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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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grief as I am at this present."--_Sheridan's Elocution_, p. 138. "All
languages differ from each other in their mode of inflexion."--_Bullions,
E. Gram._, Pref., p. v. "Nouns and verbs are the only indispensable parts
of speech--the one to express the subject spoken of, and the other the
predicate or what is affirmed of it."--_M'Culloch's Gram._, p. 36. "The
words in italics of the three latter examples, perform the office of
substantives."--_L. Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 66. "Such a structure of a
sentence is always the mark of careless writing."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 231.
"Nothing is frequently more hurtful to the grace or vivacity of a period,
than superfluous dragging words at the conclusion."--_Ib._, p. 205. "When
its substantive is not joined to it, but referred to, or understood."--
_Lowth's Gram._, p. 24. "Yet they have always some substantive belonging to
them, either referred to, or understood."--_Ib._, 24. "Because they define
and limit the extent of the common name, or general term, to which they
either refer, or are joined.'"--_Ib._, 24. "Every new object surprises,
terrifies, and makes a strong impression on their mind."--_Blair's Rhet._,
p. 136. "His argument required to have been more fully unfolded, in order
to make it be distinctly apprehended, and to give it its due
force."--_Ib._, p. 230. "Participles which are derived from active verbs,
will govern the objective case, the same as the verbs from which they are
derived"--_Emmons's Gram._, p. 61. "Where, contrary to the rule, the
nominative _I_ precedes, and the objective case _whom_ follows the
verb."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 181. "The same conjunction governing both
the indicative and the subjunctive moods, in the same sentence, and in the
same circumstances, seems to be a great impropriety."--_Ib._, p. 207;
_Smith's New Gram._, 173: see _Lowth's Gram._, p. 105; _Fisk's_, 128; and
_Ingersoll's_, 266. "A nice discernment, and accurate attention to the best
usage, are necessary to direct us, on these occasions."--_Murray's Gram._,
8vo, p. 170. "The Greeks and Romans, the former especially, were, in truth,
much more musical nations than we; their genius was more turned to delight
in the melody of speech."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 123. "When the sense admits
it, the sooner a circumstance is introduced, the better, that the more
important and significant words may possess the last place, quite
disencumbered."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, i, p. 309; _Parker and Fox's_, Part
III, p. 88. "When the sense admits it, the sooner they are despatched,
generally speaking, the better; that the more important and significant
words may possess the last place, quite disencumbered."--_Blair's Rhet._,
p. 118. See also _Jamieson's Rhet._, p. 101. "Thus we find it, both in the
Greek and Latin tongues."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 74. "A train of sentences,
constructed in the same manner, and with the same number of members, should
never be allowed to succeed one another."--_Ib._, p. 102; _Murray's Gram._,
8vo, Vol. i, p. 306; _Parker and Fox's Gram._, Part III, p. 86. "I proceed
to lay down the rules to be observed in the conduct of metaphors, and which
are much the same for tropes of every kind."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 143. "By
a proper choice of words, we may produce a resemblance of other sounds
which we mean to describe."--_Ib._, p. 129; _Murray's Gram._, 8vo, Vol. i,
p. 331. "The disguise can almost never be so perfect, but it is
discovered."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 259. "The sense admits of no other pause
than after the second syllable 'sit,' which therefore must be the only
pause made in the reading."--_Ib._, p. 333. "Not that I believe North
America to be peopled so late as the twelfth century, the period of Madoc's
migration."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 212. "Money and commodities will always
flow to that country, where they are most wanted and will command the most
profit."--_Ib._, p. 308. "That it contains no visible marks, of articles,
which are the most important of all others, to a just delivery."--
_Sheridan's Elocution_, p. 13. "And of virtue, from its beauty, we call it
a fair and favourite maid."--_Mack's Gram._, p. 66. "The definite article
may agree with nouns in the singular and plural number."--_Infant School
Gram._, p. 130.

LESSON XV.--MANY ERRORS.

(1.) "A compound word is included under the head of derivative words."--
_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 23. (2.) "An Apostrophe, marked thus ' is used to
abbreviate or shorten a word. Its chief use is to show the genitive case of
nouns."--_Ib._, p. 281.[449] (3.) "A Hyphen, marked thus - is employed in
connecting compounded words. It is also used when a word is divided."--
_Ib._, p. 282. (4.) "The Acute Accent, marked thus : as, '_Fancy_.' The
Grave thus ` as, '_Favour_'"--_Ib._, p. 282. (5.) "The stress is laid on
long and short syllables indiscriminately. In order to distinguish the one
from the other, some writers of dictionaries have placed the grave on the
former, and the acute on the latter."--_Ib._, 282. (6.) "A Diaeresis, thus
marked ", consists of two points placed over one of the two vowels that
would otherwise make a diphthong, and parts them into syllables."--_Ib._,
282. (7.) "A Section marked thus Sec., is the division of a discourse, or
chapter, into less parts or portions."--_Ib._, 282. (8.) "A Paragraph
denotes the beginning of a new subject, or a sentence not connected with
the foregoing. This character is chiefly used in the Old and in the New
Testaments."--_Ib._, 282. (9.) "A Quotation " ". Two inverted commas are
generally placed at the beginning of a phrase or a passage, which is quoted
or transcribed from the speaker or author in his own words; and two commas
in their direct position, are placed at the conclusion."--_Ib._, 282. (10.)
"A Brace is used in poetry at the end of a triplet or three lines, which
have the same rhyme. Braces are also used to connect a number of words with
one common term, and are introduced to prevent a repetition in writing or
printing."--_Ib._, p. 283. (11.) "Two or three asterisks generally denote
the omission of some letters in a word, or of some bold or indelicate
expression, or some defect in the manuscript."--_Ib._, 283. (12.) "An
Ellipsis ---- is also used, when some letters in a word, or some words in a
verse, are omitted."--_Ib._, 283. (13.) "An Obelisk, which is marked thus
[dagger], and Parallels thus ||, together with the letters of the
Alphabet, and figures, are used as references to the margin, or bottom of
the page."--_Ib._, 283. (14.) "A note of interrogation should not be
employed, in cases where it is only said a question has been asked, and
where the words are not used as a question. 'The Cyprians asked me why I
wept.'"--_Ib._, p. 279; _Comly_, 163; _Ingersoll_, 291; _Fisk_, 157;
_Flint_, 113. (15.) "A point of interrogation is improper after sentences
which are not questions, but only expressions of admiration, or of some
other emotion."--_Same authors and places_. (16.) "The parenthesis incloses
in the body of a sentence a member inserted into it, which is neither
necessary to the sense, nor at all affects the construction."--_Lowth's
Gram._, p. 124. (17.) "Simple members connected by relatives, and
comparatives, are for the most part distinguished by a comma."
[450]--_Ib._, p. 121. (18.) "Simple members of sentences connected by
comparatives, are, for the most part, distinguished by a comma."--_L.
Murray's Gram._, p 272; _Alden's_, 148; _Ingersoll's_, 284. See the same
words without the last two commas, in _Comly's Gram._, p. 149; _Alger's_,
79; _Merchant's Murray_, 143:--and this again, with a _different sense_,
made by a comma before "_connected_," in _Smith's New Gram._, 190; _Abel
Flint's_, 103. (19.) "Simple members of sentences connected by
comparatives, are for the most part distinguished by the
comma."--_Russell's Gram._, p. 115. (20.) "Simple members of sentences,
connected by comparatives, should generally be distinguished by a
comma."--_Merchant's School Gram._, p. 150. (21.) "Simple members of
sentences connected by _than_ or _so_, or that express contrast or
comparison, should, generally, be divided by a comma."--_Jaudon's Gram._,
p. 185. (22.) "Simple members of sentences, connected by comparatives, if
they be long, are separated by a comma."--_Cooper's New Gram._, p. 195. See
the same without the first comma, in _Cooper's Murray_, p. 183. (23.)
"Simple members of sentences connected by comparatives, and phrases placed
in opposition to, or in contrast with, each other, are separated by
commas."--_Bullions_, p. 153; _Hiley_, 113. (24.) "On which ever word we
lay the emphasis, whether on the first, second, third, or fourth, it
strikes out a different sense."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 243. (25.) "To
inform those who do not understand sea phrases, that, 'We tacked to the
larboard, and stood off to sea,' would be expressing ourselves very
obscurely."--_Ib._, p. 296; _and Hiley's Gram._, p. 151. (26.) "Of
dissyllables, which are at once nouns and verbs, the verb has commonly the
accent on the latter, and the noun, on the former syllable."--_Murray_, p.
237. (27.) "And this gives our language a superior advantage to most
others, in the poetical and rhetorical style."--_Id. ib._, p. 38;
_Ingersoll_, 27; _Fisk_, 57. (28.) "And this gives the English an advantage
above most other languages in the poetical and rhetorical style."--_Lowth's
Gram_, p. 19. (29.) "The second and third scholar may read the same
sentence; and as many, as it is necessary to learn it perfectly to the
whole."--_Osborn's Key_, p. 4.

(30.) "Bliss is the name in subject as a king,
In who obtain defence, or who defend."
--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 178.

LESSON XVI.--MANY ERRORS.

"The Japanese, the Tonquinese, and the Corceans, speak different languages
from one another, and from the inhabitants of China, but use, with these
last people, the same written characters; a proof that the Chinese
characters are like hieroglyphics, independent of language."--_Jamieson's
Rhet._, p. 18. "The Japanese, the Tonquinese, and the Corceans, who speak
different languages from one another, and from the inhabitants of China,
use, however, the same written characters with them; and by this means
correspond intelligibly with each other in writing, though ignorant of the
language spoken in their several countries; a plain proof," &c.--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 67. "The curved line is made square instead of round, for the
reason beforementioned."--_Knight, on the Greek Alphabet_, p. 6. "Every one
should content himself with the use of those tones only that he is
habituated to in speech, and to give none other to emphasis, but what he
would do to the same words in discourse. Thus whatever he utters will be
done with ease, and appear natural."--_Sheridan's Elocution_, p. 103.
"Stops, or pauses, are a total cessation of sound during a perceptible, and
in numerous compositions, a measurable space of time."--_Ib._, p. 104.
"Pauses or rests, in speaking and reading, are a total cessation of the
voice during a perceptible, and, in many cases, a measurable space of
time."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 248; _English Reader_, p. 13; _Goldsbury's
Gr._, 76; _Kirkham's_, 208; _Felton's_, 133; _et al._ "Nouns which express
a small one of the kind are called _Diminutive Nouns_; as, lambkin,
hillock, satchel, gosling, from lamb, hill, sack, goose."--_Bullions, E.
Gram._, 1837, p. 9. "What is the cause that nonsense so often escapes being
detected, both by the writer and by the reader?"--_Campbell's Rhet._, p.
xi, and 280. "An Interjection is a word used to express sudden emotion.
They are so called, because they are generally thrown in between the parts
of a sentence without reference to the structure of the other parts of
it."--_M'Culloch's Gram._, p. 36. "_Ought_ (in duty bound) _oughtest,
oughtedst_, are it's only inflections."--_Mackintosh's Gram._, p. 165. "But
the arrangment, government, agreement, and dependence of one word upon
another, are referred to our reason."--_Osborn's Key, Pref._, p. 3. "_Me_
is a personal pronoun, first person singular, and the accusative
case."--_Guy's Gram._, p. 20. "The substantive _self_ is added to a
pronoun; as, herself, himself, &c.; and when thus united, is called a
reciprocal pronoun."--_Ib._, p. 18. "One cannot avoid thinking that our
author had done better to have begun the first of these three sentences,
with saying, _it is novelty which bestows charms on a monster_,
&c."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 207. "The idea which they present to us of
nature's resembling art, of art's being considered as an original, and
nature as a copy,[451] seems not very distinct nor well brought out, nor
indeed very material to our author's purpose."--_Ib._, p. 220. "The present
construction of the sentence, has plainly been owing to hasty and careless
writing."--_Ib._, p. 220. "Adverbs serve to modify, or to denote some
circumstance of an action, or of a quality, relative to its time, place,
order, degree, and the other properties of it, which we have occasion to
specify."--_Ib._, p. 84. "The more that any nation is improved by science,
and the more perfect their language becomes, we may naturally expect that
it will abound more with connective particles."--_Ib._, p. 85. "Mr.
Greenleaf's book is by far the best adapted for learners of any that has
yet appeared on the subject."--DR. FELTUS and BP. ONDERDONK: _Greenleaf's
Gram._, p. 2. "Punctuation is the art of marking in writing the several
pauses, or rests, between sentences, and the parts of sentences, according
to their proper quantity or proportion, as they are expressed in a just and
accurate pronunciation."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 114. "A compound sentence
must be resolved into simple ones, and separated by commas."--_Greenleaf's
Gram._, p. 41; _Allen Fisk's_, 155.[452] "Simple sentences should be
separated from each other by commas, unless such sentences are connected by
a conjunction: as, 'Youth is passing away, age is approaching and death is
near.'"--_Hall's Gram._, p. 36. "_V_ has the sound of flat _f_, and bears
the same relation to it, as _b_ does to _p, d_ to _t_, hard _g_ to _k_, and
_z_ to _s_. It has one uniform sound."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 17; _Fisk's_,
42. "_V_ is flat _f_, and bears the same relation to it as _b_ does to _p,
d_ to _t_, hard _g_ to _k_, and _z_ to _s_. It is never
irregular."--_Walker's Dict._, p. 52. "_V_ has the sound of flat _f_; and
bears the same relation to it as _z_ does to _s_. It has one uniform
sound."--_Greenleaf's Gram._, p. 20. "The author is explaining the
distinction, between the powers of sense and imagination in the human
mind."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, Vol. i, p. 343. [The author is endeavouring]
"to explain a very abstract point, the distinction between the powers of
sense and imagination in the human mind."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 164. "HE
(Anglo-Saxon _he_) is a Personal pronoun, of the Third Person, Masculine
Gender (Decline he), of the singular number, in the nominative
case."--_Fowler's E. Gram._, 8vo, 1850, Sec.589.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER THE CRITICAL NOTES.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE I.--OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

"The passive voice denotes a being acted upon."--_Maunders Gram._, p. 6.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the term "_being acted upon_" as here used,
suggests a doubt concerning its classification in parsing. But, according
to Critical Note 1st, "Words that may constitute different parts of speech,
must not be left doubtful as to their classification, or to what part of
speech they belong." Therefore, the phraseology should be altered; thus,
"The passive voice denotes _an action received_." Or; "The passive voice
denotes _the receiving of an_ action."]

