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  • 1709
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so good a Nurse, as to bring her Child up free from the Rickets and Disasters that proceed from the Teeth, with many other Distempers which attack our Infants in England, and other Parts of Europe. {Nurse Children how.} They let their Children suck till they are well grown, unless they prove big with Child sooner. They always nurse their own Children themselves, unless Sickness or Death prevents. I once saw a Nurse hired to give Suck to an Indian Woman’s Child, which you have in my Journal. After Delivery, they absent the Company of a Man for forty days. As soon as the Child is born, they wash it in cold Water at the next Stream, and then bedawb it, as I have mention’d before. {Cradle.} After which, the Husband takes care to provide a Cradle, which is soon made, consisting of a Piece of flat Wood, which they hew with their Hatchets to the Likeness of a Board; it is about two Foot long, and a Foot broad; to this they brace and tie the Child down very close, having, near the middle, a Stick fasten’d about two Inches from the Board, which is for the Child’s Breech to rest on, under which they put a Wad of Moss, that receives the Child’s Excrements, by which means they can shift the Moss, and keep all clean and sweet. Some Nations have very flat Heads, as you have heard in my Journal, which is made whilst tied on this Cradle, as that Relation informs you. These Cradles are apt to make the Body flat; yet they are the most portable things that can be invented; for there is a String which goes from one Corner of the Board to the other, whereby the Mother flings her Child on her Back; so the Infant’s Back is towards hers, and its Face looks up towards the Sky. If it rains, she throws her Leather or Woollen Match-coat, over her Head, which covers the Child all over, and secures her and it from the Injuries of rainy Weather. The Savage Women quit all Company, and dress not their own Victuals, during their Purgations.

After they have had several Children, they grow strangely out of Shape in their Bodies; As for Barrenness, I never knew any of their Women, that have not Children when marry’d.

{Indian Womens Habit.}
The Womens Dress is, in severe Weather, a hairy Match-coat in the Nature of a Plad, which keeps out the Cold, and (as I said before) defends their Children from the Prejudices of the Weather. At other times, they have only a sort of Flap or Apron containing two Yards in Length, and better than half a Yard deep. Sometimes, it is a Deer-Skin dress’d white, and pointed or slit at the bottom, like Fringe. When this is clean, it becomes them very well. Others wear blue or red Flaps made of Bays and Plains, which they buy of the English, of both which they tuck in the Corners, to fasten the Garment, and sometimes make it fast with a Belt. All of them, when ripe, have a small String round the Waste, to which another is tied and comes between their Legs, where always is a Wad of Moss against the Os pubis; but never any Hair is there to be found: Sometimes, they wear Indian Shooes, or Moggizons, which are made after the same manner, as the Mens are.

The Hair of their Heads is made into a long Roll like a Horses Tail, and bound round with Ronoak or Porcelan, which is a sort of Beads they make of the Conk-Shells. Others that have not this, make a Leather-String serve.

{Indian Mens Habit.}
The Indian Men have a Match-Coat of Hair, Furs, Feathers, or Cloth, as the Women have. Their Hair is roll’d up, on each Ear, as the Womens, only much shorter, and oftentimes a Roll on the Crown of the Head, or Temples, which is just as they fancy; there being no Strictness in their Dress. Betwixt their Legs comes a Piece of Cloth, that is tuck’d in by a Belt both before and behind. This is to hide their Nakedness, of which Decency they are very strict Observers, although never practised before the Christians came amongst them. They wear Shooes, of Bucks, and sometimes Bears Skin, which they tan in an Hour or two; with the Bark of Trees boil’d, wherein they put the Leather whilst hot, and let it remain a little while, whereby it becomes so qualify’d, as to endure Water and Dirt, without growing hard. These have no Heels, and are made as fit for the Feet, as a Glove is for the Hand, and are very easie to travel in, when one is a little us’d to them. {Indians washing in the River.} When these Savages live near the Water, they frequent the Rivers in Summer-time very much, where both Men and Women very often in a day go in naked to wash themselves, though not both Sexes together.

{Match-Coats how made.}
Their Feather Match-Coats are very pretty, especially some of them, which are made extraordinary charming, containing several pretty Figures wrought in Feathers, making them seem like a fine Flower Silk-Shag; and when new and fresh, they become a Bed very well, instead of a Quilt. Some of another sort are made of Hare, Raccoon, Bever, or Squirrel-Skins, which are very warm. Others again are made of the green Part of the Skin of a Mallard’s Head, which they sew perfectly well together, their Thread being either the Sinews of a Deer divided very small, or Silk-Grass. When these are finish’d, they look very finely, though they must needs be very troublesome to make. Some of their great Men, as Rulers and such, that have Plenty of Deer Skins by them, will often buy the English-made Coats, which they wear on Festivals and other Days of Visiting. Yet none ever buy any Breeches, saying, that they are too much confin’d in them, which prevents their Speed in running, &c.

We have some Indians, that are more civilized than the rest, which wear Hats, Shooes, Stockings, and Breeches, with very tolerable Linnen Shirts, which is not common amongst these Heathens. The Paspitank Indians did formerly keep Cattle, and make Butter.

{Civiliz’d Indians. Hatteras Indians.} These are them that wear the English Dress. Whether they have Cattle now or no, I am not certain; but I am of the Opinion, that such Inclinations in the Savages should meet with Encouragement, and every Englishman ought to do them Justice, and not defraud them of their Land, which has been allotted them formerly by the Government; for if we do not shew them Examples of Justice and Vertue, we can never bring them to believe us to be a worthier Race of Men than themselves.

The Dresses of these People are so different, according to the Nation that they belong to, that it is impossible to recount all the whimsical Figures that they sometimes make by their Antick Dresses. Besides, Carolina is a warm Country, and very mild in its Winters, to what Virginia, Maryland, Pensylvania, New-York, the Jerseys, and New-England are; wherefore, our Indians Habit very much differs from the Dresses that appear amongst the Savages who inhabit those cold Countries; in regard their chiefest Cloathing for the Winter-Season is made of the Furs of Bever, Raccoon, and other Northern Furs, that our Climate is not acquainted withal, they producing some Furs, as the Monack, Moor, Marten, Black Fox, and others to us unknown.

{Painting for War.}
Their Dress in Peace and War, is quite different. Besides, when they go to War, their Hair is comb’d out by the Women, and done over very much with Bears Grease, and red Root; with Feathers, Wings, Rings, Copper, and Peak, or Wampum in their Ears. Moreover, they buy Vermillion of the Indian Traders, wherewith they paint their Faces all over red, and commonly make a Circle of Black about one Eye, and another Circle of White about the other, whilst others bedawb their Faces with Tobacco-Pipe Clay, Lamp-black, black Lead, and divers other Colours, which they make with the several sorts of Minerals and Earths that they get in different Parts of the Country, where they hunt and travel. When these Creatures are thus painted, they make the most frightful Figures that can be imitated by Men, and seem more like Devils than Humane Creatures. You may be sure, that they are about some Mischief, when you see them thus painted; for in all the Hostilities which have ever been acted against the English at any time, in several of the Plantations of America, the Savages always appear’d in this Disguize, whereby they might never after be discover’d, or known by any of the Christians that should happen to see them after they had made their Escape; for it is impossible, ever to know an Indian under these Colours, although he has been at your House a thousand times, and you know him, at other times, as well as you do any Person living. As for their Women, they never use any Paint on their Faces; neither do they ever carry them along with them into the Field, when they intend any Expedition, leaving them at home with the old Men and Children.

{Ear Bobs.}
Some of the Indians wear great Bobs in their Ears, and sometimes in the Holes thereof they put Eagles and other Birds, Feathers, for a Trophy. When they kill any Fowl, they commonly pluck off the downy Feathers, and stick them all over their Heads. Some (both Men and Women) wear great Necklaces of their Money made of Shells. They often wear Bracelets made of Brass, and sometimes of Iron Wire.

{Indian Money.}
Their Money is of different sorts, but all made of Shells, which are found on the Coast of Carolina, which are very large and hard, so that they are very difficult to cut. Some English Smiths have try’d to drill this sort of Shell-Money, and thereby thought to get an Advantage; but it prov’d so hard, that nothing could be gain’d. They oftentimes make, of this Shell, a sort of Gorge, which they wear about their Neck in a string; so it hangs on their Collar, whereon sometimes is engraven a Cross, or some odd sort of Figure, which comes next in their Fancy. There are other sorts valued at a Doe-Skin, yet the Gorges will sometimes sell for three or four Buck-Skins ready drest. There be others, that eight of them go readily for a Doe Skin; but the general and current Species of all the Indians in Carolina, and, I believe, all over the Continent, as far as the Bay of Mexico, is that which we call Peak, and Ronoak; but Peak more especially. This is that which at New-York, they call Wampum, and have used it as current Money amongst the Inhabitants for a great many Years. This is what many Writers call Porcelan, and is made at New-York in great Quantities, and with us in some measure. Five Cubits of this purchase a dress’d Doe-Skin, and seven or eight purchase a dress’d Buck-Skin. An English-man could not afford to make so much of this Wampum for five or ten times the Value; for it is made out of a vast great Shell, of which that Country affords Plenty; where it is ground smaller than the small End of a Tobacco-Pipe, or a large Wheat-Straw. Four or five of these make an Inch, and every one is to be drill’d through, and made as smooth as Glass, and so strung, as Beads are, and a Cubit of the Indian Measure contains as much in Length, as will reach from the Elbow to the End of the little Finger. They never stand to question, whether it is a tall Man, or a short one, that measures it; but if this Wampum Peak be black or purple, as some Part of that Shell is, then it is twice the Value. This the Indians grind on Stones and other things, till they make it current, but the Drilling is the most difficult to the English-men, which the Indians manage with a Nail stuck in a Cane or Reed. Thus they roll it continually on their Thighs, with their Right-hand, holding the Bit of Shell with their Left, so in time they drill a Hole quite through it, which is a very tedious Work; but especially in making their Ronoak, four of which will scarce make one Length of Wampum. The Indians are a People that never value their time, so that they can afford to make them, and never need to fear the English will take the Trade out of their Hands. This is the Money with which you may buy Skins, Furs, Slaves, or any thing the Indians have; it being the Mammon (as our Money is to us) that entices and persuades them to do any thing, and part with every thing they possess, except their Children for Slaves. As for their Wives, they are often sold, and their Daughters violated for it. With this they buy off Murders; and whatsoever a Man can do that is ill, this Wampum will quit him of, and make him, in their Opinion, good and vertuous, though never so black before.

{Indians how named.}
All the Indians give a Name to their Children, which is not the same as the Father or Mother, but what they fancy. This Name they keep, (if Boys) till they arrive to the Age of a Warriour, which is sixteen or seventeen Years; then they take a Name to themselves, sometimes, Eagle, Panther, Allegator, or some such wild Creature; esteeming nothing on Earth worthy to give them a Name, but these Wild-Fowl, and Beasts. Some again take the Name of a Fish, which they keep as long as they live.

{Indian King and Counsellors. Every Town a Ruler, yet one over all the Nation.}
The King is the Ruler of the Nation, and has others under him, to assist him, as his War-Captains, and Counsellors, who are pick’d out and chosen from among the ancientest Men of the Nation he is King of. These meet him in all general Councils and Debates, concerning War, Peace, Trade, Hunting, and all the Adventures and Accidents of Humane Affairs, which appear within their Verge; where all Affairs are discoursed of and argued pro and con, very deliberately (without making any manner of Parties or Divisions) for the Good of the Publick; for, as they meet there to treat, they discharge their Duty with all the Integrity imaginable, never looking towards their Own Interest, before the Publick Good. After every Man has given his Opinion, that which has most Voices, or, in Summing up, is found the most reasonable, that they make use of without any Jars and Wrangling, and put it in Execution, the first Opportunity that offers.

{Succession how.}
The Succession falls not to the King’s Son, but to his Sister’s Son, which is a sure way to prevent Impostors in the Succession. Sometimes they poison the Heir to make way for another, which is not seldom done, when they do not approve of the Youth that is to succeed them. The King himself is commonly chief Doctor in that Cure.

