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campaign was now to concentrate all the forces of Hood’s State Troops and Hardee’s at some point in upper South Carolina or in North Carolina, and make one more desperate stand, and by united action crash and overthrow Sherman’s Army, thereby relieving Lee.

On the morning of the 16th of February the enemy, without any warning whatever, began shelling the city of Columbia, filled with women and children. Now it must be remembered that this was not for the purpose of crossing the river, for one of Sherman’s corps had already crossed below the city and two others above. One shell passed through the hotel in which General Beauregard was at the time, others struck the State House, while many fell throughout the city. General Hampton withdrew his small force of cavalry early on the morning of the 17th, and the Mayor of the city met an officer of the Federal Army under a flag of truce and tendered him the surrender of the city, and claimed protection for its inhabitants. This was promised.

All during the day thousands of the enemy poured into the city, General Sherman entering about midday. Generals Davis’ and Williams’ Corps crossed the Saluda and continued up on the western bank of Broad River, one crossing ten, the other twenty-five miles above Columbia. The people of Columbia had hopes of a peaceful occupation of the city, but during the day and along towards nightfall, the threatening attitude of the soldiers, their ominous words, threats of vengeance, were too pretentious for the people to misunderstand or to expect mercy. These signs, threats, and mutterings were but the prelude to that which was to follow.

About 9 o’clock P.M. the alarm of fire was given and the dread sound of the fire bells, mingled with the hum and roar of ten thousand voices and the tread of as many troops hurrying to and fro on their cursed mission, could be heard by the now thoroughly frightened populace. The people, with blanched countenances, set features, looked in mute silence into the faces of each other. All knew and felt, but dared not even to themselves to whisper, the unmistakable truth. Now another alarm, another fire bell mingles its sound with the general chorus of discord, shouts of the soldiery, the frightened cries of the people–jells of the drunken troops all a scathing, maddening turbulance in the crowded streets. A lurid glare shoots up above the housetops, then the cracking and roaring of the dread elements told but too plainly that the beautiful city was soon to be wrapped in flames. The sack and pillage had begun!

Few men being in the city, the women, with rare heroism, sought to save some little necessities of life, only to see it struck to the floor or snatched from their hands and scattered in the streets. Here would be a lone woman hugging an infant to her breast, with a few strips of clothing hanging on her arms; helpless orphans lugging an old trunk or chest, now containing all they could call their own–these would be snatched away, broken open, contents rifled by the drunken soldiers, or if not valuable, trampled under foot.

Soldiers, with axes and hammers, rushed from house to house, breaking in doors, smashing trunks, boxes, bureaus, and robbing them of all that was valuable, then leaving the house in flames. Helpless women, screaming children, babes in the arms, invalids on beds, jolted and jostled against the surging mob–none to help, none to advise–these defenseless sufferers rushed aimlessly about, their sole purpose being to avoid the flames and seek a place of safety. The fires originated principally in the southern section of the city, and as the fire eat its way up, the howling throng followed, driving the innocent and helpless ahead.

As the night wore on, the drunken soldiers, first made intoxicated by the wine in private cellars or the liquors in the government buildings, now became beastly drunk in their glee at the sight of the destruction they had wrought. The women and children followed the dark back-ground of that part of the city not yet in flames. The Federal officers, instead of offering assistance or a helping hand to the ruined and distressed people, added insult to injury by joining in with the private soldiers in the plundering of the city, insulting the women and adding fuel to the flame.

All night long did the flames rage, leap, and lick the clouds as one block of buildings after another fell–food for the devouring elements. This drunken orgies was kept up until their craven hearts were fully satisfied. A few squares in the north-eastern part of the city were left, also several churches, and into these the women and children were huddled and packed, and had to remain for days and some for weeks, almost on the verge of starvation. The Federal commander, through the boundless dictates of his sympathetic heart, after destroying all that fire and rapine could reach, left the starving thousands a few rations each of the plunder he had robbed of the planters in the country.

No vehicles nor horses were left in the city’s limits–the bridges burned that led across the river to the west. To the east, Blair’s Corps was laying waste everything in their pathway, while above and below the city, for a distance of fifty miles, Sherman had swept the country as bare as if a blight had fallen upon it. How the people of Columbia subsisted during the time they were penned in the city churches and the few buildings left, will ever remain a mystery, and to none so much as the sufferers themselves.

Grains of corn were eagerly picked up in the streets as they dropped from the wagons, and the women and children of the lower class and the negroes flocked to the deserted camps to gather up the crumbs left by the soldiers or the grains trampled under foot of the horses.

Every house in a stretch of fifty miles was entered and insults and indignities offered the defenseless women which would have shamed the savage Turk. Ladies were forced to disclose, at the point of the pistol or the sabre, the hiding-place of their little valuables. Some were forced to cook meals and wait upon the hell hounds, while they regaled themselves upon the choice viands of medicinal wines of the planters’ wives. But be it known to their immortal honor, that it was only on the most rare occasions that these proud dames of the South could, either by threat or brutal treatment, be forced to yield to their insolent demands. With the orders from the soldiers to “prepare a meal” or “disclose the whereabouts of their money or valuables,” came the threat, “We will burn your house if you do not.” But almost invariably came the quick response, “Burn it, burn it, you cowardly wretches, and kill me, if you wish, and all of us, but I will never soil my hands by waiting upon a cowardly Yankee, nor tell you the place of concealment–find it if you can.” The soldiers would question the negroes to find out if there were any watches, silver plate, or money belonging to the household; if so, they would, by a system of inquisition, attempt to force the women to give it up, but in vain.

A woman, Mrs. Miller, the wife of a neighbor of mine, had her husband’s gold watch in her bosom, and refused to give it up when demanded, even when a cocked pistol was at her head. The vandal struck her a stunning blow with the butt end of the pistol–all in vain. The brave heroine held to the heirloom, and stoutly resisted all entreaties and threats.

Two old people living near me, brother and maiden sister, named Loner, both pass three scores, were asked to give their money. They had none. But one of the ruffians threw a fire brand under the bed, saying:

“I will put it out if you will tell me where you keep your money; you have it, for I’ve been so informed.”

“Let it burn,” answered the old women. “Do you think to frighten or intimidate me by burning my house that I will tell what I choose to conceal? Do you think I care so much for my house and its belongings? No, no; you mistake the women of the South. You will never conquer her people by making war upon defenseless women. Let the house go up in flames, and my ashes mingle with its ashes, but I will remain true to myself, my country, and my God.”

Soon all that was left of the once happy home was a heap of ashes. Will God, in His wisdom, ever have cause to again create such women as those of the Southland? Or were there ever conditions in the world’s history that required the presence of such noble martyrdom as was displayed by the women of the South during the Civil War?

But a Nemesis in this case, as in many others, was lurking near. Bands of Confederates and scouts had scattered themselves on the flanks and rear of the enemy; old men and boys and disabled veterans were lying in wait in many thickets and out of the way places, ready to pounce upon the unsuspecting freebooters and give to them their just deserts. Was it any wonder that so many hundreds, nay thousands, of these Goths failed to answer to Sherman’s last roll call? Before the sun was many hours older, after the burning of the Loner homestead, the dreaded “bushwhackers” were on the trail of the vandals.

For years afterwards people, from curiosity, came to look at a heap of human bones in a thicket near, bleached by winter’s rain and summer’s sun, while some of the older men, pointing to the ghostly relics, would say, “Those are the remains of Sherman’s houseburners.” And such were the scenes from the Saltkahatchie to the Cape Fear. Who were to blame?

Sherman now directs his march towards Winnsboro and Chester, still in the four great parols, burning and plundering as they go. It seems that in their march through Georgia they were only whetting their appetites for a full gorge of vandalism in South Carolina. After their carnival of ruin in Columbia the Federals, like the tiger, which, with the taste of blood, grows more ravenous, they became more destructive the more destruction they saw. Great clouds of black smoke rose up over the whole county and darkened the sky overhead, while at night the heavens were lit up by the glare of the burning buildings. The railroad tracks were torn up and bridges burned, the iron being laid across heaps of burning ties, then when at red heat, were wrapped around trees and telegraph posts–these last through pure wantonness, as no army was in their rear that could ever use them again.

While that part of Sherman’s Army was crossing Broad River at Alston and Freshley’s, and the other near Ridgeway, General Hampton wrote General Beauregard to concentrate all his forces at or near the latter place by shipping Hardee and all forces under him at once by railroad–Stephenson’s Division of Western men, now with Hampton and all the cavalry to fall upon the Fifteenth Corps, under Blair, and crush it before the other portions of the army could reach it. He argued that the enemy was marching so wide apart, the country so hilly, and the roads in Fairfield County almost impassable, that one wing of the army could be crushed before the other could reach it. But General Beauregard telegraphed him, “The time is past for that move. While it could have been done at the Edisto or Branchville, it is too late now.”

On the night of the 17th and morning of the 18th Charleston was evacuated. Before the commencement of the retirement, orders were given by General Beauregard to General Hardee to withdraw the troops in the following order, but General Hardee being sick at this time, the execution of the order devolved upon General McLaws: One brigade of Wright’s Division, in St. Paul’s Parish, to move by railroad to Monk’s Corner, then march by Sandy Run to the Santee; the other portion of Wright’s Division to move by Summerville to St. Stephen’s. The troops in Christ Church Parish to go by steamer to St. Stephen’s. The troops from James’ Island to move out by Ashley’s Ferry and follow the Northeastern railroad, to be followed in turn by all the troops in the city. McLaws was to withdraw from Sherman’s front at Branchville and follow on to St. Stephen’s. After all the troops were here congregated, the line of march was taken up in the direction of Cheraw. Away to our left we could see the clouds of smoke rise as houses went up in flames, while forest fires swept the country far and wide. It was not fully understood to what point Sherman was making, until he reached Winnsboro. Here he turned the course of direction by turning to the right, crossing the Catawba at Pea’s Ferry and Rocky Mount, the right wing under General Howard, at Pea’s; the left, under General Slocum, at Rocky Mount, all marching to form a junction again at Cheraw. Sherman did not dare to trust himself far in the interior for any length of time, but was marching to meet the fleet that had left him at Savannah and the troops under Schofield, at Newbern, N.C. This is the reason he turns his course towards the sea coast. Raiding parties, under Kilpatrick, were sent out in the direction of Darlington and Lancaster, burning and plundering at will.

About this time Fort Fisher and all the works at the mouth of the Cape Fear River fell into the hands of the enemy. Wilmington surrendered and General Bragg, who was in command there, retreated to Goldsboro.

How, in the face of all these facts, could it be possible for Generals to deceive themselves or to deceive others, or how President Davis could have such delusive hopes, is now impossible to comprehend. On February 22nd, after the fall of Wilmington, the Army of Sherman was on the border of North Carolina, while Hood’s was straggling through the upper part of this State, with no prospects of forming a junction with Beauregard. President Davis wrote on that day:

“General Beauregard: I have directed General J.E. Johnston to assume command of the Southern Army and assign you to duty with him. Together, I feel assured you will beat back Sherman.”

To add one man, even if a great commander, would add but little strength to any army, already exhausted beyond the hope of recuperation, still “You will beat Sherman back!” the President writes. I for one cannot see how a General could receive such an order at such time in any other spirit than ridicule. President Davis, even after the fall of Richmond and the battle of Bettonville fought, where Johnston tried once more to “beat back Sherman” and failed–after all the circumstances and conditions were given to him in detail–said, “The struggle could be still carried on to a successful issue by bringing out all our latent resources; that we could even cross the Mississippi River, join forces with Kirby Smith, and prolong the war indefinitely.” Was there ever such blind faith or dogged tenacity of purpose? Did Mr. Davis and our Generals really believe there was still a chance for a successful issue at this late day, or was it the knowledge of the disposition of the troops whom they knew would rather suffer death than defeat.

It must, within all reason, have been the latter, for no great commander cognizant of all the facts could have been so blind. Even while the Confederate troops were overwhelmed by numbers, communications cut on all sides, all out posts and the borders hemmed in one small compass, some of our soldiers entered a publishing house in Raleigh, destroyed all the type, broke the presses, and demolished the building–all this because the editor of the paper advised the giving up of the contest! Did the soldiers of the South believe as yet that they were beaten? Circumstances and their surly moods say not. Well might a commander or executive have apprehensions of his personal safety should he counsel submission as long as there was a soldier left to raise a rifle or draw a lanyard. I ask again was there ever before such troops as those of the South? Will there ever be again?

Kershaw’s Brigade, now attached to Hardee’s Corps, reached Cheraw about the first of March, but the enemy’s advance was at Chesterfield, causing Hardee to continue his march by Rockinham on to Fayetteville, N.C., near which place the two armies, that is the one under Hampton and the other under Hardee, came together. Hardee having recovered from his indisposition, relieved General McLaws, the latter returning to Augusta, Ga. Kershaw’s Brigade was soon after put in Wathal’s Division.

On the 22nd of February General Jos. E. Johnston, who was then living at Lincolnton, N.C., was called from his retirement and placed in command of all the troops in North and South Carolina and Georgia. Although the army was nothing more than detachments, and widely separated and greatly disorganized when he reached them, still they hailed with delight the appointment of their former faithful old commander. His one great aim was the convergence of the various armies to one point in front of the enemy and strike a blow at either one or more of his columns, either at Fayetteville or at the crossing of the Cape Fear River. Hardee had been racing with Sherman to reach Cheraw and cross the PeeDee before Sherman could come up. He only accomplished this after many forced marches by “the skin of his teeth,” to use a homely expression. He crossed the PeeDee one day ahead of the enemy, burning the bridge behind him, after moving all the stores that were possible. The right wing, under General Howard, crossed the PeeDee at Cheraw, while the left, under Slocum, crossed higher up, at Sneedsboro. Hampton was forced to make a long detour up the PeeDee and cross at the fords along the many little islands in that stream.

On the 8th of March General Bragg, with Hoke’s Division, reinforced by a division under D.H. Hill, of Johnston’s command, numbering in all about two thousand, attacked three divisions under General Cox, at Kiniston, defeating him with much loss, capturing one thousand five hundred prisoners and three pieces of artillery.

During the campaign our cavalry was not idle on the flanks or front of Sherman, but on the contrary, was ever on the alert, striking the enemy wherever possible. General Butler intercepted and defeated a body of Federals on their way to destroy the railroad at Florence, at or near Mount Elan. General Wheeler, also, at Homesboro, came up with the enemy, and after a spirited brush, drove the enemy from the field, capturing a number of prisoners. Again, near Rockinham, the same officer put the enemy to rout. General Kilpatrick had taken up camp on the road leading to Fayetteville, and commanding that road which was necessary for the concentration of our troops. In the night General Hampton, after thoroughly reconnoitering the position, surrounded the camp of Kilpatrick, and at daybreak, on the 10th, fell like a hurricane upon the sleeping enemy. The wildest confusion prevailed; friend could not be distinguished from foe. Shooting and saber slashing were heard in every direction, while such of the enemy who could mounted their horses and rode at break-neck speed, leaving their camp and camp equippage, their artillery and wagon trains. The enemy was so laden with stolen booty, captured in the Carolinas and Georgia, that this great treasure was too great a temptation to the already demoralized cavalry. So, instead of following up their victory, they went to gathering the spoils. Hundreds of horses were captured, but these ran off by our troops forcing all the artillery captured to be abandoned, after cutting the wheels to pieces. But the long train of wagons, laden with supplies, was a good addition to our depleted resources. A great number of the enemy were killed and wounded, with five hundred prisoners, besides recapturing one hundred and fifty of our own troops taken in former battles.

