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The Grammar of English Grammars by Gould Brown

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OBS. 1.--Adverbs briefly express what would otherwise require several
words: as _Now_, for _at this time_;--_Here_, for _in this place_;--_Very_,
for _in a high degree_;--_Diligently_, for _in an industrious manner_. Thus
the meaning of almost any adverb, may be explained by some phrase beginning
with a preposition and ending with a noun.

OBS. 2.--There are several
customary combinations of short words, which are used adverbially, and
which some grammarians do not analyze in parsing; _as, not at all, at
length, in fine, in full, at least, at present, at once, this once, in
vain, no doubt, on board_. But all words that convey distinct ideas, and
rightly retain their individuality, ought to be taken separately in
parsing. With the liberty of supposing a few ellipses, an ingenious parser
will seldom find occasion to speak of "adverbial phrases." In these
instances, _length, doubt, fine_, and _board_, are unquestionably nouns;
_once_, too, is used as a noun; _full_ and _all_ may be parsed either as
nouns, or as adjectives whose nouns are understood; _at least_, is, _at the
least measure; at present_, is, _at the present time_; and _in vain_, is,
_in a vain course, or manner._

OBS. 3.--A phrase is a combination of two or more separable parts of
speech, the _parsing_ of which of course implies their separation. And
though the division of our language into words, and the division of its
words into parts of speech, have never yet been made exactly to correspond,
it is certainly desirable to bring them as near together as possible. Hence
such terms as _everywhere, anywhere, nowadays, forever, everso, to-day,
to-morrow, by-and-by, inside-out, upside-down_, if they are to be parsed
simply as adverbs, ought to be compounded, and not written as phrases.

OBS. 4--Under nearly all the different classes of words, some particular
instances may be quoted, in which other parts of speech seem to take the
nature of adverbs, so as either to become such, or to be apparently used
_for_ them. (1.) ARTICLES: "This may appear incredible, but it is not _the_
less true."--_Dr. Murray's Hist._, i, 337. "The other party was _a_ little
coy."--_D. Webster._ (2.) NOUNS: "And scrutiny became _stone_[306]
blind."--_Cowper._ "He will come _home to-morrow._"--_Clark._ "They were
travelling _post_ when he met them."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 69. "And with a
vengeance sent from Media _post_ to Egypt."--_Milton, P. L._, B. iv, l.
170. "That I should care _a groat_ whether he likes the work or
not."--_Kirkham._ "It has snowed terribly all night, and is _vengeance_
cold."--_Swift._ (3.) ADJECTIVES: "Drink _deep_, or taste not."--_Pope._ "A
place _wondrous_ deep."--_Webster's Dict._ "That fools should be so _deep_
contemplative."--_Shak._ "A man may speak _louder_ or _softer_ in the same
key; when he speaks _higher_ or _lower_, he changes his key."--_Sheridan's
Elocution_, p. 116. (4.) PRONOUNS: "_What_ am I eased?"--_Job._ "_What_
have I offended thee?"--_Gen._, xx, 9. "He is _somewhat_
arrogant."--_Dryden._ (5.) VERBS: "_Smack_ went the whip, round went the
wheels."--_Cowper._ "For then the farmers came _jog, jog_, along the miry
road."--_Id._ "_Crack!_ went something on deck."--_Robinson Crusoe._ "Then
straight went the yard _slap_ over their noddle."--Arbuthnot. (6.)
PARTICIPLES: "Like medicines given _scalding_ hot."--_Dodd._ "My clothes
are almost _dripping_ wet."--"In came Squire South, stark, _staring_
mad."--_Arbuthnot._ "An _exceeding_ high mountain."--_Matt._, iv, 8. "How
sweet, how _passing_ sweet, the hour to me!"--_Ch. Observer._ "When we act
_according_ to our duty."--_Dr. Johnson._ "A man was famous _according_ as
he had lifted up axes upon the thick trees."--_Psal._, lxxiv, 5. (7.)
CONJUNCTIONS: "Look, _as_ I blow this feather from my face."--_Shak._ "Not
at all, or _but_ very gently."--_Locke._ "He was _but_ born to try the lot
of man."--_Pope._ (8.) PREPOSITIONS: "They shall go _in_ and
_out._"--_Bible._ "From going _to_ and _fro_ in the earth, and walking _up_
and _down_ in it."--_Ib._ These are actually _adverbs_, and not
prepositions, because they govern nothing. (9.) INTERJECTIONS are never
used as adverbs, though the Greek grammarians refer them nearly all to this
class. The using of other words for adverbs, (i. e., the adverbial use of
any words that we do not actually call adverbs,) may be referred to the
figure _enallage_:[307] as,