"Milton, in some of his prose works, has very finely turned
periods."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 127; _Jamieson's_, 129. "These will be found
to be all, or chiefly, of that class."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 32. "All
appearances of an author's affecting harmony, are disagreeable."--_Ib._, p.
127; _Jamieson_, 128. "Some nouns have a double increase, that is, increase
by more syllables than one; as, _iter, itin~eris_."--_Adam's Gram._, p.
255; _Gould's_, 241. "The powers of man are enlarged by advancing
cultivation."--_Gurney's Essays_, p. 62. "It is always important to begin
well; to make a favourable impression at first setting out."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 307. "For if one take a wrong method at first setting out, it
will lead him astray in all that follows."--_Ib._, 313. "His mind is full
of his subject, and his words are all expressive."--_Ib._, 179. "How
exquisitely is this all performed in Greek!"--_Harris's Hermes_, p. 422.
"How little is all this to satisfy the ambition of an immortal soul!"--
_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 253. "So as to exhibit the object in its full and
most striking point of view."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 41. "And that the author
know how to descend with propriety to the plain, as well as how to rise to
the bold and figured style."--_Ib._, p. 401. "The heart can only answer to
the heart."--_Ib._, p. 259. "Upon its first being perceived."--_Harris's
Hermes_, p. 229. "Call for Samson, that he may make us sport."--_Judges_,
xvi, 25. "And he made them sport."--_Ibid._ "The term _suffer_ in this
definition is used in a technical sense, and means simply the receiving of
an action, or the being acted upon."--_Bullions_, p. 29. "The Text is what
is only meant to be taught in Schools."--_Brightland, Pref._, p. ix. "The
perfect participle denotes action or being perfected or finished."--
_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 78. "From the intricacy and confusion which are
produced by their being blended together."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 66.
"This very circumstance of a word's being employed antithetically, renders
it important in the sentence."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 121. "It [the
pronoun _that_] is applied to both persons and things."--_Murray's Gram._,
p. 53. "Concerning us, as being every where evil spoken of."--_Barclay's
Works_, Vol. ii, p. vi. "Every thing beside was buried in a profound
silence."--_Steele_. "They raise more full conviction than any reasonings
produce."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 367. "It appears to me no more than a
fanciful refinement."--_Ib._, p. 436. "The regular resolution throughout of
a complete passage."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. vii. "The infinitive is known
by its being immediately preceded by the word _to_."--_Maunders Gram._, p.
6. "It will not be gaining much ground to urge that the basket, or vase, is
understood to be the capital."--_Kames, El. of Crit._, Vol. ii, p. 356.
"The disgust one has to drink ink in reality, is not to the purpose where
the subject is drinking ink figuratively."--_Ib._, ii, 231. "That we run
not into the extreme of pruning so very close."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 111.
"Being obliged to rest for a little on the preposition by itself."--_Ib._,
p. 112; _Jamieson's Rhet._, 93. "Being obliged to rest a little on the
preposition by itself."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 319. "Our days on the earth
are as a shadow, and there is none abiding."--_1 Chron._, xxix, 15. "There
maybe a more particular expression attempted, of certain objects, by means
of resembling sounds."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 129; _Jamieson's_, 130;
_Murray's Gram._, 331. "The right disposition of the shade, makes the light
and colouring strike the more."--_Blair's Rhet._, 144. "I observed that a
diffuse style inclines most to long periods."--_Ib._, p. 178. "Their poor
Arguments, which they only Pickt up and down the Highway "--_Divine Right
of Tythes_, p. iii. "Which must be little, but a transcribing out of their
writings."--_Barclay's Works_, iii, 353. "That single impulse is a forcing
out of almost all the breath."--_Rush, on the Voice_, p. 254. "Picini
compares modulation to the turning off from a road."--_Gardiner's Music of
Nature_, p. 405. "So much has been written, on and off, of almost every
subject."--_The Friend_, ii, 117. "By reading books written by the best
authors, his mind became highly improved."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 201.
"For I never made the being richly provided a token of a spiritual
ministry."--_Barclay's Works_, iii, 470.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE II.--OF DOUBTFUL REFERENCE.

"However disagreeable, we must resolutely perform our
duty."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 171.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the adjective _disagreeable_ appears to
relate to the pronoun _we_, though such a relation was probably not
intended by the author. But, according to Critical Note 2d, "The reference
of words to other words, or their syntactical relation according to the
sense, should never be left doubtful, by any one who means to be
understood." The sentence may be amended thus: "However disagreeable _the
task_, we must resolutely perform our duty."]

"The formation of verbs in English, both regular and irregular, is derived
from the Saxon."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 47. "Time and chance have an
influence on all things human, and on nothing more remarkably than on
language."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 180. "Time and chance have an influence
on all things human, and on nothing more remarkable than on
language."--_Jamieson's Rhet._, p. 47. "Archytases being a virtuous man,
who happened to perish once upon a time, is with him a sufficient ground,"
&c.--_Philological Museum_, i, 466. "He will be the better qualified to
understand, with accuracy, the meaning of a numerous class of words, in
which they form a material part."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 120. "We
should continually have the goal in view, which would direct us in the
race."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 172. "But [Addison's figures] seem to rise
of their own accord from the subject, and constantly embellish
it."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 150; _Jamieson's_, 157. "As far as persons and
other animals and things that we can see go, it is very easy to distinguish
Nouns."--_Cobbett's Gram._, 14. "Dissyllables ending in _y, e_ mute, or
accented on the last syllable, may be sometimes compared like
monosyllables."--_Frost's El. of Gram._, p. 12. "Admitting the above
objection, it will not overrule the design."--_Rush, on the Voice_, p. 140.
"These philosophical innovators forget, that objects are like men, known
only by their actions."--_Dr. Murray's Hist. of Lang._, i, 326. "The
connexion between words and ideas is arbitrary and conventional, owing to
the agreement of men among themselves."--_Jamieson's Rhet._, p. 1. "The
connexion between words and ideas may, in general, be considered as
arbitrary and conventional, owing to the agreement of men among
themselves."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 53. "A man whose inclinations led him to
be corrupt, and had great abilities to manage and multiply and defend his
corruptions."--_Swift_. "They have no more control over him than any other
men."--_Wayland's Moral Science_, 1st Ed., p. 372. "His old words are all
true English, and numbers exquisite."--_Spectator_, No. 540. "It has been
said, that not only Jesuits can equivocate."--_Murray's Exercises_, 8vo, p.
121. "It has been said, that Jesuits can not only equivocate."--_Murray's
Key_, 8vo, p. 253. "The nominative of the first and second person in Latin
is seldom expressed."--_Adam's Gram._, p. 154; _Gould's_, 157. "Some words
are the same in both numbers."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 40;
_Ingersoll's_, 18; _Fisk's_, 59; _Kirkham's_, 39; _W. Allen's_, 42; et al.
"Some nouns are the same in both numbers."--_Merchant's Gram._, p. 29;
_Smith's_, 45; et al. "Others are the same in both numbers; as, _deer,
swine_, &c."--_Frost's El. of Gram._, p. 8. "The following list denotes the
sounds of the consonants, being in number twenty-two."--_Murray's Gram._,
p. 6; _Fisk's_, 36. "And is the ignorance of these peasants a reason for
others to remain ignorant; or to render the subject a less becoming
inquiry?"--_Harris's Hermes_, p. 293; _Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 288. "He is
one of the most correct, and perhaps the best, of our prose
writers."--_Lowth's Gram., Pref._, p. iv., "The motions of a vortex and a
whirlwind are perfectly similar."--_Jamieson's Rhet._, p. 131. "What I have
been saying throws light upon one important verse in the Bible, which I
should like to have read."--_Abbott's Teacher_, p. 182. "When there are any
circumstances of time, place, or other limitations, which the principal
object of our sentence requires to have connected with it."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 115; _Jamieson's Rhet._, 98; _Murray's Gram._, i, 322.
"Interjections are words used to express emotion, affection, or passion,
and imply suddenness."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 77. "But the genitive is only
used to express the measure of things in the plural number."--_Adam's
Gram._, p. 200; _Gould's_, 198. "The buildings of the institution have been
enlarged; the expense of which, added to the increased price of provisions,
renders it necessary to advance the terms of admission."--_Murray's Key_,
8vo, p. 183. "These sentences are far less difficult than complex."--_S. S.
Greene's Analysis, or Grammar_, 1st Ed., p. 179.

"Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife,
Their sober wishes never learn'd to stray."--_Gray's Elegy_.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE III.--OF DEFINITIONS.

(1.) "_Definition_ is such a description of things as exactly describes the
thing and that thing only."--_Blair's Gram._, p. 135.

[FORMULE.--Not
proper, because this definition of a _definition_ is not accurately adapted
to the thing. But, according to Critical Note 3d, "A definition, in order
to be perfect, must include the whole thing, or class of things, which it
pretends to define, and exclude every thing which comes not under the
name." [453] The example may be amended thus: "A definition is a _short and
lucid_ description of a _thing, or species, according to its nature and
properties._"]

(2.) "Language, in general, signifies the expression of our ideas by
certain articulate sounds, which are used as the signs of those
ideas."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 53. (3.) "A WORD is an articulate _sound_ used
by common consent as the sign of an idea,"--_Bullions, Analyt. and Pract.
Gr._, p. 17. (4.) "A word is a sound, or combination of sounds, which is
used in the expression of thought"--_Hazen's Gram._, p. 12. (5.) "_Words_
are articulate sounds, used as _signs_ to convey our ideas."--_Hiley's
Gram._, p. 5. (6.) "A _word_ is a number of letters used together to
represent some idea."--_Hart's E. Gram._, p. 28. (7.) "A _Word_ is a
combination of letters, used as the sign of an idea."--_S. W. Clark's
Practical Gram._, p. 9. (8.) "A _word_ is a letter or a combination of
letters, used as the sign of an idea."--_Wells's School Gram._, p. 41. (9.)
"Words are articulate sounds, by which ideas are communicated."--_Wright's
Gram._, p. 28. (10.) "Words are certain articulate sounds used by common
consent as signs of our ideas."--_Bullions, Principles of E. Gram._, p. 6;
_Lat. Gram._, 6; see _Lowth, Murray, Smith, et al._ (11.) "Words are sounds
used as signs of our ideas."--_W. Allen's Gram._, p. 30. (12.) "Orthography
means _word-making_ or _spelling_.'"--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 19; _Smith's
New Gram._, p. 41. (13.) "A vowel is a letter, the name of which
constitutes a full, open sound."--_Hazen's Gram._, p. 10; _Lennie's, 5;
Brace's, 7._ (14.) "Spelling is the art of reading by naming the letters
singly, and rightly dividing words into their syllables. Or, in writing, it
is the expressing of a word by its proper letters."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 5;
_Churchill's_, 20. (15.) "Spelling is the art of rightly dividing words
into their syllables, or of expressing a word by its proper
letters."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 21; _Ingersoll's, 6; Merchant's, 10;
Alger's, 12; Greenleaf's, 20_; and others. (16) "Spelling is the art of
expressing words by their proper letters; or of rightly dividing words into
syllables."--_Comly's Gram._, p. 8. (17.) "Spelling is the art of
expressing a word by its proper letters, and rightly dividing it into
syllables."--_Bullions's Princ. of E. Gram._, p. 2. (18.) "Spelling is the
art of expressing a word by its proper letters."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 23;
_Sanborn's_, p. 259. (19.) "A syllable is a sound either simple or
compounded, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, and constituting a
word or part of a word."--_Lowth_, p. 5; _Murray_, 21; _Ingersoll_, 6;
_Fisk_, 11; _Greenleaf_, 20: _Merchant_, 9; _Alger_, 12; _Bucke_, 15;
_Smith_, 118; _et al_. (20.) "A Syllable is a complete Sound uttered in one
Breath."--_British Gram._, p. 32; _Buchanan's_, 5. (21.) "A syllable is a
distinct sound, uttered by a single impulse of the voice."--_Kirkham's
Gram._, p. 20. (22.) "A Syllable is a distinct sound forming the whole of a
word, or so much of it as can be sounded at once."--_Bullions, E. Gr._, p.
2. (23.) "A _syllable_ is a word, or part of a word, or as much as can be
sounded at once."--_Picket's Gram._, p. 10. (24.) "A diphthong is the union
of two Vowels, both of which are pronounced as one: as in bear and
beat."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 15. (25.) "A diphthong consists of two vowels,
forming one syllable; as, _ea_, in _beat_."--_Guy's Gram._, p. 2. (26.) "A
triphthong consists of three vowels forming one syllable; as, _eau_ in
_beauty_."--_Ib._ (27.) "But the Triphthong is the union of three Vowels,
pronounced as one."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 15. (28.) "What is a Noun
Substantive? A Noun Substantive is the thing itself; as, a Man, a
Boy."--_British Gram._, p. 85; _Buchanan's_, 26. (29.) "An adjective is a
word added to nouns to describe them."--_Maunder's Gram._, p. 1. (30.) "An
adjective is a word joined to a noun, to describe or define it."--_Smith's
New Gram._, p. 51. (31.) "An adjective is a word used to describe or define
a noun."--_Wilcox's Gram._, p. 2. (32.) "The adjective is added to the
noun, to express the quality of it"--_Murray's Gram._, 12mo, 2d Ed., p. 27;
_Lowth_, p. 6. (33.) "An adjective expresses the quality of the noun to
which it is applied; and may generally be known by its making sense in
connection with it; as, 'A _good_ man,' 'A _genteel_ woman.'"--_Wright's
Gram._, p. 34. (34.) "An adverb is a word used to modify the sense of other
words."--_Wilcox's Gram._, p. 2. (35.) "An adverb is a word joined to a
verb, an adjective, or another adverb, to modify or denote some
circumstance respecting it."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 66; _Lat. Gram._,
185. (36.) "A Substantive or Noun is a name given to every object which the
senses can perceive; the understanding comprehend; or the imagination
entertain."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 34. (37.) "GENDER means the distinction
of nouns with regard to sex."--_Bullions, Prin. of E. Gram._, 2d Ed., p. 9.
(38.) "Gender is a distinction of nouns with regard to sex."--_Frost's
Gram._, p. 7. (39.) "Gender is a distinction of nouns in regard to
sex."--_Perley's Gram._, p. 10. (40.) "Gender is the distinction of nouns,
in regard to sex."--_Cooper's Murray_, 24; _Practical Gram._, 21. (41.)
"Gender is the distinction of nouns with regard to sex."--_Murray's Gram._,
p. 37; _Alger's_, 16; _Bacon's_, 12; _R. G. Greene's_, 16; _Bullions,
Prin._, 5th Ed., 9; _his New Gr._, 22; _Fisk's_, 19; _Hull's_, 9;
_Ingersoll's_, 15. (42.) "Gender is the distinction of sex."--_Alden's
Gram._, p. 9; _Comly's_, 20; _Dalton's_, 11; _Davenport's_, 15; _J.
Flint's_, 28; A. _Flint's_, 11; _Greenleaf's_, 21; _Guy's_, 4; _Hart's_,
36; _Hiley's_, 12; _Kirkham's_, 34; _Lennie's_, 11; _Picket's_, 25;
_Smith's_, 43; _Sanborn's_, 25; _Wilcox's_, 8. (43.) "Gender is the
distinction of Sex, or the Difference betwixt Male and Female."--_British
Gram._, p. 94; _Buchanan's_, 18. (44.) "Why are nouns divided into genders?
To distinguish their sexes."--_Fowle's True Eng. Gram._, p. 10. (45.) "What
is meant by _Gender?_ The different sexes."--_Burn's Gram._, p. 34. (46)
"Gender, in grammar, is a difference of termination, to express distinction
of sex."--_Webster's Philos. Gram._, p 30; _Improved Gram._, 22. (47.)
"Gender signifies a distinction of nouns, according to the different sexes
of things they denote."--_Coar's Gram._, p. 2. (48.) "Gender is the
distinction occasioned by sex. Though there are but two sexes, still nouns
necessarily admit of four distinctions[454] of gender."--_Hall's Gram._, p.
6. (49.) "Gender is a term which is employed for the distinction of nouns
with regard to sex and species."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 41. (50.) "Gender is
a Distinction of Sex."--_Fisher's Gram._, p. 53. (51.) "GENDER marks the
distinction of Sex."--_W. Allen's Gram._, p. 37. (52.) "_Gender_ means the
kind, or sex. There are four genders."--_Parker and Fox's, Part I_, p. 7.
(53.) "Gender is a property of the noun which distinguishes sex."--_Weld's
Gram._, 2d Ed., p. 57. (54.) "Gender is a property of the noun or pronoun
by which it distinguishes sex."--_Weld's Grammar Abridged_, p. 49. (55.)
"Case is the state or condition of a noun with respect to the other words
in a sentence."--_Bullion's, E. Gram._, p. 16; _his Analyt. and Pract.
Gram._, p. 31. (56.) "_Case_ means the different state or situation of
nouns with regard to other words."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 55. (57.) "The
cases of substantives signify their different terminations, which serve to
express the relation of one thing to another."--_L. Murray's Gram._, 12mo,
2d Ed., p. 35. (58.) "Government is the power which one _part of speech_
has over _another_, when it causes it or requires it to be of some
particular person, number, gender, case, style, or mode."--_Sanborn's
Gram._, p. 126; see _Murray's Gram._, 142; _Smith's_, 119; _Pond's_, 88;
_et al_. (59.) "A simple sentence is a sentence which contains only one
nominative case and one verb to agree with it."--_Sanborn, ib._; see
_Murray's Gram., et al_. (60.) "Declension means putting a noun through the
different cases."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 58. (61.) "Zeugma is when two or
more substantives have a verb in common, which is applicable only to one of
them."--_B. F. Fisk's Greek Gram._, p. 185. (62.) "An Irregular Verb is
that which has its passed tense and perfect participle terminating
differently; as, smite, smote, smitten."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 92. (63.)
"_Personal_ pronouns are employed as substitutes for nouns that denote
_persons_."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 23.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE IV.--OF COMPARISONS.