General Johnston now ordered the troops of General Bragg who had come up from Kiniston and the Western troops, under Stuart, Cheatham, and Lee, as well as a part of Hardee’s, to concentrate at Smithfield. The bulk of Hardee’s Corps, of which Kershaw’s Brigade was a part, withdrew from Cheraw in the direction of Goldsboro, and at Averysboro the enemy came up with Hardee, and by the overpowering weight of numbers forced the Confederates from their position. The density of the pine forest was such, that after a few fires, the smoke settled among the undergrowth and under the treetops in such quantity that a foe could not be seen even a short distance away. The level condition of the country prevented our artillery from getting in any of its work, and a flank movement by the Federals could be so easily made, unnoticed, that Hardee was forced to retire in the direction of Smithfield and to an elevation.

General Johnston having learned that the enemy was marching in the direction of Goldsboro, instead of Raleigh, and that the right wing was a day’s advance of the left, ordered a concentration of his troops near the little hamlet of Bentonville, situated near the junction of the roads, one leading to Raleigh and the other to Goldsboro, and there fall upon the one wing of the army and defeat it before the other came up. This was not so difficult in contemplation as in the performance, under the present condition of the troops and the topography of the country. General Johnston was misled by the maps at hand, finding afterwards that the Federal General, Howard, was much nearer Bentonville than was General Hardee. But General Hampton put General Butler’s Division of Cavalry in front of this whole force, behind some hastily constructed breastworks, and was to keep Slocum at bay until the troops had all gotten in position.

General Hardee began moving early on the morning of the eighth, and on reaching Bentonville we now, for the first time, came up with all the other troops of the army. Hoke’s Division lead off to take position and stood on both sides of a dull road leading through the thickets. Batteries were placed on his right. Next to the artillery was posted the Army of Tennessee, its right thrown forward. Before Hardee could get in position the enemy attacked with the utmost vigor, so much so that General Bragg, who was commanding in person at this point, asked for reinforcements. General Hardee, moving by at this juncture, ordered McLaws’ Old-Division to the aid of Hoke. But the almost impenetrable thicket prevented hasty movement, and the smoke in front, overhead and the rear, with bullets passing over the heads of Hoke’s men, made it impossible for these unacquainted with the disposition of the troops to know whether it was friend or foe in our front. The troops became greatly entangled and some of the officers demoralized. Some troops on our right, by mistaking the head of direction, began to face one way, while Kershaw’s Brigade was facing another. But after much maneuvering, McLaw’s got the troops disentangled and moved upon the line, and after several rounds at close range, the enemy retreated. Hardee was then ordered to charge with his wing of the army, composed of troops under Stuart and a division under Taliaferro, while Bragg was to follow by brigades from right to left. The firing was now confusing, our troops advancing in different direction, and the sound of our guns and cannon echoing and reverberating through the dense forest, made it appear as if we were surrounded by a simultaneous fire. But finding our way the best we could by the whizzing of the bullets, we rushed up to the enemy’s first line of entrenchments, which they had abandoned without an effort, and took position behind the second line of works. After firing a round or two, the Confederates raised the old Rebel yell and went for their second line with a rush. Here General Hardee led his men in person, charging at their head on horseback. The troops carried everything before them; the enemy in double columns and favorably entrenched, was glad to take cover in the thicket in the rear. On the extreme left our troops were less successful, being held in check by strong breastworks and a dense thicket between the enemy and the troops of General Bragg. After sweeping the enemy from the field, General Hardee found it necessary to halt and reform his line and during this interval the enemy made an unsuccessful assault upon the troops of General Stuart. After nightfall and after all the killed and wounded had been removed from the field, General Johnston moved the troops back to the line occupied in the morning and threw up fortifications. Here we remained until the 21st; McLaws was detached and placed on the left of Hoke; the cavalry deployed as skirmishers to our left. There was a considerable gap between our extreme left and the main body of cavalry, and this break the writer commanded with a heavy Hue of skirmishers. Late in the day the enemy made a spirited attack upon us, so much so that General McLaws sent two companies of boys, formerly of Fizer’s Brigade of Georgia Militia. The boys were all between sixteen and eighteen, and a finer body of young men I never saw. He also sent a regiment of North Carolina Militia, consisting of old men from fifty to sixty, and as these old men were coming up on line the enemy were giving us a rattling fire from their sharpshooters. The old men could not be induced to come up, however. The Colonel, a Venerable old gray-beard, riding a white horse, as soon as the bullets began to pelt the pines in his front, leaped from his horse and took refuge behind a large tree. I went to him and tried every inducement to get him to move up his men on a line with us, but all he would do was to grasp me by the hand and try to jerk me down beside him. “Lie down, young man,” said he, “or by God you’ll be shot to pieces. Lie down!” The old militiaman I saw was too old for war, and was “not built that way.” But when I returned to the skirmish line, on which were my own brigade skirmishers, reinforced by the two boy companies, the young men were fighting with a glee and abandon I never saw equalled. I am sorry to record that several of these promising young men, who had left their homes so far behind, were killed and many wounded.

This ended the battle of Bentonville, and we might say the war. The sun of the Confederacy, notwithstanding the hopes of our Generals, the determination of the troops, and the prayers of the people, was fast sinking in the west. The glorious rising on the plains of Manassas had gone down among the pine barriers of North Carolina. The last stroke had been given, and destiny seemed to be against us. For hundreds of miles had the defeated troops of Hood marched barefooted and footsore to the relief of their comrades of the East, and had now gained a shallow victory. They had crossed three States to mingle their blood with those of their friends who had fought with dogged resistence every step that Sherman had made. But their spirits were not broken. They were still ready to try conclusions with the enemy whenever our leaders gave the signal for battle. The South could not be conquered by defeat–to conquer it, it must be crashed. The tattered battle flags waved as triumphantly over the heads of the shattered ranks of the battle-scared veterans here in the pine barriers as it ever did on the banks of the Rapidan.

It is sad to chronicle that on this last day, in a battle of the cavalry, in which the infantry had to take a part, the gallant son of the brave General Hardee fell at the head of his column as the Eighth Texas Cavalry was making a desperate charge.

In the battle of Bentonville the Confederates had fourteen thousand infantry and cavalry. The cavalry being mostly on the flanks, and General Wheeler on the north side of Mill Creek, could not participate in the battle in consequence of the swollen stream. The Federal Army had thirty-five thousand engaged on the 19th and seventy thousand in line on the 20th. The loss on the Confederate side was one hundred and eighty killed, one thousand two hundred and twenty wounded, and five hundred and fifteen missing. The enemy’s losses in killed and wounded far exceeded the Confederates, besides the Confederates captured nine hundred prisoners.

On the night of the 21st the army began its retreat, crossing Mill Creek on the morning of the 22nd, just in time to see the enemy approach the bridge as our last troops had crossed.

On the 23rd General Sherman marched his army to Goldsboro, there uniting with General Schofield. It was the intention of General Lee that as soon as General Sherman had approached near enough, to abandon the trenches at Petersburg, and, with the combined armies, turn and fall upon his front, flank, and rear.

* * * * *

CHAPTER XLIII

From Smithfield to Greensboro–The Surrender.

The army took up quarters for a while around Smithfield. The troops were as jolly and full of life as they ever were in their lives. Horse racing now was the order of the day. Out in a large old field, every day thousands of soldiers and civilians, with a sprinkling of the fair ladies of the surrounding country, would congregate to witness the excitement of the race course. Here horses from Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and North and South Carolina tried each others mettle. They were not the thoroughbreds of the course, but cavalry horses, artillery horses, horses of Generals, Colonels, and the staff–horses of all breeds and kinds, all sizes and description–stood at the head of the track and champed their bits with eagerness, impatient to get away. Confederate money by the handfuls changed owners every day. It was here that Governor Zeb Vance, of North Carolina, visited us, and was a greater favorite with the soldiers than any man in civil life. It was here, too, our old disabled commander, General James Connor, came to bid us an affectionate farewell. General Kennedy formed the brigade into a hollow square to receive our old General. He entered the square on horseback, accompanied by General Kennedy and staff. He had come to bid us farewell, and spoke to us in feeling terms. He recounted our many deeds of valor upon the field, our sufferings in camp and upon the march, and especially our supreme heroism and devotion in standing so loyally to our colors in this the dark hour of our country’s cause. He spoke of his great reluctance to leave us; how he had watched with sympathy and affection our wanderings, our battles, and our victories, and then envoking Heaven’s blessings upon us, he said in pathetic tones, “Comrades, I bid you an affectionate farewell,” and rode away.

While in camp here there was a feeble attempt made to reorganize and consolidate the brigade by putting the smaller companies together and making one regiment out of two. As these changes took place so near the end, the soldiers never really realizing a change had been made, I will do no more than make a passing allusion to it, as part of this history. The only effect these changes had was the throwing out of some of our best and bravest officers (there not being places for all), but as a matter of fact this was to their advantage, as they escaped the humiliation of surrender, and returned home a few days earlier than the rest of the army.

After passing through South Carolina and venting its spleen on the Secession State, the Federal Army, like a great forest fire, sweeping over vast areas, stops of its own accord by finding nothing to feed upon. The vandalism of the Union Army in North Carolina was confined mostly to the burning of the great turpentine forests. They had burned and laid waste the ancestral homes of lower South Carolina, left in ashes the beautiful capital of the State, wrecked and ruined the magnificent residences and plantations of the central and upper part of the country, leaving in their wake one vast sheet of ruin and desolation, so that when they met the pine barrens of North Carolina, their appetites for pillage, plunder, and destruction seems to have been glutted.

It was the boast of the Federal commander and published with delight in all the Northern newspapers, that “where his army went along a crow could not pass over without taking its rations along.” Then, too, this very country was to feed and support, while in transit to their homes almost the whole of Johnston’s and the greater part of Lee’s Army. All these, in squads or singly, were fed along the way from house to house wherever they could beg a little meal or corn, with a morsel of meat or molasses. A great number of negro troops also passed through this country on their way to the coast to be disbanded. But the noble women of South Carolina never turned a hungry soldier from their doors as long as there was a mouthful in the house to eat.

Another terror now alarmed the people–the news of a great raid, under Stoneman, being on its way through North Carolina and upper South Carolina, coming across the country from East Tennessee, laying waste everything in its track. General Sherman had concentrated his whole army at Goldsboro, and was lying idle in camp, preparatory to his next great move to connect with Grant. He had at his command the right wing, under General Howard, twenty-eight thousand eight hundred and thirty-four; its left wing, under General Slocum, twenty-eight thousand and sixty-three. General Schofield had come up from Newbern with twenty-six thousand three hundred and ninety-two and constituted the center, besides five thousand six hundred and fifty-nine cavalry, under Kilpatrick, and ninety-one pieces of artillery. General Johnston had encamped his army between two roads, one leading to Raleigh, the other to Weldon. The Confederate Government, after the evacuation of Richmond, had now established its quarters at Danville, Va., awaiting the next turn of the wheel. Lee had fallen back from Petersburg; while Johnston, before Sherman, was awaiting the move of that General to fall back still nearer to his illustrious chieftain. The government and all the armies were now hedged in the smallest compass. Still our leaders were apparently hopeful and defiant, the troops willing to stand by them to the last.

On the 10th of April President Davis and a part of his cabinet left Danville on his way to Greensboro. Even at this late day President Davis was urging the concentration of the troops under General Walker, the scattered troops at Salisbury and Greensboro, and those under Johnston at same place on the Yadkin, and crush Sherman, and then it is supposed to turn on Grant. All this with less than twenty thousand men!

The last conference of the great men of the Confederacy met at Greensboro, on the 13th of April, 1865. Those present were President Davis, Messrs. Benjamin, Secretary of State; Mallory, of the Navy; Reagin, Postmaster General; Breckinridge, Secretary of War, and General Johnston. The army had been falling back daily through Raleigh, and was now encamped near Greensboro. President Davis still clung to the delusion that by pressing the conscript act and bringing out all absentees, they could yet prolong the struggle, even if they had to cross the Mississippi and join with Kirby Smith. General Johnston urged in his and General Beauregard’s name its utter impracticability, and informed the President plainly and positively that it was useless to continue the struggle–that they had as well abandon all hope of any other issue than that which they could gain through the Federal authorities, and besought Mr. Davis to open negotiations looking to peace–that he was yet the executive and head of the Confederate Government; that he was the proper one to commence such negotiations. This Mr. Davis refused, saying the Federal authorities would refuse to treat with him. Then General Johnston proposed doing so in his own name. This was agreed to, and a letter written by Mr. Mallory, he being the best penman in the group, and signed and sent by General Johnston to General Sherman. The letter recapitulated the results in the army in the last few days, changing the status of the two armies and the needless amount of bloodshed and devastation of property that the continuance of the struggle would produce, and asked for a conference looking to an armistice in the armies until the civil government could settle upon terms of peace. The letter was sent to General Hampton, and by him to the Federal commander the next day. General Sherman acknowledged the receipt of the letter on the 14th, and it reached General Johnston on the 16th, agreeing to a cessation of hostilities until further notice. General Sherman expressed in his letter a great desire to spare the people of North Carolina the devastation and destruction the passing of his army through the State would necessitate. When it began to be noised about in the camp that the army was about to be surrendered, the soldiers became greatly excited. The thought of grounding their arms to an enemy never before entered their minds, and when the news came of a surrender the greatest apprehension and dread seized all. So different the end to their expectation. None could even think of the future without a shudder. Some anticipated a term in Federal prisons; others, the higher officers, a military trial; others thought of their private property and their arms. Even in a prison camp, where our soldiers would be kept confined under a Federal guard, all was mystery and uncertainty. The wives and helpless children, left in the rear to the mercy of the negroes (now for the first time known to be free), agitated the minds of not a few. Men began to leave the army by twos and by squads. Guards were placed on all roads and around camps, and the strictest orders were given against leaving the army without leave. Cavalrymen in great numbers had mounted their horses and rode away. General Sherman sent guards to all fords and bridges to examine all the paroles of the troops of Lee now swarming through the country.

General Johnston met General Sherman at Durham, on the 17th of April, at the house of Mr. Bennett, but after a long and tedious controversy, nothing was agreed upon. A second meeting took place at the same house next day, at which General Breckinridge was unofficially present, when terms of an armistice were agreed to until the department at Washington could be beard from. President Davis had already gone South with such of his cabinet as chose to follow him, the whole settlement of difficulties now devolving upon General Johnston alone.

But just as all negotiations were progressing finely the news came of President Lincoln’s assassination, throwing the whole of the Federal Army in a frenzy of excitement. While the troops of the South may not have given their assent to such measures, yet they rejoiced secretly; in their hearts that the great agitator, emancipator–the cause of all our woes–was laid low. To him and him alone all looked upon as being the originator, schemer, and consummater of all the ills the South had suffered. However the hearts of the Southern people may have changed in the thirty years that have passed, or how sadly they deplored his death, even in a decade afterwards, I but voice the sentiment of the South at the time when I say they hated Lincoln with all the venom of their souls, and his untimely taking off by the hands of the assassin partly consoled them for all they had suffered.