They are so well versed in Poison, that they are often found to poison whole Families; nay, most of a Town; and which is most to be admired, they will poison a running Spring, or Fountain of Water, so that whosoever drinks thereof, shall infallible die. When the Offender is discover’d, his very Relations urge for Death, whom nothing will appease, but the most cruel Torment imaginable, which is executed in the most publick Manner that it’s possible to act such a Tragedy in. For all the whole Nation, and all the Indians within a hundred Mile (if it is possible to send for them) are summon’d to come and appear at such a Place and Time, to see and rejoyce at the Torments and Death of such a Person, who is the common and profess’d Enemy to all the friendly Indians thereabouts, who now lies under the Condemnation of the whole Nation, and accordingly is to be put to Death. Then all appear (young and old) from all the adjacent Parts, and meet, with all the Expressions of Joy, to consummate this horrid and barbarous Feast, which is carried on after this dismal Manner. {Poisoning Indians how punished.} First, they bring the Prisoner to the Place appointed for the Execution, where he is set down on his Breech on the Ground. Then they all get about him, and you shall not see one sorrowful or dejected Countenance amongst them, but all very merrily dispos’d, as if some Comedy was to be acted, instead of a Tragedy. He that is appointed to be the chief Executioner, takes a Knife, and bids him hold out his Hands, which he does, and then cuts round the Wrist through the Skin, which is drawn off like a Glove, and flead quite off at the Fingers Ends; then they break his Joints and Bones, and buffet and torment him after a very inhumane Manner, till some violent Blow perhaps ends his Days; then they burn him to Ashes, and throw them down the River. Afterwards they eat, drink and are merry, repeating all the Actions of the Tormentors and the Prisoner, with a great deal of Mirth and Satisfaction. This Accusation is laid against an Indian Heroe sometimes wrongfully, or when they have a mind to get rid of a Man that has more Courage and Conduct than his neighbouring Kings or great Men; then they alledge the Practice of poisoning Indians against him, and make a Rehearsal of every Indian that died for a year or two, and say, that they were poison’d by such an Indian; which Reports stir up all the Relations of the deceased against the said Person, and by such means make him away presently. In some Affairs, these Savages are very reserv’d and politick, and will attend a long time with a great deal of Patience, to bring about their Designs; they being never impatient or hasty in executing any of their Designs of Revenge.

Now I am gone so far in giving an Account of the Indians Temper, I will proceed; and can give you no other Character of them, but that they are a very wary People, and are never hasty or impatient. They will endure a great many Misfortunes, Losses, and Disapointments without shewing themselves, in the least, vex’d or uneasy. When they go by Water, if there proves a Head-Wind, they never vex and fret, as the Europeans do, and let what Misfortune come to them, as will or can happen, they never relent. Besides, there is one Vice very common every where, which I never found amongst them, which is Envying other Mens Happiness, because their Station is not equal to, or above, their Neighbours. Of this Sin I cannot say I ever saw an Example, though they are a People that set as great a Value upon themselves, as any sort of Men in the World; upon which Account they find something Valuable in themselves above Riches. Thus, he that is a good Warriour, is the proudest Creature living; and he that is an expert Hunter, is esteem’d by the People and himself; yet all these are natural Vertues and Gifts, and not Riches, which are as often in the Possession of a Fool as a Wise-man. Several of the Indians are possess’d of a great many Skins, Wampum, Ammunition, and what other things are esteem’d Riches amongst them; yet such an Indian is no more esteem’d amongst them, than any other ordinary Fellow, provided he has no personal Endowments, which are the Ornaments that must gain him an Esteem among them; for a great Dealer, amongst the Indians, is no otherwise respected and esteemed, than as a Man that strains his Wits, and fatigues himself, to furnish others with Necessaries of Life, that live much easier and enjoy more of the World, than he himself does, with all his Pelf. {Indians not afraid to die.} If they are taken Captives, and expect a miserable Exit, they sing; if Death approach them in Sickness, they are not afraid of it; nor are ever heard to say, Grant me some time. They know by Instinct, and daily Example, that they must die; wherefore, they have that great and noble Gift, to submit to every thing that happens, and value nothing that attacks them.

Their Cruelty to their Prisoners of War is what they are seemingly guilty of an Error in, (I mean as to a natural Failing) because they strive to invent the most inhumane Butcheries for them, that the Devils themselves could invent, or hammer out of Hell; they esteeming Death no Punishment, but rather an Advantage to him, that is exported out of this into another World.

{Indians Cruelty to Prisoners of War.} Therefore, they inflict on them Torments, wherein they prolong Life in that miserable state as long as they can, and never miss Skulping of them, as they call it, which is, to cut off the Skin from the Temples, and taking the whole Head of Hair along with it, as if it was a Night-cap. Sometimes, they take the Top of the Skull along with it; all which they preserve, and carefully keep by them, for a Trophy of their Conquest over their Enemies. Others keep their Enemies Teeth, which are taken in War, whilst others split the Pitch-Pine into Splinters, and stick them into the Prisoners Body yet alive. Thus they light them, which burn like so many Torches; and in this manner, they make him dance round a great Fire, every one buffeting and deriding him, till he expires, when every one strives to get a Bone or some Relick of this unfortunate Captive. One of the young Fellows, that has been at the Wars, and has had the Fortune to take a Captive, returns the proudest Creature on Earth, and sets such a Value on himself, that he knows not how to contain himself in his Senses. The Iroquois, or Sinnagers, are the most Warlike Indians that we know of, being always at War, and not to be persuaded from that Way of Living, by any Argument that can be used. If you go to persuade them to live peaceably with the Tuskeruros, and let them be one People, and in case those Indians desire it, and will submit to them, they will answer you, that they cannot live without War, which they have ever been used to; and that if Peace be made with the Indians they now war withal, they must find out some others to wage War against; for, for them to live in Peace, is to live out of their Element, War, Conquest, and Murder, being what they delight in, and value themselves for. {Indians flea and cut off part of the Feet.} When they take a Slave, and intend to keep him to Work in their Fields, they flea the Skin from the Setting on of his Toes to the middle of his Foot, so cut off one half of his Feet, wrapping the Skin over the Wounds, and healing them. By this cruel Method, the Indian Captive is hinder’d from making his Escape, for he can neither run fast or go any where, but his Feet are more easily traced and discover’d. Yet I know one Man who made his Escape from them, tho’ they had thus disabled him, as you may see in my Journal.

The Indians ground their Wars on Enmity, not on Interest, as the Europeans generally do; for the Loss of the meanest Person in the Nation, they will go to War and lay all at Stake, and prosecute their Design to the utmost; till the Nation they were injur’d by, be wholly destroy’d, or make them that Satisfaction which they demand. They are very politick, in waging, and carrying on their War, first by advising with all the ancient Men of Conduct and Reason, that belong to their Nation; such as superannuated War-Captains, and those that have been Counsellors for many Years, and whose Advice has commonly succeeded very well. They have likewise their Field Counsellors, who are accustomed to Ambuscades, and Surprizes, which Methods are commonly used by the Savages; for I scarce ever heard of a Field-Battle fought amongst them.

One of their Expeditions afforded an Instance, worthy mention, which was thus; Two Nations of Indians here in Carolina were at War together, and a Party of each were in the Forest ranging to see what Enemies they could take. The lesser Number found they were discover’d, and could not well get over a River (that lay betwixt them and their home) without engaging the other Party, whose Numbers were much the greater; so they call’d a Council, which met, and having weigh’d their present Circumstances with a great deal of Argument and Debate, for a considerable time, and found their Enemies Advantage, and that they could expect no Success in Engaging such an unequal Number; they, at last, concluded on this Stratagem, which, in my Opinion, carried a great deal of Policy along with it. {Indian Politicks.} It was, That the same Night, they should make a great Fire, which they were certain would be discover’d by the adverse Party, and there dress up Logs of Wood in their Cloaths, and make them exactly seem like Indians, that were asleep by the Fireside; (which is their Way, when in the Woods) so, said they, our Enemies will fire upon these Images, supposing them to be us, who will lie in Ambuscade, and, after their Guns are unloaded, shall deal well enough with them. This Result was immediately put in Execution, and the Fire was made by the side of a Valley, where they lay perdu very advantageously. Thus, a little before Break of Day, (which commonly is the Hour they surprize their Enemies in) the Indians came down to their Fire, and at once fired in upon those Logs in the Indians Cloaths, and run up to them, expecting they had kill’d every Man dead; but they found themselves mistaken, for then the other Indians, who had lain all the Night stark-naked in the Bottom, attack’d them with their loaded Pieces, which so surprized them, that every Man was taken Prisoner, and brought in bound to their Town.

Another Instance was betwixt the Machapunga Indians, and the Coranine’s, on the Sand-Banks; which was as follows. {Machapunga King Charles.} The Machapungas were invited to a Feast, by the Coranines; (which two Nations had been a long time at War together, and had lately concluded a Peace.) Thereupon, the Machapunga Indians took the Advantage of coming to the Coranines Feast, which was to avoid all Suspicion, and their King, who, of a Savage, is a great Politician and very stout, order’d all his Men to carry their Tamahauks along with them, hidden under their Match-Coats, which they did; and being acquainted when to fall on, by the Word given, they all (upon this Design) set forward for the Feast, and came to the Coranine Town, where they had gotten Victuals, Fruit, and such things as make an Indian Entertainment, all ready to make these new Friends welcome, which they did; and, after Dinner, towards the Evening, (as it is customary amongst them) they went to Dancing, all together; so when the Machapunga King saw the best Opportunity offer, he gave the Word, and his Men pull’d their Tamahauks or Hatchets from under their Match-Coats, and kill’d several, and took the rest Prisoners, except some few that were not present, and about four or five that escap’d. The Prisoners they sold Slaves to the English. At the time this was done, those Indians had nothing but Bows and Arrows, neither side having Guns.

The Indians are very revengeful, and never forget an Injury done, till they have receiv’d Satisfaction. Yet they are the freest People from Heats and Passions (which possess the Europeans) of any I ever heard of. {Drunkenness in Indians.} They never call any Man to account for what he did, when he was drunk; but say, it was the Drink that caused his Misbehaviour, therefore he ought to be forgiven: They never frequent a Christian’s House that is given to Passion, nor will they ever buy or sell with him, if they can get the same Commodities of any other Person; for they say, such Men are mad Wolves, and no more Men.

{Indians not Jealous.}
They know not what Jealousy is, because they never think their Wives are unconstant, unless they are Eye-witnesses thereof. They are generally very bashful, especially the young Maids, who when they come into a strange Cabin, where they are not acquainted, never ask for any thing, though never so hungry or thirsty, but sit down, without speaking a Word (be it never so long) till some of the House asks them a Question, or falls into Discourse, with the Stranger. I never saw a Scold amongst them, and to their Children they are extraordinary tender and indulgent; neither did I ever see a Parent correct a Child, excepting one Woman, that was the King’s Wife, and she (indeed) did possess a Temper that is not commonly found amongst them. {Indians Complements.} They are free from all manner of Compliments, except Shaking of Hands, and Scratching on the Shoulder, which two are the greatest Marks of Sincerity and Friendship, that can be shew’d one to another. They cannot express fare you well; but when they leave the House, will say, I go straightway, which is to intimate their Departure; and if the Man of the House has any Message to send by the going Man, he may acquaint him therewith. Their Tongue allows not to say, Sir, I am your Servant; because they have no different Titles for Man, only King, War-Captain, Old Man, or Young Man, which respect the Stations and Circumstances Men are employ’d in, and arriv’d to, and not Ceremony. As for Servant, they have no such thing, except Slave, and their Dogs, Cats, tame or domestick Beasts, and Birds, are call’d by the same Name: For the Indian Word for Slave includes them all. So when an Indian tells you he has got a Slave for you, it may (in general Terms, as they use) be a young Eagle, a Dog, Otter, or any other thing of that Nature, which is obsequiously to depend on the Master for its Sustenance.

{Indians not afraid of Spirits.}
They are never fearful in the Night, nor do the Thoughts of Spirits ever trouble them; such as the many Hobgoblins and Bugbears that we suck in with our Milk, and the Foolery of our Nurses and Servants suggest to us; who by their idle Tales of Fairies, and Witches, make such Impressions on our tender Years, that at Maturity, we carry Pigmies Souls, in Giants Bodies, and ever after are thereby so much depriv’d of Reason, and unman’d, as never to be Masters of half the Bravery Nature design’d for us.

Not but that the Indians have as many Lying Stories of Spirits and Conjurers, as any People in the World; but they tell it with no Disadvantage to themselves; for the great Esteem which the Old Men bring themselves to, is by making the others believe their Familiarity with Devils and Spirits, and how great a Correspondence they have therewith, which if it once gains Credit, they ever after are held in the greatest Veneration imaginable, and whatever they after impose upon the People, is receiv’d as infallible. They are so little startled at the Thoughts of another World, that they not seldom murder themselves; as for Instance, a Bear-River Indian, a very likely young Fellow, about twenty Years of Age, whose Mother was angry at his drinking of too much Rum, and chid him for it, thereupon reply’d, he would have her satisfied, and he would do the like no more; upon which he made his Words good; for he went aside, and shot himself dead. This was a Son of the politick King of the Machapunga, I spoke of before, and has the most Cunning of any Indian I ever met withal.