"We abound more in vowel and diphthong sounds, than most
languages."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 89.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the
terms _we_ and _languages_, which are here used to form a comparison,
express things which are totally unlike. But, according to Critical Note
4th, "A comparison is a form of speech which requires some similarity or
common property in the things compared; without which, it becomes a
solecism." Therefore, the expression ought to be changed; thus, "_Our
language abounds_ more in vowel and diphthong sounds, than most _other
tongues_." Or: "We abound more in vowel and _diphthongal_ sounds, than most
_nations_."]

"A line thus accented, has a more spirited air, than when the accent is
placed on any other syllable."--_Kames, El. of Crit._, Vol. ii, p. 86.
"Homer introduceth his deities with no greater ceremony than as mortals;
and Virgil has still less moderation."--_Ib._, Vol. ii, p. 287. "Which the
more refined taste of later writers, who had far inferior genius to them,
would have taught them to avoid."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 28. "The poetry,
however, of the Book of Job, is not only equal to that of any other of the
sacred writings, but is superior to them all, except those of Isaiah
alone."--_Ib._, p. 419. "On the whole, Paradise Lost is a poem that abounds
with beauties of every kind, and that justly entitles its author to a
degree of fame not inferior to any poet."--_Ib._, p. 452. "Most of the
French writers compose in short sentences; though their style in general,
is not concise; commonly less so than the bulk of English writers, whose
sentences are much longer."--_Ib._, p. 178. "The principles of the
Reformation were deeper in the prince's mind than to be easily
eradicated."--HUME: _Cobbett's E. Gram._, 217. "Whether they do not create
jealousy and animosity more hurtful than the benefit derived from
them."--DR. J. LEO WOLF: _Lit. Conv._, p. 250. "The Scotch have preserved
the ancient character of their music more entire than any other
country."--_Music of Nature_, p. 461. "When the time or quantity of one
syllable exceeds the rest, that syllable readily receives the
accent."--_Rush, on the Voice_, p. 277. "What then can be more obviously
true than that it should be made as just as we can?"--_Dymond's Essays_, p.
198. "It was not likely that they would criminate themselves more than they
could avoid."--_Clarkson's Hist., Abridged_, p. 76. "Their understandings
were the most acute of any people who have ever lived."--_Knapp's
Lectures_, p32. "The patentees have printed it with neat types, and upon
better paper than was done formerly."--_Lily's Gram., Pref._, p. xiii. "In
reality, its relative use is not exactly like any other word."--_Felch's
Comprehensive Gram._, p. 62. "Thus, instead of two books, which are
required, (the grammar and the exercises,) the learner finds both in one,
for a price at least not greater than the others."--_Bullions's E. Gram._,
Recom., p. iii; _New Ed._, Recom., p. 6. "They are not improperly regarded
as pronouns, though in a sense less strict than the others"--_Ib._, p. 199.
"We have had the opportunity, as will readily be believed, of becoming
conversant with the case much more particularly, than the generality of our
readers can be supposed to have had."--_The British Friend_, 11mo, 29th,
1845.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE V.--OF FALSITIES.

"The long sound of _i_ is compounded of the sound of _a_, as heard in
_ball_, and that of _e_, as heard in _be_."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 3.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the sentence falsely teaches, that the long
sound of _i_ is that of the diphthong heard in _oil_ or _boy_. But,
according to Critical Note 5th, "Sentences that convey a meaning manifestly
false, should be changed, rejected, or contradicted; because they distort
language from its chief end, or only worthy use; which is, to state facts,
and to tell the truth." The error may be corrected thus: "The long sound of
_i_ is _like a very quick union_ of the sound of _a_, as heard in _bar_,
and that of _e_, as heard in _be_."]

"The omission of a word necessary to grammatical propriety, is called
ELLIPSIS."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 45. "Every substantive is of the third
person."--_Alexander Murray's Gram._, p. 91. "A noun, when the subject is
spoken _to_, is in the second person; and when spoken _of_, it is in the
third person; but never in the first."--_Nutting's Gram._, p. 17. "With us,
no substantive nouns have gender, or are masculine and feminine, except the
proper names of male and female creatures."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 156.
"Apostrophe is a little mark signifying that something is shortened; as,
for William his hat, we say, William's hat."--_Infant School Gram._, p. 30.
"When a word beginning with a vowel is coupled with one beginning with a
consonant, the indefinite article must be repeated; thus, 'Sir Matthew Hale
was _a_ noble and _an_ impartial judge;' 'Pope was _an_ elegant and _a_
nervous writer.'"--_Maunder's Gram._, p. 11. "_W_ and _y_ are consonants,
when they begin a word or syllable; but in every other situation they are
vowels."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 7: _Bacon, Comly, Cooper, Fish, Ingersoll,
Kirkham, Smith, et al_. "_The_ is used before all adjectives and
substantives, let them begin as they will."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 26.
"Prepositions are also prefixed to words in such manner, as to coalesce
with them, and to become a part of them."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 66. "But _h_
is entirely silent at the beginning of syllables not accented, as
_historian_."--_Blair's Gram._, p. 5. "Any word that will make sense with
_to_ before it, is a verb."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 44. "Verbs do not, in
reality, express actions; but they are intrinsically the mere _names_ of
actions."--_Ib._, p. 37. "The nominative is the actor or subject, and the
active verb is the action performed by the nominative."--_Ib._, p. 45. "If,
therefore, only one creature or thing acts, only one action, at the same
instant, can be done; as, the _girl writes_."--_Ib._, 45. "The verb
_writes_ denotes but one action, which the girl performs; therefore the
verb _writes_ is of the singular number."--_Ib._, 45. "And when I say, Two
men _walk_, is it not equally apparent, that _walk_ is plural, because it
expresses _two_ actions?"--_Ib._, p. 47. "The subjunctive mood is formed by
adding a conjunction to the indicative mood."--_Beck's Gram._, p. 16. "The
possessive case should always be distinguished by the apostrophe."--
_Frost's El. of Gram._, Rule 44th, p. 49. "'At these proceedings of the
commons,'--Here _of_ is the sign of the genitive or possessive case, and
_commons_ is of that case, governed of proceedings."--_Alex. Murray's
Gram._, p. 95. "Here let it be observed again that, strictly speaking, no
verbs have numbers nor persons, neither have nouns nor pronouns persons,
when they refer to irrational creatures and inanimate things."--_S.
Barrett's Gram._, p. 136. "The noun or pronoun denoting the person or thing
addressed or spoken to, is in the nominative case independent."--_Frost's
El. of Gram._, Rule 8th, p. 44. "Every noun, when addressed, becomes of the
second person, and is in the nominative case absolute; as--'_Paul_, thou
art beside thyself.'"--_Jaudon's Gram._, Rule 19th, p. 108. "Does the
Conjunction join Words together? No; only Sentences."--_British Gram._, p.
103. "No; the Conjunction only joins sentences together."--_Buchanan's
Gram._, p. 64. "Every Genitive has a Noun to govern it, expressed or
understood; as, St. James's, _Palace_ is understood; therefore one Genitive
cannot govern another."--_Ib._, p. 111. "Every adjective, and every
adjective pronoun, belongs to a substantive, expressed or understood."--
_Murray's Gram._, p. 161; _Bacon's_, 48; _Alger's_, 57; _et al_. "Every
adjective qualifies a substantive expressed or understood."--_Bullions, E.
Gram._, p. 97. "Every adjective belongs to some noun expressed or
understood."--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 36. "Adjectives belong to the nouns
which they describe."--_Smith's New Gram._, p. 137. "Adjectives must agree
with the nouns, which they qualify."--_Fisk's Murray_, p. 101. "The
Adjective must agree with its Substantive in Number."--_Buchanan's Gram._,
p. 94. "Every adjective and participle belongs to some noun or pronoun
expressed or understood."--_Frost's El. of Gram._, p. 44. "Every Verb of
the Infinitive Mood, supposes a verb before it expressed or
understood."--_Buchanan's Gram._, p. 94. "Every Adverb has its Verb
expressed or understood."--_Ib._, p. 94. "Conjunctions which connect
Sentence to Sentence, are always placed betwixt the two Propositions or
Sentences which they unite."--_Ib._, p. 88. "The words _for all that_, seem
to be too low."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 213. "_For all that_ seems to be too
low and vulgar."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 139. "The reader, or hearer,
then, understands from _and_, that he is to add something."--_J. Brown's E.
Syntax_, p. 124. "But _and_ never, never connects one _thing_ with another
thing, nor one _word_ with another word."--_Ib._, p. 122. "'Six, and six
are twelve.' Here it is affirmed that, _six is twelve_!"--_Ib._, p. 120.
"'John, and his wife have six children.' This is an instance of gross
_catachresis_. It is here affirmed that John has six children, and that his
wife has six children."--_Ib._, p. 122. "Nothing which is not right can be
great."--_Murray's Exercises_, 8vo, p. 146: see _Rambler_, No. 185.
"Nothing can be great which is not right."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 277.
"The highest degree of reverence should be paid to youth."--_Ib._, p. 278.
"There is, in many minds, neither knowledge nor understanding."--_Murray's
Gram._, 8vo, p. 151; _Russell's_, 84; _Alger's_, 54; _Bacon's_, 47; _et
al_. "Formerly, what we call the objective cases of our pronouns, were
employed in the same manner as our present nominatives are."--_Kirkham's
Gram._, p. 164. "As it respects a choice of words and expressions, no rules
of grammar can materially aid the learner."--_S. S. Greene's Gram._, 1st
Ed., p. 202. "Whatever exists, or is conceived to exist, is a
Noun."--_Fowler's E. Gram._, 8vo, 1850, Sec.137. "As all men are not brave,
_brave_ is itself comparative."--_Ib._, Sec.190.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE VI.--OF ABSURDITIES.

(1.) "And sometimes two unaccented syllables follow each other."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 384.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the phrase, "_follow each other_," is here
an absurdity; it being impossible for two things to "follow each other,"
except they alternate, or whirl round. But, according to Critical Note 6th,
"Absurdities, of every kind, are contrary to grammar; because they are
contrary to reason, or good sense, which is the foundation of grammar."
Therefore, a different expression should here be chosen; thus: "And
sometimes two unaccented syllables _come together_." Or: "And sometimes
_one_ unaccented _syllable follows an_ other."]

(2.) "What nouns frequently succeed each other?"--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 65.
(3.) "Words are derived from one another in various ways."--_Ib._, p. 288;
_Merchant's Gram._, 78; _Weld's_, 2d Edition, 222. (4.) "Prepositions are
derived from the two Latin words _prae_ and _pono_, which signify before and
place."--_Mack's Gram._, p. 86. (5.) "He was sadly laughed at for such
conduct."--_Bullion's E. Gram._, p. 79. (6.) "Every adjective pronoun
belongs to some noun or pronoun expressed or understood."--_Ingersoll's
Gram._, p. 212. (7.) "If he [Addison] fails in anything, it is in want of
strength and precision, which renders his manner not altogether a proper
model."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 187. (8.) "Indeed, if Horace be deficient in
any thing, it is in this, of not being sufficiently attentive to juncture
and connexion of parts."--_Ib._, p. 401. (9.) "The pupil is now supposed to
be acquainted with the nine sorts of speech, and their most usual
modifications."--_Taylor's District School_, p. 204. (10.) "I could see,
hear, taste, and smell the rose."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 156. (11.) "The
triphthong _iou_ is sometimes pronounced distinctly in two syllables; as in
bilious, various, abstemious."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 13; _Walker's
Dict._, Prin. 292, p. 37. (12.) "The diphthong _aa_ generally sounds like a
short in proper names; as in Balaam, Canaan, Isaac; but not in Baal,
Gaal."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 10. (13.) "Participles are sometimes governed
by the article; for the present participle, with the definite article _the_
before it, becomes a substantive."--_Ib._, p. 192. (14.) "Words ending with
_y_, preceded by a consonant, form the plurals of nouns, the persons of
verbs, verbal nouns, past participles, comparatives and superlatives, by
changing _y_ into _i_."--_Walker's Rhyming Dict._, p. viii; _Murray's
Gram._, 23; _Merchant's Murray_, 13; _Fisk's_, 44; _Kirkham's_, 23;
_Greenleaf's_, 20; _Wright's Gram._, 28; _et al_. (15.) "But _y_ preceded
by a vowel, _in such instances as the above_, is not changed; as boy,
boys."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 24; _Merchant's, Fisk's, Kirkham's,
Greenleaf's, et al_. (16.) "But when _y_ is preceded by a vowel, it is very
rarely[455] changed in the additional syllable: as coy, coyly."--_Murray's
Gram. again_, p. 24; _Merchant's_, 14; _Fisk's_, 45; _Greenleaf's_, 20;
_Wright's_, 29; _et al_. (17.) "But when _y_ is preceded by a vowel, _in
such instances_, it is very rarely changed into _i_; as coy,
COYLESS."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 24. (18.) "Sentences are of a twofold
nature: Simple and Compound."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 123. (19.) "The neuter
pronoun _it_ is applied to all nouns and pronouns: as, _It_ is _he; it_ is
_she; it_ is _they; it_ is the _land_."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 92. (20.) "_It
is_ and _it was_, are often used in a plural construction; as, '_It was_
the heretics who first began to rail.'"--_Merchant's Gram._, p. 87. (21.)
"_It is_ and _it was_, are often, after the manner of the French, used in a
plural construction, and by some of our best writers: as, '_It was_ the
_heretics that_ first began to rail.' Smollett."--_Priestley's Gram._, p.
190; _Murray's_, 158; _Smith's_, 134; _Ingersoll's_, 210; _Fisk's_, 115;
_et al_. (22.) "_w_ and _y_, as consonants, have one sound."--_Town's
Spelling-Book_, p. 9. (23.) "The conjunction _as_ is frequently used as a
relative."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 93. (24.) "When several clauses succeed
each other, the conjunction may be omitted with propriety."--_Merchant's
Gram._, p. 97. (25.) "If, however, the members succeeding each other, are
very closely connected, the comma is unnecessary: as, 'Revelation tells us
how we may attain happiness.'"--_Murray's Gram._, p. 273; _Merchant's_,
151; _Russell's_, 115; _Comly's_, 152; _Alger's_, 80; _Smith's_, 190; _et
al_. (26.) "The mind has difficulty in passing readily through so many
different views given it, in quick succession, of the same
object."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 149. (27.) "The mind has difficulty in
passing readily through many different views of the same object, presented
in quick succession."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 341. (28.) "Adjective
pronouns are a kind of adjectives which point out nouns by some distinct
specification."--_Kirkham's Gram., the Compend, or Table_. (29.) "A noun of
multitude conveying plurality of idea[456], must have a verb or pronoun
agreeing with it in the plural."--_Ib._, pp. 59 and 181: see also _Lowth's
Gram._, p. 74; _L. Murray's_, 152; _Comly's_, 80; _Lennie's_, 87;
_Alger's_, 54; _Jaudon's_, 96; _Alden's_, 81; _Parker and Fox's_, I, 76;
II, 26; _and others_. (30.) "A noun or pronoun signifying possession, is
governed by the noun it possesses."--_Greenleaf's Gram._, p. 35. (31.) "A
noun signifying possession, is governed by the noun which it
possesses."--_Wilbur and Livingston's Gram._, p. 24. (32.) "A noun or
pronoun in the possessive case is governed by the noun it
possesses."--_Goldsbury's Gram._, p. 68. (33.) "The possessive case is
governed by the person or thing possessed; as, 'this is _his_ book.'"--_P.
E. Day's Gram._, p. 81. (34.) "A noun or pronoun in the possessive case, is
governed by the noun which it possesses."--_Kirkham's Gram., Rule_ 12th,
pp. 52 and 181; _Frazer's Gram._, 1844, p. 25; _F. H. Miller's_, 21. (35.)
"Here the boy is represented as acting. He is, therefore, in the nominative
case."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 41. (36.) "Some of the auxiliaries are
themselves principal verbs, as: _have, do, will_, and _am_, or
_be_."--_Cooper's Grammars, both_, p. 50. (37.) "Nouns of the male kind are
masculine. Those of the female kind are feminine."--_Beck's Gram._, p. 6.
(38.) "'To-day's lesson is longer than yesterday's:' here _to-day_ and
_yesterday_ are substantives."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 114; _Ingersoll's_,
50; _et al._ (39.) "In this example, _to-day_ and _yesterday_ are nouns in
the possessive case."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 88. (40.) "An Indian in
Britain would be much surprised to stumble upon an elephant feeding at
large in the open fields."--_Kames, El. of Crit._, Vol. i, p. 219. (41.)
"If we were to contrive a new language, we might make any articulate sound
the sign of any idea: there would be no impropriety in calling oxen _men_,
or rational beings by the name of _oxen_."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 139. (42.)
"All the parts of a sentence should correspond to each other."--_Ib._, p.
222; _Kirkham's_, 193; _Ingersoll's_, 275; _Goldsbury's_, 74; _Hiley's_,
110; _Weld's_, 193; _Alger's_, 71; _Fisk's_, 148; _S. Putnam's_, 95;
_Merchant's_, 101; _Merchant's Murray_, 95.

