learned languages, at least of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and a sufficient knowledge of arts and sciences presupposed; I there were two things in human literature, a comprehension of which would be of very great use, to enable a man to be a rational and able casuist, which otherwise was very difficult, if not impossible: I. A convenient knowledge of moral philosophy; especially that part of it which treats of the nature of human actions: To know, _’quid sit actus humanus (spontaneus, invitus, mixtus), unde habet bonitatem et malitiam moralem? an ex genere et objecto, vel ex circumstantiis?’_ How the variety of circumstances varies the goodness or evil of human actions? How far knowledge and ignorance may aggravate or excuse, increase or diminish the goodness or evil of our actions? For every case of conscience being only this–‘Is this action good or bad? May I do it, or may I not?’–He who, in these, knows not how and whence human actions become morally good and evil, never can (_in hypothesi_) rationally and certainly determine, whether this or that particular action be so.–2. The second thing, which,” he said, “would be a great help and advantage to a casuist, was a convenient knowledge of the nature and obligation of laws in general: to know what a law is; what a natural and a positive law; what’s required to the _’latio, dispensato, derogatio, vel abrogalio legis;’_ what promulgation is antecedently required to the obligation of any positive law; what ignorance takes off the obligation of a law, or does excuse, diminish, or aggravate the transgression: For every case of conscience being only this–‘Is this lawful for me, or is it not?’ and the law the only rule and measure by which I must judge of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of any action; it evidently follows, that he who, in these, knows not the nature and obligation of laws, never can be a good casuist, or rationally assure himself or others, of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of actions in particular.”

[Sidenote: Conclusion]

This was the judgment and good counsel of that learned and pious Prelate: And having, by long experience, found the truth and benefit of it, I conceive, I could not without ingratitude to him, and want of charity to others, conceal it.–Pray pardon this rude, and, I fear impertinent scribble, which, if nothing else, may signify thus much, that I am willing to obey your desires, and am indeed,

Your affectionate friend,


London, May 10, 1678.

[Footnote 1: Robert Boyle, Esq.]


[Sidenote: Sanderson’s Works]

I. “LOGICAE ARTIS COMPENDIUM. _Oxon._ 1615.” 8vo.

II. “PHYSICAE SCIENTIAE COMPENDIUM, a ROBERTO SANDERSON, Coll. Lincoln, in alma Oxoniensi olim socio, &c. _Oxoniae_, 1671.”

III. SERMONS. “Dr. Sanderson’s XII. Sermons, 1632.” 4to.–“Dr. Sanderson’s Sermons (including the twelve before printed), 1664.” Folio.–“Ditto, with his Life by Isaac Walton, 1689.” Folio.


V. “DE JURAMENTI PROMISSORII OBLIGATIONE PRAELECTIONES SEPTEM: HABITAE in SCHOLA THEOLOGICA OXONII, Termino Michaelis anno Dom. MDCXLVI. a ROBERTO SANDERSON. Praemissa Oratione ab eodem habita cum Publicam Professionem auspicaretur, 26 Octobris, 1646. _Lona_. 1647.”

These Lectures were translated into the English language by Charles I. during his confinement in the Isle of Wight, and printed at London, in 1655–8vo.

VI. “DE OBLIGATIONE CONSCIENTIAE PRAELECTIONES DECEM OXONII in SCHOLA THEOLOGICA HABITAE, anno Dom. MDCXLVII.” An English translation of the “Prelections on the Nature and Obligation of Promissory Oaths and of Conscience,” was published in 3 vols. 8vo. _London_, 1722.


VIII. “EPISCOPACY (as established by Law in England) NOT PREJUDICIAL to REGAL POWER. Written in the Time of the Long Parliament, by the special Command of the late King. _London_, 1673.”

IX. “DISCOURSE CONCERNING the CHURCH, in THESE PARTICULARS: First, concerning the Visibility of the true Church: Secondly, concerning the Church of Rome. _London_, 1688.”


XI. A large “PREFACE” to a book written at the command of Charles I. by Archbishop Usher, and published by Dr. Sanderson, entitled “The POWER communicated by GOD to the PRINCE, and the OBEDIENCE required of the SUBJECT. _London_, 1661.”–4to. Second corrected edition of this work was published in 8vo. 1683.

XII. “A PREFATORY DISCOURSE,” in defence of Usher and his Writings, prefixed to a collection of Treatises, entitled ‘CLAVI TRABALES, or NAILES fastened by some great MASTERS of ASSEMBLYES, concerning the KING’S SUPREMACY and CHURCH GOVERNMENT under BISHOPS.’