"_Tramp, tramp_, across the land they speed,
_Splash, splash_, across the sea."--_Burger._

OBS. 5.--As other parts of speech seem sometimes to take the nature of
adverbs, so adverbs sometimes, either really or apparently, assume the
nature of other parts of speech. (1.) Of NOUNS: as, "A committee is not
needed merely to say _Yes_ or _No_; that will do very little good; _the
yes_ or _the no_ must be accompanied and supported by reasons."--_Dr.
M'Cartee._ "Shall I tell you _why?_ Ay, sir, and _wherefore_; for, they
say, every _why_ hath a _wherefore._"--_Shak._ (2.) Of ADJECTIVES: as,
"Nebuchadnezzar invaded the country, and reduced it to an _almost_
desert."--_Wood's Dict., w. Moab._ "The _then_ bishop of London, Dr. Laud,
attended on his Majesty."--_Clarendon._ "With _upward_ speed his agile
wings he spread."--_Prior._ "She lights the _downward_ heaven, and rises
there."--_Dryden._ (3.) Of PRONOUNS: as, "He liked the ground _whereon_ she
trod."--_Milton._ "_Wherein_ have you been galled by the king?"--_Shak._ "O
how unlike the place from _whence_ they fell!"--_Par. Lost_, B. i, l. 75.
Here _whereon_ is exactly equivalent in sense to _on which; wherein_, to
_in what_; and _whence_, to _which_: but none of them are actually reckoned
pronouns. (4.) Of VERBS: as, "If he be hungry, more than wanton, bread
alone will _down._"--_Locke._ "To _down_ proud hearts that would not
willing die."--_Sidney._ "She never could _away_ with me."--_Shak._
"_Away_, and glister like the god of war."--_Id._ "_Up_, get ye out of this
place."--_Gen._, xix, 14. (5.) Of CONJUNCTIONS: as, "I, _even_ I, am
he."--_Isaiah_, xliii, 25. "If I will that he tarry _till_ I
come."--_John_, xxi, 22. "I will go and see him _before_ I die."--_Gen._,
xlv, 28. "Before I go _whence_ I shall not return."--_Job_, x, 21. (6) Of
PREPOSITIONS: as, "Superior to any that are dug _out_ the
ground."--_Eames's Lect._, p. 28. "Who act _so counter_ heavenly mercy's
plan."--_Burns._ Better perhaps, "_out of_" and "_counter to._" (7.) Of
INTERJECTIONS: as, "_Up, up_, Glentarkin! rouse thee, ho!"--_Scott._
"_Down, down_, cried Mar, your lances _down!_"--_Id._ "_Off!_ or I fly for
ever from thy sight."--_Smith._

OBS. 6.--In these last examples, _up_, and _down_, and _off_, have perhaps
as much resemblance to imperative verbs, as to interjections; but they need
not be referred to either of these classes, because by supplying a verb we
may easily parse them as adverbs. I neither adopt the notion of Horne
Tooke, that the same word cannot belong to different parts of speech, nor
refer every word to that class to which it may at first sight appear to
belong; for both of these methods are impracticable and absurd. The
essential nature of each part of speech, and every important peculiarity of
its individual terms, it is hoped, will be sufficiently explained in some
part or other of this work; but, as the classification of words often
depends upon their _construction_, some explanations that go to determine
the parts of speech, must be looked for under the head of Syntax.