(43.) "Full through his neck the weighty falchion sped,
Along the pavement roll'd the mutt'ring head."
--_Odyssey_, xxii, 365.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE VII.--OF SELF-CONTRADICTION.

(1.) "Though the construction will not admit of a _plural verb_, the
sentence would certainly stand better thus: 'The king, the lords, and the
commons, _form_ an excellent constitution.'"--_Murray's Gram._, p. 151;
_Ingersoll's_, 239.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the first clause here quoted is contradicted
by the last. But, according to Critical Note 7th, "Every writer or speaker
should be careful not to contradict himself; for what is
self-contradictory, is both null in argument, and bad in style." The
following change may remove the discrepance: "Though 'The king _with_ the
lords and commons,' _must have a singular rather than_ a plural verb, the
sentence would certainly stand better thus: 'The king, the lords, _and_ the
commons, _form_ an excellent constitution.'"]

(2.) "_L_ has always a soft liquid sound; as in love, billow, quarrel. It
is sometimes mute: as in half, talk, psalm."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 14;
_Fisk's_, 40. (3.) "_L_ has always a soft liquid sound; as in _love,
billow_. It is often silent; as in _half, talk, almond_."--_Kirkham's
Gram._, p. 22. (4.) "The words _means_ and _amends_, though formerly used
in the singular, as well as in the plural number, are now, by polite
writers, restricted to the latter. Our most distinguished modern authors
say, 'by _this means_,' as well as, by _these means_.'"--_Wright's Gram._,
p. 150. (5.) "'A friend exaggerates a man's virtues: an enemy inflames his
crimes.' Better thus: 'A friend exaggerates a man's virtues: an enemy his
crimes.'"--_Murray's Gram._, Vol. i, p. 325. "A friend exaggerates a man's
virtues, an enemy inflames his crimes"--_Key_, Vol. ii, p. 173. (6.) "The
auxiliary _have_, in the perfect tense of the subjunctive mood, should be
avoided."--_Merchant's Gram._, p. 97. "Subjunctive Mood, Perfect Tense. If
I _have_ loved, If thou hast loved," &c.--p. 51. (7.) "There is also an
impropriety in governing both the indicative and subjunctive moods, with
the same conjunction; as, '_If_ a man _have_ a hundred sheep, and _if_ one
of them _be_ gone astray,' &c. It should be, and one of them _is_ gone
astray, &c."--_Ib._, p. 97. (8.) "The rising series of contrasts convey
inexpressible dignity and energy to the conclusion."--_Jamieson's Rhet._,
p. 79. (9.) "A groan or a shriek is instantly understood, as a language
extorted by distress, a language which no art can counterfeit, and which
conveys a meaning that words are utterly inadequate to express."--_Porter's
Analysis_, p. 127. "A groan or shriek speaks to the ear, as the language of
distress, with far more thrilling effect than words. Yet these may be
counterfeited by art."--_Ib._, p. 147. (10.) "These words [_book_ and
_pen_] cannot be put together in such a way as will constitute
plurality."--_James Brown's English Syntax_, p. 125. (11.) "Nor can the
real _pen_, and the real _book_ be expressed in two words in such a manner
as will constitute _plurality_ in _grammar._"--_Ibid._ (12.) "_Our_ is an
adjective pronoun of the possessive kind. Decline it."--_Murray's Gram._,
p. 227. (13.) "_This_ and _that_, and likewise their Plurals, are always
opposed to each other in a Sentence."--_Buchanan's Syntax_, p. 103. "When
_this_ or _that_ is used alone, i.e. not opposed to each other, _this_ is
written or spoken of Persons or Things immediately present, and as it were
before our Eyes, or nearest with relation to Place or Time. _That_ is
spoken or written of Persons or Things passed, absent and distant in
relation to Time and Place."--_Ibid._ (14.) "Active and neuter verbs may be
conjugated by adding their present participle to the auxiliary verb _to
be_, through all its variations."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 159. "_Be_ is an
auxiliary whenever it is placed before the perfect participle of another
verb, but in every other situation, it is a _principal_ verb."--_Ib._, p.
155. (15.) "A verb in the imperative mood, is always of the second
person."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 136. "The verbs, according to an idiom of
our language, or the poet's license, are used in the _imperative_, agreeing
with a nominative of the first or third person."--_Ib._, p. 164. (16.)
"Personal Pronouns are distinguished from the relative, by their denoting
the _person_ of the nouns for which they stand."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 97.
"Pronouns of the first person, do not agree in person with the nouns they
represent."--_Ib._, p. 98. (17.) "Nouns have three cases, nominative,
possessive, and objective."--_Beck's Gram._, p. 6. "Personal pronouns have,
like nouns, two cases, nominative and objective."--_Ib._, p. 10. (18.). "In
some instances the preposition suffers no change, but becomes an adverb
merely by its application: as, 'He was _near_ falling.'"--_Murray's Gram._,
p. 116. (19.) "Some nouns are used only in the plural; as, _ashes,
literati, minutiae_, SHEEP, DEER."--_Blair's Gram._, p. 43. "Some nouns are
the same in both numbers, as, _alms, couple_, DEER, _series, species,
pair_, SHEEP."--_Ibid._ "Among the inferior parts of speech there are some
_pairs_ or _couples_"--_Ib._, p. 94. (20.) "Concerning the pronominal
_adjectives_, that _can_ and _can not, may_ and _may not_, represents _its_
noun."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 336. (21.) "The _article a_ is in a few
instances employed in the sense of a _preposition_; as, Simon Peter said I
go _a_ [to] fishing."--_Weld's Gram._, 2d Ed., p. 177; Abridg., 128. "'To
go a fishing;' i.e. to go _on_ a fishing voyage or business."--_Weld's
Gram._, p. 192. (22.) "So also verbs, really transitive, are used
intransitively, when they have no object."--_Bullions's Analyt. and Pract.
Gram._, p. 60.

(23.) "When first young Maro, in his boundless mind,
A work t' outlast immortal Rome design'd."
--_Pope, on Crit._, l. 130.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE VIII.--OF SENSELESS JUMBLING.

"Number distinguishes them [viz., _nouns_], as one, or many, of the same
kind, called the singular and plural."--_Dr. Blair's Lectures on Rhetoric_,
p. 74.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the words of this text appear to be so
carelessly put together, as to make nothing but jargon, or a sort of
scholastic balderdash. But, according to Critical Note 8th, "To jumble
together words without care for the sense, is an unpardonable negligence,
and an abuse of the human understanding." I think the learned author should
rather have said: "_There are two numbers_ called the singular and _the_
plural, _which_ distinguish nouns as _signifying either_ one _thing_, or
many of the same kind."]

"Here the noun _James Munroe_ is addressed, he is spoken to, it is here a
noun of the second person."--_Mack's Gram._, p. 66. "The number and case of
a verb can never be ascertained until its nominative is known."--_Emmons's
Gram._, p. 36. "A noun of multitude, or signifying many, may have the verb
and pronoun agreeing with it either in the singular or plural number; yet
not without regard to the import of the word, as conveying unity or
plurality of idea."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 75; _Murray's_, 152; _Alger's_,
54; _Russell's_, 55; _Ingersoll's_, 248; _et al._ "To express the present
and past imperfect of the active and neuter verb, the auxiliary _do_ is
sometimes used: I _do_ (now) love; I _did_ (then) love."--_Lowth's Gram._,
p. 40. "If these are perfectly committed, they will be able to take twenty
lines for a lesson on the second day; and may be increased each
day."--_Osborn's Key_, p. 4. "When _c_ is joined with _h (ch)_, they are
generally sounded in the same manner: as in Charles, church, cheerfulness,
and cheese. But foreign words (except in those derived from the French, as
_chagrin, chicanery_, and _chaise_, in which _ch_ are sounded like _sh_)
are pronounced like _k_; as in Chaos, character, chorus, and
chimera."--_Bucke's Classical Gram._, p. 10. "Some substantives, naturally
neuter, are, by a figure of speech, converted into the masculine or
feminine gender."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 37; _Comly's_, 20; _Bacon's_, 13;
_A Teacher's_, 8; _Alger's_, 16; _Lennie's_, 11; _Fisk's_, 56;
_Merchant's_, 27; _Kirkham's_, 35; _et al._ "Words in the English language
may be classified under ten general heads, the names of which classes are
usually termed the ten parts of speech."--_Nutting's Gram._, p. 14. "'Mercy
is the true badge of nobility.' _Nobility_ is a noun of multitude, mas. and
fem. gender, third person, sing. and in the obj. case, and governed by
'of:' RULE 31."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 161. "gh, are either silent, or have
the sound of f, as in laugh."--_Town's Spelling-Book_, p. 10. "As many
people as were destroyed, were as many languages or dialects lost and
blotted out from the general catalogue."--_Chazotte's Essay_, p. 25. "The
_grammars_ of some languages contain a greater number of _the_ moods, than
_others_, and exhibit _them_ in different forms."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo.
Vol. i, p. 95. "A COMPARISON OR SIMILE, is, _when_ the resemblance between
two objects _is expressed in form_, and _generally pursued_ more fully than
the nature of a metaphor admits."--_Ib._, p. 343. "In _some dialects_, the
word _what_ is improperly used for _that_, and sometimes we find it in
_this sense_ in writing."--_Ib._, p. 156; _Priestley's Gram._, 93;
_Smith's_, 132; _Merchant's_, 87; _Fisk's_, 114; _Ingersoll's_, 220; _et
al._ "Brown makes great ado concerning the adname principles of preceding
works, in relation to the _gender_ of pronouns."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._,
p. 323. "The nominative precedes and performs the action of the
verb."--_Beck's Gram._, p. 8. "The Primitive are those which cannot receive
more simple forms than those which they already possess."--_Wright's
Gram._, p. 28. "The long sound [of _i_] is always marked by the _e_ final
in monosyllables; as, thin, thine; except give, live."--_Murray's Gram._,
p. 13; _Fisk's_, 39; _et al._ "But the third person or thing spoken of
being absent, and in many respects unknown, it is necessary that it should
be marked by a distinction of gender."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 21; _L.
Murray's_, 51; _et al._ "Each of the diphthongal letters was doubtless,
originally heard in pronouncing the words which contain them. Though this
is not the case at present, with respect to many of them, these
combinations still retain the name of diphthongs; but, to distinguish them,
they are marked by the term _improper_."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 9;
_Fisk's_, 37; _et al._ "A Mode is the form of, or manner of using a verb,
by which the being, action, or passion is expressed "--_Alex. Murray's
Gram._, p. 32. "The word _that_ is a demonstrative pronoun when it is
followed immediately by a substantive, to which it is either joined, or
refers, and which it limits or qualifies."--_Lindley Murray's Gram._, p.
54.

"The guiltless woe of being past,
Is future glory's deathless heir."--_Sumner L. Fairfield._

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE IX.--OF WORDS NEEDLESS.

"A knowledge of grammar enables us to express ourselves better in
conversation and in writing composition."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 7.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the word _composition_ is here needless.
But, according to Critical Note 9th, "Words that are entirely needless, and
especially such as injure or encumber the expression, ought in general to
be omitted." The sentence would be better without this word, thus: "A
knowledge of grammar enables us to express ourselves better in conversation
and in writing."]

"And hence we infer, that there is no other dictator here but
use."--_Jamieson's Rhet._, p. 42. "Whence little else is gained, except
correct spelling and pronunciation."--_Town's Spelling-Book_, p. 5. "The
man who is faithfully attached to religion, may be relied on, with humble
confidence."--_Merchants School Gram._, p. 76. "Shalt thou build me an
house for me to dwell in?"--_2 Sam._, vii, 5. "The house was deemed
polluted which was entered into by so abandoned a woman."--_Blair's Rhet._,
p. 279. "The farther that he searches, the firmer will be his
belief."--_Keith's Evidences_, p. 4. "I deny not, but that religion
consists in these things."--_Barclays Works_, i, 321. "Except the king
delighted in her, and that she were called by name."--_Esther_, ii, 14.
"The proper method of reading these lines, is to read them according as the
sense dictates."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 386. "When any words become obsolete,
or at least are never used, except as constituting part of particular
phrases, it is better to dispense with their service entirely, and give up
the phrases."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 185; _Murray's Gram._, p. 370. "Those
savage people seemed to have no element but that of war."--_Murray's Key_,
8vo, p. 211. "_Man_ is a common noun, of the third person, singular number,
masculine gender, and in the nominative case."--_J. Flint's Gram._, p. 33.
"The orator, according as circumstances require, will employ them
all."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 247. "By deferring our repentance, we accumulate
our sorrows."--_Murray's Key_, ii, p. 166. "There is no doubt but that
public speaking became early an engine of government."--_Blair's Rhet._, p.
245. "The different meaning of these two first words may not at first
occur."--_Ib._, p. 225. "The sentiment is well expressed by Plato, but much
better by Solomon than him."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 214; _Ingersoll's_, 251;
_Smith's_, 179; _et al_. "They have had a greater privilege than we have
had."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 211. "Every thing should be so arranged, as
that what goes before may give light and force to what follows."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 311. "So as that his doctrines were embraced by great
numbers."--UNIV. HIST.: _Priestley's Gram._, p. 139. "They have taken
another and a shorter cut."--SOUTH: _Joh. Dict._ "The Imperfect Tense of a
regular verb is formed from the present by adding _d_ or _ed_ to the
present; as, 'I _loved_.'"--_Frost's El. of Gram._, p. 32. "The pronoun
_their_ does not agree in gender or number with the noun 'man,' for which
it stands."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 182. "This mark denotes any thing of
wonder, surprise, joy, grief, or sudden emotion."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 19.
"We are all accountable creatures, each for himself."--_Murray's Key_, p.
204; _Merchant's_, 195. "If he has commanded it, then I must
obey."--_Smith's New Gram._, pp. 110 and 112. "I now present him with a
form of the diatonic scale."--_Dr. John Barber's Elocution_, p. xi. "One
after another of their favourite rivers have been reluctantly
abandoned."--_Hodgson's Tour_. "_Particular_ and _peculiar_ are words of
different import from each other."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 196. "Some adverbs
admit rules of comparison: as Soon, sooner, soonest."--_Bucke's Gram._, p.
76. "From having exposed himself too freely in different climates, he
entirely lost his health."--_Murray's Key_. p. 200. "The Verb must agree
with its Nominative before it in Number and Person."--_Buchanan's Syntax_,
p. 93. "Write twenty short sentences containing only adjectives."--_Abbot's
Teacher_, p. 102. "This general inclination and tendency of the language
seems to have given occasion to the introducing of a very great
corruption."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 60. "The second requisite of a perfect
sentence, is its _Unity_."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 311. "It is scarcely
necessary to apologize for omitting to insert their names."--_Ib._, p. vii.
"The letters of the English Language, called the English Alphabet, are
twenty-six in number."--_Ib._, p. 2; _T. Smith's_, 5; _Fisk's_, 10;
_Alger's_, 9; _et al_. "A writer who employs antiquated or novel
phraseology, must do it with design: he cannot err from inadvertence as he
may do it with respect to provincial or vulgar expressions."--_Jamieson's
Rhet._, p. 56. "The _Vocative_ case, in some Grammars, is wholly omitted;
why, if we must have cases, I could never understand the propriety
of."--_Bucke's Classical Gram._, p. 45. "Active verbs are conjugated with
the auxiliary verb _I have_; passive verbs are conjugated with the
auxiliary verb _I am_."--_Ib._, p. 57. "What word, then, may _and_ be
called? A Conjunction."--_Smith's New Gram._, p. 37. "Have they ascertained
the person who gave the information?"--_Bullions's E. Gram._, p. 81.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE X.--OF IMPROPER OMISSIONS.