Orders came from General Sherman to General Johnston to the effect that part of their agreement was rejected by the Washington Authority, and notifying the latter that the truce would be called off in forty-eight hours. This occasioned a third meeting between the two commanders to make such changes that were required by the authorities. On the 26th General Johnston sent a communication to General Sherman requesting a meeting at same place for further conference. This was agreed to and the meeting took place, where such terms were agreed upon and signed as was thought to be in accordance with the wishes of the Washington Government. Rolls were made out in duplicate of all the officers and soldiers, and on the 2nd of May the troops marched out, stacked their arms, were given paroles, and slowly turned away and commenced their homeward journey.

A military chest, containing $39,000, had been received from the Government in Richmond and divided out among the soldiers, being $1.29 apiece. All the Wagon and artillery horses and wagons, also, were loaned to the soldiers and divided by lot. A few days’ rations had been issued, and with this and the clothes on their back, this remnant at a once grand army bent their steps towards their desolate homes. It was found advisable to move by different routs and in such numbers as was most agreeable and convenient. Once away from the confines of the army, they took by-ways and cross country, roads, avoiding as much as possible the track of the late army. The troops of Kershaw’s Brigade, on reaching the borders of their State, each sought for himself the easiest and nearest path home. The Western Army made their way, the most of them at least, to Washington, Ga., where there was yet railroad communication a part of the way through Georgia.

And now, gentle reader, my task is done–my pen laid aside, after days and days of earnest toil to give a faithful and correct account of your daring, your endurance, your patriotism, and your fidelity to the cause you had espoused. Your aims have been of the highest, your performances ideal, and while you were unsuccessful, still your deeds of daring will live in history as long as civilization lasts. While your cherished hopes ended in a dream, still your aspirations have been of the loftiest, and your acts will be copied by generations yet unborn, as a fitting pattern for all brave men. You have fought in all the great battles of the East, from the trenches of Petersburg to the rugged heights of Round Top. Your blood mingled with that of your comrades of the West, from Chickamauga to the storming of Fort London. You combatted the march of Sherman from the Saltkahatchie to the close, and stacked your arms more as conquering heroes than beaten foes. You have nothing to regret but the results–no hope but the continued prosperity of a reunited people. This heritage of valor left to posterity as a memorial of Southern manhood to the Southern cause will be cherished by your descendants for all time, and when new generations come on and read the histories of the great Civil War, and recall to their minds the fortitude, the chivalry, and the glories of the troops engaged, Kershaw’s Brigade will have a bright page in the book of their remembrance.

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CHAPTER XLIV

Retrospect.

It would be supposed that the writer, who had fought by the side of nearly all, and who had visited battlefields where troops from every State had fallen, could form an idea of “Which were the best troops from the South?” The South has furnished a type of the true soldier that will last as a copy for all time. She had few regulars, and her volunteer troops were brought into service without preparation or without the knowledge of tactical drill, but in stoicism, heroism, and martyrdom they excelled the world.

I give in these pages a brief synopsis of the characteristics of the troops from different States, and while this is the view of the author alone, still I feel assured that the great mass of the old soldiers will admit its correctness. To the question, “Which were the best troops from the South?” there would be as many answers and as much differences of opinions as there were States in the Confederacy, or organizations in the field, as each soldier was conscientious in his belief that those from his own State were the best in the army, his brigade the best in the division, his regiment the best in the brigade, and his own company the best in the regiment. This is a pardonable pride of the soldier, and is as it should be to make an army great. Where all, individually and collectively, were as good or better than any who ever before faced an enemy upon a battlefield, there really are no “best.”

But soldiers from different States, all of the same nationality and of the same lineage, from habits, temperaments, and environments, had different characteristics upon the field of battle. From an impartial standpoint, I give my opinion thus:

The Virginians were the cavaliers of the South, high-toned, high-bred, each individual soldier inspired by that lofty idea of loyalty of the cavalier. They were the ideal soldiers in an open field and a fair fight. They were the men to sweep a battle line that fronts them from the field by their chivalrous and steady courage. Virginia, the mother of Presidents, of great men, and noble women, the soldier of that State felt in honor bound to sustain the name and glory of their commonwealth. As a matter of fact, the Virginians, as a rule, with exceptions enough to establish the rule, being one of the oldest of the sister States, her wealth, her many old and great institutions of learning, were better educated than the mass of soldiers from the other States. They were soldiers from pride and patriotism, and courageous from “general principles.” In an open, fair field, and a square and even fight, no enemy could stand before their determined advance and steady fire. They were not the impulsive, reckless, head-strong soldiers in a desperate charge as were those from some other Southern States, but cool, collected, steady, and determined under fire. They were of the same mettle and mould as their kinsmen who stood with Wellington at Waterloo.

The North Carolinians were the “Old Guard” of the Confederacy. They had little enthusiasm, but were the greatest “stickers” and “stayers” on a battle line of any troops from the South. They fought equally as well in thicket or tangled morass as behind entrenchments. To use an army expression, “The North Carolinians were there to stay.” It was a jocular remark, common during the war, that the reason the North Carolina troops were so hard to drive from a position was “they had so much tar on their heels that they could not run.” They were obstinate, tenacious, and brave.

South Carolinians took on in a great measure the inspirations of some of their French Huguenot ancestors and the indomitable courage of their Scotch and German forefathers of the Revolution. They were impulsive, impetuous, and recklessly brave in battle, and were the men to storm breastworks and rush to the cannon’s mouth at the head of a “forlorn hope.” They possibly might not stay as long in a stubbornly contested battle as some from other States, but would often accomplish as much in a few minutes by the mad fury of their assault as some others would accomplish in as many hours. They were the Ironsides of the South, and each individual felt that he had a holy mission to fulfill. There were no obstacles they could not surmount, no position they would not assail. Enthusiasm and self-confidence were the fort of South Carolinians, and it was for them to raise the Rebel yell and keep it up while the storm of battle raged fierce and furious. They were the first to raise the banner of revolt, and right royally did they sustain it as long as it floated over the Southland.

What is said of the South Carolinians can be truthfully said of Georgians. People of the same blood, and kindred in all that makes them one, they could be with propriety one and the same people. The Georgians would charge a breastwork or storm a battery with the same light-heartedness as they went to their husking bees or corn-shucking, all in a frolick. To illustrate their manner of fighting, I will quote from a Northern journal, published just after the seven days’ battles around Richmond, a conversation between Major D., of the —- New York, and a civilian of the North. The Major was boasting in a noisy manner of the courage, daring, and superiority of the Northern soldiers over those of the South. “Well, why was it,” asked the civilian, “if you were so superior in every essential to the Rebels, that you got such an everlasting licking around Richmond?” “Licking, h—-l,” said the wounded Major, “who could fight such people? Indians! Worse than an Apache. Just as we would get in line of battle and ready for an advance, a little Georgia Colonel, in his shirt sleeves and copperas breeches, would pop out into a corn field at the head of his regiment, and shout at the top of his voice, ‘Charge!’ Man alive! here would come the devils like a whirlwind–over ditches, gullies, fences, and fields, shouting, yelling, whooping, that makes the cold chills run up your back–flash their glittering bayonets in our very faces, and break our lines to pieces before you could say ‘boo.’ Do you call that fighting? It was murder.” No more need be said of the Georgians.

Little Florida did not have many troops in the field, but little as she was, she was as brave as the best. Her troops, like those of Georgia and South Carolina, were impulsive, impetuous, and rapid in battle. They were few in numbers, but legions in the fray.

The Alabamians and Mississippians came of pioneer stock, and like their ancestry, were inured to hardships and dangers from childhood; they made strong, hardy, brave soldiers. Indifferent to danger, they were less careful of their lives than some from the older States. They were fine marksmen; with a steady nerve and bold hearts, they won, like Charles Martel, with their hammer-like blows. They were the fanatical Saraceus of the South; while nothing could stand before the broad scimeters of the former, so nothing could stand in the way of the rifle and bayonet of the latter.

The Louisianians were the Frenchmen of the South. Of small stature, they were the best marchers in the army. Like their ancestors in the days of the “Grand Monarch,” and their cousins in the days of the “Great Napoleon,” they loved glory and their country. Light-hearted and gay in camp, they were equally light-hearted and gay in battle. Their slogan was, “Our cause and our country.” The Louisianians were grand in battle, companionable in camp, and all round soldiers in every respect.

The Texan, unlike the name of Texan immediately after the war, when that country was the city of refuge for every murderer and cut-throat of the land, were gallant, chivalrous, and gentlemanly soldiers. Descendants of bold and adventurous spirits from every State in the South, they were equally bold and daring in battle, and scorned the very word of fear or danger. Hood’s old Texas Brigade shared honors with the old Stonewall Brigade in endurance, courage, and obstinacy in action. The soldiers of Texas were tenacious, aggressive, and bold beyond any of their brethren of the South.

The Tennesseeans, true to the instincts of their “back woods” progenitors, were kind-hearted, independent, and brimful of courage. Driven from their homes and firesides by a hostile foe, they became a “storm center” in battle. They were combative and pugnacious, and defeat had no effect upon their order, and they were ever ready to turn and strike a foe or charge a battery. Their courage at Chickamauga is distinguished by showing the greatest per cent of killed and wounded in battle that has even been recorded, the charge of the Light Brigade not excepted, being over forty-nine per cent.

What is said of the Tennesseeans is equally true of the Arkansans. Of a common stock and ancestry, they inherited all the virtues and courage of their forefathers. The Confederacy had no better soldiers than the Arkansans–fearless, brave, and oftentimes courageous beyond prudence.

The border States’ soldiers, Missourians, Kentuckians, and Marylanders, were the free lance of the South. They joined the fortunes of the South with the purest motives and fought with the highest ideals. Under Forrest and Morgan and the other great riders of the West, they will ever be the soldiers of story, song, and romance. Their troops added no little lustre to the constellation of the South’s great heroes, and when the true history of the great Civil War shall be written, they will be remembered. Indomitable in spirits, unconquerable and unyielding in battle, they will ever stand as monuments to the courage of the Southern Army.

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THE MAGNITUDE OF THE WAR–ITS LOSSES IN KILLED AND DIED.

What were the Confederate losses during the war? Where are the Confederate dead? Which State lost the most soldiers in proportion to the number furnished the war? These are questions which will perhaps be often asked, but never answered. It can never be known, only approximately. The cars containing the Confederate archives were left unguarded and unprotected at Greensboro on its way from Richmond, until General Beauregard noticed papers from the car floating up and down the railroad track, and had a guard placed over them and sent to Charlotte. There was a like occurrence at this place, no protection and no guard, until General Johnston had them turned over to the Federal authorities for safe keeping. Consequently, the Confederate rolls on file in Washington are quite incomplete, and the loss impossible to ever be made good.

The Federal authorities commenced immediately after the war to collect their dead in suitable cemeteries, and the work of permanently marking their graves continued systematically until the Federal loss in the war can be very accurately estimated. There are seventy-five public cemeteries for the burial of the Federal soldiers, in which are buried three hundred and sixty thousand two hundred and seven; of these, one hundred and thirty-nine thousand four hundred and ninety-six are marked unknown. There were thirty-three thousand five hundred and twenty negro soldiers buried in the cemeteries, and more than fifty thousand Union dead never accounted for a great number of these fell by the wayside during “Sherman’s march to the sea;” lost by “Sherman’s rear guard,” called by the Federal soldiers “Confederate bushwhackers”

The rolls of the Confederate dead in the archives at Washington, given by States, are very unsatisfactory and necessarily incomplete Only two States can even approximate their loss. But as this is the record in Washington, I give it.

Killed. Died of Wounds. Died of Disease. Virginia 5,328 2,519 6,947 North Carolina 14,522 5,151 20,602 South Carolina 9,187 3,725 4,700 Georgia 5,553 1,716 3,702 Florida 793 506 1,047 Alabama 552 190 724 Mississippi 5,807 2,651 6,807 Louisiana 2,612 858 3,059 Texas 1,348 1,241 1,260 Arkansas 2,165 915 3,872 Tennessee 2,115 874 3,425 Regulars 1,007 468 1,040 Border States 1,959 672 1,142 ———— ———— ———— Totals 52,954 21,570 59,297

In the above it will be seen that North Carolina, which may be considered approximately correct, lost more than any other State. Virginia furnished as many, if not more, troops than North Carolina, still her losses are one-third less, according to the statistics in Washington. This is far from being correct. Alabama’s dead are almost eliminated from the rolls, while it is reasonable to suppose that she lost as many as South Carolina, Mississippi, or Georgia. South Carolina furnished more troops in proportion to her male white population than any State in the South, being forty-five thousand to August, 1862, and eight thousand reserves. It is supposed by competent statisticians that the South lost in killed and died of wounds, ninety-four thousand; and lost by disease, one hundred and twenty-five thousand.

In some of the principal battles throughout the war, there were killed out right, not including those died of wounds–

First Manassas …… 387 Gettysburg ………… 3,530 Wilson’s Creek …… 279 Chickamauga ……….. 2,380 Fort Donelson ……. 466 Missionary Ridge …… 381 Pea Ridge ……….. 360 Sabine Cross Roads …. 350 Shiloh ………….. 1,723 Wilderness ………… 1,630 Seven Pines ……… 980 Atlanta Campaign …… 3,147 Seven Days Battles .. 3,286 Spottsylvania ……… 1,310 Second Manassas ….. 1,553 Drury’s Bluff ……… 355 Sharpsburg ………. 1,512 Cold Harbor ……….. 960 Corinth …………. 1,200 Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 1,500 Perryville ………. 510 Winchester ………… 286 Fredericksburg …… 596 Cedar Creek ……….. 339 Murfreesboro …….. 1,794 Franklin ………….. 1,750 Chancellorsville …. 1,665 Nashville …………. 360 Champion Hill ……. 380 Bentonville ……….. 289 Vicksburg Siege ….. 875 Five Forks ………… 350

There were many other battles, some of greater magnitude than the above, which are not here given. There are generally five wounded to one killed, and nearly one-third of the wounded die of their wounds, thus a pretty fair estimate of the various battles can be had. There were more men killed and wounded at Gettysburg than on any field of battle during the war, but it must be born in mind that its duration was three days. General Longstreet, who should be considered a judge, says that there were more men killed and wounded on the battlefield at Sharpsburg (or Antietam), for the length of the engagement and men engaged, than any during this century.

The Union losses on the fields mentioned above exceeded those of the Confederates by thirteen thousand five hundred in killed and died of wounds.

There were twenty-five regular prison pens at the North, at which twenty-six thousand seven hundred and seventy-six Confederate prisoners died, tabulated as follows:

PRISONS. No. Deaths.