Most of the Savages are much addicted to Drunkenness, a Vice they never were acquainted with, till the Christians came amongst them. Some of them refrain drinking strong Liquors, but very few of that sort are found amongst them. Their chief Liquor is Rum, without any Mixture. This the English bring amongst them, and buy Skins, Furs, Slaves and other of their Commodities therewith. They never are contented with a little, but when once begun, they must make themselves quite drunk; otherwise they will never rest, but sell all they have in the World, rather than not have their full Dose. In these drunken Frolicks, (which are always carried on in the Night) they sometimes murder one another, fall into the Fire, fall down Precipices, and break their Necks, with several other Misfortunes which this drinking of Rum brings upon them; and tho’ they are sensible of it, yet they have no Power to refrain this Enemy. About five years ago, when Landgrave Daniel was Governour, he summon’d in all the Indian Kings and Rulers to meet, and in a full Meeting of the Government and Council, with those Indians, they agreed upon a firm Peace, and the Indian Rulers desired no Rum might be sold to them, which was granted, and a Law made, that inflicted a Penalty on those that sold Rum to the Heathens; but it was never strictly observ’d, and besides, the young Indians were so disgusted at that Article, that they threatned to kill the Indians that made it, unless it was laid aside, and they might have Rum sold them, when they went to the Englishmens Houses to buy it.

Some of the Heathens are so very poor, that they have no Manner of Cloaths, save a Wad of Moss to hide their Nakedness. These are either lusty and will not work; otherwise, they are given to Gaming or Drunkenness; yet these get Victuals as well as the rest, because that is common amongst them. If they are caught in theft they are Slaves till they repay the Person, (as I mention’d before) but to steal from the English they reckon no Harm. Not but that I have known some few Savages that have been as free from Theft as any of the Christians. When they have a Design to lie with a Woman, which they cannot obtain any otherwise than by a larger Reward than they are able to give, they then strive to make her drunk, which a great many of them will be; then they take the Advantage, to do with them what they please, and sometimes in their Drunkenness, cut off their Hair and sell it to the English, which is the greatest Affront can be offer’d them. They never value Time; for if they be going out to hunt, fish, or any other indifferent Business, you may keep them in talk as long as you please, so you but keep them in Discourse, and seem pleased with their Company; yet none are more expeditious and safer Messengers than they, when any extraordinary Business that they are sent about requires it.

{Not pass over a Tree.}
When they are upon travelling the Woods, they keep a constant Pace, neither will they stride over a Tree that lies cross the Path, but always go round it, which is quite contrary to the Custom of the English, and other Europeans. {Cut with a Knife how. A Knife of Reed.} When they cut with a Knife, the Edge is towards them, whereas we always cut and whittle from us. {Not left-handed.} Nor did I ever see one of them left-handed. {Get Fire how.} Before the Christians came amongst them, not knowing the Use of Steel and Flints, they got their Fire with Sticks, which by vehement Collision, or Rubbing together, take Fire. This Method they will sometimes practise now, when it has happen’d thro’ rainy Weather, or some other Accident, that they have wet their Spunk, which is a sort of soft corky Substance, generally of a Cinnamon Colour, and grows in the concave part of an Oak, Hiccory, and several other Woods, being dug out with an Ax, and always kept by the Indians, instead of Tinder or Touch-wood, both which it exceeds. You are to understand, that the two Sticks they use to strike Fire withal, are never of one sort of Wood, but always differ from each other.

They are expert Travellers, and though they have not the Use of our artificial Compass, yet they understand the North-point exactly, let them be in never so great a Wilderness. One Guide is a short Moss, that grows upon some Trees, exactly on the North-Side thereof.

{Indian Compass.}
Besides, they have Names for eight of the thirty two Points, and call the Winds by their several Names, as we do; but indeed more properly, for the North-West Wind is called the cold Wind; the North-East the wet Wind; the South the warm Wind; and so agreeably of the rest. Sometimes it happens, that they have a large River or Lake to pass over, and the Weather is very foggy, as it often happens in the Spring and Fall of the Leaf; so that they cannot see which Course to steer: In such a Case, they being on one side of the River, or Lake, they know well enough what Course such a Place (which they intend for) bears from them. Therefore, they get a great many Sticks and Chunks of Wood in their Canoe, and then set off directly for their Port, and now and then throw over a Piece of Wood, which directs them, by seeing how the Stick bears from the Canoes Stern, which they always observe to keep right aft; and this is the Indian Compass by which they will go over a broad Water of ten or twenty Leagues wide. They will find the Head of any River, though it is five, six or seven hundred miles off, and they never were there, in their Lives before; as is often prov’d, by their appointing to meet on the Head of such a River, where perhaps, none of them ever was before, but where they shall rendezvous exactly at the prefixt time; and if they meet with any Obstruction, they leave certain Marks in the Way, where they that come after will understand how many have pass’d by already, and which way they are gone. Besides, in their War Expeditions, they have very certain Hieroglyphicks, whereby each Party informs the other of the Success or Losses they have met withal; all which is so exactly perform’d by their Sylvian Marks and Characters, that they are never at a Loss to understand one another. Yet there was never found any Letters amongst the Savages of Carolina; nor, I believe, among any other Natives in America, that were possess’d with any manner of Writing or Learning throughout all the Discoveries of the New-World. {Indians make Maps.} They will draw Maps, very exactly, of all the Rivers, Towns, Mountains, and Roads, or what you shall enquire of them, which you may draw by their Directions, and come to a small matter of Latitude, reckoning by their Days Journeys. These Maps they will draw in the Ashes of the Fire, and sometimes upon a Mat or Piece of Bark. I have put a Pen and Ink into a Savage’s Hand, and he has drawn me the Rivers, Bays, and other Parts of a Country, which afterwards I have found to agree with a great deal of Nicety: But you must be very much in their Favour, otherwise they will never make these Discoveries to you; especially, if it be in their own Quarters. {No Discovery of Mines.} And as for Mines of Silver and other Metals, we are satisfied we have enow, and those very rich, in Carolina and its adjacent Parts; some of which the Indians are acquainted withal, although no Enquirers thereafter, but what came, and were discover’d, by Chance; yet they say, it is this Metal that the English covet, as they do their Peak and Ronoak; and that we have gain’d Ground of them wherever we have come. Now, say they, if we should discover these Minerals to the English, they would settle at or near these Mountains, and bereave us of the best Hunting-Quarters we have, as they have already done wherever they have inhabited; so by that means, we shall be driven to some unknown Country, to live, hunt, and get our Bread in. These are the Reasons that the Savages give, for not making known what they are acquainted withal, of that Nature. And indeed, all Men that have ever gone upon those Discoveries, allow them to be good; {Mr. Mitchell.} more especially, my ingenious Friend Mr. Francis-Louis Mitchell, of Bern in Switzerland, who has been, for several Years, very indefatigable and strict in his Discoveries amongst those vast Ledges of Mountains, and spacious Tracts of Land, lying towards the Heads of the great Bays and Rivers of Virginia, Maryland, and Pensylvania, where he has discover’d a spacious Country inhabited by none but the Savages, and not many of them; who yet are of a very friendly Nature to the Christians. This Gentleman has been employ’d by the Canton of Bern, to find out a Tract of Land in the English America, where that Republick might settle some of their People; which Proposal, I believe, is now in a fair way towards a Conclusion, between her Majesty of Great-Britain and that Canton. {Switzers Settlement in America.} Which must needs be of great Advantage to both; and as for ourselves, I believe, no Man that is in his Wits, and understands the Situation and Affairs of America, but will allow, nothing can be of more Security and Advantage to the Crown and Subjects of Great-Britain, than to have our Frontiers secured by a warlike People, and our Friends, as the Switzers are; especially when we have more Indians than we can civilize, and so many Christian Enemies lying on the back of us, that we do not know how long or short a time it may be, before they visit us. Add to these, the Effects and Product that may be expected from those Mountains; which may hereafter prove of great Advantage to the British Monarchy, and none more fit than an industrious People, bred in a mountainous Country, and inur’d to all the Fatigues of War and Travel, to improve a Country. Thus we have no room to doubt, but as soon as any of those Parts are seated by the Switzers, a great many Britains will strive to live amongst them, for the Benefit of the sweet Air and healthful Climate, which that Country affords, were it only for the Cultivating of Hemp, Flax, Wine, and other valuable Staples, which those People are fully acquainted withal: Not to mention the Advantages already discover’d by that worthy Gentleman I just now spoke of, who is highly deserving of the Conduct and Management of such an Affair, as that wise Canton has entrusted him withal.

{Hunting of the Savages.}
When these Savages go a hunting, they commonly go out in great Numbers, and oftentimes a great many Days Journey from home, beginning at the coming in of the Winter; that is, when the Leaves are fallen from the Trees, and are become dry. ‘Tis then they burn the Woods, by setting Fire to the Leaves, and wither’d Bent and Grass, {Moss Match.} which they do with a Match made of the black Moss that hangs on the Trees in Carolina, and is sometimes above six Foot long. This, when dead, becomes black, (tho’ of an Ash-Colour before) and will then hold Fire as well as the best Match we have in Europe. In Places, where this Moss is not found, (as towards the Mountains) they make Lintels of the Bark of Cypress beaten, which serve as well. Thus they go and fire the Woods for many Miles, and drive the Deer and other Game into small Necks of Land and Isthmus’s, where they kill and destroy what they please. In these Hunting-Quarters, they have their Wives and Ladies of the Camp, where they eat all the Fruits and Dainties of that Country, and live in all the Mirth and Jollity, which it is possible for such People to entertain themselves withal. Here it is, that they get their Complement of Deer-Skins and Furs to trade with the English, (the Deer-Skins being in Season in Winter, which is contrary to England.) All small Game, as Turkeys, Ducks, and small Vermine, they commonly kill with Bow and Arrow, thinking it not worth throwing Powder and Shot after them. Of Turkeys they have abundance; especially, in Oak-Land, as most of it is, that lies any distance backwards. I have been often in their Hunting-Quarters, where a roasted or barbakued Turkey, eaten with Bears Fat, is held a good Dish; and indeed, I approve of it very well; for the Bears Grease is the sweetest and least offensive to the Stomach (as I said before) of any Fat of Animals I ever tasted. {Beating of Corn.} The Savage Men never beat their Corn to make Bread; but that is the Womens Work, especially the Girls, of whom you shall see four beating with long great Pestils in a narrow wooden Mortar; and every one keeps her Stroke so exactly, that ’tis worthy of Admiration. Their Cookery continues from Morning till Night. The Hunting makes them hungry; and the Indians are a People that always eat very often, not seldom getting up at Midnight, to eat. They plant a great many sorts of Pulse, Part of which they eat green in the Summer, keeping great Quantities for their Winter-Store, which they carry along with them into the Hunting-Quarters, and eat them.