OBS. 7.--The proper classification, or subdivision, of adverbs, though it
does not appear to have been discovered by any of our earlier grammarians,
is certainly very clearly indicated by the meaning and nature of the words
themselves. The four important circumstances of any event or assertion, are
the _when_, the _where_, the _how-much_, and the _how_; or the _time_, the
_place_, the _degree_, and the _manner_. These four are the things which we
usually express by adverbs. And seldom, if ever, do we find any adverb the
notion of which does not correspond to that of _sometime, somewhere,
somewhat_, or _somehow_. Hence, the general classes of this sort of words
ought to be formed under these four heads. The classification heretofore
most commonly adopted in English grammar, has every fault which the spirit
of awkwardness could possibly give it. The head of it is this: "Adverbs,
_though very numerous_, may be reduced to _certain_ classes, the _chief_ of
which are _those of_ Number, Order, Place, Time, Quantity, Manner or
Quality, Doubt, Affirmation, Negation, Interrogation, and
Comparison."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 115; _Comly's_, 66; _Kirkham's_, 86; _R.
C. Smith's_, 34; _Hall's_, 26; _and others_.

CLASSES.

Adverbs may be reduced to four general classes; namely, adverbs of _time_,
of _place_, of _degree_, and of _manner_. Besides these, it is proper to
distinguish the particular class of _conjunctive_ adverbs.

I. Adverbs of _time_ are those which answer to the question, _When? How
long? How soon?_ or, _How often?_ including these which ask.

OBS.--Adverbs of time may be subdivided as follows:--

1. Of time present; as, _Now, yet, to-day, nowadays, presently, instantly,
immediately, straightway, directly, forthwith_.

2. Of time past; as, _Already, just now, lately, recently, yesterday,
formerly, anciently, once, heretofore, hitherto, since, till now, long ago,
erewhile, erst_.

3. Of time to come; as, _To-morrow, hereafter, henceforth, henceforward,
by-and-by, soon, erelong, shortly_.

4. Of time relative; as, _When, then, first, just, before, after, while,
whilst, meanwhile, as, till, until, seasonably, betimes, early, late,
whenever, afterward, afterwards, otherwhile, otherwhiles_.

5. Of time absolute; as, _Always, ever, never, aye, eternally, forever,
perpetually, continually, incessantly, endlessly, evermore, everlastingly_.

6. Of time repeated; as, _Often, oft, again, occasionally, frequently,
sometimes, seldom, rarely, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, annually, once,
twice, thrice_, or _three times_. Above this, we use only the phrases
_four times, five times, six times, &c_. Whether these ought to be reckoned
adverbs, or not, is questionable: _times_, for _repetitions_, or
_instances_, may be supposed a noun; but such phrases often appear to be
used adverbially.

II. Adverbs of _place_ are those which answer to the question, _Where?
Whither? Whence?_ or, _Whereabout?_ including these which ask.

OBS.--Adverbs of place may be subdivided as follows:--

1. Of place in which; as, _Where, here, there, yonder, above, below, about,
around, somewhere, anywhere, elsewhere, otherwhere, everywhere, nowhere,
wherever, wheresoever, within, without, whereabout, whereabouts, hereabout,
hereabouts, thereabout, thereabouts_.

2. Of place to which; as, _Whither, hither, thither, in, up, down, back,
forth, aside, ashore, abroad, aloft, home, homewards, inwards, upwards,
downwards, backwards, forwards_. _Inward, homeward, upward, downward,
backward_, and _forward_, are also adverbs, as well as adjectives; but some
critics, for distinction's sake, choose to use these only as adjectives.