Alton, Ill 1,613
Camp Butler, Ill 816
Camp Chase, Ohio 2,108
Camp Douglass, Ill 3,750
Camp Horton, Ind 1,765
Camp Randall, Wis 137
Chester, Penn 213
David’s Is., N.Y. Harbor 178
Elmira, N.Y. 2,960
Fort Delaware, Del 2,502
Fort Warren, Bos’n H’b’r 13
Frederick, Md 226
Gettysburg, Penn 210
Hart’s Is., N.Y. Harbor 230
Johnson’s Island, Ohio 270
Knoxville, Tenn 138
Little Rock, Ark 220
Nashville, Tenn 561
New Orleans, La 329
Point Lookout, Md 3,446
Richmond, Va 175
Rock Island, Ill 1,922
St. Louis, Mo 589
Ship Island, Miss 162
Washington, DC 457

War is an expensive pastime for nations, not alone in the loss of lives and destruction of public and private property, but the expenditures in actual cash–gold and silver–is simply appalling. It is claimed by close students of historical data, those who have given the subject careful study, that forty million of human beings lose their lives during every century by war alone. Extravagant as this estimate may seem, anyone who will carefully examine the records of the great conflicts of our own century will readily be convinced that there are not as much extravagance in the claim as a cursory glance at the figures would indicate. Europe alone loses between eighteen, and twenty million, as estimated by the most skillful statisticians. Since the time of the legendary Trojan War (three thousand years), it is supposed by good authority that one billion two hundred thousand of human, beings have lost their lives by the hazard of war, not all in actual battle alone, but by wounds and diseases incident to a soldier’s life, in addition to those fallen upon the field.

In the wars of Europe during the first half of this century two million and a half of soldiers lost their lives in battle, and the country was impoverished to the extent of six billions eight hundred and fifty millions of dollars, while three millions of soldiers have perished in war since 1850. England’s national debt was increased by the war of 1792 to nearly one billion and a half, and during the Napoleonic wars to the amount of one billion six hundred thousand dollars.

During the last seventy years Russia has expended for war measures the sum of one billion six hundred and seventy million dollars, and lost seven hundred thousand soldiers. It cost England, France, and Russia, in the Crimean war of little more than a year’s duration, one billion five hundred million dollars, and five hundred thousand lives lost by the four combined nations engaged.

But all this loss, in some cases lasting for years, is but a bagatelle in comparison to the loss in men and treasure during the four years of our Civil War.

According to the records in Washington, the North spent, for the equipment and support of its armies during the four years of actual hostilities, four billion eight hundred million in money, outside of the millions expended in the maintenance of its armies during the days of Reconstruction, and lost four hundred and ten thousand two hundred and fifty-seven men. The war cost the South, in actual money on a gold basis, two billion three hundred million, to say nothing of the tax in kind paid by the farmers of the South for the support of the army. The destruction and loss in public and private property, outside of the slaves, is simply appalling. The approximate loss in soldiers is computed at two hundred and nineteen thousand.

The actual cost of the war on both sides, in dollars and cents, and the many millions paid to soldiers as pensions since the war, would be a sum sufficient to have paid for all the negroes in the South several times over, and paid the national debt and perhaps the debts of most of the Southern States at the commencement of the war.

This enormous loss in blood and treasure on the part of the South was not spent in the attempts at conquest, the subversion of the Union, or the protection of the slave property, but simply the maintenance of a single principle–the principle of States Rights, guaranteed by the Federal Constitution.

* * * * *

THE CONFEDERATE DEAD–THE BATTLEFIELDS OF THE CIVIL WAR–THE TWO CIVILIZATIONS.

The North has gathered up the bones of the greater part of her vast armies of the dead, commencing the task immediately after the war, and interred them in her vast national cemeteries. At the head of each is an imperishable head-stone, on which is inscribed the name of the dead soldier, where a record has been kept, otherwise it is simply marked “unknown.” The North was the victor; she was great, powerful, and rolling in wealth; she could do this, as was right and just.

But where are the South’s dead? Echo answers from every hill and dale, from every home where orphan and widow weep and mourn, “Where?” The South was the vanquished, stricken in spirits, and ruined in possessions; her dead lie scattered along every battle ground from Cemetery Ridge and the Round Top at Gettysburg, to the Gulf and far beyond the Father of Waters. One inscription on the head-stones would answer for nearly all, and marked “unknown.” One monument would suffice for all the army of the dead, and an appropriate inscription would be a slight paraphrase of old Simonides on the shaft erected to the memory of the heroes of Thermopylae–“Go, stranger, and to Southland tell That here, obeying her behest, we fell.”

The names of the great majority have already been forgotten, only within a circumscribed circle are they remembered, and even from this they will soon have passed into oblivion. But their deeds are recorded in the hearts of their countrymen in letters everlasting, and their fame as brave and untarnished soldiers will be remembered as long as civilization admires and glories in the great deeds of a great people. Even some of the great battle grounds upon which the South immortalized itself and made the American people great will soon be lost to memory, and will live only in song and story. Yet there are others which, through the magnificent tribute the North has paid to her dead, will be remembered for all time.

Looking backwards through the lapse of years since 1861, over some of the great battlefields of the Civil War, we see striking contrasts. On some, where once went carnage and death hand in hand, we now see blooming fields of growing grain, broad acres of briar and brush, while others, a magnificent “city of the dead.” Under the shadow of the Round Top at Gettysburg, where the earth trembled beneath the shock of six hundred belching cannon, where trampling legions spread themselves along the base, over crest and through the gorges of the mountain, are now costly parks, with towering monuments–records of the wonderful deeds of the dead giants, friend and foe.

Around the Capital of the “Lost Cause,” where once stood forts and battlements, with frowning cannon at each salient, great rows of bristling bayonets capping the walls of the long winding ramparts, with men on either side standing grim and silent, equally ready and willing to consecrate the ground with the blood of his enemy or his own, are now level fields of grain, with here and there patches of undergrowth and briars. Nothing now remains to conjure the passer-by that here was once encamped two of the mightiest armies of earth, and battles fought that astounded civilization.

On the plains of Manassas, where on two different occasions the opposing armies met, where the tide of battle surged and rolled back, where the banners of the now vanquished waved in triumph from every section of the field, the now victors fleeing in wild confusion, beaten, routed, their colors trailing in the dust of shame and defeat, now all to mark this historic battle ground is a broken slab or column, erected to individuals, defaced by time and relic seekers, and hidden among the briars and brush.

From the crest and along the sides of Missionary Ridge, and from the cloud-kissed top of Lookout Mountain, to Chickamauga, where the flash of cannon lit up the valley and plain below, where swept the armies of the blue and the gray in alternate victory and defeat, where the battle-cry of the victorious mingled with the defiant shouts of the vanquished, where the cold steel of bayonets met, and where brother’s gun flashed in the face of brother, where the tread of contending armies shook the sides and gorges of the mountain passes, are now costly granite roadways leading to God’s Acre, where are buried the dead of the then two nations, and around whose border runs the “River of Death” of legend, Chickamauga. Over this hallowed ground floats the flag of a reunited country, where the brother wearing the uniform of the victor sleeps by the side of the one wearing the uniform of the vanquished. Along the broad avenues stand lofty monuments or delicately chiseled marble, erected by the members of the sisterhood of States, each representing the loyalty and courage of her respective sons, and where annually meet the representatives of the Frozen North with those of the Sunny South, and in one grand chorus rehearse the death chants of her fallen braves, whose heroism made the name of the nation great. To-day there stands a monument crowned with laurels and immortelles, erected by the State to the fallen sons of the “Dark and Bloody Ground,” who died facing each other, one wearing the blue, the other the gray, and on its sides are inscribed: “As we are united in life, and they in death, let one monument perpetuate their deeds, and one people, forgetful of all aspirations, forever hold in grateful remembrance all the glories of that terrible conflict, which made all men free and retaining every star in the Nation’s flag.”

The great conflict was unavoidable; under the conditions, it was irresistable. It was but the accomplishment, by human agencies, the will of the Divine. Its causes were like paths running on converging lines, that eventually must meet and cross at the angle, notwithstanding their distances apart or length. From the foundation of the government these two converging lines commenced. Two conflicting civilizations came into existence with the establishment of the American Union–the one founded on the sovereignty of the States and the continuance of slavery was espoused by the hot-blooded citizens of the South; the other, upon the literal construction of the Declaration of Independence, that “all men are created free and equal,” and the supremacy of the general government over States Rights, and this was the slogan of the cool, calculating, but equally brave people of the North. The converging lines commenced in antagonism and increased in bitterness as they neared the vertex. The vertex was 1861. At this point it was too late to make concessions. There was no room for conciliation or compromise, then the only recourse left is what all brave people accepts–the arbitrament of the sword.

The South sought her just rights by a withdrawal from the “Unholy Alliance.” The North sought to sustain the supremacy and integrity of the Union by coercing the “Erring Sisters” with force of arms. The South met force with force, and as a natural sequence, she staked her all. The North grew more embittered as the combat of battles rolled along the border and the tread of a million soldiers shook the two nations to their centers. First, it was determined that the Union should be preserved, even at the expense of the South’s cherished institution; then, as the contest grew fiercer and more unequaled, that the institution itself should die with the re-establishment of the Union. Both played for big stakes–one for her billions of slave property, the other for the forty or more stars in her constellation. Both put forward her mightiest men of war. Legions were mustered, marshalled, and thrown in the field, with an earnestness and rapidity never before witnessed in the annals of warfare. Each chose her best Captains to lead her armies to battle, upon the issue of which depended the fate of two nations. The Southern legions were led by the Lees, Johnstons, Beauregards, Jacksons, Stuarts, Longstreets, and other great Lieutenants; the North were equally fortunate in her Grants, Shermans, Thomases, Sheridans, and Meads. In courage, ability, and military sagacity, neither had just grounds to claim superiority over the other. In the endurance of troops, heroism, and unselfish devotion to their country’s cause, the North and South each found foemen worthy of their steel. Both claimed justice and the Almighty on their side. Battles were fought, that in the magnitude of the slaughter, in proportion to the troops engaged, has never been equalled since the days of recorded history; Generalship displayed that compared favorably with that of the “Madman of the North,” the Great Frederick, or even to that of the military prodigy of all time–Napoleon himself. The result of the struggle is but another truth of the maxim of the latter, that “The Almighty is on the side of the greatest cannon.”

I close my labors with an extract from a speech of one of the Southern Governors at Chickamauga at the dedication of a monument to the dead heroes from the State.

“A famous poem represents an imaginary midnight review of Napoleon’s Army. The skeleton of a drummer boy arises from the grave, and with his bony fingers beats a long, loud reveille. At the sound the legions of the dead Emperor come from their graves from every quarter where they fell. From Paris, from Toulon, from Rivoli, from Lodi, from Hohenlinden, from Wagram, from Austerlitz, from the cloud clapped summit of the Alps, from the shadows of the Pyramids, from the snows of Moscow, from Waterloo, they gather in one vast array with Ney, McDonald, Masenna, Duroc, Kleber, Murat, Soult, and other marshals in command. Forming, they silently pass in melancholy procession before the Emperor, and are dispersed with ‘France’ as the pass word and ‘St. Helena’ as the challenge.

“Imagine the resurrection of the two great armies of the Civil War. We see them arising from Gettysburg, from the Wilderness, from Shiloh, from Missionary Ridge, from Stone River, from Chickamauga–yea, from a hundred fields–and passing with their great commanders in review before the martyred President. In their faces there is no disappointment, no sorrow, no anguish, but they beam with light and hope and joy. With them there is no ‘St. Helena,’ no ‘Exile,’ and they are dispersed with ‘Union’ as a challenge and ‘Reconciliation’ as a pass word.”

* * * * *

APPENDIX

I have in this appendix endeavored to give a complete roll of all the members who belonged to Kershaw’s Brigade. I have taken it just as it stands in the office of the State Historian in Columbia. The work of completing the rolls of the Confederate soldiers from this State was first commenced by the late General, H.L. Farley and finished by Colonel John P. Thomas, to whose courtesy I am indebted for the use of his office and archives while completing these rolls. There may be some inaccuracies in the spelling of names or in the names themselves, but this could not be avoided after the lapse of so many years. Then, again, the copy sent to the State Historian was often illegible, causing the same names to appear different and different names to look the same. But I have followed the records in the office in Columbia, and am not responsible for any mistakes, omissions, or inaccuracies.

In the list of officers there will appear some seeming irregularities and inaccuracies, but this is accounted for by the fact that the duplicate rolls were those taken from the companies’ muster rolls when first enlisted in the Confederate service, and little or no record kept of promotions. Thus we will see Captains and Lieutenants in these rolls marked as non-commissioned officers. This was occasioned by those officers being promoted during the continuance of the war, and no record kept of such promotions.

* * * * *

ROLL OF SECOND SOUTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEER REGIMENT.

Field and Staff. COLONELS: Kershaw, J.B., Jones, E.P., Kennedy, Jno. D., Wallace, Wm.
LIEUTENANT COLONELS: Goodwin, A.D., Gaillard, Frank, Graham, J.D. MAJORS: Casson, W.H., Clyburn, B., Leaphart, G. ADJUTANTS: Sill, E.C., Goodwin, A.D., McNeil, A. ASSISTANT QUARTERMASTERS: Wood, W.S., Peck, W.D. ASSISTANT COMMISSARY SERGEANT: Villipigue, J.J. SURGEON: Salmond, F.
ASSISTANT SURGEONS: Nott, J.H., Maxwell, A. CHAPLAINS: McGruder, A.I., Smith, —-.

COMPANY “A.”

CAPTAINS: Casson, W.H., Shelton, M.A., Gaillard, F., Leaphart, S., L., Maddy, M.M.
FIRST LIEUTENANT: Shuler, P.H.B.
SECOND LIEUTENANT: Brown, R., Myers, W.M., Eggleston, D.B. SERGEANTS: West, W.H., Reid, J.C., Bryant, J.F., Livingston, J.B., Cooper, G.F., Gilbert, J.G., Wells, J.F., McTurious, E.C. Joiner, B., DuBose, J.
CORPORALS: Sulaff, W.C., Bruns, G., Newman, R., Rowan, S.W., Mack, J.M., Goodwin, C.T.

PRIVATES: Atta, T.M., Andre, Geo., Anderson, M.J., Anderson, Geo., Andrews, T.P., Blackwell, Jas., Bryant, B.F., Brown, C.K., Brown, Jessie, Baker, J.L., Burns, L., Benjamin, T., Banks, C.C., Casson, J.H., Cavis, J.W., Canning, Thos., Clowdy, —-, Cannon, M., Calais, W.J., Cooper, J.W., DuBose, J.B., Durin, Thos., Deckerson, Geo., Dwight, W.M., Emlyn, H.N., Field, G.R., Forde, Edwin, Griffin, J.W., Gasoue, W., Gibson, J., Graham, J., Graham, Thos., Glass, W.G., Hall, J.R., Hoeffir, Chas, Hartnett, M., Hinton, S.P., Hinkle, E., Howard, W.P., Hays, A.G., Hall, J.W., Hennies W., Holmes, C.R., Hollis, M., Hollis, Carles, Howell, O.F., Hutchinson, B.B., Halsey, M.P., Johnson, D.B., Joiner, P.H., Kelly, Tames, Kind, Wm., Kelly, J.G., Kindman, J.D., Loomis, H.H., Ladd, P.B., Lee, Isom, Lindsey, S.J., Landrum, A.P., Leaphart, J.E., Landrum, L.M., Magillan, C., McGee, Alex., McFie, Joseph, Mathews, Jno., McDonald, D.J., McCarter, W.E., McCully, W.H., Miller, R.L., Mitchell, D., Marsh, J.A., Murphy, Geo., Myers, John, Maw, R.E., Martin, E.R., Marsh. Thos., Martin, Saml., Newman, J.M., Neuffer, C.E., Nott, Carles. Norton, R., Nott, W.J., Pritchard, D., Pelfry, J., Roberts, L.D., Roberts, J.F., Radcliff, L.J., Rentiers, J.G., Roach, W.J., Rose, J.C., Rulland, C.L., Randolph, W.J., Reilly, W.T., Stubbs, W.G., Stubbs, J.D., Starling, W.D., Starling, R., Starling. Jno., Smith, B., Smith, Richard. Stokes, E.R., Thurston, J., Taylor, H., Vaughn, B., Williams. Jno., Winchester, J.M., Winchester, J.