"All qualities of things are called adnouns, or adjectives."--_Blair's
Gram._, p. 10.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because this expression lacks two
or three words which are necessary to the sense intended. But according to
Critical Note 10th, "Words necessary to the sense, or even to the melody or
beauty of a sentence, ought seldom, if ever, to be omitted." The sentence
may be amended thus: "All _words signifying concrete_ qualities of things,
are called adnouns, or adjectives."]

"The--signifies the long or accented syllable, and the breve indicates a
short or unaccented syllable."--_Blair's Gram._, p. 118. "Whose duty is to
help young ministers."--_N. E. Discipline_, p. 78. "The passage is closely
connected with what precedes and follows."--_Philological Museum_, Vol. i,
p. 255 "The work is not completed, but soon will be."--_Smith's Productive
Gram._, p. 113. "Of whom hast thou been afraid or feared?"--_Isaiah_, lvii,
11. "There is a God who made and governs the world."--_Butler's Analogy_,
p. 263. "It was this made them so haughty."--_Goldsmith's Greece_, Vol. ii,
p. 102. "How far the whole charge affected him is not easy to determine."--
_Ib._, i, p. 189. "They saw, and worshipped the God, that made them."--
_Bucke's Gram._, p. 157. "The errors frequent in the use of hyperboles,
arise either from overstraining, or introducing them on unsuitable
occasions."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 256. "The preposition _in_ is set
before countries, cities, and large towns; as, 'He lives _in_ France, _in_
London, or _in_ Birmingham.' But before villages, single houses, and cities
which are in distant countries, _at_ is used; as, 'He lives _at_
Hackney.'"--_Ib._, p. 204; _Dr. Ash's Gram._, 60; _Ingersoll's_, 232;
_Smith's_, 170; _Fisk's_, 143; _et al._ "And, in such recollection, the
thing is not figured as in our view, nor any image formed."--_Kames, El. of
Crit._, Vol. i, p. 86. "Intrinsic and relative beauty must be handled
separately."--_Ib._, Vol. ii, p. 336. "He should be on his guard not to do
them injustice, by disguising, or placing them in a false light."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 272. "In that work, we are frequently interrupted by unnatural
thoughts."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 275. "To this point have tended all the
rules I have given."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 120. "To these points have tended
all the rules which have been given."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 356.
"Language, as written, or oral, is addressed to the eye, or to the
ear."--_Lit. Conv._, p. 181. "He will learn, Sir, that to accuse and prove
are very different."--_Walpole_. "They crowded around the door so as to
prevent others going out."--_Abbott's Teacher_, p. 17. "One person or thing
is singular number; more than one person or thing is plural number."--_John
Flint's Gram._, p. 27. "According to the sense or relation in which nouns
are used, they are in the NOMINATIVE or POSSESSIVE CASE, thus, _nom_. man;
_poss_. man's."--_Blair's Gram._, p. 11. "Nouns or pronouns in the
possessive case are placed before the nouns which govern them, to which
they belong."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 130. "A teacher is explaining the
difference between a noun and verb."--_Abbott's Teacher_, p. 72. "And
therefore the two ends, or extremities, must directly answer to the north
and south pole."--HARRIS: _Joh. Dict., w. Gnomon_. "_Walks_ or _walketh,
rides_ or _rideth, stands_ or _standeth_, are of the third person
singular."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 47. "I grew immediately roguish and
pleasant to a degree, in the same strain."--SWIFT: _Tattler_, 31. "An
Anapaest has the first syllables unaccented, and the last accented."--
_Blair's Gram._, p. 119. "An Anapaest has the first two syllables
unaccented, and the last accented."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 219; _Bullions's
Principles_, 170. "An Anapaest has the two first syllables unaccented, and
the last accented."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 254; _Jamieson's Rhet._, 305;
_Smith's New Gram._, 188; _Guy's Gram._, 120; _Merchant's_, 167;
_Russell's_, 109; _Picket's_, 226. "But hearing and vision differ not more
than words spoken and written."--_Wilson's Essay on Gram._, p. 21. "They
are considered by some prepositions."--_Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram._, p.
102. "When those powers have been deluded and gone astray."--_Philological
Museum_, i, 642. "They will soon understand this, and like it."--_Abbott's
Teacher_, p. 92. "They have been expelled their native country
Romagna."--_Leigh Hunt, on Byron_, p. 18. "Future time is expressed two
different ways."--_Adam's Gram._, p. 80; _Gould's_, 78. "Such as the
borrowing from history some noted event."--_Kames, El. of Crit._, Vol. ii,
p. 280. "Every Verb must agree with its Nominative in Number and
Person."--_Burke's Gram._, p. 94. "We are struck, we know not how, with the
symmetry of any thing we see."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 268. "Under this
head, I shall consider every thing necessary to a good delivery."--
_Sheridan's Lect._, p. 26. "A good ear is the gift of nature; it may be
much improved, but not acquired by art."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 298.
"'Truth,' A noun, neuter, singular, the nominative."--_Bullions, E. Gram._,
p. 73. "'Possess,' A verb transitive, present, indicative active,--third
person plural."--_Ibid._, 73. "_Fear_ is a noun, neuter, singular, and is
the nominative to (or subject of) _is_."--_Id., ib._, p. 133. "_Is_ is a
verb, intrans., irregular--am, was, been; it is in the present, indicative,
third person singular, and agrees with its nominative _fear_. Rule 1. 'A
verb agrees,' &c."--_Ibid._, 133. "_Ae_ in _Gaelic_, has the sound of long
_a_."--_Wells's School Gram._, 1st Ed., p. 29.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XI.--OF LITERARY BLUNDERS.

"Repeat some [adverbs] that are composed of the article _a_ and
nouns."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 89.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the grammatist here mistakes for the article
_a_, the prefix or preposition _a_; as in "_aside, ashore, afoot, astray_,"
&c. But, according to Critical Note 11th, "Grave blunders made in the name
of learning, are the strongest of all certificates against the books which
contain them unreproved." The error should be corrected thus: "Repeat some
adverbs that are composed of the _prefix a, or preposition a_, and nouns."]

"Participles are so called, because derived from the Latin word
_participium_, which signifies _to partake_."--_Merchant's School Gram._,
p. 18. "The possessive _follows_ another noun, and is known by the sign of
'_s_ or _of_."--_Beck's Gram._, p. 8. "Reciprocal pronouns are formed by
adding _self_ or _selves_ to the possessive; as, _myself, yourselves_."--
_Ib._, p. 10. "The word _self_, and its plural _selves_, must be considered
nouns, as they occupy the places of nouns, and stand for the names of
them."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 61. "The Dactyl, _rolls round_, expresses
beautifully the majesty of the sun in his course."--_Webster's Philos.
Gram._, p. 231; _Webster's Imp. Gram._, p. 165; _Frazee's Imp. Gram._, p.
192. "Prepositions govern the objective case; as, John learned his
lesson."--_Frazee's Gram._, p. 153. "Prosody primarily signified
punctuation; and as the name implies, related to stopping _by the
way_."--_Hendrick's Gram._, p. 103. "On such a principle of forming modes,
there would be as many modes as verbs; and instead of four modes, we should
have forty-three thousand, which is the number of verbs in the English
language, according to Lowth."--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 76. "The following
phrases are elliptical: 'To let _out_ blood.' 'To go a hunting:' that is,'
To go on a hunting excursion.'"--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 129. "In Rhyme,
the last syllable of every two lines has the same sound."--_Id., Practical
Lessons_, p. 129. "The possessive case plural, ending in _es_, has the
apostrophe, but omits the _s_; as, _Eagles'_ wings."--_Weld's Gram._, p.
62; _Abridg._, p. 54. "Horses (plural) -mane, [should be written] horses'
mane."--_Weld', ib._, pp. 62 and 54. "W takes its written form from the
union of two _v_'s, this being the form of the Roman capital letter which
we call _V_."--_Fowler's E. Gram._, 1850, p. 157. "In the sentence, 'I saw
the lady who sings,' what _word_ do I say sings?"--_J. Flint's Gram._, p.
12. "In the sentence, 'this is the pen which John made,' what _word_ do I
say John made?"--_Ibid._ "'That we fall into _no_ sin:' _no_, an adverb
used idiomatically, instead of we do not fall into any sin."--_Blair's
Gram._, p. 54. "'That _all_ our doings may be ordered by thy governance:'
_all_, a pronoun used for _the whole_."--_Ibid._ "'Let him be made _to_
study.' What causes the sign _to_ to be expressed before _study?_ Its
being used in the passive voice after _be made_."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p.
145. "The following Verbs have neither Preter-Tense nor Passive-participle,
viz. Cast, cut, cost, shut, let, bid, shed, hurt, hit, put, &c."--
_Buchanan's Gram._, p. 60. "The agreement, which _every_ word has with
_the_ others in person, gender, _and_ case, is called CONCORD; and that
power which one _person of speech_ has over _another_, in respect to ruling
its case, mood, or _tense_, is called GOVERNMENT."--_Bucke's Classical
Gram._, p. 83. "The word _ticks_ tells what the noun _watch_ does."--
_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 15. "_Breve_ ([~]) _marks a short_ vowel or syllable,
and the dash (--) a long."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 157; _Lennie_, 137.
"Charles, you, by your diligence, make easy work of the task given you by
your preceptor.' The first _you_ is used in the nom. poss. and obj.
case."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 103. "_Ouy_ in _bouy_ is a proper tripthong.
_Eau_ in flambeau is an improper tripthong."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 255.
"'While I of things to come, As past rehearsing, sing.' POLLOK. That is,
'While I sing of things which are to come, as one sings of things which are
past rehearsing.'"--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 169. "A simple sentence has in it
but one nominative, and one neuter verb."--_Folker's Gram._, p. 14. "An
Irregular Verb is that which has its passed tense and perfect participle
terminating differently; as, smite, smote, smitten."--_Wright's Gram._, p.
92. "But when the antecedent is used in a general sense, a comma is
properly inserted before the relative; as, 'There is no _charm_ in the
female sex, _which_ can supply the place of virtue.'"--_Kirkham's Gram._,
p. 213. "Two capitals in this way denote the plural number; L. D. _Legis
Doctor_; LL. D. _Legum Doctor_."--_Gould's Lat. Gram._, p. 274. "Was any
person besides the mercer present? Yes, both he and his clerk."--_Murray's
Key_, 8vo, p. 188. "_Adnoun_, or _Adjective_, comes from the Latin, _ad_
and _jicio_, to _add to_."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 69. "Another figure of
speech, proper only to animated and warm composition, is what some critical
writers call vision; when, _in place_ of relating _some thing that is
past_, we use the _present tense_, and describe _it_ as actually _passing_
before our eyes. _Thus Cicero_, in his fourth oration against Cataline: 'I
seem to myself to behold this city, the ornament of the earth, and the
capital of all nations, suddenly involved in one conflagration. I see
before me the slaughtered heaps of citizens lying unburied in the midst of
their ruined country. The furious countenance of Cethegus rises to my view,
while with a savage joy he is triumphing in _your_ miseries.'"--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 171. "Vision is another figure of speech, which is proper only
in animated and warm composition. It is produced when, _instead_ of
relating _something that is past_, we use the present tense," &c.--
_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 352. "When several verbs follow one another,
having the same nominative, the auxiliary is frequently _omitted after the
first_ through an ellipsis, and understood _to the rest_; as, 'He has gone
and left me;' that is, 'He has gone, and _has_ left me.' "--_Comly's
Gram._, p. 94. "When I use the word _pillar_ as supporting an edifice, I
employ it literally."--_Hiley's Gram._, 3d Ed., p. 133. "The conjunction
_nor_ is often used for _neither_; as,

'Simois _nor_ Xanthus shall be wanting there.'"--_Ib._, p. 129.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XII.--OF PERVERSIONS.

"In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth."--_Murray's
Gram._, 8vo, Vol. i, p. 330; _Hallock's Gram._, p. 179; _Melmoth, on
Scripture_, p. 16.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because this reading is false in relation to the
word "_heavens_;" nor is it usual to put a comma after the word
"_beginning_." But, according to Critical Note 12th, "Proof-tests in
grammar, if not in all argument, should be quoted literally; and even that
which needs to be corrected, must never be perverted." The authorized text
is this: "In the beginning God created the _heaven_ and the
earth."--_Gen._, i, 1.]

"Canst thou, by searching, find out the Lord?"--_Murray's Gram._, p. 335.
"Great is the Lord, just and true are thy ways, thou king of
saints."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 171; _L. Murray's_, 168; _Merchant's_,
90; _R. C. Smith's_, 145; _Ingersoll's_, 194; _Ensell's_, 330; _Fisk's_,
104; _et al_. "Every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall not enter
into the kingdom of heaven."--_Alex. Murray's Gram._, p. 137. "Though he
was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 211;
_Bullions's_, 111 and 113; _Everest's_, 230; _Smith's_, 177; _et al_.
"Whose foundation was overflown with a flood."--FRIENDS' BIBLE: _Job_,
xxii, 16. "Take my yoke upon ye, for my yoke is easy."--_The Friend_, Vol.
iv, p. 150. "I will to prepare a place for you."--_Weld's E. Gram._, 2d
Ed., p. 67. "Ye who are dead hath he quickened."--_lb._, p. 189; Imp. Ed.,
195. "Go, flee thee away into the land of Judea."--_Hart's Gram._, p. 115.
"Hitherto shalt thou come, and no farther."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 222.
"Thine is the day and night."--_Brown's Concordance_, p. 82. "Faith worketh
patience; and patience, experience; and experience, hope."--_O. B. Peirce's
Gram._, p. 282. "Soon shall the dust return to dust, and the soul, to God
who gave it. BIBLE."--_Ib._, p. 166. "For, in the end, it biteth like a
serpent, and stingeth like an adder. It will lead thee into destruction,
and cause thee to utter perverse things. Thou wilt be like him who lieth
down in the midst of the sea. BIBLE."--_Ib._, p. 167. "The memory of the
just shall be honored: but the name of the wicked shall rot.
BIBLE."--_Ib._, p. 168. "He that is slow in anger, is better than the
mighty. He that ruleth his spirit, is better than he that taketh a city.
BIBLE."--_Ib._, p. 72. "The Lord loveth whomsoever he correcteth; as the
father correcteth the son in whom he delighteth. BIBLE."--_Ib._, p. 72.
"The first future tense represents what is to take place hereafter. G.
B."--_Ib._, p. 366. "Teach me to feel another's wo; [and] To hide what
faults I see."--_Ib._, p. 197. "Thy speech bewrayeth thee; for thou art a
Gallilean."--_Murray's Ex._, ii, p. 118. "Thy speech _betrays_ thee; for
thou art a Gallilean."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 250. "Strait is the gate,
and narrow the way, that leads to life eternal."--_Ib., Key_, p. 172.
"Straight is the gate," &c.--_Ib., Ex._, p. 36. "'Thou buildest the wall,
that thou _mayst_ be their king.' _Neh._, vi, 6."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo,
p. 210. "'There is forgiveness with thee, that thou _mayst_ be feared.'
_Psalms_, cxxx, 4."--_Ib._, p. 210. "But yesterday, the word, _Cesar_,
might Have stood against the world."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 316. "The
northeast spends its rage. THOMSON."--_Joh. Dict., w. Effusive._ "Tells how
the drudging goblet swet. MILTON."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 263. "And to
his faithful servant hath in place _Bore_ witness gloriously. SAM.
AGON."--_Ib._, p. 266. "Then, if thou fallest, O Cromwell, Thou fallest a
blessed martyr."--_Kirkham's Elocution_, p. 190. "I see the dagger-crest of
Mar, I see the _Morays'_ silver star, _Waves_ o'er the cloud of Saxon war,
That up the lake _came_ winding far!--SCOTT."--_Merchant's School Gram._,
p. 143. "Each _bird, and_ each insect, _is_ happy in its _kind_."--_Ib._,
p. 85. "_They who are_ learning to _compose and_ arrange _their_ sentences
with accuracy and order, _are_ learning, at the same time, to think with
accuracy and order. BLAIR."--_Ib._, p. 176; _L. Murray's Gram._,
Title-page, 8vo and 12mo. "We, then, as workers together with _you_,
beseech you also, that ye receive not the grace of God in vain."--_James
Brown's Eng. Syntax_, p. 129. "And on the _bounty_ of thy goodness
calls."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 246. "Knowledge dwells In heads replete
with thoughts of other men; Wisdom, in minds _retentive_ to their own.
COWPER."--_Merchant's School Gram._, p. 172. "_Oh!_ let me listen to the
_word_ of life. THOMSON."--_Ib._, p. 155. "Save that from yonder
ivy-mantled _bower_, &c. GRAY'S ELEGY."--_Tooke's Div. of Purley_, Vol. i,
p. 116. "_Weigh_ the _mens_ wits against the _ladies hairs_. POPE."--_Dr.
Johnson's Gram._, p. 6. "_Weigh_ the men's wits against the _women's
hairs_. POPE."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 214. "_Prior_ to the publication of
Lowth's _excellent little grammar_, the grammatical study of our _own_
language, formed no part of the ordinary method of instruction. HILEY'S
PREFACE."--_Dr. Bullions's E. Gram._, 1843, p. 189. "Let there be no strife
betwixt me and thee."--_Weld's Gram._, p. 143.