The Preface is dated “London, Aug. 10, 1661,” and subscribed “The unworthy servant of Jesus Christ, Ro. LINCOLN.”

XIII. “PROPHECIES concerning the RETURN of POPERY,” inserted in a book entitled ‘Fair Warning: The Second Part. _London_, 1663.’

XIV. “The PREFACE to the BOOK of COMMON PRAYER,” beginning with these words; “It hath been the wisdom of the Church”—-.

XV. “[Greek: EPINOMIS], seu EXPLANATIO JURAMENTI,” &c., inserted in the ‘Excerpta e Corpore Statutorum Univ. Oxoniensis,’ p. 194.

XVI. “ARTICLES of VISITATION and ENQUIRY concerning MATTERS ECCLESIASTICAL, exhibited to the Ministers, Churchwardens, and Sidemen of every Parish within the Diocese of Lincoln, in the first episcopal Visitation of the Right Rev. Father in God, ROBERT, by Divine Providence, Lord Bishop of Lincoln; with the oath to be administered to the Churchwardens, and the Bishop’s Admonition to them. _London_, 1662.” 4to.

XVII. Peck, in the ‘Desiderata Curiosa,’ Vol. II., has inserted “The HISTORY and ANTIQUITIES of the CATHEDRAL CHURCH of the Blessed Virgin St. MARY at LINCOLN; containing an exact Copy of all the Monumental Inscriptions there, in Number 163, as they stood in 1641; most of which was soon after torn up, or otherwise defaced. Collected by ROBERT SANDERSON, S.T.P., afterwards Lord Bishop of that Church, and compared with and corrected by Sir WILLIAM DUGDALE’S MS. Survey.”

Dr. White Kennet, Bishop of Peterborough, had in his possession the copies of two letters transcribed from the originals that were in the hands of Bishop Barlow. 1. Superscribed “For Mr. Thomas Barlow, at the Library in Oxon,” and subscribed “Your very loving friend and servant, ROBERT SANDERSON,” dated “Botheby Pagnell, Sept. 28, 1656,” importuning Dr. Barlow, “to undertake the managing that dispute in the question of great importance upon the ancient landmarks, by Dr. Jeremy Taylor; so unhappily (and so unseasonably too) endeavoured to be removed in the doctrine of original sin.” 2. Another letter of Dr. Sanderson to Dr. Barlow, at Queen’s College, dated “Botheby Pagnell, Sept. 17, 1657,” expressing himself, “That Dr. Taylor is so peremptory and pertinacious of his errors as not to hearken to the sober advices of his grave, reverend, and learned friends, amidst the distractions of these times,” &c.

Dr. Sanderson and Dr. Hammond were jointly concerned in a work entitled “A PACIFIC DISCOURSE of GOD’S GRACE and DECREES,” published by the latter in 1660.

It would be improper not to observe, that in the Preface to the Polyglott Bible, printed at London in 1657, Dr. Bryan Walton has classed Dr. Sanderson among those of his much honoured friends who assisted him in that noble work.


_The numbers at the beginning of paragraphs refer to the pages_


_Frontispiece._–The portrait here given is from Hooker’s monument in Bishopsbourne Church.

_Text, etc._–_The Life of Mr. Richard Hooker_ was first published in small _octavo_ in 1665. The second edition was prefixed to the _Ecclesiastical Polity_ of 1666, _folio_, and again in 1676 and 1682. It was also included in Walton’s collection of 1670. A valuable essay on Hooker by Dean Church is prefixed to the Clarendon Press edition of the first book of _Ecclesiastical Polity_, 1876.


3. _at this time of my age._ He says at p. 4 that he was “past the seventy of his age.”

5. _John Hales._ See vol. i. p. 193, note.

7. _He was born, etc._ “Probably in March, 1553-54,” says the _Dict. of Nat. Biography_.

8. _a school-boy._ He was educated at Exeter grammar school.

14. _the Bishop said to him. Cf._ chap. iii. of the _Vicar of Wakefield_, where this anecdote is referred to. Indeed Hooker is there alleged to have been the “great ancestor” of George Primrose.

23. _elemented._ See note to vol. i. p. 53.

26. _I cannot learn the pretended cause._ It seems probable that the views of Hooker and his friends had offended Barfoot, who was a zealous Puritan.

17. _he entered into Sacred Orders._ About 1581.

30. _her conditions_, personal qualities, manners. Recent investigations tend to show that honest Izaak’s account is prejudiced, as Hooker in his will makes his “wel-beloved wife” sole executrix and residuary legatee, and his father-in-law was one of the overseers. Nevertheless Wood calls her “a clownish, silly woman, and withal a mere Xanthippe.”