COMPANY “B.”

CAPTAINS: Hoke, A.D., Pulliam, R.C., Cagle, J.W. FIRST LIEUTENANT: Isaacs, A., Holland, Wm. SECOND LIEUTENANT: Elford, Geo.E.
SERGEANTS: Price, W.P., Watson, Wm. C., Dyer, G.B., Clyde, S.C., Pool, R.W. Pickle, O.A., Moore, T.H.L., Stall, Thos., Sudwith. Peter P., Jones, Jno. M., Towns, John M., Bacon, Randolph. CORPORALS: Harris, Frank E., Jennings, Jno. A., West, L.M., Ingram, H.G., Roberts, J.M., Shumate, W.T.

PRIVATES: Anderson, G.T., Allen, D., Beacham, E.F., Bowen, O.E., Brown, H.C., Bacon, A., Baldwin, Jas., Baldwin, W.W., Baldwin, E., Blakely, R.L., Bramlett, R.H., Bramlett, Joseph, Barbary, Wm., Carson, Joseph M., Carson, John, Carson, C.H., Carpenter, S.J., Carpenter, J.F., Cureton, A.H., Chandler, W.G., Coxe, F., Cooper, M., Cox, J.A., Cox, Wm. F., Dyer, G.W., Dyer, J.N., Diver, W.S., Diver, J.E., Diver, R.F., D’Oyle, C.W., Duncan, A.S., Duncan, W.H., Duncan, J.M., Duncan, Robert, Donaldson, Thos. R., Davis, Saml., Dauthit, S.J., Foster, A.A., Goodlett, F.M., Goodlett, L.M., Goodlett, J.H., Goodlett, J.Y., Garmany, W.H., Grogan, T.R., Gibson, S.K., Gibson, J., Gosett, I.P., Gibreath, W.W., Gibreath, L.P., Goldsmith, W.H., Gwin, R.A., Harris, R.A., Hawkins, L.P., Henning, N.P., Hirch, G.W., Hill, J.W., Hudson, W.A., Huff, P.D., Huff, P.W., Holland, D.W., Holland, A.J., Holland, Jno., Irvin, D.P., Ingram, W.P., Jones, E.P., Jones, E.T., Jones, B., Johnson, I.T., Kilburn, T.C., Kirkland, P., Long, W.D., Long, S.F., Mauldin, Jas., McKay, R.W., Miller, J.P., Miller, W.S., Markley, H.C., Markley, Jno., Markley, Charles, Morgan, W.N., Moore, F., Moore, Lewis M., Moore, John, Moore, J.T., Mills, J., Payne, J., Parkins, G.W., Parkins, J.D., Pickett, J.H., Price, J.M., Poole, J.W., Pool, Cartery Y., Poor, G.B., Rowley, E.F., S., Roe, H.D., Rice, J.H., Ramsey, W.H., Smith, L.R., Scrugg, W.L.M.A., Shumate, J.S., Shumate, R.Y.H., Shumate, L.J., Sullivan, J.N. Smyer, M.A., Sinder, J., Salmons, J.M., Turpin, W.P., Tracy, Fred. S., Thompson, W.D., Thornley, J.L., Turner, J.L., West, R.W., Wisnant, W.F., Wisnant, Alex., Whitmire, Wm., Walton, D.S., Williams, G.W., Watson, P.D., Watson, W.W., Watkins, Lynn, Yeargin, J.O.

COMPANY “C.”

CAPTAINS: Wallace, Wm., Lorick, S., Vinson, A.P. FIRST LIEUTENANT: Wood, W.S., Bell, J.C. Peck, W.D., Wallace, E. Youmans, O.J., Scott, J.T., McGregor, W.C., Stenhouse, E. SERGEANTS: Myers, Jno. A., Howie, Wm., Radcliff, L.J., Beck, Chas, J., Shand, R.W., Clarkson, I.O.H., Bell, Jacob, Hill, Wm., Medlin, N., Corrall. Jno., Edwards, J.G., Bell, E.H. CORPORALS: McCullough, Jno., Owens, Peter, Garner, Thos., Robertson, R.D., Lee, J.W.G., Osment, J.R., Davis, H., Freeman, R.G., Loomis, T.D.

PRIVATES: Ballard, J.N., Boyer, Thomas, Busard, Sam., Boyle, J.C., Brown, S., Brice, Robert, Campbell, James, Campbell, J.M., Copeland, J., Cook, P., Chestnut, —-, Chambers, E.R., Cupps, C.M., Douglass, Jno., Dougherty, J., Dickens, H.C., Davis, R.A., Flaherty, M., Freeman, Wm., Glaze, Jno., Garner, Wm., Goodwin, E.M., Gruber, Jno., Gruber, S., Goins, Henry, Gunnell, J.S., Gunnell, W.H., Grier, J., Heminnis, M., Hurst, J.P., Harrison, B., Hauleely, Henry, Hendricks, Jno., Hunt, J., Hammett, H.B., Hamilton, D., Isbell, Walter, King, W.H., Kallestrane, M.H., Lee, U., Lee, L.W., Lee, A.J., Leach, C., Lochlier, —-, Martin, J.M., Martin, Joel, Martin, C.B., Martin, Daniel, Martin, Saml., Manville, A.T., Medlin, C., McPherson, S. McPherson, W., McPherson, Jno., McGregor, P.C., Murrell, W.S., Medlin, P., Perry, J., Perry, C., Palmer, W.R., Pearson, Robt, Poag, R.P., Ramsay, J., Robertson, F.L., Ransom, Wm., Scarborough, Wm., Scott, J.R., Sheely, W.C., Sharp, G.W., Stubblefield, W.H., Tate, I.O., Vinson, Wm., Wailes, R., Wilson, K., Walker, C.A., Williamson, W.I., Woolen, James, Zesterfelt, F.

COMPANY “D.”

CAPTAINS: Richardson, Jno. S., Bartlett, L.W., Graham, I.D. FIRST LIEUTENANT: Wilder, J.D., Wilder, W.W., Jacob., I. SECOND LIEUTENANT: Durant, T.M., Pelot, W.L., Rembert, L.M. THIRD LIEUTENANT: Nettles, J.H., Gardner, H.W. SERGEANTS: Gayle, I.P., Nettles, J.D., Hodge, J.W., Brennan, J.P., Bowman, S.J., McQueen, W.A., Pringle, S.M. CORPORALS: Wilson, S.T., Thompson, R.M., Gardner, A., Reams, H.M., Miller, J.I., Cole, S.R.

PRIVATES: Ard, J.P., Alsobrooks, J.E., Alsobrooks, Bog., Baker, W.T., Beard, D., Beck, I.S., Bradford, J.P., Brogdon, J.D., Brogdon, T.M., Brown, F.H., Brown, H.J., Browning, T.S., Brumby, G.S., Brunson, W.E., Brunson, W.J., Ballard, W.R., Blight, J., Burkett, I.L., Burkett, T.H., Brunson, I.R., Brown, S.J., Bird, J.P., Bass, S.C., Blanding, O., Britton, J.J., Caraway, P.T., Clyburn, B., Cook, W.H., Davis J.L., DeLorme, W.M., DeLorme, T.M., DeLorme, C., Dennis, John W., Dennis, J.M., Dennis, S.M., Dennis, R.E., Dennis, E.E., Dougherty, J., Dalrymple, S., Eubanks, A., Flowers, S.P., Flowers, T.E., Felder, W.E., A., Freman, I.H., Gallagher, P.B., Garden, H.R., Green, H.D., Graham, J.A., Gibson, H., Grooms, A., Haynsworth, J.H., Haynsworth, M.E., Hodge, I.B., Hodge, W.T., Holladay, D.J., Holladay, T.J., Huggins, W.H., Ives, J.E., Jenkins, W.W., Jackson, J.H., Jones, C.H., Jones, E.C., Jones, P.H., Kavanagh, T.D., Kelly, H.T., Kinney, Jno., Lesesne, J.I., London, Peter, Lynam, T.M., Lucas, A.P., Mellett, J.Y., McLaurin, J.C., McNeal, W.M., Moses, M.B., McKagan, G.P., Moses, H.C., Moses, Perry, Moses, Perry, Muldrow. I.R., Myers, R.C., Norton, J.J., Newman, S.I., O’Neil, W.J., Pry, J.C., Pool, W.M., Patterson, J.S., Ramsay, W.M., Redford, J.B., Richardson, G. Rhame, J.F. Ross, D.J.. Rodgers, I., Shaw, J.H., Scott, J., Sledge, W.A., Smith. F.H., Smith, T.J., Thompson, W.T., Troublefield, A.D., Troublefield, T.J., Troublefield. W.B., Vaughn, F.O., Watts, W.D., Wheeler. C.O., Wilson, C.A., Wilson, T.D., Witler, O., Wedekind, H., Wilder, Saml., Wilder, J., Frazer. J.B., Gilbert, J.C.T., Kirkland, J.G., McCoy, W.P., Myers, J.B., Richburg, J.B., Sims, E.R., Wells, J.A., Wilson, Robt., Hartley, T.J.

COMPANY “E.”

CAPTAINS: Kennedy, Jno. D., Leitner, Wm. S. LIEUTENANTS: Dunlop, Josp. D., Sill, E.E., Drakeford, Jos. J., DePass, W.J., McKain, Jno. J., Riddle, James M.
SERGEANTS: Dutton, W.C., Pegues, R.H., Hodgson, H.F., McKalgen, H.G., Ryan, D.R., Gerald, R.L., Nettles, Hiram. CORPORALS: Niles, A., Boswell, J.P., Perry, J.A., Honnet, B., Devine, F.G., Gardner. E., Polk, J.W.

PRIVATES: Allen, W.R., Ancrum, Thos. J., Sr., Arrants, J.H., Arrants, W.T., Arrants, R.H., Arrants, J.R., Barnes, J.B., Barnes, S.Y., Brown, John, Brown, Jas. R., Baum, Marcus, Buchanan. W.L., Baker, M., Beaver, Jno. R., Barrett, E., Barrington, J., Burchfield, E.C., Bowen, A., Bowen, W., Baer, B.M., Boykin, Campell, Alex., Cook, M., Cook, J., Cook, John, Cook, Joseph, Croft, J., Coker, R., Crump, T.M., Cusick, P., Cunningham, J.S., Cooper, J.C., Cooper, J.D., Crenshaw, W.J., Davis, J.T., DeBruhl, —-, Dunlap, E.R., Dunlap, C.J., Durant, J.A., Dawkins, W.B., Doby, A.E., Delton, B.Z., Evans, D., Evans, G., Elkins, E.E., Francis. Jno., Freeman, J., Freeman, M., Fullerton, G.P., Ford, A., Gardner, T.B., Gibson, H.B., Graham. D., Graham, T.T., Goens, E., Howell, M., Haile, J.S., Harrison, B., Heath, B.D., Hinson, J.E., Jeffers, L., Jinks, E.W., Johnson, W.E., Kendrick, James, Kelly, B.E., Kelly, D.H., Kirkland, R.R., Kirkley, R., King, G., Legrand, J.M., Leitner, B.F., Love, Wm., Love, L.W., Lawrence, E.H., Middleton, D.P., Munroe, G., Munroe, J., Munroe, Alex., Munroe, Jno., Mickie, Jno. P., Murchison, A.A., Moroh, L.C., Moore, Levi, Maddox, Tom, McDaniel, I., Miller, J.A., McCown, J., McMillan, J., McKain, Wm., McIntosh, T.R., Means, S.B., McRea, D., Nelson, G., Nettles, W.N., Nettles, J.T., Nettles, J.E., Nettles, Joseph S., Pegue, C.J., Picket, J., Pope, T.W., Prichard, D., Proctor, R.W., Pennington, R.A., Pierson, P.J., Ryan, P.H., Rembert, T.M., Scarborough, H.G., Scarborough, L.W., Scott, Jno., Strawbridge, B.R., Small, R.E., Smith, Jno., Stokes, W., Smith, Geo., Smyth, J., Team, J., Tidwell, D., Turner, W., Vaughn, Lewis, Wethersbee, J.A., Wethersbee, T.C., Waner, J.O., Watts. Wm., Wilson, Roland, Wilson, T.R., Wilson, J.S., Winder, J.R., Witherspoon, T.M., Wood, J. Mc., Wood, Jno., Wood, Pinckney, Wells, D.E., Wright, W.H.

COMPANY “F.”

CAPTAINS: Perryman, W.W., McDowell, G.W., Vance, W. Cal. LIEUTENANTS: Fouche, —-, Maxwell, J.C., McNeil, A., Parks, J.T., Adams, J.J., Koon, S.A., Lunbecker, W.A., Appleton W.L., Connor, G.W., Johnson, W.A.
SERGEANTS: Moore, A.W., Fuller, H.F., Smith, J.W., Bond, S. Lewis, Brooks, Chas. E., Seaborn, —-.