3. Of place from which; as, _Whence, hence, thence, away, out, off, far,
remotely_.

4. Of the order of place; as, _First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, &c_.
Thus, _secondly_ means _in the second place_; _thirdly, in the third
place_; &c. For order, or rank, implies place, though it may consist of
relative degrees.

III. Adverbs of _degree_ are those which answer to the question, _How much?
How little?_ or, to the idea of _more or less_.

OBS.--Adverbs of degree may be subdivided as follows:--

1. Of excess or abundance; as, _Much, more, most, too, very, greatly, far,
besides; chiefly, principally, mainly, mostly, generally; entirely, full,
fully, completely, perfectly, wholly, totally, altogether, all, quite,
clear, stark; exceedingly, excessively, extravagantly, intolerably;
immeasurably, inconceivably, infinitely_.

2. Of equality or sufficiency; as, _Enough, sufficiently, competently,
adequately, proportionally, equally, so, as, even, just, exactly,
precisely_.

3. Of deficiency or abatement; as, _Little, less, least, scarcely, hardly,
scantly, scantily merely, barely, only, but, partly, partially, nearly,
almost, well-nigh, not quite_.

4. Of quantity in the abstract; as, _How_, (meaning, _in what degree_,)
_however, howsoever, everso, something, anything, nothing, a groat, a
sixpence, a sou-markee_, and other nouns of quantity used adverbially.

IV. Adverbs of _manner_ are those which answer to the question, _How?_ or,
by affirming, denying, or doubting, show _how_ a subject is regarded.

OBS.--Adverbs of manner may be subdivided as follows:--

1. Of manner from quality; as, _Well, ill, wisely, foolishly, justly,
wickedly_, and many others formed by adding _ly_ to adjectives of quality.
_Ly_ is a contraction of _like_; and is the most common termination of
English adverbs. When added to nouns, it forms adjectives; but some few of
these are also used adverbially; as, _daily, weekly, monthly_, which denote
time.

2. Of affirmation or assent; as, _Yes, yea, ay, verily, truly, indeed,
surely, certainly, doubtless, undoubtedly, assuredly, certes,
forsooth,[308] amen_.

3. Of negation; as, _No, nay, not, nowise, noway, noways, nohow_.

4. Of doubt or uncertainty; as, _Perhaps, haply, possibly, perchance,
peradventure, may-be_.

5. Of mode or way; as, _Thus, so, how, somehow, nohow, anyhow, however,
howsoever, like, else, otherwise, across, together, apart, asunder, namely,
particularly, necessarily, hesitatingly, trippingly, extempore, headlong,
lengthwise_.

V. _Conjunctive adverbs_ are those which perform the office of
conjunctions, and serve to connect sentences, as well as to express some
circumstance of time, place, degree, or the like. This class embraces a few
words not strictly belonging to any of the others: as, (1.) The adverbs of
cause; _why, wherefore, therefore_; but the last two of these are often
called conjunctions. (2.) The pronominal compounds; _herein, therein,
wherein_, &c.; in which the former term is a substitute, and virtually
governed by the enclitic particle.

OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1.--Conjunctive adverbs often relate equally to two verbs in different
clauses, on which account it is the more necessary to distinguish them from
others; as, "And they feared _when_ they heard that they were
Romans,"--_Acts_, xvi, 38. Here _when_ is a conjunctive adverb of time, and
relates equally to _feared_ and to _heard_. "The right of coming on the
shore for their purposes in general, _as_ and _when_ they
please."--_Holroyd_. Here _as_ is a conjunctive adverb of manner, and
_when_, of time; both relating equally to _coming_ and to _please_.

OBS. 2.--The following words are the most frequently used as conjunctive
adverbs: _after, again, also, as, before, besides, consequently, else, ere,
even, furthermore, hence, how, however, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise,
since, so, still, till, then, thence, therefore, too, until, when, where,
wherefore, whither_, and _while_, or _whilst_.