"What! canst thou not bear with me half an hour?--SHARP."
--_Ib._, p. 185.

"Till then who knew the force of those dire dreams.--MILTON."
--_Ib._, p. 186.

"In words, as fashions, the rule will hold,
Alike fantastic, if too new or old:"
--_Murray's Gram._, p. 136.

"Be not the first, by whom the new _is_ tried,
Nor yet the last, to lay the old aside."
--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 104.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XIII.--OF AWKWARDNESS.

"They slew Varus, who was he that I mentioned before."--_Murray's Key_,
8vo, p. 194.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the phrase, "_who was he that_," is here
prolix and awkward. But, according to Critical Note 13th, "Awkwardness, or
inelegance of expression, is a reprehensible defect in style, whether it
violate any of the common rules of syntax or not." This example may be
improved thus: "They slew Varus, _whom_ I mentioned before."]

"Maria rejected Valerius, who was he that she had rejected
before."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 174. "The English in its substantives
has but two different terminations for cases."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 18.
"Socrates and Plato were wise; they were the most eminent philosophers of
Greece."--_Ib._, p. 175; _Murray's Gram._, 149; _et al._ "Whether one
person or more than one, were concerned in the business, does not yet
appear."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 184. "And that, consequently, the verb
and pronoun agreeing with it, cannot with propriety, be ever used in the
plural number."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 153; _Ingersoll's_, 249; _et al._ "A
second help may be the conversing frequently and freely with those of your
own sex who are like minded."--_John Wesley_. "Four of the semi-vowels,
namely, _l, m, n, r_, are also distinguished by the name of _liquids_, from
their readily uniting with other consonants, and flowing as it were into
their sounds."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 8; _Churchill's_, 5; _Alger's_, 11;
_et al._ "Some conjunctions have _their_ correspondent conjunctions
_belonging to them_: so that, _in_ the subsequent member of the sentence
the _latter answers_ to the former."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 109: _Adam's_,
209; _Gould's_, 205; _L. Murray's_, 211; _Ingersoll's_, 268; _Fisk's_, 137;
_Churchill's_, 153; _Fowler's_, 562; _et al._ "The mutes are those
consonants, whose sounds cannot be protracted. The _semi-vowels, such
whose_ sounds can be continued _at pleasure, partaking_ of the nature of
vowels, from _which_ they derive their name."--_Murray's Gram._, p 9; _et
al._ "The pronoun of the third person, of the masculine and feminine
gender, is sometimes used as a noun, and regularly declined: as, 'The
_hes_ in birds.' BACON. 'The _shes_ of Italy.' SHAK."--_Churchill's Gram._,
p. 73. "The following _examples_ also _of_ separation of a preposition from
the word which it governs, _is_ improper _in common writings_."--_C.
Adams's Gram._, p. 103. "The word _whose_ begins likewise to be restricted
to persons, but _it_ is not _done_ so generally but that good writers, and
even in prose, use it when speaking of things."--_Priestley's Gram._, p.
99; _L. Murray's_, 157; _Fisk's_, 115; _et al._ "There are new and
surpassing wonders present themselves to our views."--_Sherlock_.
"Inaccuracies are often found in the way wherein the degrees of comparison
are applied and construed."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 202. "Inaccuracies are
often found in the way in which the degrees of comparison are applied and
construed."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 167; _Smith's_, 144; _Ingersoll's_, 193;
_et al._ "The connecting circumstance is placed too remotely, to be either
perspicuous or agreeable."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 177. "Those tenses are
called simple tenses, which are formed of the principal without an
auxiliary verb."--_Ib._, p. 91. "The nearer _that_ men approach to _each
other_, the more numerous are their points of contact and the greater will
be their pleasures or their pains."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 275. "This is
the machine that he is the inventor of."--_Nixon's Parser_, p. 124. "To
give this sentence the interrogative form, it should be expressed
thus."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 279. "Never employ those words which may
be susceptible of a sense different from the sense you intend to be
conveyed."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 152. "Sixty pages are occupied in
explaining what would not require more than ten or twelve to be explained
according to the ordinary method."--_Ib., Pref._, p. ix. "The present
participle in _-ing_ always expresses an action, or the suffering of an
action, or the being, state, or condition of a thing as _continuing_ and
_progressive_."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 57. "The _Present participle of
all active verbs[457]_ has an active signification; as, James _is building_
the house. _In many of these_, however, _it has also_ a passive
_signification_; as, _the_ house _was building when the wall fell_."--_Id.,
ib._, 2d or 4th Ed., p. 57. "Previous to parsing this sentence, it may be
analyzed to the young pupil by such questions as the following,
viz."--_Id., ib._, p. 73. "Subsequent to that period, however, attention
has been paid to this important subject."--_Ib._, New Ed., p. 189; _Hiley's
Preface_, p. vi. "A definition of a word is an explanation in what sense
the word is used, or what idea or object we mean by it, and which may be
expressed by any one or more of the properties, effects, or circumstances
of that object, so as sufficiently to distinguish it from other
objects."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 245.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XIV.--OF IGNORANCE.

"What is an Asserter? It is _the part of speech_ which asserts."--_O. B.
Peirce's Gram._, p. 20.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the term "_Asserter_" which is here put for
_Verb_, is both ignorantly misspelled, and whimsically misapplied. But,
according to Critical Note 14th, "Any use of words that implies ignorance
of their meaning, or of their proper orthography, is particularly
unscholarlike; and, in proportion to the author's pretensions to learning,
disgraceful." The errors here committed might have been avoided thus: "What
is _a verb_? It is _a word_ which signifies _to be, to act_, or _to be
acted upon_." Or thus: "What is an _assertor_? Ans. 'One who affirms
positively; an affirmer, supporter, or vindicator.'--_Webster's Dict._"]

"Virgil wrote the AEnead."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 56. "Which, to a
supercilious or inconsiderate Japaner, would seem very idle and
impertinent."--_Locke, on Ed._, p. 225. "Will not a look of disdain cast
upon you, throw you into a foment?"--_Life of Th. Say_, p. 146. "It may be
of use to the scholar, to remark in this place, that though only the
conjunction _if_ is affixed to the verb, any other conjunction proper for
the subjunctive mood, may, with equal propriety, be occasionally
annexed."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 93. "When proper names have an article
annexed to them, they are used as common names."--_Ib._, p. 36;
_Ingersoll's_, 25; _et al._ "When a proper noun has an article annexed to
it, it is used as a common noun."--_Merchant's Gram._, p. 25. "Seeming to
disenthral the death-field of its terrors."--_Ib._, p. 109. "For the same
reason, we might, without any disparagement to the language, dispense with
the terminations of our verbs in the singular."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 50.
"It diminishes all possibility of being misunderstood."--_Abbott's
Teacher_, p. 175. "Approximation to excellence is all that we can
expect."--_Ib._, p. 42. "I have often joined in singing with musicianists
at Norwich."--_Music of Nature_, p. 274. "When not standing in regular
prosic order."--_O. B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 281. "Disregardless of the
dogmas and edicts of the philosophical umpire."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 75.
"Others begin to talk before their mouths are open, affixing the
mouth-closing M to most of their words--as M-yes for Yes."--_Music of
Nature_, p. 28. "That noted close of his, _esse videatur_, exposed him to
censure among his cotemporaries."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 127. "OWN. Formerly,
a man's _own_ was what he _worked for, own_ being a past participle of a
verb signifying to _work_."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 71. "As [requires] so:
expressing a comparison of quality: as, '_As_ the one dieth, _so_ dieth the
other.'"--_Murray's Gram._, p. 212; _R. C. Smith's_, 177; _and many
others_. "To obey our parents is a solemn duty."--_Parker and Fox's Gram._,
Part I, p. 67. "Most all the political papers of the kingdom have touched
upon these things."--H. C. WRIGHT: _Liberator_, Vol. xiv, p. 22. "I shall
take leave to make a few observations upon the subject."--_Hiley's Gram._,
p. iii. "His loss I have endeavoured to supply, as far as additional
vigilance and industry would allow."--_Ib._, p. xi. "That they should make
vegetation so exhuberant as to anticipate every want."--_Frazee's Gram._,
p. 43. "The quotors " " which denote that one or more words are extracted
from another author."--_Day's District School Gram._, p. 112. "Ninevah and
Assyria were two of the most noted cities of ancient history."--_Ib._, p.
32 and p. 88. "Ninevah, the capital of Assyria, _is_ a celebrated ancient
city."--_Ib._, p. 88. "It may, however, be rendered definite by introducing
some definition of time; as, yesterday, last week, &c."--_Bullions's E.
Gram._, p. 40. "The last is called heroic measure, and is the same that is
used by Milton, Young, Thompson, Pollock, &c."--_Id., Practical Lessons_,
p. 129. "Perrenial ones must be sought in the delightful regions
above."--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 194. "Intransitive verbs are those which are
inseperable from the effect produced."--_Cutler's Gram._, p. 31. "Femenine
gender, belongs to women, and animals of the female kind."--_Ib._, p. 15.
"_Woe!_ unto you scribes and pharasees."--_Day's Gram._, p. 74. "A pyrrick,
which has both its syllables short."--_Ib._, p. 114. "What kind of
Jesamine? a Jesamine in flower, or a flowery Jesamine."--_Barrett's Gram._,
10th Ed., p. 53. "_Language_, derived from 'linguae,' the tongue, is the
_faculty_ of communicating our thoughts to _each_ other, by proper words,
used by common consent, as signs of our ideas."--_Ib._, p. 9. "Say _none_,
not _nara_"--_Staniford's Gram._, p. 81. "ARY ONE, for either."--_Pond's
Larger Gram._, p. 194. (See Obs. 24th, on the Syntax of Adverbs, and the
Note at the bottom of the page.)

"Earth loses thy _patron_ for ever and aye;
O sailor boy! sailor boy! peace to thy soul."
--_S. Barrett's Gram._, 1837, p. 116.

"His brow was sad, his eye beneath,
Flashed like a halcyon from its sheath."
--_Liberator_, Vol. 12, p. 24.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XV.--OF SILLINESS AND TRUISMS.

"Such is the state of man, that he is never at rest."--_L. Murray's Gram._,
p. 57.

[FORMULE.--This is a remark of no wisdom or force, because it would be
nearer the truth, to say, "Such is the state of man, that he _must often_
rest," But, according to Critical Note 15th, "Silly remarks and idle
truisms are traits of a feeble style, and when their weakness is positive,
or inherent, they ought to be entirely omitted." It is useless to attempt a
correction of this example, for it is not susceptible of any form worth
preserving.]

"Participles belong to the nouns or pronouns to which they
relate."--_Wells's Gram._, 1st Ed., p. 153. "Though the measure is
mysterious, it is worthy of attention."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 221.
"Though the measure is _mysterious_, it is not unworthy your
attention."--_Kirkham's Gram._, pp. 197 and 227. "The inquietude of his
mind made his station and wealth far from being enviable."--_Murray's Key_,
8vo, p. 250. "By rules so general and comprehensive as these are [,] the
clearest ideas are conveyed."--_Ib._, p. 273. "The mind of man cannot be
long without some food to nourish the activity of its thoughts."--_Ib._, p.
185. "Not having known, or not having considered, the measures proposed, he
failed of success."--_Ib._, p. 202. "Not having known or considered the
subject, he made a crude decision."--_Ib._, p. 275. "Not to exasperate him,
I spoke only a very few words."--_Ib._, p. 257. "These are points too
trivial, to be noticed. They are objects with which I am totally
unacquainted."--_Ib._, p. 275. "Before we close this section, it may afford
instruction to the learners, to be informed, more particularly than they
have been."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 110. "The articles are often properly
omitted: when used, they should be justly applied, according to their
distinct nature."--_Ib._, p. 170; _Alger's_, 60. "Any thing, which is done
now, is supposed to be done at the present time."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p.
34. "Any thing which was done yesterday is supposed to be done in past
time."--_Ib._, 34. "Any thing which may be done hereafter, is supposed to
be done in future time."--_Ib._, 34. "When the mind compares two things in
reference to each other, it performs the operation of comparing."--_Ib._,
p. 244. "The persons, with whom you dispute, are not of your
opinion."--_Cooper's Pl. and Pr. Gram._, p. 124. "But the preposition _at_
is _always used_ when it _follows the neuter Verb_ in the same Case: as, 'I
have been _at_ London.'"--_Dr. Ash's Gram._, p. 60. "But the preposition
_at_ is _generally used_ after the neuter verb _to be_: as, 'I have been
_at_ London.'"--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 203; _Ingersoll's_, 231; _Fisk's_,
143; _et al._ "The article _the_ has sometimes a _different_ effect, in
distinguishing a person by an epithet."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 172. "The
article _the_ has, sometimes, a fine effect, in distinguishing a person by
an epithet."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 151. "Some nouns have plurals
belonging only to themselves."--_Infant School Gram._, p. 26. "Sentences
are either simple or compound."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 68. "All sentences are
either simple or compound."--_Gould's Adam's Gram._, p. 155. "The definite
article _the_ belongs to nouns in the singular or plural
number."--_Kirkham's Gram._, Rule 2d, p. 156. "Where a riddle is not
intended, it is _always a fault_ in allegory to be _too dark_."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 151; _Murray's Gram._, 343. "There may be an _excess in too
many_ short sentences _also_; by _which_ the sense is split and
broken."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 101. "Are there any nouns you cannot see,
hear, or feel, but only think of? Name such a noun."--_Infant School
Gram._, p. 17. "_Flock_ is of the singular number, it denotes but one
flock--and in the nominative case, it is the _active agent_ of the
verb."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 58. "The article THE _agrees_ with nouns of
the _singular or plural_ number."--_Parker and Fox's Gram._, p. 8. "The
admiral bombarded Algiers, which has been continued."--_Nixon's Parser_, p.
128. "The world demanded freedom, which might have been expected."--_Ibid._
"The past tense represents an action as past and finished, either with or
without respect to the time when."--_Felton's Gram._, p. 22. "That boy rode
the _wicked_ horse."--_Butler's Practical Gram._, p. 42. "The snake
_swallowed itself_."--_Ib._, p. 57. "_Do_ is sometimes used when _shall or
should_ is omitted; as, 'if thou _do_ repent.'"--_Ib._, p. 85. "SUBJUNCTIVE
MOOD. This mood _has the tenses of the indicative_."--_Ib._, p. 87. "As
_nouns never speak_, they are never in the first person."--_Davis's
Practical Gram._, p. 148. "Nearly _all parts_ of speech are _used more or
less_ in an _elliptical sense_."--_Day's District School Gram._, p. 80.
"RULE. No word in a period can have any greater _extension_ than the
_other_ words _or sections_ in the same sentence _will give_
it."--_Barrett's Revised Gram._, p. 38 and p. 43. "Words used exclusively
as Adverbs, should not be used as adjectives."--_Clark's Practical Gram._,
p. 166. "Adjectives used in Predication, should not take the Adverbial
form."--_Ib._, pp. 167 and 173.