The small red Pease is very common with them, and they eat a great deal of that and other sorts boil’d with their Meat, or eaten with Bears Fat, which Food makes them break Wind backwards, which the Men frequently do, and laugh heartily at it, it being accounted no ill Manners amongst the Indians: Yet the Women are more modest, than to follow that ill Custom. At their setting out, they have Indians to attend their Hunting-Camp, that are not good and expert Hunters; {Servile Indians.} therefore are employ’d to carry Burdens, to get Bark for the Cabins, and other Servile Work; also to go backward and forward, to their Towns, to carry News to the old People, whom they leave behind them. The Women are forced to carry their Loads of Grain and other Provisions, and get Fire-Wood; for a good Hunter, or Warriour in these Expeditions, is employ’d in no other Business, than the Affairs of Game and Battle. {Dry’d Fruits.} The wild Fruits which are dry’d in the Summer, over Fires, on Hurdles and in the Sun, are now brought into the Field; as are likewise the Cakes and Quiddonies of Peaches, and that Fruit and Bilberries dry’d, of which they stew and make Fruit-Bread and Cakes. {Pigeons Fat.} In some parts, where Pigeons are plentiful, they get of their Fat enough to supply their Winter Stores. Thus they abide in these Quarters, all the Winter long, till the Time approach for planting their Maiz and other Fruits. {Bowls and Tobacco-Pipes to make. Dress Skins.} In these quarters, at Spare-hours, the Women make Baskets and Mats to lie upon, and those that are not extraordinary Hunters, make Bowls, Dishes, and Spoons, of Gum-wood, and the Tulip-Tree; others (where they find a Vein of white Clay, fit for their purpose) make Tobacco-pipes, all which are often transported to other Indians, that perhaps have greater Plenty of Deer and other Game; so they buy (with these Manufactures) their raw Skins, with the Hair on, which our neighbouring Indians bring to their Towns, and, in the Summer-time, make the Slaves and sorry Hunters dress them, the Winter-Sun being not strong enough to dry them; and those that are dry’d in the Cabins are black and nasty with the Lightwood Smoke, which they commonly burn. Their Way of dressing their Skins is by soaking them in Water, so they get the Hair off, with an Instrument made of the Bone of a Deer’s Foot; yet some use a sort of Iron Drawing-Knife, which they purchase of the English, and after the Hair is off, they dissolve Deers Brains, (which beforehand are made in a Cake and baked in the Embers) in a Bowl of Water, so soak the Skins therein, till the Brains have suck’d up the Water; then they dry it gently, and keep working it with an Oyster-Shell, or some such thing, to scrape withal, till it is dry; whereby it becomes soft and pliable. Yet these so dress’d will not endure wet, but become hard thereby; which to prevent, they either cure them in the Smoke, or tan them with Bark, as before observ’d; not but that young Indian Corn, beaten to a Pulp, will effect the same as the Brains. They are not only good Hunters of the wild Beasts and Game of the Forest, but very expert in taking the Fish of the Rivers and Waters near which they inhabit, and are acquainted withal. {Fish to strike.} Thus they that live a great way up the Rivers practise Striking Sturgeon and Rock-fish, or Bass, when they come up the Rivers to spawn; besides the vast Shoals of Sturgeon which they kill and take with Snares, as we do Pike in Europe. The Herrings in March and April run a great way up the Rivers and fresh Streams to spawn, where the Savages make great Wares, with Hedges that hinder their Passage only in the Middle, where an artificial Pound is made to take them in; so that they cannot return. This Method is in use all over the fresh Streams, to catch Trout and the other Species of Fish which those Parts afford. {Craw-fish to take.} Their taking of Craw-fish is so pleasant, that I cannot pass it by without mention; When they have a mind to get these Shell-fish, they take a Piece of Venison, and half-barbakue or roast it; then they cut it into thin Slices, which Slices they stick through with Reeds about six Inches asunder, betwixt Piece and Piece; then the Reeds are made sharp at one end; and so they stick a great many of them down in the bottom of the Water (thus baited) in the small Brooks and Runs, which the Craw-fish frequent. Thus the Indians sit by, and tend those baited Sticks, every now and then taking them up, to see how many are at the Bait; where they generally find abundance; so take them off, and put them in a Basket for the purpose, and stick the Reeds down again. By this Method, they will, in a little time, catch several Bushels, which are as good, as any I ever eat. {Hatteras Indians.} Those Indians that frequent the Salt-Waters, take abundance of Fish, some very large, and of several sorts, which to preserve, they first barbakue, then pull the Fish to Pieces, so dry it in the Sun, whereby it keeps for Transportation; as for Scate, Oysters, Cockles, and several sorts of Shell-fish, they open and dry them upon Hurdles, having a constant Fire under them. The Hurdles are made of Reeds or Canes in the shape of a Gridiron. Thus they dry several Bushels of these Fish, and keep them for their Necessities. At the time when they are on the Salts, and Sea Coasts, they have another Fishery, that is for a little Shell-fish, {Blackmoor Teeth.} which those in England call Blackmoors Teeth. These they catch by tying Bits of Oysters to a long String, which they lay in such places, as, they know, those Shell-Fish haunt. These Fish get hold of the Oysters, and suck them in, so that they pull up those long Strings, and take great Quantities of them, which they carry a great way into the main Land, to trade with the remote Indians, where they are of great Value; but never near the Sea, by reason they are common, therefore not esteem’d. Besides, the Youth and Indian Boys go in the Night, and one holding a Lightwood Torch, the other has a Bow and Arrows, and the Fire directing him to see the Fish, he shoots them with the Arrows; and thus they kill a great many of the smaller Fry, and sometimes pretty large ones. {Indians not eat of the first he kills.} It is an establish’d Custom amongst all these Natives, that the young Hunter never eats of that Buck, Bear, Fish, or any other Game, which happens to be the first they kill of that sort; because they believe, if he should eat thereof, he would never after be fortunate in Hunting. {Big bellied Woman never eat of the first Fish caught in a Ware.} The like foolish Ceremony they hold, when they have made a Ware to take Fish withal; if a big-belly’d Woman eat of the first Dish that is caught in it, they say, that Ware will never take much Fish; {Indians not kill Snakes why.} and as for killing of Snakes, they avoid it, if they lie in their way, because their Opinion is, that some of the Serpents Kindred would kill some of the Savages Relations, that should destroy him: They have thousands of these foolish Ceremonies and Beliefs, which they are strict Observers of. Moreover, several Customs are found in some Families, which others keep not; {Circumcision.} as for Example, two Families of the Machapunga Indians, use the Jewish Custom of Circumcision, and the rest do not; neither did I ever know any others amongst the Indians, that practis’d any such thing; and perhaps, if you ask them, what is the Reason they do so, they will make you no Manner of Answer; which is as much as to say, I will not tell you. Many other Customs they have, for which they will render no Reason or Account; and to pretend to give a true Description of their Religion, it is impossible; for there are a great many of their Absurdities, which, for some Reason, they reserve as a Secret amongst themselves; or otherwise, they are jealous of their Weakness in the practising them; so that they never acquaint any Christian with the Knowledge thereof, let Writers pretend what they will; {Indian Idols give an account of.} for I have known them amongst their Idols and dead Kings in their Quiogozon for several Days, where I could never get Admittance, to see what they were doing, though I was at great Friendship with the King and great Men; but all my Persuasions avail’d me nothing. Neither were any but the King, with the Conjurer, and some few old Men, in that House; as for the young Men, and chiefest Numbers of the Indians, they were kept as ignorant of what the Elders were doing, as myself.

{The World is round.}
They all believe, that this World is round, and that there are two Spirits; the one good, the other bad: {What they believe of God. Their offering Idols.} The good one they reckon to be the Author and Maker of every thing, and say, that it is he, that gives them the Fruits of the Earth, and has taught them to hunt, fish, and be wise enough to overpower the Beasts of the Wilderness, and all other Creatures, that they may be assistant, and beneficial to Man; to which they add, that the Quera, or good Spirit, has been very kind to the English Men, to teach them to make Guns, and Ammunition, besides a great many other Necessaries, that are helpful to Man, all which, they say, will be deliver’d to them, when that good Spirit sees fit. They do not believe, that God punishes any Man either in this Life, or that to come; but that he delights in doing good, and in giving the Fruits of the Earth, and instructing us in making several useful and ornamental things. {Devil what.} They say, it is a bad Spirit (who lives separate from the good one) that torments us with Sicknesses, Disappointments, Losses, Hunger, Travel, and all the Misfortunes, that Humane Life is incident to. How they are treated in the next World, I have already mention’d, and, as I said before, they are very resolute in dying, when in the Hands of Savage Enemies; yet I saw one of their young Men, a very likely Person, condemn’d, on a Sunday, for Killing a Negro, and burning the House. {Indian condemn’d.} I took good Notice of his Behaviour, when he was brought out of the House to die, which was the next Morning after Sentence, but he chang’d his Countenance with Trembling, and was in the greatest Fear and Agony. I never saw any Person under his Circumstances, which, perhaps, might be occasion’d by his being deliver’d up by his own Nation (which was the Tuskeruro’s) and executed by us, that are not their common Enemies, though he met with more Favour than he would have receiv’d at the Hands of Savages; for he was only hang’d on a Tree, near the Place where the Murder was committed; and the three Kings, that but the day before shew’d such a Reluctancy to deliver him up, (but would have given another in his Room) when he was hang’d, pull’d him by the Hand, and said, `Thou wilt never play any more Rogues Tricks in this World; whither art thou gone to shew thy Tricks now?’ Which shews these Savages to be what they really are, (viz) a People that will save their own Men if they can, but if the Safety of all the People lies at Stake, they will deliver up the most innocent Person living, and be so far from Concern, when they have made themselves easy thereby, that they will laugh at their Misfortunes, and never pity or think of them more.

{Indian Conjurers.}
Their Priests are the Conjurers and Doctors of the Nation. I shall mention some of their Methods, and Practices; and so leave them to the Judgment of the Reader. As I told you before, the Priests make their Orations at every Feast, or other great Meeting of the Indians. {Indian Lightning, at Chattooka, at a Feast for rebuilding a King’s House burnt.} I happen’d to be at one of these great Meetings, which was at the Funeral of a Tuskeruro Indian, that was slain with Lightning at a Feast, the day before, where I was amongst the rest; it was in July, and a very fair day, where, in the Afternoon, about six or seven a Clock, as they were dealing out their Victuals, there appear’d a little black Cloud to the North West, which spread and brought with it Rain, Wind and Lightning; so we went out from the Place where we were all at Victuals, and went down to the Cabins where I left the Indians, and went to lie in my Canoe, which was convenient enough to keep me dry. The Lightning came so terrible, and down in long Streams, that I was afraid it would have taken hold of a Barrel of Powder I had in my Vessel, and so blown me up; but it pleas’d God, that it did me no Harm; yet the Violence of the Wind had blown all the Water away, where I rid at Anchor, so that my Canoe lay dry, and some Indian Women came with Torches in their Hands to the side of the Canoe, and told me, an Indian was kill’d with Lightning. The next day, (I think) he was buried, and I stay’d to see the Ceremony, and was very tractable to help the Indians to trim their Reeds, and make the Coffin, which pleased them very much, because I had a mind to see the Interment. Before he was Interr’d according to their Custom, they dealt every one some hot Victuals, which he took and did what he would with: Then the Doctor began to talk, and told the People what Lightning was, and that it kill’d every thing that dwelt upon the Earth; nay, the very Fishes did not escape; for it often reach’d the Porpoises and other Fish, and destroy’d them; that every thing strove to shun it, except the Mice, who, he said, were the busiest in eating their Corn in the Fields, when it lightned the most. He added, that no Wood or Tree could withstand it, except the black Gum, and that it would run round that Tree a great many times, to enter therein, but could not effect it. Now you must understand, that sort of Gum will not split or rive; therefore, I suppose, the Story might arise from thence. At last, he began to tell the most ridiculous absurd Parcel of Lyes about Lightning, that could be; as that an Indian of that Nation had once got Lightning in the Likeness of a Partridge; That no other Lightning could harm him, whilst he had that about him; and that after he had kept it for several Years, it got away from him; so that he then became as liable to be struck with Lightning, as any other Person. There was present at the same time, an Indian that had liv’d from his Youth, chiefly in an English House; so I call’d to him, and told him, what a Parcel of Lyes the Conjurer told, not doubting but he thought so, as well as I, but I found to the contrary; for he reply’d, that I was much mistaken, for that old Man (who, I believe was upwards of an hundred Years old) did never tell Lyes; and as for what he said, it was very true; for he knew it himself to be so. {How hard it is to bring the Indians from their Superstition.} Thereupon, seeing the Fellow’s Ignorance, I talk’d no more about it. {Rattle-Snake kill Indians in Canoes. Eagles kill it.} Then the Doctor proceeded to tell a long Tale of a great Rattle-Snake, which, a great while ago, liv’d by a Creek in that River (which was Neus) and that it kill’d abundance of Indians; but at last, a bald Eagle kill’d it, and they were rid of a Serpent, that us’d to devour whole Canoes full of Indians, at a time. I have been something tedious upon this Subject, on purpose to shew what strange ridiculous Stories these Wretches are inclinable to believe. I suppose, these Doctors understand a little better themselves, than to give Credit to any such Fooleries; for I reckon them the cunningest Knaves in all the Pack. I will therefore begin with their Physick and Surgery, which is next: {Indian Physick and Surgery.} You must know, that the Doctors or Conjurers, to gain a greater Credit amongst these People, tell them, that all Distempers are the Effects of evil Spirits, or the bad Spirit, which has struck them with this or that Malady; therefore, none of these Physicians undertakes any Distemper, but that he comes to an Exorcism, to effect the Cure, and acquaints the sick Party’s Friends, that he must converse with the good Spirit, to know whether the Patient will recover or not; if so, then he will drive out the bad Spirit, and the Patient will become well. Now, the general way of their Behaviour in curing the Sick, (a great deal of which I have seen, and shall give some Account thereof, in as brief a manner as possible) is, when an Indian is sick, if they think there is much Danger of Life, and that he is a great Man or hath good Friends, the Doctor is sent for. As soon as the Doctor comes into the Cabin, the sick Person is sat on a Mat or Skin, stark-naked, lying on his Back, and all uncover’d, except some small Trifle that covers their Nakedness when ripe, otherwise in very young Children, there is nothing about them. {Conjuring over the Sick.} In this manner, the Patient lies, when the Conjurer appears; and the King of that Nation comes to attend him with a Rattle made of a Gourd with Pease in it. This the King delivers into the Doctor’s Hand, whilst another brings a Bowl of Water, and sets it down: Then the Doctor begins, and utters some few Words very softly; afterwards he smells of the Patient’s Navel and Belly, and sometimes scarifies him a little with a Flint, or an Instrument made of Rattle-Snakes Teeth for that purpose; then he sucks the Patient, and gets out a Mouthful of Blood and Serum, but Serum chiefly; which, perhaps, may be a better Method in many Cases, than to take away great Quantities of Blood, as is commonly practis’d; which he spits in the Bowl of Water. Then he begins to mutter, and talk apace, and, at last, to cut Capers, and clap his Hands on his Breech and Sides, till he gets into a Sweat, so that a Stranger would think he was running mad; now and then sucking the Patient, and so, at times, keeps sucking, till he has got a great Quantity of very ill-coloured Matter out of the Belly, Arms, Breast, Forehead, Temples, Neck, and most Parts, still continuing his Grimaces, and antick Postures, which are not to be match’d in Bedlam: At last, you will see the Doctor all over of a dropping Sweat, and scarce able to utter one Word, having quite spent himself; then he will cease for a while, and so begin again, till he comes in the same Pitch of Raving and seeming Madness, as before, (all this time the sick Body never so much as moves, although, doubtless, the Lancing and Sucking must be a great Punishment to them; but they, certainly, are the patientest and most steady People under any Burden, that I ever saw in my Life.) {Whether live or die.} At last, the Conjurer makes an end, and tells the Patient’s Friends, whether the Person will live or die; {Bury the Serum.} and then one that waits at this Ceremony, takes the Blood away, (which remains in a Lump, in the middle of the Water) and buries it in the Ground, in a Place unknown to any one, but he that inters it. Now, I believe a great deal of Imposture in these Fellows; yet I never knew their Judgment fail, though I have seen them give their Opinion after this Manner, several times: Some affirm, that there is a smell of Brimstone in the Cabins, when they are Conjuring, which I cannot contradict. Which way it may come, I will not argue, but proceed to a Relation or two, which I have from a great many Persons, and some of them worthy of Credit.