58. _The forenoon … Geneva._ The speaker was Fuller, but the quotation is not quite textual.

70. _and behold God’s blessings. Cf._ p. 33.

71. _corps_, endowment. “When the _corps_ of the profit or benefice is but one the title can be but one man’s” (Hooker, _Ecclesiastical Polity_, v. lxxx, sec. 11).

94. _Judicious Hooker._ This is the first application to Hooker of this time-honoured epithet. Sir W. Cowper was the grandfather of William, first Earl Cowper. The monument was erected in 1635.

97. _one of his elder daughters. I.e._ Cicely.

97. _both died before they were marriageable._ Alice died unmarried in 1649; but Jane (or Jone) married Edward Nethersole at Bishopsbourne, 23rd March 1600.

99. _dead in her bed._ In March 1601.

108, _regiment_, regimen, regulation, management. _Cf_. Bacon’s essay “Of Regiment of Health.”

121. _in devise_, in contemplation.


_Text, etc.–The Life of Mr. George Herbert_ was first published in 1670, 12mo, with his letters to his mother, etc. It was also included in the collected _Lives_ of 1670. All his known writings have been edited by Dr. Grosart for the _Fuller Worthies Library_, 1874, and the _Aldine Poets_, 1876.

134. _he was elected … Cambridge._ He was admitted scholar 5th May 1609, and matriculated pensioner at Trinity 18th December 1609.

135. _her husband died._ Sir Richard Herbert died in 1597.

136. _in Oxford four years._ From 1598 to 1603-4.

142. _Bachelor of Arts in 1611._ The correct date is 1612-13.

142. _Matter of Arts, 1616._ See also p. 143. These data were furnished to Dr. Grosart by the University authorities.

143. _chosen Orator._ 18th January 1620.

149. _many Seals._ See vol. i. p. 72.

150. _a sinecure._ Whitford is in Flintshire.

152. _cross-bias me._ A bowling-green image.

154. _Prebend of Layton Ecclesia._ Grosart points out that Walton was wrong here. Herbert was not a Deacon. He held the prebendary of Layton (Leighton Bromswold) as a laic, as he did the sinecure rectorship of Whitford.

163. _she died in the year_ 1627. In June. On July 1 Donne preached her Funeral Sermon. See _ante_, p. 139. When it was published (London, 1627, 12mo) Herbert appended to it the Greek and Latin poems to her memory, entitled _Parentalia_; these were the chief verses he published in his lifetime.

165. _three months after this marriage._ It took place at Edington on 5th March 1629.

167. _canonical clothes._ This, as Dr. Grosart says, shows that he “was still a layman.”

167. _Parsonage of Bemerton._ In the presentation in the Record Office, which is dated 16th April 1630, ten days before his induction, it is styled “Rectory of the parish church of Fulston (Fuggleston) St. Peter’s and Bemerton.”

175. “_The Country Parson._” For further particulars see p. 212. Of the simplicity of this beautiful little book Canon Ainger has well said, “Not for the first or last time in our literature was it to be shown that the euphuistic tendency is killed when the writer begins to think more of his topic than himself” (Craik’s _English Prose_, ii. (1894), 204).

190. _being_, seeing. _Cf._ also p. 258.

193. _genteel_, refined, well-bred.

201. “_The Temple._” See full title on p. 213.

205. _passion_, violent commotion of the mind, perturbation.

206. _my last Will._ This, which Walton had not seen, is printed by Dr. Grosart (_Herbert’s Poetical Works_, 1876, p. lxi).

207. _buried 3rd day of March, 1632._ I.e. in 1633, as the rest of the note seems to imply. He lies under the altar in the church.


_Text, etc_ The first separate edition of the _Life of Dr. Robert Sanderson_ was printed in 1678, 8vo. It is corrected and supplemented in Jacobson’s edition of Sanderson’s works, 1854, 6 vols.

223. _the place of his birth was Rotherham._ As stated in the note, it was Sheffield, in a house called the Lane Head Stane. He was baptized on the 10th September.

240. _about this time._ He was presented to the Rectory of Boothby Pagnell in 1619. There is a print of Boothby Parsonage in the _Gentleman’s Magazine_ for 1801, i. 105.

241. _resigned his Fellowship._ In May 1619.

241. _pennyworths_, bargains.

271. _prevented him_, anticipated him.

282. _Little Britain_. Like Duck Lane, Little Britain was (in Strype’s words) “much inhabited by booksellers.”

296. _conversation_, intercourse with the world.

303. _blacks_, mourning. _Cf_. Bacon “Of Death” (Essay 2).

305. _29th of January 1662._ Should be 1663. He was buried in the chancel of Buckden Church.