UNDER CRITICAL NOTE XVI.--OF THE INCORRIGIBLE.

"And this state of things belonging to the painter governs it in the
possessive case."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 195; _Ingersoll's_, 201; _et al._

[FORMULE.--This composition is incorrigibly bad. The participle
"_belonging_" which seems to relate to "_things_," is improperly meant to
qualify "_state_." And the "_state of things_," (which _state_ really
belongs _only to the things_,) is absurdly supposed to belong to a
_person_--i. e., "_to the painter_." Then this _man_, to whom the "state of
things" is said to belong, is forthwith called "_it_," and nonsensically
declared to be "in the possessive case." But, according to Critical Note
16th, "Passages too erroneous for correction, may be criticised, orally or
otherwise, and then passed over without any attempt to amend them."
Therefore, no correction is attempted here.]

"Nouns or pronouns, following the verb _to be_; or the words _than, but,
as_; or that answer the question _who?_ have the same case _after as
preceded_ them."--_Beck's Gram._, p. 29. "The common gender is _when_ the
noun may be either masculine or feminine."--_Frost's Gram._, p. 8. "The
possessive is generally pronounced the same as if the _s_ were
added."--_Alden's Gram._, p. 11. "For, assuredly, as soon as men _had got_
beyond simple interjections, and began to communicate _themselves_ by
discourse, they would be under a necessity of assigning names to the
objects they _saw around_ them, _which_ in grammatical language, _is called
the invention_ of substantive nouns."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 72. "Young
children will learn to form letters as _soon_, if not _readier, than they_
will when older."--_Taylor's District School_, p. 159. "This comparing
words with one another, constitutes what is called the _degrees_ of
comparison."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 29. "Whenever a noun is _immediately
annexed_ to a _preceding neuter_ verb, it _expresses either_ the same
notion _with_ the verb, or denotes only _the_ circumstance of the
_action."_--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 73. "Two or more nouns or pronouns joined
_singular_ together by the conjunction _and, must have verbs_ agreeing with
them in the plural number."--_Infant School Gram._, p. 129. "Possessive and
demonstrative pronouns agree with their nouns in number and case; as, 'my
brother,' 'this slate, 'these slates.'"--_Ib._, p. 130. "Participles which
have no relation to time are used either as adjectives or as
substantives."--_Maunder's Gram._, p. 1. "They are in use only in some of
their times and modes; and in some of them are a composition of times of
several defective verbs, having the same signification."--_Lowth's Gram._,
p. 59. "When _words_ of the possessive case _that are_ in apposition,
_follow one another_ in quick succession, the possessive sign should be
annexed to the _last only_, and _understood_ to the rest; as, 'For David,
my servant's sake.'"--_Comly's Gram._, p. 92. "_By this order_, the first
nine _rules_ accord with _those_ which respect the _rules_ of concord; and
the _remainder include_, though _they_ extend beyond the _rules_ of
government."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 143. "_Own_ and _self_, in the plural
_selves_, are _joined_ to the possessives, _my, our, thy, your, his, her,
their_; as, _my own_ hand, _myself, yourselves_; both of them expressing
emphasis or opposition, as, 'I did it _my own self_,' that is, _and_ no one
else; the latter also forming the reciprocal pronoun, as, 'he hurt
_himself_.'"--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 25. "A _flowing_ copious style,
therefore, is required _in_ all public speakers; _guarding_, at the _same
time_, against such a degree of _diffusion_, as renders _them_ languid and
tiresome; _which_ will always _prove the case_, when they _inculcate_ too
much, and present the _same thought_ under _too many_ different
views."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 177. "As sentences should be cleared of
redundant words, so also of redundant members. As every word ought to
present a new idea, so every member ought to contain a new thought. Opposed
to _this_, stands the fault we sometimes meet with, of the _last_ member of
a period _being_ no other than _the_ echo of the _former_, or _the_
repetition of it in _somewhat_ a different form." [458]--_Ib._, p. 111.
"_Which_ always refers grammatically to the substantive _immediately
preceding_: [as,] 'It is folly to pretend, by heaping up treasures, to arm
ourselves against the accidents of _life, which_ nothing can protect us
against, but the good providence of our heavenly Father.'"--_Murray's
Gram._, p. 311; _Maunder's_, p. 18; _Blair's Rhet._, p. 105. "The English
_adjectives_, having but a very limited syntax, _is classed_ with _its_
kindred _article_, the _adjective pronoun_, under the eighth rule."--_L.
Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 143. "When a _substantive_ is put _absolutely_,
and does _not agree_ with the following verb, it _remains independent on_
the participle, and _is called_ the _case_ absolute, or the _nominative_
absolute."--_Ib._, p. 195. "It will, doubtless, _sometimes_ happen, that,
on _this occasion_, as well as on many _other occasions_, a strict
adherence to grammatical rules, _would_ render _the_ language stiff and
formal: but when _cases of this sort_ occur, it is better to give the
expression a _different_ turn, than to violate _grammar_ for the sake of
_ease_, or even of _elegance_."--_Ib._, p. 208. "Number, which
distinguishes _objects_ as _singly_ or _collectively_, must have been
coeval with the very infancy of language"--_Jamieson's Rhet._, p. 25. "The
article _a_ or _an_ agrees with nouns _in_ the singular number _only,
individually_ or _collectively_."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 170; _and
others_. "No language is perfect _because it is_ a human
invention."--_Parker and Fox's Grammar_, Part III, p. 112. "The
_participles_, or as they may properly be termed, _forms_ of the verb in
the _second infinitive_, usually _precedes another_ verb, and _states_ some
fact, or event, from which an _inference_ is drawn _by that verb_; as, 'the
sun _having arisen_, they departed.'"--_Day's Grammar_, 2nd Ed., p. 36.
"They must describe _what has happened_ as having done so in the past _or
the present_ time, or as _likely to occur_ in the future."--_The
Well-Wishers' Grammar, Introd._, p. 5. "Nouns are either male, female, or
neither."--_Fowle's Common School Grammar_, Part Second, p. 12. "Possessive
_Adjectives_ express possession, and distinguish _nouns_ from _each_ other
by showing _to what_ they belong; as, _my hat, John's_ hat."--_Ib._, p. 31.

PROMISCUOUS EXAMPLES OF FALSE SYNTAX.

LESSON I.--VARIOUS RULES.

"What is the reason that our language is less refined than that of Italy,
Spain, or France?"--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 185. "What is the reason that
our language is less refined than that of France?"--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p.
152. "'I believe your Lordship will agree with me, in the reason why our
language is less refined than those of Italy, Spain, or France.' DEAN
SWIFT. Even in this short sentence, we may discern an inaccuracy--'why our
language is less refined than _those_ of Italy, Spain, or France;' putting
the pronoun _those_ in the plural, when the antecedent substantive to which
it refers is in the singular, _our language_."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 228.
"The sentence might have been made to run much better in this way; 'why our
language is less refined than the Italian, Spanish, or French.'"--_Ibid._
"But when arranged in an entire sentence, which they must be to make a
complete sense, they show it still more evidently."--_L. Murray's Gram._,
p. 65. "This is a more artificial and refined construction than that, in
which the common connective is simply made use of."--_Ib._, p. 127. "We
shall present the reader with a list of Prepositions, which are derived
from the Latin and Greek languages."--_Ib._, p. 120. "Relatives comprehend
the meaning of a pronoun and conjunction copulative."--_Ib._, p. 126.
"Personal pronouns being used to supply the place of the noun, are not
employed in the same part of the sentence as the noun which they
represent."--_Ib._, p. 155; _R. C. Smith's Gram._, 131. "There is very
seldom any occasion for a substitute in the same part where the principal
word is present."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 155. "We hardly consider little
children as persons, because that term gives us the idea of reason and
reflection."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 98; _Murray's_, 157; _Smith's_, 133;
_and others_. "The occasion of exerting each of these qualities is
different."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 95; _Murray's Gram._, 302; _Jamieson's
Rhet._, 66. "I'll tell you who time ambles withal, who time trots withal,
who time gallops withal and who he stands still withal. I pray thee, who
doth he trot withal?"--_Shakspeare_. "By greatness, I do not only mean the
bulk of any single object, but the largeness of a whole view."--_Addison_.
"The question may then be put, What does he more than mean?"--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 103. "The question might be put, what more does he than only
mean?"--_Ib._, p. 204. "He is surprised to find himself got to so great a
distance, from the object with which he at first set out."--_Ib._, p. 108.
"He is surprised to find himself at so great a distance from the object
with which he sets out."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 313. "Few precise rules can
be given, which will hold without exception in all cases."--_Ib._, p. 267;
_Lowth's Gram._, p. 115. "Versification is the arrangement of a certain
number of syllables according to certain laws."--_Dr. Johnson's Gram._, p.
13. "Versification is the arrangement of a certain number and variety of
syllables, according to certain laws."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 252; R. C.
Smith's, 187; and others. "Charlotte, the friend of Amelia, to whom no one
imputed blame, was too prompt in her own vindication."--_Murray's Key_,
8vo, p. 273. "Mr. Pitt, joining the war party in 1793, the most striking
and the most fatal instance of this offence, is the one which at once
presents itself."--_Brougham's Sketches_, Vol. i, p. 57. "To the framing
such a sound constitution of mind."--_The American Lady_, p. 132. "'I
beseech you,' said St. Paul to his Ephesian converts, 'that ye walk worthy
the vocation wherewith ye are called.'"--_Ib._, p. 208. "So as to prevent
its being equal to that."--_Booth's Introd._, p. 88. "When speaking of an
action's being performed."--_Ib._, p. 89. "And, in all questions of an
action's being so performed, _est_ is added to the second person."--_Ib._,
p. 72. "No account can be given of this, than that custom has blinded their
eyes."--_Dymond's Essays_, p. 269.

"Design, or chance, make other wive;
But nature did this match contrive."--_Waller_, p. 24.

LESSON II.--VARIOUS RULES.

"I suppose each of you think it is your own nail."--_Abbott's Teacher_, p.
58. "They are useless, from their being apparently based upon this
supposition."--_Ib._, p. 71. "The form and manner, in which this plan may
be adopted, is various."--_Ib._, p. 83. "Making intellectual effort, and
acquiring knowledge, are always pleasant to the human mind."--_Ib._, p. 85.
"This will do more than the best lecture which ever was delivered."--_Ib._,
p. 90. "Doing easy things is generally dull work."--_Ib._, p. 92. "Such is
the tone and manner of some teachers."--_Ib._, p. 118. "Well, the fault is,
being disorderly at prayer time."--_Ib._, p. 153. "Do you remember speaking
on this subject in school?"--_Ib._, p. 154. "The course above recommended,
is not trying lax and inefficient measures."--_Ib._, p. 156. "Our community
is agreed that there is a God."--_Ib._, p. 163. "It prevents their being
interested in what is said."--_Ib._, p. 175. "We will also suppose that I
call another boy to me, who I have reason to believe to be a sincere
Christian."--_Ib._, p. 180. "Five minutes notice is given by the
bell."--_Ib._, p. 211. "The Annals of Education gives notice of
it."--_Ib._, p. 240. "Teacher's meetings will be interesting and
useful."--_Ib._, p. 243. "She thought an half hour's study would conquer
all the difficulties."--_Ib._, p. 257. "The difference between an honest
and an hypocritical confession."--_Ib._, p. 263. "There is no point of
attainment where we must stop."--_Ib._, p. 267. "Now six hours is as much
as is expected of teachers."--_Ib._, p. 268. "How much is seven times
nine?"--_Ib._, p. 292. "Then the reckoning proceeds till it come to _ten
hundred_."--_Frost's Practical Gram._, p. 170. "Your success will depend on
your own exertions; see, then, that you are diligent."--_Ib._, p. 142.
"Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense: If I am known, If thou art known. If he
is known: etc."--_Ib._, p. 91. "If I be loved, If thou be loved, If he be
loved;" &c.--_Ib._, p. 85. "An Interjection is a word used to express
sudden emotion. They are so called, because they are generally thrown in
between the parts of a sentence without any reference to the structure of
the other parts of it."--_Ib._, p. 35. "The Cardinals are those which
simplify or denote number; as one, two, three."--_Ib._, p. 31. "More than
one organ is concerned in the utterance of almost every consonant."--_Ib._,
p. 21. "To extract from them all the Terms we make use in our Divisions and
Subdivisions of the Art."--_Holmes's Rhetoric_, Pref. "And there was
written therein lamentations, and mourning, and woe."--_Ezekiel_, ii, 10.
"If I were to be judged as to my behaviour, compared with that of
John's."--_Josephus_, Vol. 5, p. 172. "When the preposition _to_ signifies
_in order to_, it used to be preceded by _for_, which is now almost
obsolete; What went ye out _for to_ see."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 132.
"This makes the proper perfect tense, which, in English, is always
expressed by the help of the auxiliary verb, 'I have written.'"--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 82. "Indeed, in the formation of character, personal exertion is
the first, the second, and the third virtues."--_Sanders, Spelling-Book_,
p. 93. "The reducing them to the condition of the beasts that
perish."--_Dymond's Essays_, p. 67. "Yet this affords no reason to deny
that the nature of the gift is not the same, or that both are not
divine."--_Ib._, p. 68. "If God have made known his will."--_Ib._, p. 98.
"If Christ have prohibited them, [i.e., oaths,] nothing else can prove them
right."--_Ib._, p. 150 "That the taking them is wrong, every man who simply
consults his own heart, will know."--_Ib._, p. 163. "These evils would be
spared the world, if one did not write."--_Ib._, p. 168. "It is in a great
degree our own faults."--_Ib._, p. 200. "It is worthy observation that
lesson-learning is nearly excluded."--_Ib._, p. 212. "Who spares the
aggressor's life even to the endangering his own."--_Ib._, p. 227. "Who
advocates the taking the life of an aggressor."--_Ib._, p. 229. "And thence
up to the intentionally and voluntary fraudulent."--_Ib._, p. 318. "'And
the contention was so great among them, that they departed asunder, one
from _an_other.'--_Acts_, xv. 39."--_Rev. Matt. Harrison's English Lang._,
p. 235. "Here the man is John, and John is the man; so the words are _the
imagination and the fancy_, and _the imagination and the fancy_ are the
_words_."--_Harrison's E. Lang._, p. 227. "The article, which is here so
emphatic in the Greek, is lost sight of in our translation."--_Ib._, p.
223. "We have no less than thirty pronouns."--_Ib._, p. 166. "It will admit
of a pronoun being joined to it."--_Ib._, p. 137. "From intercourse and
from conquest, all the languages of Europe participate with each
other."--_Ib._, p. 104. "It is not always necessity, therefore, that has
been the cause of our introducing terms derived from the classical
languages."--_Ib._, p. 100. "The man of genius stamps upon it any
impression that he pleases."--_Ib._, p. 90. "The proportion of names ending
in _son_ preponderate greatly among the Dano-Saxon population of the
North."--_Ib._, p. 43. "As a proof of the strong similarity between the
English and the Danish languages."--_Ib._, p. 37. "A century from the time
that Hengist and Horsa landed on the Isle of Thanet."--_Ib._, p. 27.