{Indian Robbery.}
The first is, of a certain Indian, that one rainy Night, undermin’d a House made of Logs, (such as the Swedes in America very often make, and are very strong) which belong’d to Seth Southwell, Esq; Governor of North-Carolina, and one of the Proprietors. There was but one place the Indian could get in at, which was very narrow; the rest was secur’d, by having Barrels of Pork and other Provisions set against the side of the House, so that if this Indian had not exactly hit the very Place he undermin’d, it had been impossible for him to have got therein, because of the full Barrels that stood round the House, and barricadoed it within. The Indian stole sixty or eighty dress’d Deer-Skins, besides Blankets, Powder, Shot and Rum, (this being the Indian Store-House, where the Trading Goods were kept.) Now, the Indian had made his Escape, but dropt some of the Skins by the way, and they track’d his Foot-steps, and found him to be an Indian; then they guess’d who it was, because none but that Indian had lately been near the House. Thereupon, the Governor sent to the Indian Town that he belong’d to, which was the Tuskeruro’s, and acquainted them that if they did not deliver up the Indian, who had committed the Robbery, he would take a Course with them, that would not be very agreeable. Upon this, the Indians of the Town he belong’d to, brought him in bound, and deliver’d him up to the Governor, who laid him in Irons. At the same time, it happen’d, that a Robbery was committed amongst themselves, at the Indian Town, and this Prisoner was one of their Conjurers; so the Indians came down to the Governor’s House, and acquainted him with what had happen’d amongst them, and that a great Quantity of Peak, was stoln away out of one of their Cabins, and no one could find out the Thief, unless he would let the Prisoner conjure for it, who was the only Man they had at making such Discoveries. The Governor was content he should try his Skill for them, but not to have the Prisoners Irons taken off, which was very well approved of. The Indian was brought out in his Fetters, where were the Governor’s Family, and several others of the Neighbourhood, now living, to see this Experiment; which he perform’d thus:

{Conjuring for stoln Goods.}
The Conjurer order’d three Fires to be made in a triangular Form, which was accordingly done; then he was hoodwink’d very securely, with a dress’d Deer-Skin, two or three doubles, over his Face. After he had made some Motions, as they always do, he went directly out of one of the three Gaps, as exactly as if he had not been blindfolded, and kept muttering to himself, having a Stick in his Hand, with which, after some time, he struck two Strokes very hard upon the Ground, and made thereon a Cross, after which he told the Indian’s Name that had stoln the Goods, and said, that he would have a Cross on his Back; which prov’d true; for when they took and search’d him, there appear’d two great Wheals on his Back, one cross the other; for the Thief was at Governor Southwell’s House, and was under no Apprehension of being discover’d. The Indians proffer’d to sell him as a Slave to the Governor, but he refused to buy him; so they took him bound away.

Another Instance, of the like Nature, happen’d at the same House. One of the Tuskeruro Kings had brought in a Slave to the same Governor, to whom he had sold him; and before he return’d, fell sick at the Governor’s House; upon which, the Doctor that belong’d to this King’s Nation, was sent for, being a Man that was held to be the greatest Conjurer amongst them. It was three Days, before he could arrive, and he appear’d (when he came) to be a very little Man, and so old, that his Hair was as white as ever was seen. When he approach’d the sick King, he order’d a Bowl of Water to be brought him, and three Chunks of Wood, which was immediately done. Then he took the Water, and set it by him, and spurted a little on him, and with the three Pieces of Wood, he made a Place to stand on, whereby he was rais’d higher; (he being a very low statur’d Man) then he took a String of Ronoak, which is the same as a String of small Beads; this he held by one End, between his Fingers; the other End touch’d the King’s Stomach, as he stood on the Logs. Then he began to talk, and at length, the By-standers thought really, that they heard somebody talk to him, but saw no more than what first came in. At last, this String of Beads, which hung thus perpendicular, turn’d up as an Eel would do, and without any Motion of his, they came all up (in a lump) under his Hand, and hung so for a considerable time, he never closing his Hand, and at length return’d to their pristine Length and Shape, at which the Spectators were much frightned. Then he told the Company, that he would recover, and that his Distemper would remove into his Leg, all which happen’d to be exactly as the Indian Doctor had told. These are Matters of Fact, and I can, at this day, prove the Truth thereof by several substantial Evidences, that are Men of Reputation, there being more than a dozen People present, when this was perform’d; most of whom are now alive.

There are a great many other Stories, of this Nature, which are seemingly true, being told by Persons that affirm they were Eye-Witnesses thereof; as, that they have seen one Roncommock (a Chuwou Indian, and a great Conjurer) take a Reed about two Foot long in his Mouth, and stand by a Creek-side, where he call’d twice or thrice with the Reed in his Mouth; and, at last, has open’d his Arms, and fled over the Creek, which might be near a quarter of a Mile wide or more; but I shall urge no Man’s Belief, but tell my own; which is, that I believe the two first Accounts, which were acted at Mr. Southwell’s Plantation, as firmly as any Man can believe any thing of that which is told him by honest Men, and he has not seen; not at all doubting the Credit of my Authors.

The Cures I have seen perform’d by the Indians, are too many to repeat here; so I shall only mention some few, and their Method. {Scald Head cured.} They cure Scald-heads infallibly, and never miss. Their chief Remedy as I have seen them make use of, is, the Oil of Acorns, but from which sort of Oak I am not certain. They cure Burns beyond Credit. I have seen a Man burnt in such a manner, (when drunk) by falling into a Fire, that I did not think he could recover; yet they cur’d him in ten Days, so that he went about. I knew another blown up with Powder, that was cured to Admiration. {No ulcerated Wounds.} I never saw an Indian have an Ulcer, or foul Wound in my Life; neither is there any such thing to be found amongst them. {Pox to cure.} They cure the Pox, by a Berry that salivates, as Mercury does; yet they use Sweating and Decoctions very much with it; as they do, almost on every Occasion; and when they are thoroughly heated, they leap into the River. The Pox is frequent in some of these Nations; amongst which I knew one Woman die of it; and they could not, or would not, cure her. Before she died, she was worn away to a Skeleton, yet walk’d up and down to the last. We had a Planter in Carolina, who had got an Ulcer in his Leg, which had troubled him a great many Years; at last, he apply’d himself to one of these Indian Conjurers, who was a Pampticough Indian, and was not to give the Value of fifteen Shillings for the Cure. {Indian cure an Ulcer.} Now, I am not positive, whether he wash’d the Ulcer with any thing, before he used what I am now going to speak of, which was nothing but the rotten doated Grains of Indian Corn, beaten to Powder, and the soft Down growing on a Turkey’s Rump. This dry’d the Ulcer up immediately, and no other Fontanel was made to discharge the Matter, he remaining a healthful Man, till the time he had the Misfortune to be drown’d, which was many Years after. {Cure in Maryland.} Another Instance (not of my own Knowledge, but I had it confirm’d by several Dwellers in Maryland, where it was done) was, of an honest Planter that had been possess’d with a strange Lingring Distemper, not usual amongst them, under which he emaciated, and grew every Month worse than another, it having held him several Years, in which time he had made Tryal of several Doctors, as they call them, which, I suppose, were Ship-Surgeons. In the beginning of this Distemper, the Patient was very well to pass, and was possess’d of several Slaves, which the Doctors purged all away, and the poor Man was so far from mending, that he grew worse and worse every day. But it happen’d, that, one day, as his Wife and he were commiserating his miserable Condition, and that he could not expect to recover, but look’d for Death very speedily, and condoling the Misery he should leave his Wife and Family in, since all his Negro’s were gone. At that time, I say, it happen’d, that an Indian was in the same Room, who had frequented the House for many Years, and so was become as one of the Family, and would sometimes be at this Planter’s House, and at other times amongst the Indians.

This Savage, hearing what they talk’d of, and having a great Love for the Sick Man, made this Reply to what he had heard. `Brother, you have been a long time Sick; and, I know, you have given away your Slaves to your English Doctors: What made you do so, and now become poor? They do not know how to cure you; for it is an Indian Distemper, which your People know not the Nature of. If it had been an English Disease, probably they could have cured you; and had you come to me at first, I would have cured you for a small matter, without taking away your Servants that made Corn for you and your Family to eat; and yet, if you will give me a Blanket to keep me warm, and some Powder and Shot to kill Deer withal, I will do my best to make you well still.’ The Man was low in Courage and Pocket too, and made the Indian this Reply. `Jack, my Distemper is past Cure, and if our English Doctors cannot cure it, I am sure, the Indians cannot.’ But his Wife accosted her Husband in very mild terms, and told him, he did not know, but God might be pleased to give a Blessing to that Indian’s Undertaking more than he had done to the English; and farther added; `if you die, I cannot be much more miserable, by giving this small matter to the Indian; so I pray you, my Dear, take my Advice, and try him;’ to which, by her Persuasions, he consented. After the Bargain was concluded, the Indian went into the Woods, and brought in both Herbs and Roots, of which he made a Decoction, and gave it the Man to drink, and bad him go to bed, saying, it should not be long, before he came again, which the Patient perform’d as he had ordered; and the Potion he had administred made him sweat after the most violent manner that could be, whereby he smell’d very offensively both to himself, and they that were about him; but in the Evening, towards Night, Jack came, with a great Rattle-Snake in his Hand alive, which frightned the People almost out of their Senses; {Cure by a Snake.} and he told his Patient, that he must take that to Bed to him; at which the Man was in a great Consternation, and told the Indian, he was resolv’d, to let no Snake come into his Bed, for he might as well die of the Distemper he had, as be kill’d with the Bite of that Serpent. To which the Indian reply’d, he could not bite him now, nor do him any Harm; for he had taken out his Poison-teeth, and shew’d him, that they were gone. At last, with much Persuasion, he admitted the Snake’s Company, which the Indian put about his Middle, and order’d nobody to take him away upon any account, which was strictly observ’d, although the Snake girded him as hard for a great while, as if he had been drawn in by a Belt, which one pull’d at, with all his strength. At last, the Snake’s Twitches grew weaker and weaker, till, by degrees, he felt him not; and opening the Bed, he was found dead, and the Man thought himself better. The Indian came in the Morning, and seeing the Snake dead, told the Man, that his Distemper was dead along with that Snake, which prov’d so as he said; for the Man speedily recover’d his Health, and became perfectly well.