PRIVATES: Anderson, J.W., Anderson, James, Bailey, W.H., Benson, V.S., Blake, A.W., Burrell, W.J., Butler, Jno., Brooks, Stanmore, Boozer, S.P., Boozer, William, Benson, Thos., Brownlee, J.A., Barratt, Jno. G., Bell, Wm. S., Bell, Wm. P., Carr, Jno. L., Chaney, Willis, Chaney, J.S., Chaney, R.E., Chaney, Ransom, Cheatham, J.T., Cheatham, Jno., Crews, C.W., Crews, M.A., Carter, V.C., Creswell, I.D., Creswell, P., Caldwell, G.R., Chipley, W.W., Chipley, T.W., Cobb, C.A., Calvert, J.H., Crawford, H. Henry, Cason, Richard, Cason, J.F., Day, M., Davis, Dr. Frank, Davis, Jno. F.H., Deal, S.C., Douglass, W.W., Ellis, A.B., Fisher, C.D., Fouche, Jno., Fouche, Ben., Fuller, P.M., Fennel, J.L., Gilmer, Robt. P., Gilmer, Wm., Gillam, J.M., Griffin, V., Griffin, G.W., Grant, W.H., Grant, Jno., Goodwin, Jno., Hancock, W.H., Harris, G.M., Heffernan, J.L., Hearst, T.J., Hughey, J.E., Hughey, Fred. T., Hughey, N., Hodges, J.W., Harris, T., Hutchison, Soule, Hutchison, Jno. W., Hutchison, R.F., Henderson, W.E., Hunter, W.C., Henderson, J.T., Ingraham, M.S., Jackson, C. Johnson, F.P., Johnson, Saml., Johnson, J.W., Johnson, D.Q., Johnson, G.W., Jones, J.R., Johnson, J.W., Jones, C.C., Jones, Thomas, Jones, Willie, Jester, Benj., Lomax, W.G., Lenard, V.A., Lenard, J.J., Meriwether, W.N., Moreen, Jno. A., Milford, J.T., Marshall, G.W., McKellar, L.W., McKellar, G.W., McKellar, J.R., McCord, D.W., McNeill, H.B., McKensie, Jno., Major, R.W., Major, J.M., Moore, J.R., Moore, Robt., Moore, Henry, McCrary, B., Malone, A., Malone, Jno., Partlow, Jno. E., Powers, J.W., Pinson, A., Pinson, T.R., Pinson, Jno. V., Parks, Wm., Pelot, Dr. J.M., Rampey, G.W., Rampey, S.D., Reynolds, B., Reynolds, A.D., Reynolds, Jno. M., Roderick, W.F., Riley, E.C., Rykard, T.J., Riley, W.N., Rykard, L.H., Robertson, Jno., Ross, T.M., Ross, Jno., Ross. G.P., Ross, Wiley, Reed, J.S., Saddler, J.H., Saddler, Willis, Shadrick, W.S., Shepard, E.Y., Shepard, J.S., Selby, E.C., Selleck, C.W., Smith. R.G., Smith, T.N., Seal, J.R., Silk, Jas., Turner, J.S., Townsend, J.F., Turner, Ira, Teddards, D.F., Vance, J. C., Watson, G. McB., Waller, W.W., Waller, C.A.C., Walker, W.L., Wiss, E., Younge, J.C.

COMPANY “G.”

CAPTAINS: Haile, C.C., Clyburn, T.J.
LIEUTENANTS: Cantley, T.R., Jones, W.J. SERGEANTS: Cunningham, J.P., Tuesdale, J.E., Benton, F.J., Cauthen, A.J. CORPORALS: West, W.S., Coats, D.W., Jones, B.N., Williams, R.H., Jones, S.D., Kirkland, B.M.

PRIVATES: Alexander, J.H.R., Baskin, J.C.J., Blackburn, B.J., Blackwell, J.A., Boone. J., Boone. W., Boone, J.W., Bruce, J.H., Bowers, G.M., Baskin, C.E., Baskin, R.C., Bird, W.L., Blackmon, J.E., Blackmon, W.N., Belk. J.M., Cauthen, J.S., Coats, H.J., Coats, G.H., Copeland, W.W., Crawford, S., Chancy, B., Clark, J.W., Croxton, J.Q., Cook, J.E., Cook, T., Cato, A.D., Coon, S.S., Dixon, B.S., Dixon, F.L., Downs, A.J., Dixon, G.L., Davis, D., Davis, H.G., Davis, H., Dumm, J.W., Falkinberry, J.W., Falkinberry, W.J., Fletcher. D.G., Falkenberry, J., Fail, J., Gaftin, J.B., Gardner. R.C., Gray, W., Graham, J., Gaskin, D., Gaskin, J., Hall, J.D., Holly, J., Howie. F.P., Howie, S.D., Hough, N., Hough, J., Hough, W.P., Haile, G.W., Hunter, W.J., Johnson, W., Johnson, W.M., Johnson, A.A., Knight, J.A., Knox, W.L., Kelly, M.P., Kirby, J., Kirkland, R.R., Knight, W.A. Love, McD. R., Mahaffy, W.W., Martin, J.S., Martin, W.H., Marshall, W.S., Marshall, J.S., Mosely, C., Mosely, F., Murchison, J.J., McLure, J., McDowell, J.E.C., McKay, H.C., Mahaffy, O.C., Mason, T.E., McMahan, A. W,. Marshall. W.D., Marshall, W.H., Mason, L.R., Nelson, T.J., Patterson, R.B., Patterson, W.W., Perry. T.J., Peach, W., Parker, B., Phaile, J., Powers, W.T., Philipps, W.P. Redick. R., Reaver, D.R., Robertson, L.D., Robertson, E.H., Roe, J., Ray, D., Raysor, J.C., Rasey, B., Stover, D.G. Sheorn, Morris D., Sheorn, James, Sowell, J.A., Suggs, Wm., Button, E., Small, A.J., Trantham, W.D., Tuesdel, W.J., Tuesdel, B., Tuesdel, W.M., Tuesdel. H., Tuesdel, J.T., West, T.A., West, T.G., West, S., West, W.M., Williams, Jno., Williams, J.N., Williams, C.D., Wilkerson, J., Whitehead. S., Young, C.P., Young, G.W., Young, J.N., Young, W.C., Young, W.J.

COMPANY “H.”

CAPTAINS: McManus, A., Clyburn, B.R.
LIEUTENANT: Perry, A.M., Welsh, S.J., Brasington, G.C., Reeves, T.J., Hinson, M.R.
SERGEANTS: Perry, J.F., Gardener, S.C., Kennington, W.R., Williams, D. A., McKay, Dr. J.P., Ingram, I.N., Moody, J.J., Love, M.C., Sowells, W.S. CORPORALS: Baker, A.J., Small, J.M., Johnson, G.D., Johnson, D.G., Small, J.M., Douglass, S.A., Kelly, B.L., Cook, J.C., McHorton, W., Williams, T.E., Hilton, R.P., Boiling, R.A.

PRIVATES: Adkins, W.C., Baker, J.J.T., Baker, W., Bailey, J.D., Bailey, Jno., Bell, W.T., Bunnett, G.W., Bowers, N.H., Bowers, W.J., Brasington, W.M., Blackman, B., Bridges, P.H., Caston, W.J., Cato, R.E., Cauthen, G.L., Cauthen, L.D., Craige, W.M., Cauthen, J.M., Deas, A., Ellis, G.W., Ellis, W.W., Funderburk, W.B., Funderburk, J.C., Faulkenberry, J.T., Gardener, C.L., Gardener, S., Gardener, W.W., Gregory, W.T., Gregory, Willis, Harris, G.T., Harris, J.K., Harrell, D., Hilkon, T., Hinson, E., Hinson, W.L., Horton, A.J., Hough, M.J., Horton, W.C., Horton, J.B., Horton, J.T., Harvel, D.B., Jones, B.B., Johnson, J.D., Johnson, F.M., Johnson, D.T., Kennington, B.R., Kennington, R.W., Kennington, G.W., Kennington, J., Kennington, N., Kennington, R., Kennington, R., Jr., Kennington, W.J., Kennington, S.L., Knight, E.R., Lucas, M., Lowery, R.J., Lowery, W.W., Minor, L., Lyles, W.J., Lynn, W.T., Lathan, J.T., Lucas, J.R., Love, V.H., McManus, W.H., McManus. C.W., McManus, W.A., McManus, G.B., Neal, W.M., Perry, B.C., Phifer, W.T., Phillips, A., Phillips. J., Phillips. H.S., Phillips, A.L., Reaves, T.C., Robertson, W. U.R., Robertson, V.A., Reaves, J.J., Short, J.G., Small, J.M., Small, W.F., Sowell, S.F., Snipes, A., Sowell, A., Sodd, W., Swetty, A.M., Woeng. W.D., Welsh, T.J., Wilkinson, H.W., Williams, C.H., Williams, D.A., Williams, J.F., Williams, W.J., Wilson, G.B., Wright, W., Williams, A.M., Witherspoon, J.B.

COMPANY “I.”

CAPTAINS: Cuthbert, G.B., Elliott, R.E., Fishburn, Robt. LIEUTENANT: Holmes, C.R., Brownfield, T.S., Webb, L.S., Robinson, S., Darby, W.J., Brailsford, A.M., Bissell, W.S., Daniel, W.L. SERGEANTS: Wright, J.E., Lalane, G.M., Hanahan, H.D. CORPORALS: Boyd, J.B., Gaillard, T.E., DeSausure, E., Duttard, J.E., Bellinger, E.W., Mathews, O.D., Miller, R.S.

PRIVATES: Vincent, A.M., Artes, P.F., Bedon, H.D., Bellinger, J., Bellinger, C.C.P., Bird, J.B., Brownfield. R.I., Brailford, D.W., Brisbane, W., Bull, C.S., Baynord, E.M., Calder, S.C., Chaplain. D.J., Chaplain, E.A., Claney, T.D., Crawford, J.A., Cambell. J.E., Carr, J, T., Colcock, C.J., Davis, W.C., Dwight, C.S., Dyer, G.B., DeCavadene, F., Dupont, A., Elliott, W.S., Fludd, W.R., Farman, C.M., Gadsden, T.S., Galliard, T.G., Girardeau, G.M., Glover, J.B., Godfrey, W., Goodwin, J.J., Green, W.G., Hanckel, J.S., Hane, W.C., Harllee, J., Harllee, W.S., Harllee. P., Jackson, A., Jacobs, H.R., Kerrison, C., Kerrison, E., Larrisey, O., Lawton, W.M., Lawton, J.C., Miller, J.C., Mackey, J.J., Mackey, W.A., Mathews, P.F., Miller. A.B., Miller, P, G., Mills, E.J., Moses, J.L., Moses, P., Mortimer, Le. B., Munnerlyn, J.K., Mitchell, F.G., Myers. S.C., Montgomery, —-, McCoy, H.A., McLean, M.M., Pinckney, S.G., Palmer, J.J., Pinckney, H., Palmer, G., Palmer, K.L., People, H.M., Pendergrass, M.G., Prentiss, O.D., Prentiss, C.B., Ruffin, E., Ruffin, C., Raysor, J.C., Reeder, T.H., Rice, L.L., Rivers. R.H., Rivers. W., Roumillat, A.J.A., Royal, J.P., Sanders, A.C., Sanders, J.B., Shipman, B.M., Screven, R.H., Seabrook, J.C., Scott. M.O., Shoolbred, J., Shoolbred, R.G., Smith, G. McB., Stocker, T.M., Strobhart, James, Thompson. T.S., Tillinghast, E.L., Trapier, E.S., Walker, W.A., Walker, W.J., Wescoat, W.P., Wescoat, T.M., Wickenberg, A.V., Zealy, J.E.

COMPANY “K.”

CAPTAINS: Rhett, A.B., Moorer, J.F., Webb, J., Dutart, J.E. LIEUTENANT: Elliott, W., Dwight, W.M., Lamotte, C.O., Edwards, D., Bradley, T.W.
SERGEANTS: Fickling, W.W., Gilbert S.C., Webb J.J., Phillips, S.R., Fell, T.D., Hamilton, J., Phillips, L.R., Goldsmith, A.A., Moorer, R.G., Burrows, F.A., Williams, D.F., Wayne, R., Ferriera, F.C., O’Neill, E.F., Simmonds, J.R.
CORPORALS: Purse, E.L., Lawson, P.A., Calvitt, W.L., Rushe, F.R., Sheller, D.A., Sparkman, A.J., Murphy, M., Plunkett, J., O’Neill, E.F., Heirs, G.S., Wooley A., Ackis, R.W., Autibus, G., Lord, R.

Privates: Anderson, Wm., Allgood, J.F., Ackison, R.W., Allgood, J.L., Adams, D.A., Appleby, C.E., Baily, J., Barrett, R., Blatz, J.B., Brum, H., Brown, R.M., Brown. W., Brady, J., Buckner, J., Buckner, A., Buckner, J.A., Buckner, A.H., Burrows, F.A., Bruning, H., Ballentine, J.C., Byard, D.E., Bartlett, S.C., Bartlett, F.C., Boag, W., Braswell, T.T., Bell, C.W., Bell, W.P., Bull, C.J., Bull, E.E., Bazile, J.E., Bishop, J.S., Blume, C.C., Benson, J.N., Bailey, J., Bruce, J.H., Calvitt, W.T., Campsen, B., Casey, W.T., Conway, P., Cartigan, J.M., Cole, C., Cotchett, A.H., Creckins, A., Castills, M., Coward, R.M., Craige, W.S., Copeland, W.J., Deagen, P., Daly, F.R., Dillon, J.P., Dinkle, J., Dorum, W.D., Doran, J., Douglass, C.M., Day, M., Duncan, W.M., Estill, W., Elle, A., Tarrell, J.F., Ferria, R.C., Fisher, W.S., Fant, T.R., Furt, W., Fleming, A.H., Froysell, J.D., Gammon, J.E., Gammon, E.M., Goldsmith, A.A., Gibbs, W.H., Grubbs, W.L., Green, W.H., Grenaker, J.A., Griffeth, A., Gruber, J.T., Hammond, C.S., Hoys, T., Hibbard, F.C., Happoldd, D., Hoeffer, C.M., Haganes, H.C., Harris, J., Hendricks, J.A., Hendricks, M., Hunt, H.D., Hunt, J.H., Hunt, R., Hunter, T.T., Haigler, E.N., Haigler, W.L., Heirs, J.A., Howard, R.P., Hough, H.J., Heirs, G., Harley, J.M., Harley, P., Jones, G.T., Jones, D.H., Joseph, A.H., Jowers, J.P., Johnson, W.G., Kerney, G., Kelly, J.G., Kunney, A.A., Kennedy, J., Kennedy, H.R., Kennedy, J.A., Lavell, A.J., Lawson, T.A., Lonergan, J.D., Maher, E., Marshall, W., McCollum, E., Meylick, F.W., Meyleick, W., McKensie, A., McLure, A., Meyers, A.C., Murphy, M., Martin, W., McGellom, B., Martin, A., Moorer, R.A., Mitchel, D.H., Mitchel, F.G., Musgrove, W.W., Martin, J., Neill, R.T., Noll, C., Nicklus, J., Nevek, R.P., Nesmith, E.C., Nix., J.B., O’Neill, J., Oppenhimer, E.H., Oppenheimer, H.H., Platt, W.W., Philipps, L.R., Prace, A., Purse, E., Purse, W.G., Page, J.J., Phunkett, J., Pearson. J.H., Payne, J.P., Richardson, C.O., Ryan, T.A., Randolph, L.A., Robinson, S.L., Reentz, J.W., Righter, J.A., Reid, J.W., Reeves, J.P., Rushe, F.D., Schmitt, T., Scott, W., Shepard, D.H., Sammonds, J.R., Sporkman, A.J., Sellick, C.H., Street, E., Summers, E., Sutherland, J.P., Sherer, J.R., Sandifer, J., Shuler, S.N., Spillers, W.F., Schmitt, R., Smith, J.C., Simons, J.R., Smith, O.A.C., Thompson, M.N., Timmonds, G.C., Turner, J.W., Taylor C.M., Turner, C., Welmer, M.W., Wallace, J.L., Walsh, P., Wilkins, J.R., Wilkins, T.K., Willis. J.V., Watts, W.D., Williams, T. A., Weeks, T.S., Wolley, A., Wolly, H.A., Williman, W.H., Yates, M.J., Youngblood, J., Zimmerman, U.A., Zeigler, J.B.E.

* * * * *

ROLL OF THIRD SOUTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEER REGIMENT.