OBS. 3.--Adverbs of _time, place_, and _manner_, are generally connected
with verbs or participles; those of _degree_ are more frequently placed
before adjectives or adverbs: the latter, however, sometimes denote the
measure of actions or effects; as, "And I wept _much_"--_Rev._, v, 4. "And
Isaac trembled _very exceedingly_"--_Gen._, xxvii, 33. "Writers who had
felt _less_, would have said _more_"--_Fuller_.

"Victors and vanquished, in the various field,
Nor _wholly_ overcome, nor _wholly_ yield."--_Dryden_.

OBS. 4.--The adverbs _here, there_, and _where_, when compounded with
prepositions, have the force of pronouns, or of pronominal adjectives: as,
_Hereby_, for _by this; thereby_, for _by that_; _whereby_, for _by which_,
or _by what_. The prepositions which may be subjoined in this manner, are
only the short words, _at, by, for, from, in, into, of, on, to, unto,
under, upon_, and _with_. Compounds of this kind, although they partake of
the nature of pronouns with respect to the nouns going before, are still
properly reckoned adverbs, because they relate as such to the verbs which
follow them; as, "You take my life, when you do take the means _whereby_ I
live."--_Shak_. Here _whereby_ is a conjunctive adverb, representing
_means_, and relating to the verb _live_.[309] This mode of expression is
now somewhat antiquated, though still frequently used by good authors, and
especially by the poets.

OBS. 5--The adverbs, _when, where, whither, whence, how, why, wherefore,
wherein, whereof, whereby_, and other like compounds of _where_, are
sometimes used as _interrogatives_; but, as such, they still severally
belong to the classes under which they are placed in the foregoing
distribution, except that words of interrogation are not at the same time
connectives. These adverbs, and the three pronouns, _who, which_, and
_what_, are the only interrogative words in the language; but questions may
be asked without any of them, and all have other uses than to ask
questions.

OBS. 6.--The conjunctive adverbs, _when, where, whither, whence, how_, and
_why_, are sometimes so employed as to partake of the nature of _pronouns_,
being used as a sort of _special relatives_, which refer back to antecedent
nouns of _time, place, manner_, or _cause_, according to their own
respective meanings; yet being adverbs, because they relate as such, to the
verbs which follow them: as, "In the _day when_ God shall judge the secrets
of men."--_Rom._, ii, 16. "In a _time when_ thou mayest be
found."--_Psal._, xxxii, 6. "I sought for some time what I at length found
here, a _place where_ all real wants might be easily supplied."--_Dr.
Johnson_. "To that _part_ of the mountain _where_ the declivity began to
grow craggy."--_Id._ "At _Canterbury, whither_ some voice had run
before."--_Wotton_. "Look unto the _rock whence_ ye are hewn, and to the
hole of the _pit whence_ ye are digged."--_Isaiah_, li, 1. "We may remark
three different _sources whence_ it arises."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 163.
"I'll tell you a _way how_ you may live your time over again."--_Collier's
Antoninus_, p. 108. "A crude account of the _method how_ they perceive
truth."--_Harris's Hermes_, p. 404. "The _order how_ the Psalter is
appointed to be read."--_Common Prayer_. "In the same reasoning we see the
_cause, why_ no substantive is susceptible of these comparative
degrees."--_Hermes_, p. 201. "There seems no _reason why_ it should not
work prosperously."--_Society in America_, p. 68. "There are strong
_reasons why_ an extension of her territory would be injurious to
her."--_Ib._ "An other _reason why_ it deserved to be more
studied."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 123. "The _end why_ God hath ordained faith,
is, that his free grace might be glorified."--_Goodwin_.