{Spleen how cure.}
They cure the Spleen (which they are much addicted to) by burning with a Reed. They lay the Patient on his Back, so put a hollow Cane into the Fire, where they burn the End thereof, till it is very hot, and on Fire at the end. Then they lay a Piece of thin Leather on the Patient’s Belly, between the Pit of the Stomach and the Navel, so press the hot Reed on the Leather, which burns the Patient so that you may ever after see the Impression of the Reed where it was laid on, which Mark never goes off so long as he lives. This is used for the Belly-Ach sometimes. {Colouring of the Hair.} They can colour their Hair black, though sometimes it is reddish, which they do with the Seed of a Flower that grows commonly in their Plantations. I believe this would change the reddest Hair into perfect black. {Not many Tears, Rozins.} They make use of no Minerals in their Physick, and not much of Animals; but chiefly rely on Vegetables. They have several Remedies for the Tooth-ach, which often drive away the Pain; but if they fail, they have Recourse to punching out the Tooth, with a small Cane set against the same, on a Bit of Leather. Then they strike the Reed, and so drive out the Tooth; and howsoever it may seem to the Europeans, I prefer it before the common way of drawing Teeth by those Instruments than endanger the Jaw, and a Flux of Blood often follows, which this Method of a Punch never is attended withal; neither is it half the Pain. The Spontaneous Plants of America the Savages are well acquainted withal; and a Flux of Blood never follows any of their Operations. They are wholly Strangers to Amputation, and for what natural Issues of Blood happen immoderately, they are not to seek for a certain and speedy Cure. Tears, Rozins, and Gums, I have not discover’d that they make much use of; And as for Purging and Emeticks, so much in fashion with us, they never apply themselves to, {Yaupon.} unless in drinking vast Quantities of their Yaupon or Tea, and vomiting it up again, as clear as they drink it. This is a Custom amongst all those that can procure that Plant, in which manner they take it every other Morning, or oftner; by which Method they keep their Stomachs clean, without pricking the Coats, and straining Nature, as every Purge is an Enemy to. Besides, the great Diuretick Quality of their Tea carries off a great deal, that perhaps might prejudice their Health, by Agues, and Fevers, which all watry Countries are addicted to; for which reason, I believe, it is, that the Indians are not so much addicted to that Distemper, as we are, they preventing its seizing upon them, by this Plant alone. Moreover, I have remark’d, that it is only those Places bordering on the Ocean and great Rivers, that this Distemper is frequent in, and only on and near the same Places this Evergreen is to be found; and none up towards the Mountains, where these Agues seldom or never appear; Nature having provided suitable Remedies, in all Countries, proper for the Maladies that are common thereto. The Savages of Carolina have this Tea in Veneration, above all the Plants they are acquainted withal, and tell you, the Discovery thereof was by an infirm Indian, that labour’d under the Burden of many rugged Distempers, and could not be cured by all their Doctors; so, one day, he fell asleep, and dreamt, that if he took a Decoction of the Tree that grew at his Head, he would certainly be cured; upon which he awoke, and saw the Yaupon or Cassena-Tree, which was not there when he fell asleep. He follow’d the Direction of his Dream, and became perfectly well in a short time. Now, I suppose, no Man has so little Sense as to believe this Fable; yet it lets us see what they intend thereby, and that it has, doubtless, work’d Feats enough, to gain it such an Esteem amongst these Savages, who are too well versed in Vegetables, to be brought to a continual use of any one of them, upon a meer Conceit or Fancy, without some apparent Benefit they found thereby; especially, when we are sensible, they drink the Juices of Plants, to free Nature of her Burdens, and not out of Foppery and Fashion, as other Nations are oftentimes found to do. Amongst all the Discoveries of America, by the Missionaries of the French and Spaniards, I wonder none of them was so kind to the World, as to have kept a Catalogue of the Distempers they found the Savages capable of curing, and their Method of Cure; which might have been of some Advantage to our Materia Medica at home, when deliver’d by Men of Learning, and other Qualifications, as most of them are. Authors generally tell us, that the Savages are well enough acquainted with those Plants which their Climate affords, and that some of them effect great Cures, but by what Means, and in what Form, we are left in the dark. {Sassafras.} The Bark of the Root of the Sassafras-Tree, I have observ’d, is much used by them. They generally torrefy it in the Embers, so strip off the Bark from the Root, beating it to a Consistence fit to spread, so lay it on the griev’d Part; which both cleanses a fowl Ulcer; and after Scarrification, being apply’d to a Contusion, or Swelling, draws forth the Pain, and reduces the Part to its pristine State of Health, as I have often seen effected. Fats and Unguents never appear in their Chirurgery, when the Skin is once broke. The Fats of Animals are used by them, to render their Limbs pliable, and when wearied, to relieve the Joints, and this not often, because they approve of the Sweating-House (in such cases) above all things. {Make Bread, how. Alkali Salts.} The Salts they mix with their Bread and Soupe, to give them a Relish, are Alkalis, (viz.) Ashes, and calcined Bones of Deer, and other Animals. {No Sallads, Pepper, or Mustard.} Sallads, they never eat any; as for Pepper and Mustard, they reckon us little better than Madmen, to make use of it amongst our Victuals. They are never troubled with the Scurvy, Dropsy, nor Stone. The Phthisick, Asthma, and Diabetes, they are wholly Strangers to; neither do I remember I ever saw one Paralytick amongst them. The Gout, I cannot be certain whether they know what it is, or not. Indeed, I never saw any Nodes or Swellings, which attend the Gout in Europe; {Rhumatick Pains.} yet they have a sort of Rhumatism or Burning of the Limbs, which tortures them grievously, at which time their Legs are so hot, that they employ the young People continually to pour Water down them. I never saw but one or two thus afflicted. The Struma is not uncommon amongst these Savages, and another Distemper, which is, in some respects, like the Pox, but is attended with no Gonorrhoea. This not seldom bereaves them of their Nose. I have seen three or four of them render’d most miserable Spectacles by this Distemper. Yet, when they have been so negligent, as to let it run on so far without curbing of it; at last, they make shift to patch themselves up, and live for many years after; and such Men commonly turn Doctors. I have known two or three of these no-nose Doctors in great Esteem amongst these Savages. The Juice of the Tulip-Tree is used as a proper Remedy for this Distemper. What Knowledge they have in Anatomy, I cannot tell, neither did I ever see them employ themselves therein, unless, as I told you before, when they make the Skeletons of their Kings and great Mens Bones.

The Indians are very careless and negligent of their Health; as, by Drunkenness, Wading in the Water, irregular Diet and Lodging, and a thousand other Disorders, (that would kill an European) which they daily use. They boil and roast their Meat extraordinary much, and eat abundance of Broth, {Naked Indians.} except the Savages whom we call the naked Indians, who never eat any Soupe. They travel from the Banks of the Messiasippi, to war against the Sinnagars or Iroquois, and are (if equal Numbers) commonly too hard for them. They will lie and sleep in the Woods without Fire, being inur’d thereto. They are the hardiest of all Indians, and run so fast, that they are never taken, neither do any Indians outrun them, if they are pursu’d. Their Savage Enemies say, their Nimbleness and Wind proceeds from their never eating any Broth. {Small-Pox.} The Small-Pox has been fatal to them; they do not often escape, when they are seiz’d with that Distemper, which is a contrary Fever to what they ever knew. Most certain, it had never visited America, before the Discovery thereof by the Christians. Their running into the Water, in the Extremity of this Disease, strikes it in, and kills all that use it. Now they are become a little wiser; but formerly it destroy’d whole Towns, without leaving one Indian alive in the Village. The Plague was never known amongst them, that I could learn by what Enquiry I have made: These Savages use Scarrification almost in all Distempers. Their chief Instruments for that Operation is the Teeth of Rattle-Snakes, which they poison withal. They take them out of the Snake’s Head, and suck out the Poison with their Mouths, (and so keep them for use) and spit out the Venom, which is green, and are never damag’d thereby. The Small-Pox and Rum have made such a Destruction amongst them, that, on good grounds, I do believe, there is not the sixth Savage living within two hundred Miles of all our Settlements, as there were fifty Years ago. These poor Creatures have so many Enemies to destroy them, that it’s a wonder one of them is left alive near us. The Small-pox I have acquainted you withal above, and so I have of Rum, and shall only add, that they have got a way to carry it back to the Westward Indians, who never knew what it was, till within very few Years. Now they have it brought them by the Tuskeruro’s, and other Neighbour-Indians, but the Tuskeruro’s chiefly, who carry it in Rundlets several hundred Miles, amongst other Indians. Sometimes they cannot forbear breaking their Cargo, but sit down in the Woods, and drink it all up, and then hollow and shout like so many Bedlamites. I accidentally once met with one of these drunken Crews, and was amaz’d to see a Parcel of drunken Savages so far from any Englishman’s House; but the Indians I had in Company inform’d me, that they were Merchants, and had drunk all their Stock, as is very common for them to do. But when they happen to carry it safe, (which is seldom, without drinking some part of it, and filling it up with Water) and come to an Indian Town, those that buy Rum of them have so many Mouthfuls for a Buck-Skin, they never using any other Measure; and for this purpose, the Buyer always makes Choice of his Man, which is one that has the greatest Mouth, whom he brings to the Market with a Bowl to put it in. The Seller looks narrowly to the Man’s Mouth that measures it, and if he happens to swallow any down, either through Wilfulness or otherwise, the Merchant or some of his Party, does not scruple to knock the Fellow down, exclaiming against him for false Measure. Thereupon, the Buyer finds another Mouthpiece to measure the Rum by; so that this Trading is very agreeable to the Spectators, to see such a deal of Quarrelling and Controversy, as often happens, about it, and is very diverting.

{Poisoning of Taylor.}
Another Destroyer of them, is, the Art they have, and often practise, of poisoning one another; which is done by a large, white, spungy Root, that grows in the Fresh-Marshes, which is one of their Poisons; not but that they have many other Drugs, which they poison one another withal.

{How the Indians war.}
Lastly, the continual Wars these Savages maintain, one Nation against another, which sometimes hold for some Ages, killing and making Captives, till they become so weak thereby, that they are forced to make Peace for want of Recruits, to supply their Wars; and the Difference of Languages, that is found amongst these Heathens, seems altogether strange. For it often appears, that every dozen Miles, you meet with an Indian Town, that is quite different from the others you last parted withal; and what a little supplies this Defect is, that the most powerful Nation of these Savages scorns to treat or trade with any others (of fewer Numbers and less Power) in any other Tongue but their own, which serves for the Lingua of the Country, with which we travel and deal; as for Example, we see that the Tuskeruro’s are most numerous in North-Carolina, therefore their Tongue is understood by some in every Town of all the Indians near us. And here I shall insert a small Dictionary of every Tongue, though not Alphabetically digested.

English. Tuskeruro. Pampticough. Woccon. One Unche Weembot Tonne Two Necte Neshinnauh Num-perra (rra?) Three Ohs-sah Nish-wonner Nam-mee Four Untoc Yau-Ooner Punnum-punne (e?) Five Ouch-who Umperren Webtau Six Houeyoc Who-yeoc Is-sto (st?) Seven Chauh-noc Top-po-osh Nommis-sau Eight Nec-kara Nau-haush-shoo Nupsau Nine Wearah Pach-ic-conk Weihere Ten Wartsauh Cosh Soone noponne Eleven Unche scauwhau Tonne hauk pea Twelve Nectec scaukhau Soone nomme Twenty Wartsau scauhau Winnop Thirty Ossa te wartsau
Hundred Youch se
Thousand Ki you se