Field and Staff: COLONELS: Williams, James H., Nance, James D., Rutherford, W.D., Moffett, R.C.
LIEUTENANT COLONELS: Foster, B.B., Garlington, B.C., Todd, R.P. Majors: Baxter, James M., Nance, J.K.G.
ADJUTANTS: Rutherford, W.D., Pope, Y.J. Sergeant MAJORS: Williams, J.W., Simpson, O.A., Garlington, J.D. QUARTERMASTERS: McGowan, Jno. G. (Captain), Shell, G.W. (Captain). COMMISSARIES: Hunt, J.H. (Captain), Lowrance, R.N. (Captain). SURGEONS: Ewart, D.E., Evans, James.
ASSISTANT SURGEONS: Dorroah, Jno. F., Drummond, —-, Brown, Thomas.

COMPANY “A.”

CAPTAINS: Garlington, B.C., Hance, W.W., Richardson, R.E. LIEUTENANTS: Gunnels, G.M., Arnold, J.W., Garlington, H.L., Hollingsworth, J., Hudgens, W.J., Mosely, Jno. W., Shell, G.W., Shell, Henry D., Simpson, C.A., Fleming, H.F.
SERGEANTS: Simpson, T.N., Robertson, V.B., Wilson, T.J., Teague, A.W., Motte, Robert P., Garlington, Jno., Jr., McDowells, Newman, Griffin, W.D., Jones, P.C., Gunnels, W.M.
CORPORALS: Mosely, R.H., Sullivan, W.P., Martin, R.J., Richardson, S.F., West, E., Atwood, I.L., Richardson, W.M.

PRIVATES: Anderson, D.A., Anderson, W.J., Allison, T.W., Anderson, W.Y., Allison, W.I., Adams, Jno. S., Atwood, W.M., Ballew, J.B., Ballew, B.F., Bass, John, Beard, W.F., Boyd, W.T., Black, W.E., Ball, J.S., Bolt, T.W., Bolt, W.T., Bolt, Pink, Bolt, John L., Bolt, H., Bradford, W.A., Bright, Jno. M., Beasley, B.H., Cason, W.B., Clark, J.Q.A., Campton, L.D., Crasy, J.B., Chappell, W.T., Day, N.T., Day, John, Davenport, T.J., Donaldson, W.M., Davis, J.J., Donnon, J.M., Evans, Wm., Elmore, —-, Fleming, J.O.C, Finley, C.G., Finley, J.M., Finley, J.R., Franks, N.D., Franks, C.M., Franks, T.B., Franks, J.W.W., Gray, Duff, Gary, J.D., Going, Wm., Garrett, W.H., Garlington, S.D., Hall, J.F., Hance, Theodore, Ham, James E., Harrison, P.M., Harrison, J.A., Hill, L.C., Hellams, D.L., Henderson, W.H., Henderson, Lee A., Hix, E.M., Hawkins, J.B., Hix, W.P., Hix, Willis, Hix, C.E., Hudgens, J.M., Hudgens, J.H., Hudgens, W.H., Hudgens, J.B., Irby, G.M., Irby, A.G., Jennings, A., Jennings, R., Jenerette, Wm., Jones, B.P., Kirk, C.E., Lovelace, J.H., Monroe, W., Medlock, J.T., McKnight, H.W., McDowell. Baker, McCollough, J.L., Milan, Jno. A., Milan, W.W., Milan, M.F., McAbee, A., McAbee, —-, McAbee, —-, Metts, J.A., Miller, Harry, Neal, S.H., Nolan, Jno., Oliver, S.A., Odell, L.M., Parks, John M., Pinson, W.V., Pinson. W.S., Pinson, M.A., Pope, D.Y., Ramage, Frank, Robertson, Z., Robertson, A., Rodgers, W.S., Simpson, B.C., Simpson, R.W., Simpson, J.D., Simpson, O.F., Sullivan, M.A., Sullivan, J.M., Smith, P., Shell, Frank, Simmons, S.P., Sharp, A.L., Speke, S.A., Teague, Thomas J., Teague, M.M., Templeton, J.L., Templeton, P., Templeton, S.P., Templeton, W.A., Tribble, M.P., Tribble, J.C.C., Tobin, Thos. A., Todd, S.F., Vance, S.F., Vaughan, Jno., Winebrenner, George, Williams, Jno., Williams, W.A., Wilson, J.M., West, S.W. West, Joseph, Wilbanks, John S., Woods, Harvey, Willis, E.R., Young, Martin J., Young, Robert H.

COMPANY “B.”

CAPTAINS: Davidson, Samuel N., Gary, Thomas W., Connor, Thompson. LIEUTENANTS: Hunter, W.P., Lipscomb, T.J., Buzhardt, M.P., Davenport, C.S., Pulley, S.W.
SERGEANTS: Summer, M.B., Reeder, J.R.C., Moffett, R.D., Clark, J.P., Spears, L.M., Copeland, J.A., Peterson, W.G., Livingston, A.J., Smith, J.D., Bradley, E.P., Tribble, A.K.
CORPORALS: Davis, T.M., Gary, Jno. C., Dean, Julius, Lark, Dennis, Chalmers, Joseph H., Anderson, W.A., Wallace, W.W., Spears, A.S., Perkins, H.S., Gibson, B.W., Workman, Robt., Stephens, P.J., Suber, Mid.

PRIVATES: Brooks, E.A., Burton, Kay, Butler, J.C., Bishop, W.F., Bishop, Jno., Bailey, A.W., Brown, D., Brown, J.A., Butler, E.A., Butler, J.N., Butler, B.R., Butler, D.M., Cannon, Isaac P., Crooks, L.T., Crooks, J.A.B., Chalmers, E.P., Craddock, D.F., Craddock, S., Chupp, J.G., Cole, John, Campell, Jno. B., Cleland, J.P., Clark, E.G., Connor, Robt., Clamp, D.L., Chappells, J.B., Davenport, H., Davenport, W.P., Davenport, E.W., Dalrymple, John, Davis, A.P., Davis, D.P., Davis, J.T., Dumas, J.H., Davenport, J.C., Floyd, Jno. S., Floyd, J.N., Gary, J.W., Gary, M.H., Gary, C.M., Gary, Jessie, Griffin, S.B., Griffin, W.B., Grimes, W.M., Grimes, T.A., Gibson, M., Gibson, W.W., Golding, James W., Golding, Jno. P., Galloway, Jno., Graham, T.J., Greer, R.P., Hopkins, G.T., Harp, David, Harmon, W.C., Harmon, H.T., Jones, J.S.B., Johnson, W., Johnson, W.R., James, W.A., King, W.H., Keller, W.J., Lank, J.W., Lyles, I.E., Livingston, H., Livingston, E., Longshore, E.C., Longshore, A.J., McKettrick, J.W., Middleton, J.H., Moates, J.L., Moates, F., Montgomery, G.B., McEllunny, R.N., Neel, J.M., Neel, T.M., Pitt. J.M., Pitt, W., Pitt, J., Pitt, D., Pitt, A.N., Reeder, A.M., Richey, E., Robertson, S.J., Reid, W.W., Reeder, W., Spruel, J.S., Spruel, W.F., Stewart, J.P., Senn, D.R., Satterwhite, R.S., Scurry, J.R., Sterling, G.P., Saddler, G.W., Suber, G.A., Suber, A., Thrift, C., Thrift, G.W., Templeton, R.W., Willinghan, W.W., Workman, J.A., Workman, J.M., Workman, H., Workman, P., Whitman, J.C., White, G.F., Wells, G.F., Waldrop. W.W., Williams, B.

COMPANY “C.”

CAPTAINS: Moffett, R.C., Herbert, C.W. LIEUTENANTS: Moffett, D.S., Wilson, Jno. C., Culbreath, Joseph, Speake, J.L., Piester, —-
SERGEANTS: Kibler, A.A., Moffett, T.J., Cromer, E.P., Wilson, T.R., Long, G.F., Fellers, J.B.
CORPORALS: Young, N.H., Boozer, D.W., Fulmer, J.B., Bowers, J.S., Sites, George, Kelly, James M., Paysinger, S.S.

PRIVATES: Adams, W.H. Albritton, Joseph, Banks, James C. Baird, Henry, Baughn, Henry, Bouknight, F., Blair, T.S., Blair, J.P., Boland, S.D., Boland, James M., Boozer, C.P., Boozer, S.D., Boulware, I.H., Boyd, G.M., Cannon, H.D., Calmes, Jno. T., Calmes, Wash., Carmichael, J.D., Counts, W.F., Cromer, A.B., Crosson, H.S.N., Crosson, D.A., Crouch, Jacob, Crouch, Wade, Davenport, Wm., Davenport, J.M., Davis, Jno., Duncal, J.W., Dominick, D.W.S., Elmore, J.A., Enlow, Nathan, Ferguson, G., Fellers, J.P., Fellers, S.H., Folk, H.S., Frost, Eli, Gallman, D.F., Gallman, Henry G., Gallman, J.J., George, James M., George, N.B., George, L.O., Griffeth, G.W., Gruber, I.H., Grimes, Thos., Guise, Albert, Hair, J.B., Hartman, J.M., Hawkins, P.M., Hawkins, J.M., Hawkins, E.P., Hendricks, J.E., Herbert, J.W., Hussa, Carwile, Halfacre, D.N., Huff, Andrew, Kelly, J.H., Kelly, Y.S., Kelly, W.J., Kinard, Levi, Kibler, Levi, Kibler, I.M., Kibler, J.H., Kibler, H.C., Lane, G.G., Lane, W.R., Lester, Alen, Lester, Alfred, Lester, Charles, Long, A.J., Long, M.J., Long, L.W., Livingston, J.M., McGraw, P.T., McGraw, B.F., McCracken, L.C., McCracken, Jno., McNealus, Jno., Mansel, R.J., Moffett, R.D., Martin, Allen, Moon, Frank, Morris, S., Nates, J.C., Neill, J.B., Neill, J. Calvin, Neill, J. Spencer, Nelson, J.G., Paysinger, H.M., Paysinger, T.M., Pugh, Wm., Pugh, H., Quattlebaum, I.E., Quattlebaum, D.B., Rankin, A.J., Rankin, G.W., Rawls, S. Sanders, Reagen, James B., Reagen, H.W., Reagen, Jno. W., Reid, Newt., Reid, J.P., Richardson, D., Rikard, J.A., Rikard, J.W., Kinard, L.C., Sease, N.A., Sease, J. Luke, Shepard, Jno. R., Seigman, Jesse E., Spence, Saml, Spence, Jno. D., Sligh, J.W., Sligh, D.P., Stillwell, J.T., Stockman, J.Q.A., Stribbling, J.M., Stockman, Jno. C., Stuart, W., Stuart, C.T., Sultan, R.J., Thompson, T.J., Whites, J.D., Werts, M., Whites, G.J., Werts, Andrew, Werts, Jno. A., Wilson, Wm., Willingham, Hav.

COMPANY “D.”

CAPTAINS: Fergerson, Thos. B., Walker, F.N. LIEUTENANT: Bobo, Y.J., Abernathy, C.P., Moore, J.P., Floyd, N.P., Ray, P. John, Walker, J., Henry, Allen, Wade, Gordon, F.M., Bobo, Hiram. SERGEANTS: Campell, Levi, Allen, Garland, Floyd. Chance, M., Ray, Hosea, Roy, Robt. Y., Ducker, H.W., Davis, M.M. CORPORALS: Abernathy, J.D.C., Hill, T.F.C., Dillard, Geo. M., Fergerson, Jno. W., Welburn, Robt. C.

PRIVATES: Allen, B.R., Bobo, J.P., Sardine, T.C., Barrett, J., Browning, Hosea, Carson, John, Cathcart, H.P., Cooper, J., Dodd, W.T., Cooper, T.M., Fergerson, H.T., Floyd, A.F., Floyd, J.M., Farmer, W., Fergerson, E., Franklin, Y.P., Farrow, A.T., Finger, Mark, Graham, Isaac, Graham, J.F., Gentry, J.W., Gentry. E., Huckaby, P., Hill, B.M., Hollis, P.W., Hembree, C.B., Andrew, —-, Jackson, Drewy, Graham, A., Kelly, Wm., Kelly, M., Lamb, Thomas, Lamb, Robert, Lynch, W.E., Lynch, A., Lynch, John, Lynch, B.S., Murphy, R.C., Myers, J.D., McCravy, A.F., McCravy, R.S., McCravy, Sam., Murray, Peter, Murray, F.H., Nix, Stephen, McMillen, Wm., Ramsay, Robt, Ramsay, P., Mullens, Wm., Pruitt, E.A., Pope, C., Poole, Robt., Smith, Caspar, Smith, Wm., Stephens, M., Stephens, J.F., Shands, Anthony, Shands, Frank, Stone, T.B., Stearns, A.B., Shands, Saml., Pruitt, John, Sexton, J.W., Tinsley, J.L., Tinsley, A.R., Tinsley, J.P., Taylor, W.B., Varner, Andrew, Varner, M.S., Varner, J.W., Vaugh, Jas., Williams, C.M., Williams, J.D., Workman, H., Wesson, Frank, Woodbanks, Thomas, Woodbanks, Jno., Lynch, Pink. Ray, Thos., Poole, Robt.

COMPANY “E.”

CAPTAINS: Nance, J.D., Nance, Jno. K.G., Wright, Robt. H. LIEUTENANT: Bailey, E.S., Moorman, Thos. S., Hair, Jno. S., Hentz, D.J., Haltiwanger, Richard, Martin, J.N., James, B.S., Langford, P.B., Weir, Robt. L., Cofield, Jas. E.
SERGEANTS: Pope, Y.J., Lake, T.H., Boyd, C.F., Chapman, S.B., Ruff, Jno. S., Kingore. A.J., Buzzard, B.S., Reid, H.B., Hood, Wm., Duncan, T.S., Rutherford, W.D., Paysinger, T.M., Thompson, W.H., Ramage, D.B., Leavell, R.A., Horris, T.J., Glymph, L.P., Sloan, T.G., Blatts, Jno., Harris, J.R.