"I saw the colours waving in the wind,
And they within, to mischief how combin'd."--_Bunyan_.

LESSON III.--VARIOUS RULES.

"A ship expected: of whom we say, _she_ sails well."--_Ben Jonson's Gram._,
Chap. 10. "Honesty is reckoned little worth."--_Paul's Accidence_, p. 58.
"Learn to esteem life as it ought."--_Economy of Human Life_, p. 118. "As
the soundest health is less perceived than the lightest malady, so the
highest joy toucheth us less deep than the smallest sorrow."--_Ib._, p.
152. "Being young is no apology for being frivolous."--_Whiting's
Elementary Reader_, p. 117. "The porch was the same width with the
temple."--_Milman's Jews_, Vol. i. p. 208. "The other tribes neither
contributed to his rise or downfall."--_Ib._, Vol. i. p. 165. "His whole
laws and religion would have been shaken to its foundation."--_Ib._, Vol.
i. p. 109. "The English has most commonly been neglected, and children
taught only the Latin syntax."--_Lily's Gram., Pref._, p. xi. "They are not
taken notice of in the notes."--_Ib._, p. x. "He walks in righteousness,
doing what he would be done to."--_S. Fisher's Works_, p. 14. "They stand
independently on the rest of the sentence."--_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 151.
"My uncle, with his son, were in town yesterday."--_Lennie's Gram._, p.
142. "She with her sisters are well."--_Ib._, p. 143. "His purse, with its
contents, were abstracted from his pocket."--_Ib._, p. 143. "The great
constitutional feature of this institution being, that directly the
acrimony of the last election is over, the acrimony of the next
begins."--_Dickens's Notes_, p. 27. "His disregarding his parents' advice
has brought him into disgrace."--_Farnum's Pract. Gram._, 2d Ed., p. 19.
"Error: Can you tell me the reason of his father making that
remark?--_Ib._, p. 93. Cor.: Can you tell me the reason of his father's
making that remark?"--See _Farnum's Gram._, Rule 12th. p. 76. "Error: What
is the reason of our teacher detaining us so long?--_Ib._, p. 76. Cor.:
What is the reason of our _teacher's_ detaining us so long?"--See _Ib._
"Error: I am certain of the boy having said so. Correction: I am certain of
the _boy's_ having said so."--_Exercises in Farnum's Gram._, p. 76.
"_Which_ means any thing or things before-named; and _that_ may represent
any person or persons, thing or things, which have been speaking, spoken to
or spoken of."--_Dr. Perley's Gram._, p. 9. "A certain number of syllables
connected, form a foot. They are called _feet_, because it is by their aid
that the voice, as it were, steps along."--_L. Murray's Gram._, p. 252; _C.
Adams's_, 121. "Asking questions with a principal verb--as, _Teach I? Burns
he_, &c. are barbarisms, and carefully to be avoided."--_Alex. Murray's
Gram._, p. 122. "Tell whether the 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22d, or 23d Rules
are to be used, and repeat the Rule."--_Parker and Fox's Gram._, Part I, p.
4. "The resolution was adopted without much deliberation, which caused
great dissatisfaction."--_Ib._, p. 71. "The man is now taken much notice of
by the people thereabouts."--_Edward's First Lessons in Gram._, p. 42.
"The sand prevents their sticking to one another."--_Ib._, p. 84.
"Defective Verbs are those which are used only in some of their moods and
tenses."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 108; _Guy's_, 42; _Russell's_, 46;
_Bacon's_, 42; _Frost's_, 40; _Alger's_, 47; _S. Putnam's_, 47;
_Goldsbury's_, 54; _Felton's_, 59; and _others_. "Defective verbs are those
which want some of their moods and tenses."--_Lennie's Gram._, p. 47;
_Bullions, E. Gram._, 65; _Practical Lessons_, 75. "Defective Verbs want
some of their parts."--_Bullions, Lat. Gram._, p. 78. "A Defective verb is
one that wants some of its parts."--_Bullions, Analyt. and Pract. Gram._,
1849, p. 101. "To the irregular verbs are to be added the defective; which
are not only for the most part irregular, but also wanting in some of their
parts."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 59. "To the irregular verbs are to be added
the defective; which are not only wanting in some of their parts, but are,
when inflected, irregular."--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 112. "When two or more
nouns succeed each other in the possessive case."--_Farnum's Gram._, 2d
Ed., pp. 20 and 63. "When several short sentences succeed each
other."--_Ib._, p. 113. "Words are divided into ten Classes, and are called
PARTS OF SPEECH."--_Ainsworth's Gram._, p. 8. "A Passive Verb has its
_agent_ or _doer_ always in the objective case, and is governed by a
preposition."--_Ib._, p. 40. "I am surprised at your negligent attention."
_Ib._, p. 43. "SINGULAR: Thou lovest or you love. _You_ has always a plural
verb."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 43. "How do you know that _love_ is the
first person? _Ans_. Because _we_ is the first personal pronoun."--_Id.,
ib._, p. 47; _Lennie's Gram._, p. 26. "The lowing herd wind slowly round
the lea."--_Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 96. "Iambic verses have every second,
fourth, and other even syllables accented."--_Ib._, p. 170. "Contractions
are often made in poetry, which are not allowable in prose."--_Ib._, p.
179. "Yet to their general's voice they all obeyed."--_Ib._, p. 179. "It
never presents to his mind but one new subject at the same
time."--_Felton's Gram._, 1st edition, p. 6. "When the name of a quality is
abstracted, that is separated from its substance, it is called an abstract
noun."--_Ib._, p. 9. "Nouns are in the _first_ person when
speaking."--_Ib._, p. 9. "Which of the two brothers are
graduates?"--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 59. "I am a linen draper bold, as you
and all the world doth know."--_Ib._, p. 60. "O the bliss, the pain of
dying!"--_Ib._, p. 127. "This do; take you censers, Korah, and all his
company."--_Numbers_, xvi, 6. "There are two participles,--the _present_
and _perfect_; as, _reading, having read_. Transitive verbs have an
_active_ and _passive_ participle. Examples: ACTIVE, _Present_, Loving;
_Perfect_, Having loved: PASSIVE, _Present_, Loved _or_ being loved;
_Perfect_, Having been loved."--_S. S. Greene's Analysis_, 1st Ed., p. 225.

"O heav'n, in my connubial hour decree
This man my spouse, or such a spouse as he."--_Pope_.

LESSON IV.--VARIOUS RULES.

"The _Past Tenses_ represent a conditional past fact or event, and of which
the speaker is uncertain."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 89. "Care also should be
taken that they are not introduced too abundantly."--_Ib._, p. 134. "Till
they are become familiar to the mind."--_Ib._, Pref., p. v. "When once a
particular arrangement and phraseology are become familiar to the
mind."--_Ib._, p. vii. "I have furnished the student with the plainest and
most practical directions which I could devise."--_Ib._, p. xiv. "When you
are become conversant with the Rules of Grammar, you will then be qualified
to commence the study of Style."--_Ib._, p. xxii. "_C_ has a soft sound
like _s_ before _e, i_, and _y_, generally."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 10. "_G_
before _e, i_, and _y_, is soft; as in genius, ginger, Egypt."--_Ib._, p.
12. "_C_ before _e, i_, and _y_, generally sounds soft like _s_."--_Hiley's
Gram._, p. 4. "_G_ is soft before _e, i_, and _y_, as in genius, ginger,
Egypt."--_Ib._, p. 4. "As a perfect Alphabet must always contain as many
letters as there are elementary sounds in the language, the English
Alphabet is therefore both defective and redundant."--_Hiley's Gram._, p.
5. "Common Nouns are the names given to a whole class or species, and are
applicable to every individual of that class."--_Ib._, p. 11. "Thus an
adjective has always a noun either expressed or understood."--_Ib._, p.
20. "First, let us consider emphasis; by _this_, is meant a _stronger_ and
_fuller_ sound of voice, by which we distinguish _the accented syllable_ of
some word, on _which_ we _design to lay_ particular stress, _and to shew_
how _it effects_ the rest of the sentence."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 330. "By
emphasis is meant a _stronger_ and _fuller_ sound of voice, by which we
distinguish some word or words on which we _design to lay_ particular
stress, _and to show_ how _they affect_ the rest of the
sentence."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 242. "Such a simple question as this: 'Do
you ride to town to-day,' is capable of _no fewer than_ four different
acceptations, _according as_ the emphasis is differently placed _on the
words_."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 330; _Murray's Gram._, p. 242. "Thus,
_bravely_, or 'in a brave manner,' is derived from _brave-like_."--_Hiley's
Gram._, p. 51. "In the same manner, the different parts of speech are
formed from each other generally by means of some affix."--_Ib._, p. 60.
"Words derived from each other, are always, more or less, allied in
signification."--_Ib._, p. 60. "When a noun of multitude conveys unity of
idea the verb and pronoun should be singular. But when it conveys plurality
of idea, the verb and pronoun must be plural."--_Hiley's Gram._, p. 71.
"They have spent their whole time to make the sacred chronology agree with
that of the profane."--_Ib._, p. 87. "'I have studied my lesson, but you
_have_ not;' that is, 'but you have not _studied_ it.'"--_Ib._, p. 109.
"When words follow each other in pairs, there is a comma between each
pair."--_Ib._, p. 112; _Bullions_, 152; _Lennie_, 132. "When words follow
each other in pairs, the pairs should be marked by the comma."--_Farnum's
Gram._, p. 111. "His 'Studies of Nature,' is deservedly a popular
work."--_Univ. Biog. Dict., n. St. Pierre_. "'Here lies _his_ head, a
_youth_ to fortune and to fame unknown.' 'Youth,' here is in the
_possessive_ (the sign being omitted), and is _in apposition_ with his.'
The meaning is, 'the head of him, a youth.' &c."--_Hart's E. Gram._, p.
124. "The pronoun I, and the interjection O, should be written with a
capital."--_Weld's E. Gram._, 2d Ed., p. 16. "The pronoun _I_ always should
be written with a capital letter."--_Ib._, p. 68. "He went from England to
York."--_Ib._, p. 41. "An adverb is a part of speech joined to verbs,
adjectives and other adverbs, to modify their meaning."--_Ib._, p. 51;
"_Abridged Ed._," 46. "_Singular_, signifies 'one person or thing.'
_Plural_, (Latin _plus_,) signifies 'more than one.'"--_Weld's Gram._, p.
55. "When the present ends in e, _d_ only is added to form the Imperfect
and Perfect participle."--_Ib._, p. 82. "SYNAERESIS is the contraction of
two syllables into one; as, _Seest_ for _see-est, drowned_ for
_drown-ed_"--_Ib._, p. 213. "Words ending in _ee_ drop the final _e_ on
receiving an additional syllable beginning with _e_; as, _see, seest,
agree, agreed_."--_Ib._, p, 227. "Monosyllables in _f, l_, or _s_, preceded
by a single vowel are doubled; as, staff, grass, mill."--_Ib._, p. 226.
"Words ending _ie_ drop the _e_ and take _y_; as die, _dying_."--_Ib._, p.
226. "One number may be used for another; as, _we_ for _I, you_ for
_thou_."--_S. S. Greene's Gram._, 1st Ed., p. 198. "STR~OBILE, _n._ A
pericarp made up of scales that lie over each other. SMART."--_Worcester's
Univ. and Crit. Dict._

"Yet ever from the clearest source have ran
Some gross allay, some tincture of the man."--_Dr. Lowth_.

LESSON V.--VARIOUS RULES.

"The possessive case is always followed by the noun which is the name of
the thing possessed, expressed or understood."--_Felton's Gram._, p. 61;
_Revised Edition_, pp. 64 and 86. "Hadmer of Aggstein was as pious, devout,
and praying a Christian, as were Nelson, Washington, or Jefferson; or as
are Wellington, Tyler, Clay, or Polk."--H. C. WRIGHT: _Liberator_, Vol. xv,
p. 21. "A word in the possessive case is not an independent noun, and
cannot stand by its self."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 130. "Mary is not
handsome, but she is good-natured, which is better than beauty."--_St.
Quentin's Gram._, p. 9. "After the practice of joining words together had
ceased, notes of distinction were placed at the end of every
word."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 267; _Hallock's_, 224. "Neither Henry nor
Charles dissipate his time."--_Hallock's Gram._, p. 166. "'He had taken
from the Christians' abode thirty small castles.'--_Knowles._"--_Ib._, p.
61. "In _whatever_ character Butler was admitted, is unknown."--_Ib._, p.
62. "How is the agent of a passive, and the object of an active verb often
left?"--_Ib._, p. 88. "By _subject_ is meant the word of which something is
declared of its object."--_Chandler's Gram._, 1821, p. 103. "Care should
also be taken that an intransitive verb is not used instead of a
transitive: as, I lay, (the bricks) for, I lie down; I raise the house, for
I rise; I sit down, for, I set the chair down, &c."--_Ib._, p. 114. "On
them depend the duration of our Constitution and our country."--_J. C.
Calhoun at Memphis_. "In the present sentence neither the sense nor the
measure require _what_."--_Chandler's Gram._, 1821, p. 164. "The Irish
thought themselves oppress'd by the Law that forbid them to draw with their
Horses Tails."--_Brightland's Gram._, Pref., p. iii. "So _willingly_ are
adverbs, qualifying deceives."--_Cutler's Gram._, p. 90. "Epicurus for
experiment sake confined himself to a narrower diet than that of the
severest prisons."--_Ib._, p. 116. "Derivative words are such as are
compounded of other words, as common-wealth, good-ness,
false-hood."--_Ib._, p. 12. "The distinction here insisted on is as old as
Aristotle, and should not be lost sight of."--_Hart's Gram._, p. 61. "The
Tenses of the Subjunctive and the Potential Moods."--_Ib._, p. 80. "A
triphthong is a union of three vowels uttered in like manner: as, _uoy_ in
buoy."--_P. Davis's Practical Gram._, p. xvi. "Common nouns are the names
of a species or kind."--_Ib._, p. 8. "The superlative degree is a
comparison between three or more."--_Ib._, p. 14. "An adverb is a word or
phrase serving to give an additional idea of a verb, and adjective,
article, or another adverb."--_Ib._, p. 36. "When several nouns in the
possessive case succeed each other, each showing possession of the same
noun, it is only necessary to add the sign of the possessive to the last:
as, He sells men, women, and _children's_ shoes. Dog. cat, and _tiger's_
feet are digitated."--_Ib._, p. 72. "A rail-road is making _should be_ A
rail-road is _being made_. A school-house is building, _should be_ A
school-house is _being_ built."--_Ib._, p. 113. "Auxiliaries are not of
themselves verbs; they resemble in their character and use those
terminational or other inflections in other languages, _which we are
obliged to use in ours_ to express the action in the mode, tense, &c.,
desired."--_Ib._, p. 158. "Please hold my horse while I speak to my
friend."--_Ib._, p. 159. "If I say, 'Give me _the_ book,' I ask for some
_particular_ book."--_Butler's Practical Gram._, p. 39. "There are five men
here."--_Ib._, p. 134. "In the active the object may be omitted; in the
passive the name of the agent may be omitted."--_Ib._, p. 63. "The
Progressive and the Emphatic forms give in each case a different shade of
meaning to the verb."--_Hart's Gram._, p. 80. "_That_ is a Kind of a
Redditive Conjunction, when it answers to _so_ and _such._"--_W. Ward's
Gram._, p. 152. "He attributes to negligence your failing to succeed in
that business."--_Smart's Accidence_, p. 36. "Does _will_ and _go_ express
but _our_ action?"--_S. Barrett's Revised Gram._, p. 58. "Language is the

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