Rum Oonaquod Weesaccon Yup-se Blankets Oorewa Mattosh Roo-iune White Ware-occa Wop-poshaumosh Waurraupa Red Cotcoo-rea Mish-cock (ck?) Yauta Black or Caw-hunshe Mow-cottowosh Yah-testea Blue, idem
Gunpowder Ou-ku Pungue Rooeyam Shot Cauna Ar-rounser Week Axe Au-nuka Tomma-hick Tau-unta winnik Knife Oosocke nauh Rig-cosq Wee Tobacco Charho Hooh-pau Uu-coone Shirt Ough-tre’s Tacca pitteneer Shoes Oo-ross-soo Wee-kessoo Hat Trossa Mottau-quahan Intome-posswa Fire Utchar Tinda Yau Water Awoo Umpe Ejau Coat Ouswox Taus-won Rummissau Kawhitchra
Awl or Oose-waure Moc-cose Wonsh-shee Needle
A Hoe Wauche-wocnoc Rosh-shocquon Rooe-pau Salt Cheek-ha
Paint Quaunt Chuwon Whooyeonne Ronoak Nauh-houreot Mis-kis-‘su Rummaer Peak Chu-teche Ronoak Erroco Gun Auk-noc Gau hooptop Wittape Gun-Lock Oo-teste Gun tock Seike Noonkosso Flints Ou-negh-ra Hinds Matt-teer A Flap Oukhaure Rappatoc Rhooeyau Belt Oona-teste Maachone Wee-kau Scissors and Cheh-ra Toc-koor Tobacco-Tongues
A Kettle Oowaiana Tooseawau A Pot Ocnock
Acorns Kooawa Roosomme A Pine-Tree Heigta Oonossa Hooheh Englishman Nickreruroh Tosh shonte Wintsohore Indians Unqua Nuppin Yauh-he English. Tuskeruro. Woccon.
A Horse A hots Yenwetoa Swine Watsquerre Nommewarraupau Moss Auoona hau Itto
Raw skin undrest Ootahawa Teep Buckskin Ocques Rookau
Fawn-skin Ottea Wisto
Bear-skin Oochehara Ourka Fox-skin Che-chou Hannatockore Raccoon-skin Roo-sotto Auher
Squirrel-skin Sost Yehau
Wildcat-skin Cauhauweana
Panther-skin Caunerex Wattau Wolf Squarrena Tire kiro
Minx Chac-kauene Soccon
Otter Chaunoc Wetkes
A Mat Ooyethne Soppepepor Basket Ooyaura Rookeppa
Feathers Oosnooqua Soppe
Drest-skin Cotcoo Rauhau
A Turkey Coona Yauta
A Duck Sooeau Welka
A King Teethha Roamore
Fat Ootsaure Yendare
Soft Utsauwanne Roosomme Hard or heavy Waucots ne Itte teraugh A Rope Utsera Trauhe
A Possum Che-ra
Day Ootauh-ne
A Pestel Tic-caugh-ne Miyau A Mortar Ootic caugh-ne Yossoo
Stockings Way haushe
A Creek Wackena
A River Ahunt wackena
A Man Entequos
Old Man Occooahawa
Young Man Quottis
Woman Con-noowa
Old Woman Cusquerre Yicau Wife Kateocca Yecauau
A Child Woccanookne
A Boy Wariaugh
Infant Utserosta
Ears Ooethnat
Fishgig Ootosne Weetipsa A Comb Oonaquitchra Sacketoome posswa A Cake bak’t Ooneck
A Head Ootaure Poppe
Hair Oowaara Tumme
Brother Caunotka Yenrauhe I Ee
Thou Eets
There Ka
Homine Cotquerre Roocauwa Bread Ootocnare Ikettau
Broath Ook-hoo
Corn Oonaha Cose
Pease Saugh-he Coosauk
A Bag Uttaqua Ekoocromon Fish Cunshe Yacunne
A Louse Cheecq; Eppesyau A Flea Nauocq;
Potato’s Untone Wauk
A Stick Chinqua
Wood Ouyunkgue Yonne
House Ounouse (Oin?) Ouke
A Cow Ous-sarunt Nappinjure A Snake Us-quauh-ne Yau-hauk
A Rat Rusquiane Wittau
A Goose Au-hoohaha Auhaun A Swan Oorhast Atter
Allegator Utsererauh Monwittetau A Crab Rouare cou Wunneau
A Canoe Ooshunnawa Watt
A Box Ooanoo Yopoonitsa A Bowl Ortse Cotsoe
A Spoon Oughquere Cotsau A Path Wauh-hauhne Yauh
Sun or Moon Heita Wittapare Wind Hoonoch Yuncor
A Star Uttewiraratse Wattapi untakeer Rain Untuch Yawowa
Night Oosottoo Yantoha
A Rundlet Oohunawa Ynpyupseunne (Yup?) An Eel Cuhn-na
A T—d Utquera Pulawa
A F—t Uttena Pautyau
A Cable Utquichra
Small Ropes Utsera utquichra
A Button Tic-hah Rummissauwoune Breeches Wahunshe Rooeyaukitte Stockings Oowissera Rooesoo possoo Day Wauwoc-hook Waukhaway
Mad Cosserunte Rockcumne Angry Cotcheroore Roocheha
Afraid Werricauna Reheshiwau Smoak Oo-teighne Too-she
A Thief or Rogue Katichhei
A Dog Cheeth Tauh-he
A Reed Cauna Weekwonne Lightwood Kakoo Sek
To morrow Jureha Kittape Now Kahunk
To day Kawa
A little while ago Kakoowa Yauka English. Tuskeruro. Woccon. Yesterday Oousotto Yottoha How many Ut-tewots Tontarinte How far Untateawa
Will you go along with me Unta hah Quauke Go you Its warko Yuppa me Give it me Cotshau Mothei That’s all Ut chat Cuttaune A Cubit length Kihoosocca Ishewounaup Dead Whaharia Caure A Gourd or Bottle Utchaawa Wattape A lazy Fellow Wattattoo watse Tontaunete Englishman is thirsty Oukwockaninniwock I will sell you Goods very cheap Wausthanocha Nau hou hoore-ene All the Indians are drunk Connaugh jost twane Nonnupper Have you got any thing to eat Utta-ana-wox Noccoo Eraute I am sick Connauwox Waurepa A Fish-Hook Oos-skinna
Don’t lose it Oon est nonne it quost A Tobacco-pipe Oosquaana Intom I remember it Oonutsauka Aucummato Let it alone Tnotsaurauweek (Tout?) Sauhau Peaches Roo-ooe Yonne Walnuts Rootau-ooe
Hickery Nuts Rootau Nimmia A Jew’s-Harp Ooratsa Wottiyau I forget it Merrauka
Northwest-Wind Hothooka
Snow. Acaunque. Wawawa.

{Indian Speech.}
To repeat more of this Indian Jargon, would be to trouble the Reader; and as an Account how imperfect they are in their Moods and Tenses, has been given by several already, I shall only add, that their Languages or Tongues are so deficient, that you cannot suppose the Indians ever could express themselves in such a Flight of Stile, as Authors would have you believe. They are so far from it, that they are but just able to make one another understand readily what they talk about. As for the two Consonants `L’ and `F’, I never knew them in any Indian Speech I have met withal; yet I must tell you, that they have such a Way of abbreviating their Speech, when in their great Councils and Debates, that the young Men do not understand what they treat about, when they hear them argue. It is wonderful, what has occasion’d so many different Speeches as the Savages have. {Tartarian Hurds.} The three Nations I now mention’d, do not live above ten Leagues distant, and two of them, viz. the Tuskeruro’s and the Woccon, are not two Leagues asunder; yet their Speech differs in every Word thereof, except one, which is Tsaure, Cockles, which is in both Tongues the same, and nothing else. Now this Difference of Speech causes Jealousies and Fears amongst them, which bring Wars, wherein they destroy one another; otherwise the Christians had not (in all Probability) settled America so easily, as they have done, had these Tribes of Savages united themselves into one People or general Interest, or were they so but every hundred Miles. In short, they are an odd sort of People under the Circumstances they are at present, and have some such uncouth Ways in their Management and Course of Living, that it seems a Miracle to us, how they bring about their Designs, as they do, when their Ways are commonly quite contrary to ours. I believe, they are (as to this Life) a very happy People; and were it not for the Feuds amongst themselves, they would enjoy the happiest State (in this World) of all Mankind. They met with Enemies when we came amongst them; for they are no nearer Christianity now, than they were at the first Discovery, to all Appearance. {Indians learn of the Europeans.} They have learnt several Vices of the Europeans, but not one Vertue, as I know of. Drunkenness was a Stranger, when we found them out, and Swearing their Speech cannot express; yet those that speak English, learn to swear the first thing they talk of. It’s true, they have some Vertues and some Vices; but how the Christians can bring these People into the Bosom of the Church, is a Proposal that ought to be form’d and follow’d by the wisest Heads and best Christians. After I have given one Remark or two farther, of some of their strange Practices and Notions, I will give my Opinion, how I think, in probability, it may be (if possible) effected, and so shall conclude this Treatise of Carolina.

They are a very craving People, and if a Man give them any thing of a Present, they think it obliges him to give them another; and so on, till he has given them all he has; for they have no Bounds of Satisfaction in that way; and if they give you any thing, it is to receive twice the Value of it. They have no Consideration that you will want what you give them; for their way of Living is so contrary to ours, that neither we nor they can fathom one anothers Designs and Methods. They call Rum and Physick by one Name, which implies that Rum make People sick, as when they have taken any poisonous Plant; yet they cannot forbear Rum. They make Offerings of their First-Fruits, and the more serious sort of them throw into the Ashes, near the Fire, the first Bit or Spoonful of every Meal they sit down to, which, they say, is the same to them, as the pulling off our Hats, and talking, when we go to Victuals, is to us. They name the Months very agreeably, as one is the Herring-Month, another the Strawberry-Month, another the Mulberry-Month. Others name them by the Trees that blossom; especially, the Dogwood-Tree; or they say, we will return when Turkey-Cocks gobble, that is in March and April. The Age of the Moon they understand, but know no different Name for Sun and Moon. They can guess well at the time of the Day, by the Sun’s Height. Their Age they number by Winters, and say, such a Man or Woman is so many Winters old. They have no Sabbath, or Day of Rest. Their Slaves are not over-burden’d with Work, and so not driven by Severity to seek for that Relief. Those that are acquainted with the English, and speak the Tongue, know when Sunday comes; besides, the Indians have a distinct Name for Christmas which they call Winnick Keshuse, or the Englishmans Gods Moon. There is one most abominable Custom amongst them, which they call Husquenawing their young Men; which I have not made any Mention of as yet, so will give you an Account of it here. You must know, that most commonly, once a Year, or, at farthest, once in two Years, these People take up so many of their young Men, as they think are able to undergo it, and husquenaugh them, which is to make them obedient and respective to their Superiors, and (as they say) is the same to them, as it is to us to send our Children to School, to be taught good Breeding and Letters. This House of Correction is a large strong Cabin, made on purpose for the Reception of the young Men and Boys, that have not passed this Graduation already; and it is always at Christmas that they husquenaugh their Youth, which is by bringing them into this House, and keeping them dark all the time, where they more than half-starve them. Besides, they give them Pellitory-Bark, and several intoxicating Plants, that make them go raving mad as ever were any People in the World; and you may hear them make the most dismal and hellish Cries, and Howlings, that ever humane Creatures express’d; all which continues about five or six Weeks, and the little Meat they eat, is the nastiest, loathsome stuff, and mixt with all manner of Filth it’s possible to get. After the Time is expired, they are brought out of the Cabin, which never is in the Town, but always a distance off, and guarded by a Jaylor or two, who watch by Turns. Now, when they first come out, they are as poor as ever any Creatures were; for you must know several die under this diabolical Purgation. Moreover, they either really are, or pretend to be dumb, and do not speak for several Days; I think, twenty or thirty; and look so gastly, and are so chang’d, that it’s next to an Impossibility to know them again, although you was never so well acquainted with them before. I would fain have gone into the mad House, and have seen them in their time of Purgatory, but the King would not suffer it, because, he told me, they would do me, or any other white Man, an Injury, that ventured in amongst them; so I desisted. They play this Prank with Girls as well as Boys, and I believe it a miserable Life they endure, because I have known several of them run away, at that time, to avoid it. Now, the Savages say, if it was not for this, they could never keep their Youth in Subjection, besides that it hardens them ever after to the Fatigues of War, Hunting, and all manner of Hardship, which their way of living exposes them to. Besides, they add, that it carries off those infirm weak Bodies, that would have been only a Burden and Disgrace to their Nation, and saves the Victuals and Cloathing for better People, that would have been expended on such useless Creatures. These Savages are described in their proper Colours, but by a very few; for those that generally write Histories of this new World, are such as Interest, Preferment, and Merchandize, drew thither, and know no more of that People than I do of the Laplanders, which is only by Hear-say. And if we will make just Remarks, how near such Relations generally approach Truth and Nicety, we shall find very few of them worthy of Entertainment; and as for the other part of the Volume, it is generally stufft with Invectives against the Government they lived under, on which Stage is commonly acted greater Barbarities, in Murdering worthy Mens Reputations, than all the Savages in the new World are capable of equalizing, or so much as imitating.

And since I hinted at a Regulation of the Savages, and to propose a way to convert them to Christianity, I will first particularize the several Nations of Indians that are our Neighbours, and then proceed to what I promis’d.

Tuskeruro Indians are fifteen Towns, viz. Haruta, Waqui, Contah-nah, Anna Ooka, Conauh-Kare Harooka, Una Nauhan, Kentanuska, Chunaneets, Kenta, Eno, Naur-hegh-ne, Oonossoora, Tosneoc, Nonawharitse, Nursoorooka; Fighting Men 1200. Waccon, Towns 2, Yupwauremau, Tooptatmeer, Fighting Men 120. Machapunga, Town 1, Maramiskeet, Fighting Men 30. Bear River, Town 1, Raudauqua-quank, Fighting Men 50. Maherring Indians, Town 1, Maherring River, Fighting Men 50. Chuwon Indians, Town 1, Bennets Creek, Fighting Men 15. Paspatank Indians, Town 1, Paspatank River, Fighting Men 10. Poteskeit, Town 1, North River, Fighting Men 30. Nottaway Indians, Town 1, Winoack Creek, Fighting Men 30. Hatteras Town 1, Sand Banks, Fighting Men 16. Connamox Indians, Towns 2, Coranine, Raruta, Fighting Men 25. Neus Indians, Towns 2, Chattooka, Rouconk, Fighting Men 15. Pampticough Indians, Town 1, Island, Fighting Men 15. Jaupim Indians, 6 People. These five Nations of the Totero’s, Sapona’s, Keiauwee’s, Aconechos, and Schoccories, are lately come amongst us, and may contain, in all, about 750 Men, Women and Children. Total 4780.

Now, there appears to be one thousand six hundred and twelve Fighting Men, of our Neighbouring Indians; and probably, there are three Fifths of Women and Children, not including Old Men, which amounts to four thousand and thirty Savages, besides the five Nations lately come. Now, as I before hinted, we will see what grounds there are to make these People serviceable to us, and better themselves thereby.

On a fair Scheme, we must first allow these Savages what really belongs to them, that is, what good Qualities, and natural Endowments, they possess, whereby they being in their proper Colours, the Event may be better guess’d at, and fathom’d.

First, they are as apt to learn any Handicraft, as any People that the World affords; I will except none; as is seen by their Canoes and Stauking Heads, which they make of themselves; but to my purpose, the Indian Slaves in South Carolina, and elsewhere, make my Argument good.