PRIVATES: Abrams, J.N., Abrams, J.K., Abrams, C.R., Atchison, S.L., Atkins, R.W., Assman, H.M., Brandy, H., Bernhart, H.C., Blatts, W.H., Bell, Jno. F., Bruce, J.D., Boazman, W.W., Boazman, Grant, Eramlett, A.W., Boozer, D.C., Boozer, E.P., Boyd, M.P., Burgess, C.H., Brown, T.C., Brown, J.E., Blackburn, James, Bailey, A. Wm., Butler, J.C., Canedy, A.B., Clend, M.P., Caldwell, J.E., Collins, A.B., Clamp, G., Cameron, J.S., Cameron, J.P., Cromer, S.D., Davis, J.H., Davis, Jas., Davis, Jno., Derick, S.S., Duckett. Jno. G., Duckett, J.C., Duckett, J., Duckett. G.T., Faeir, W.Y., Fair, Robt., Faeir, G.A., Foot, M., Gary, J.N., Glasgow, L.K., Graham, C.P., Gall man, H., Harris, M.M., Hargrove, P.H., Hiller, S.J., Hiller, G.E., Haltin, Wm., Haltin, R., Johnson, J.A., Johnson, W., Kelly, I.J., Keom, G., Keney, G., Keitler, J.N., Lindsey, J., Lovelace, B.H., Lake, T.W., Lake, E.G., Lee, W., Lindsey, W.R., Marshall, J.R., Mayes, J.B., McCrey, S.T., McCaughrin, S.T., McMillen, W.J., Miller, J.W., Mathis, J.M., Marshal, J.L., Melts, W., Metts, McD., Metts, W.G., Murtishaw, S.W., Nance, A.D., O’Dell, I.N., Pratt, S., Price, S., Pope, B.H., Pope, W.H., Pope, T.H., Pope, H., Reid, J.M., Reid, W.W., Renwick, H., Ruff, J.H., Ruff, W.W., Ruff, J.M.H., Ruff, R.S., Rodlesperger, T., Rice, J., Riser, J.W., Riser, W.W., Riser, Joe, Ruff, M., Sligh, T.W., Sloan, E.P., Sligh, G., Sligh, W.C., Suber, W.H., Suber, G.B., Souter, F.A., Summer, F.M., Schumpert, B., Schumpert, P.L., Sawyer, F.A., Sultsbacer, W., Stribling, M., Scurry, D.V., Tarrant, W.T., Tribble, J.R., Turnipseed, J.O., Wheeler, D.B., Wright, J.M., Witt, M.H., Wilson, T.R., Wilson, C., Wood, S.J., Wingard, H.S., Wideman, S., Wilson, J.W., Willingham, W.P., Weir T.W., Willingham, —-, Zoblel, J., Hornsby, J.D., Harris, J.Y.

COMPANY “F.”

CAPTAIN: Walker, T.
LIEUTENANT: McGowan, H.L., Williams, J.G., Loaman, S. SERGEANTS: East, I.H.L., Hill, J.C., Neil, W.W., Bailey, W.F., Gray, W.S., Madden, J., Wells, B.W.

PRIVATES: Alston, F.V., Andrews, H.A., Andrews, T., Ballew, R., Bryson, H.H., Byson, R., Boyd, W.M.J., Boyd, W., Bryson, H.J., Bryson, J.E., Byson, J.A., Burrill, B., Burrill, W., Byson, J.G., Boseman, L.J., Bale, A., Cannon, J.L., Cole, J., Conner, J.B., Coleman, O.A., Cook, M.C., Crisp, J.T., Crim, S.J., Cannon, L.A., Dogan, W.S., Dalrymple, T.E.J., Donald, T.P., Darnell, W.R., Davenport, W.R., Dobbins, J., Franklin, H.G., Franklin, J.N., Franklin, N., Feets, J., Fowler, P.O., Fuller, J.C., Fuller, J.N., Fuller, W., Furguson, J.W., Goodlett, S.P., Grant, M., Garlington, J.D., Hollingworth, J., Hitt, H., Hitt, B., Hitt, E., Jones, W., Johnson, H.S., Johnson, W.R., Johnson, Miller, Langey, B.P., Lindsay, J., Lindsay, A., Lowe, W.W., Lowe, P.W., Lake, J., Lake, Y., Madden, A., Madden, S.C., Madden, D.N., Madden, J.H., Madden, J., Martin, L., McGowan, J.S., McDowell, W., McGee, J., McCoy, A., McClure, D., McClure, W., McGowan, S., McWilliams, I., Mauldin, J., Monroe, W.E., Monroe, J.W., Morgan, J.C., Moore, H., Moore, E., Moore, G., Nabors, W.A.,.Nichols, R.M., Nichols, T.D., Nichols, J., Nelson, A., Nelson, M., Neely, W., Nixon, W., O’Neal, J.B., Puckett, R., Pirvem, J.H., Pierce, C.E., Pills, J., Propes, M., Reid, M., Riddle, T.R., Riddle, J.S., Sadler, G.M., Shirley, J., Smith, T.M., Sincher, T., Sparks, S., Vance, W.A., Waldrop, T.M., Walker, J.P., Winn, J., Wilbur, J.Q., Waldrop, E., Wilson, C., Watson, S.

COMPANY “G.”

CAPTAIN: Todd, R.P.
LIEUTENANT: Burnside, A.W., Barksdale, J.A., Watts, J.W. SERGEANTS: Wright, A.Y., Garlington, J.D., Winn, W.C., Sanford, B.W., Parley, H.L. CORPORALS: Owengs, A.S., Brownlee, D.J.G., McCarley, T.A., Patton, M.P., Thompson, A.G.H., Templeton, D.C.

PRIVATES: Avery, T.M., Avery, F.H., Adams, W.A., Ball, W.H., Ball, H.P., Barksdale, A., Barksdale, T.B., Barksdale, M.S., Branks, C.B., Brooks, L.R., Brooks, W.J., Bendle, R.T., Byrant, R.F., Blackaby J.L., Burns, B.F., Burns, J.H., Brownlee, J.R., Brumlett, C., Childress, D., Childress, W.A., Cook, Geo., Curry, J.A., Curry, T.R., Curry, W.L., Curry, J.P., Crisp. J., Coleman, J.D., Chisney, W., Chisney, J.N., Chisney, N., Chisney, R.J., Chisney, G., Craig, J., Chick, W., Coley, R.B., Dorroh, J.A., Dorroh, J.R., Dorroh, J.W., Dial, J., Edwards, L.L., Edwards, M., Evins, H.C., Fairbairn, E.J., Fairbairn, J.A., Fairbairn, J.D., Franks, B.T., Franks, S., Franklin, W., Fleming, M., Fuller J., Grumbles, R.P., Garrett, H.M., Harris, R.T., Hellams, J.T., Hellams, R.V., Hellams, W.R., Hellams, R.T. Hellams, W.H., Henderson, T.Y., Henry, I.F., Henry, S.P., Hill, D.S., Higgins, R.J., Higgins, R.J., Higgins, J.B., Hunter, J.P., Hobby, J.A., Jones, E., Knight, J., Knight, R.S., Lamb, W., Lanford, J.M., Landford, P., Lindsey, E.E., Lanford, E.L., McNeely, A.Y., Martin, J.A., Martin, B.A., Martin, M.P., Martin, M.G., Martin, J., Martin, J.A., Morgan, W.B., Morris, W.H., McClentock, W.A., Maddox, J., A., Simpson, W.W., Simpson, A., Simpson, S., Stoddard, D.F., Stoddard, J.F., Stoddard, D.C., Stoddard, A.R., Stewart, J.C., Summers, W.W., Smith, R., Shockley, J.W., Stone, E., Shesly, E., Templeton, J.P., Thackston, E.R., Thackston, S.R., Thompson, I.G., Thompson, W., Thompson, A.Y., Thompson, W.F., Townsend, J., Vonodore, J., Wadell, A.J., Wadell, J.T., Wine, A.W., Wilson, T.C., Witte, J.B.H., White, J.K., Workman, J.M., Wofford, B.H.

COMPANY “H.”

CAPTAINS: Nunnamaker, D., Summer, J.C., Swygert, G.A., Dickert, D.A. LIEUTENANT: Epting, J.H., Nunnamaker, S., White, U.B., Fulmer, A.P., Huffman, J.
SERGEANTS: Hipp, A.J., Derrick, F.W., Kesler, W.A., Swindler, W.C., Werts, A.A., Haltiwanger, J.S., Wheeler, S., Kempson, L.C. CORPORALS: Weed, T.C., Busby, W.A., Stoudemire, J.A.W., Mayer, J.A., Counts, W.J., Werts, W.W., Guise, A.

PRIVATES: Adams, M., Addy, J.M., Burrett, J., Burkett, H., Boozer, L., Boozer, B.F., Boozer, D.T., Bedenbaugh, L., Bundric, T.J., Busby, J.L., Busby, L., Busby, W., Cannon, J.J., Caughman, L., Chapman, H.H., Chapman, D., Chapman, B.F., Cook, J.S., Comerlander, M., Corley, F., Dawkins, J.D., Dickert, J.O., Dickert, B.F., Dickert, C.P., Dominick, H., Dreher, D.J., Dreher, T., Derrick, A., Ellisor, C.G., Ellisor, G.M., Ellisor, G.P., Ellisor, J.T., Enlow, B., Epting, J., Fulmer, H.J., Fulmer, G.W., Fulmer, J.E., Frost, E., Folk, S.H., Farr, J., Feugle, J.N., Fort, H.A., Green, W.T., Gibson, A., Guise, N.A., Geiger. W.D., George, J., Gortman, M., Hamiter, J.H., Haltiwanger, J.L., Haltiwanger, A.K., Hartman, S., Hobbs, L.P., Hipp, W.W., Hipp, J.M., Hipp, J.J., Hiller, G., Jacob, W.A., Kelly, B., Kinard, J.J., Kunkle, H.L., Koon, G.W., Long, H.M., Long, D.S., Long, D.P., Long, G.A., Long, J.H., Long, G., Long, J., Lake, T., Lake, E.J., Livingstone, J., Livingstone, S., Livingstone, M., Lester, G., Lever, C., Mayer, A.B., Miller, A.B., Miller, J., Miller, L., Monts, J.W., Monts, T., Monts, N., Monts, F., Monts. J., Martin, A., Metts, T., Nunnamaker, T.C., Rucker, W., Russell, L.F., Rikard, L., Riser. R.E., Summer, J.G., Summer, W., Summer, P., Summer, J.B., Summer, J.K., Summer, A.J., Stoudemire, G.W., Stoudemire, R.T., Smith, S.H., Smith, J.A., Shealy, P.H., Schwarts, G., Schwarts, H.C., Sease, A.M., Slice, G.N., Slice. R., Setzler, W., Setzler, J.T., Spillers, I., Stuck, G.M., Stuck, M.C., Swetingburg, D.R., Suber, A., Thompson, P., Wilson, H.C., Wilson, A.A., Werts, A., Werts, W.A., Werts, J., Werts, W.A., Werts, T., Weed, W., Wheeler, L.B., Youngener, G.W., Yonce, J., Yonce, W.

COMPANY “I.”

CAPTAINS: Jones, B.S., Langston, D.M.H., Pitts, T.H., Johnson, J.S. LIEUTENANTS: Harris, N.S., West, S.L., Byrd, W.B., Belk, W.B., Duckett, T.J.
SERGEANTS: Henry, D.L., Williams, E., McLangston, G., Byrd, A.B., Copeland, D.T., Berkley, T., Adair, J.W. CORPORALS: Maylan, P., Blakely, M., Goodwin, R., Butler, P.M., Blakely, W.

PRIVATES: Arnant, —-, Atrams, R., Anderson, J., Anderson, W., Anderson. M., Byrd, G., Byrd, J.D., Beasley, G., Bell, J.L., Bell, J.E., Blakely, E.T., Blakely, M.P., Richmond, —-, Boyce, C.B., Brown, J., Bearden. T., Compton, E., Canady, J.W., Craige, G., Cannon, H., Casey, C.C., Campbell, P., Dillard, G.W., Donnon, G.M., Donnon, W., Duval, C.W., Davis, W., Ferguson, J.G., Ferguson. C.C., Foster, J.F.M., Gordon, M., Graham, D., Hill, S., Holland, J.G., Holland, R.R., Hollingsworth, F., Hollingsworth, J., Hanby. J.W., Harris, F., Holland, W., Hewett, F.M., Hemkapeeler, C., Hipps, R., Hipps, C.M., Hirter, M., Huskey, W., Henry, J.E., Huckabee, J., Jones, A., Jones, R.F., James, Z., Johnson, R.C., Jacks, I., King, A.A., Langston, J.T., Lyles, P., McKelvy, J., Maddox, W.C., McInown, M.M., Meeks, T., Mars, N., McDowell, J.T.B., McMakin, G., Merton, G, Newman T.D., Neal, S.H., Owens, T., Oxner, J.T., Prather, G., Prather, N.C., Powell, A., Powell, R.,.Potter, M., Pearson. J.P., Philson, S.P., Philips, A.N., Ramage, J.W., Ray, W., Reynolds, M., Suber.M., Suber, M., Stokes, T., Stokes, W., Sneed, C., Simpson, J.M., Snook W.M., Smith, J.C., Taylor, W.J., Taylor.H.S., Templeton, A., Templeton, H., Templeton, J., Talleson, J., Talleson, J., Todd, N.C., Todd, S.A., Thaxton, Z.A., Willard, J., Young, G.R., Zeigler, —-.

COMPANY “K.”

CAPTAINS: Kennedy, B., Lanford, S.M., Poster, L.P., Young, W.H., Cunningham, J.H., Roebuck, J.P.
LIEUTENANTS: Wofford, J.W., Wofford, J.Y., Bearden, W., Layton, A.B., Thomas, W., Smith, R.M.
SERGEANTS: Bray, D.S., Wofford, W.B., Thomas, J.A., Varner, C.P., McArthur, J.N., Jentry, J.L.
CORPORALS: Vise, James S., Nesbitt, W.A., Smith, W.A., Davis, A.F., James, G.W., Lanford, F.M., Pettitt, N.H., Roundtree, J.R., Smith, A.S., West, T.H., Bass, J.B.C.

PRIVATES: Bass, G.W., Beason, B.S., Beason, B., Bishop, J.W., Beard, J.C., Brewton, I., Brice, D., Birch, F.C., Bearden, W.S., Barnett, W.H., Bearden, G., Cook, N., Cunningham, H.W., Chunmey, G.W., Chunmey, J., Drummond, R.A., Elmore, J.H., Foster, J.A., Gwinn, C.T., Gwinn, D., Gwinn, M., Gwin, J., Harmon, T.P., Harmon, J., Harmon, W., Havener, J.P., Hyatt, G.T., Hyatt, J., Hamby, J.H., Hill, L., Johnson, J.A., Lanham S.W.T., Lawrence, W., Lancaster, W.H., Marco, J.J., Mattox, P., Mayes, S.S., Mayes, D.W., Mayes, W.J., Meadows, T.M., Meadows, T.S., McAbee, W., McAbee, J., McDonald, J.E., McArther, J., Pearson, J.W., Petty, T., Petty, P., Pettis, B.F., Pearson, H., Roundtree, J.S., Riddle, J.M., Riddle, T., Rogers, M., Rogers, J., Rogers, E., Rogers, W., Rogers, G., Roebuck, B.F., Roebuck, J., Roebuck, W., Sammonds, G., Shackleford, J.L., Stribblan, A.C., Stribland, S., Stribland, J., Shands, B.A., Shands, S., Stallions, J., Smith, B.M., Smith, S., Smith, E.F., Smith, Robt., Smith, W.P., Sherbutt, W.T., Sherbutt, S.Z., Sherbutt, A.T., Slater, Jno., Story, G.H., Storey, D.G., Story, J.S., Thomas, T.S., Thomas, L.P., Thomas, W., Thomas, M., Turner, J., Vehorn, W.J., Vaughan, L., Vaughan, J., Varner.R., Williams, R.M., Wofford, B., Wofford, W.T., Wofford, J.H., Wofford, W.A., West, T.J., West, G.W., West.E.M., West, H., Wingo, H.A., White, R.B., Westmoreland, S.B., Wright, W.M., Woodruff, R., Zimmerman, T.H.

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