Secondly, we have no disciplin’d Men in Europe, but what have, at one time or other, been branded with Mutining, and Murmuring against their Chiefs. These Savages are never found guilty of that great Crime in a Soldier; I challenge all Mankind to tell me of one Instance of it; besides, they never prove Traitors to their Native Country, but rather chuse Death than partake and side with the Enemy.

They naturally possess the Righteous Man’s Gift; they are Patient under all Afflictions, and have a great many other Natural Vertues, which I have slightly touch’d throughout the Account of these Savages.

They are really better to us, than we are to them; they always give us Victuals at their Quarters, and take care we are arm’d against Hunger and Thirst: We do not so by them (generally speaking) but let them walk by our Doors Hungry, and do not often relieve them. We look upon them with Scorn and Disdain, and think them little better than Beasts in Humane Shape, though if well examined, we shall find that, for all our Religion and Education, we possess more Moral Deformities, and Evils than these Savages do, or are acquainted withal.

We reckon them Slaves in Comparison to us, and Intruders, as oft as they enter our Houses, or hunt near our Dwellings. But if we will admit Reason to be our Guide, she will inform us, that these Indians are the freest People in the World, and so far from being Intruders upon us, that we have abandon’d our own Native Soil, to drive them out, and possess theirs; neither have we any true Balance, in Judging of these poor Heathens, because we neither give Allowance for their Natural Disposition, nor the Sylvian Education, and strange Customs, (uncouth to us) they lie under and have ever been train’d up to; these are false Measures for Christians to take, and indeed no Man can be reckon’d a Moralist only, who will not make choice and use, of better Rules to walk and act by: We trade with them, it’s true, but to what End? Not to shew them the Steps of Vertue, and the Golden Rule, to do as we would be done by. No, we have furnished them with the Vice of Drunkenness, which is the open Road to all others, and daily cheat them in every thing we sell, and esteem it a Gift of Christianity, not to sell to them so cheap as we do to the Christians, as we call our selves. Pray let me know where is there to be found one Sacred Command or Precept of our Master, that counsels us to such Behaviour? Besides, I believe it will not appear, but that all the Wars, which we have had with the Savages, were occasion’d by the unjust Dealings of the Christians towards them. I can name more than a few, which my own Enquiry has given me a right Understanding of, and I am afraid the remainder (if they come to the test) will prove themselves Birds of the same Feather.

{Indians Aversion to Christianity.}
As we are in Christian Duty bound, so we must act and behave ourselves to these Savages, if we either intend to be serviceable in converting them to the Knowledge of the Gospel, or discharge the Duty which every Man, within the Pale of the Christian Church, is bound to do. Upon this Score, we ought to shew a Tenderness for these Heathens under the weight of Infidelity; let us cherish their good Deeds, and, with Mildness and Clemency, make them sensible and forwarn them of their ill ones; let our Dealings be just to them in every Respect, and shew no ill Example, whereby they may think we advise them to practise that which we will not be conformable to ourselves: Let them have cheap Penniworths (without Guile in our Trading with them) and learn them the Mysteries of our Handicrafts, as well as our Religion, otherwise we deal unjustly by them. But it is highly necessary to be brought in Practice, which is, to give Encouragement to the ordinary People, and those of a lower Rank, that they might marry with these Indians, and come into Plantations, and Houses, where so many Acres of Land and some Gratuity of Money, (out of a publick Stock) are given to the new-married Couple; and that the Indians might have Encouragement to send their Children Apprentices to proper Masters, that would be kind to them, and make them Masters of a Trade, whereby they would be drawn to live amongst us, and become Members of the same Ecclesiastical and Civil Government we are under; then we should have great Advantages to make daily Conversions amongst them, when they saw that we were kind and just to them in all our Dealings. Moreover, by the Indians Marrying with the Christians, and coming into Plantations with their English Husbands, or Wives, they would become Christians, and their Idolatry would be quite forgotten, and, in all probability, a better Worship come in its Stead; for were the Jews engrafted thus, and alienated from the Worship and Conversation of Jews, their Abominations would vanish, and be no more.

Thus we should be let into a better Understanding of the Indian Tongue, by our new Converts; and the whole Body of these People would arrive to the Knowledge of our Religion and Customs, and become as one People with us. By this Method also, we should have a true Knowledge of all the Indians Skill in Medicine and Surgery; they would inform us of the Situation of our Rivers, Lakes, and Tracts of Land in the Lords Dominions, where by their Assistance, greater Discoveries may be made than has been hitherto found out, and by their Accompanying us in our Expeditions, we might civilize a great many other Nations of the Savages, and daily add to our Strength in Trade, and Interest; so that we might be sufficiently enabled to conquer, or maintain our Ground, against all the Enemies to the Crown of England in America, both Christian and Savage.

What Children we have of theirs, to learn Trades, &c. ought to be put into those Hands that are Men of the best Lives and Characters, and that are not only strict Observers of their Religion, but also of a mild, winning and sweet Disposition, that these Indian Parents may often go and see how well their Children are dealt with, which would much win them to our Ways of Living, Mildness being a Vertue the Indians are in love withal, for they do not practise beating and correcting their Children, as we do. A general Complaint is, that it seems impossible to convert these People to Christianity, as, at first sight, it does; and as for those in New Spain, they have the Prayer of that Church in Latin by Rote, and know the external Behaviour at Mass and Sermons; yet scarce any of them are steady and abide with constancy in good Works, and the Duties of the Christian Church. We find that the Fuentes and several other of the noted Indian Families about Mexico, and in other parts of New Spain, had given several large Gifts to the Altar, and outwardly seem’d fond of their new Religion; yet those that were the greatest Zealots outwards, on a strict Enquiry, were found guilty of Idolatry and Witchcraft; and this seems to proceed from their Cohabiting, which, as I have noted before, gives Opportunities of Cabals to recal their ancient pristine Infidelity and Superstitions. They never argue against our Religion, but with all imaginable Indifference own, that it is most proper for us that have been brought up in it.

In my opinion, it’s better for Christians of a mean Fortune to marry with the Civiliz’d Indians, than to suffer the Hardships of four or five years Servitude, in which they meet with Sickness and Seasonings amidst a Crowd of other Afflictions, which the Tyranny of a bad Master lays upon such poor Souls, all which those acquainted with our Tobacco Plantations are not Strangers to.

This seems to be a more reasonable Method of converting the Indians, than to set up our Christian Banner in a Field of Blood, as the Spaniards have done in New Spain, and baptize one hundred with the Sword for one at the Font. Whilst we make way for a Christian Colony through a Field of Blood, and defraud, and make away with those that one day may be wanted in this World, and in the next appear against us, we make way for a more potent Christian Enemy to invade us hereafter, of which we may repent, when too late.

The Second
Granted by
to the

Charles II. by the Grace of God, &c. Whereas by Our Letters Patents, bearing Date the Four and Twentieth Day of March, in the Fifteenth Year of Our Reign, We were Graciously Pleas’d to Grant unto Our right Trusty, and right Well-beloved Cousin and Counsellor Edward Earl of Clarendon, our High Chancellor of England, Our right Trusty, and right entirely Beloved Cousin and Counsellor, George Duke of Albemarle, Master of our Horse, Our right Trusty and Well Beloved William, now Earl of Craven, our right Trusty and well-beloved Counsellor, John Lord Berkeley, our right Trusty, and well-beloved Counsellor, Anthony Lord Ashley, Chancellor of our Exchequer, our right Trusty and Well-beloved Counsellor Sir George Carterett Knight and Baronet, Vice-Chamberlain of our Houshold, Our right Trusty and well-beloved, Sir John Colleton Knight and Baronet, and Sir William Berkeley Knight, all that Province, Territory, or Tract of Ground, called Carolina, situate, lying and being within our Dominions of America, Extending from the North End of the Island, called Luke Island, which lyeth in the Southern Virginia Seas, and within six and thirty Degrees of the Northern Latitude; and to the West, as far as the South Seas; and so respectively as far as the River of Mathias, which bordereth upon the Coast of Florida, and within One and Thirty Degrees of the Northern Latitude, and so West in a direct Line, as far as the South Seas aforesaid.

Now, know Ye, that We, at the Humble Request of the said Grandees in the aforesaid Letters Patents named, and as a farther Mark of Our especial Favour towards them, We are Graciously Pleased to Enlarge Our said Grant unto them, according to the Bounds and Limits hereafter Specifyed, and in Favour to the Pious and Noble Purpose of the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns, all that Province, Territory, or Tract of Ground, situate, lying, and being within Our Dominions of America aforesaid, extending North and Westward, as far as the North End of Carahtuke River, or Gulet, upon a streight Westerly Line, to Wyonoake Creek, which lies within, or about the Degrees of Thirty Six, and Thirty Minutes Northern Latitude, and so West, in a direct Line, as far as the South Seas; and South and Westward, as far as the Degrees of Twenty Nine Inclusive Northern Latitude, and so West in a direct Line, as far as the South Seas; together with all and singular Ports, Harbours, Bays, Rivers and Islets, belonging unto the Province or Territory, aforesaid. And also, all the Soil, Lands, Fields, Woods, Mountains, Ferms, Lakes, Rivers, Bays and Islets, situate, or being within the Bounds, or Limits, last before mentioned; with the Fishing of all sorts of Fish, Whales, Sturgeons, and all other Royal Fishes in the Sea, Bays, Islets and Rivers, within the Premises, and the Fish therein taken; together with the Royalty of the Sea, upon the Coast within the Limits aforesaid. And moreover, all Veins, Mines and Quarries, as well discovered as not discover’d, of Gold, Silver, Gems and Precious Stones, and all other whatsoever; be it of Stones, Metal, or any other thing found, or to be found within the Province, Territory, Islets and Limits aforesaid.

And furthermore, the Patronage and Advowsons of all the Churches and Chappels, which as the Christian Religion shall encrease within the Province, Territory, Isles and Limits aforesaid, shall happen hereafter to be erected; together with Licence and Power to build and found Churches, Chappels and Oratories in convenient and fit places, within the said Bounds and Limits; and to cause them to be Dedicated and Consecrated, according to the Ecclesiastical Laws of Our Kingdom of England; together with all and singular, the like, and as ample Rights, Jurisdictions, Privileges, Prerogatives, Royalties, Liberties, Immunities and Franchises, of what Kind soever, within the Territory, Isles, Islets and Limits aforesaid. To have, hold, use, exercise and enjoy the same, as amply, fully, and in as ample Manner, as any Bishop of Durham in Our Kingdom of England, ever heretofore had, held, used, or enjoyed, or of right ought, or could have, use, or enjoy; and them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns; We do by these Presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, make, create and constitute the true and absolute Lords and Proprietors of the said Province, or Territory, and of all other the Premises, saving always the Faith, Allegiance and Sovereign Dominion due to Us, our Heirs and Successors, for the same; to have, hold, possess and enjoy the said Province, Territory, Islets, and all and singular, other the Premises, to them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns, for Ever, to be holden of Us, Our Heirs and Successors, as of Our Mannor of East Greenwich, in Kent, in free and common Soccage, and not in Capite, or by Knights Service, yielding and paying yearly to Us, Our Heirs and Successors, for the same, the fourth Part of all Goods and Silver Oar, which within the Limits hereby Granted, shall from Time to Time, happen to be found, over and besides the Yearly Rent of Twenty Marks and the fourth part of the Gold and Silver Oar, in and by the said recited Letters Patents reserved and payable.

And that the Province, or Territory hereby granted and described, may be dignifyed with as large Titles and Privileges, as any other Parts of our Dominions and Territories in that Region; Know ye, That We, of our farther Grace, certain Knowledge and meer Motion, have thought fit to annex the same Tract of Ground and Territory, unto the same Province of Carolina; and out of the Fulness of our Royal Power and Prerogative, We do for Us, our Heirs and Successors, annex and unite the same to the said Province of Carolina. And forasmuch as We have made and ordained the aforesaid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Assigns, the true Lords and Proprietors of all the Province or Territory aforesaid; Know ye therefore moreover, that We reposing especial Trust and Confidence in their Fidelity, Wisdom, Justice and provident Circumspection for Us, our Heirs and Successors, do grant full and absolute Power, by virtue of these Presents, to them the said Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Catterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, and their Heirs and Assigns, for the good and happy Government of the said whole Province or Territory, full Power and Authority to erect, constitute, and make several Counties, Baronies, and Colonies, of and within the said Provinces, Territories, Lands and Hereditaments, in and by the said recited Letters Patents, and these Presents, granted, or mentioned to be granted, as aforesaid, with several and distinct Jurisdictions, Powers, Liberties and Privileges. And also, to ordain, make and enact, and under their Seals, to publish any Laws and Constitutions whatsoever, either appertaining to the publick State of the said whole Province or Territory, or of any distinct or particular County, Barony or Colony, of or within the same, or to the private Utility of particular Persons, according to their best Discretion, by and with the Advice, Assent and Approbation of the Freemen of the said Province or Territory, or of the Freemen of the County, Barony or Colony, for which such Law or Constitution shall be made, or the greatest Part of them,