OBS. 7.--The direct use of adverbs for pronouns, is often, if not
generally, inelegant; and, except the expression may be thereby agreeably
shortened, it ought to be considered ungrammatical. The following examples,
and perhaps also some of the foregoing, are susceptible of improvement:
"Youth is _the time, when_ we are young."--_Sanborn's Gram._, p. 120. Say
rather, "Youth is _that part of life which_ succeeds to childhood." "The
boy gave a satisfactory _reason why_ he was tardy."--_Ibid._ Say rather,
"The boy gave a satisfactory reason _for his tardiness_." "The several
_sources from whence_ these pleasures are derived."--_Murray's Key_, p.
258. Say rather--"sources from _which_" "In _cases where_ it is only said,
that a question has been asked."--_Kirkham's Gram._, p. 117. Say, "In
_those_ cases _in which_." "To the false rhetoric of the _age when_ he
lived."--_Harris's Hermes_, p. 415. Say rather--"of the age _in which_ he
lived."

OBS. 8.--When a conjunctive adverb is equivalent to both an
antecedent and a relative, the construction seems to be less objectionable,
and the brevity of the expression affords an additional reason for
preferring it, especially in poetry: as, "But the Son of man hath not
_where_ to lay his head."--_Matt._, viii, 20. "There might they see
_whence_ Po and Ister came."--_Hoole's Tasso._ "Tell _how_ he formed your
shining frame."--_Ogilvie._ "The wind bloweth _where_ it listeth, and thou
hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell _whence_ it cometh, and
_whither_ it goeth."--_John_, iii, 8. In this construction, the adverb is
sometimes preceded by a preposition; the noun being, in fact, _understood_:
as,

"Sinks, like a sea-weed, _into whence_ she rose."--_Byron._

"Here Machiavelli's earth return'd _to whence_ it rose."--_Id._

OBS. 9.--The conjunctive adverb _so_, very often expresses the sense of
some word or phrase going before; as, "Wheresoever the speech is corrupted,
_so_ is the mind."--_Seneca's Morals_, p. 267. That is, the mind is _also
corrupted_. "I consider grandeur and sublimity, as terms synonymous, or
nearly _so_."--_Blair's Rhet._, p. 29. The following sentence is grossly
wrong, because the import of this adverb was not well observed by the
writer: "We have now come to _far the most complicated_ part of speech; and
one which is sometimes rendered _still more so_, than the nature of our
language requires."--_Nutting's Gram._, p. 38. _So_, in some instances,
repeats the import of a preceding _noun_, and consequently partakes the
nature of a _pronoun_; as,

"We think our fathers _fools_, so wise we grow;
Our wiser sons, no doubt, will think us _so_."--_Pope, on Crit._

OBS. 10.--"_Since_ is often improperly used for _ago_: as, 'When were you
in France?--Twenty years _since_.' It ought to be, 'Twenty years _ago_.'
_Since_ may be admitted to supply the place of _ago that_: it being equally
correct to say, 'It is twenty years _since_ I was in France;' and, 'It is
twenty years _ago, that_ I was in France.'"--_Churchill's Gram._, p. 337.
The difference between _since_ and _ago_ is clearly this: the former, being
either a preposition or a conjunctive adverb, cannot with strict propriety
be used _adjectively_; the latter, being in reality an old participle,
naturally comes after a noun, in the sense of an adjective; as, _a year
ago, a month ago, a week ago_. "_Go, ago, ygo, gon, agon, gone, agone_, are
all used indiscriminately by our old English writers as the past participle
of the verb _to go_."--_Tooke's Diversions_, Vol. i, p. 376. "Three days
_agone_, I fell sick."--_1 Samuel_, xxx, 13.

MODIFICATIONS.

Adverbs have no modifications, except that a few are compared, after the
manner of adjectives: as, _soon, sooner, soonest; often, oftener,
oftenest;[310] long, longer, longest; fast, faster, fastest_.

The following are irregularly compared: _well, better, best; badly_ or
_ill, worse, worst; little less, least; much, more, most; far, farther,
farthest; forth, further, furthest. Rath, rather, rathest_, is now used
only in the comparative.

OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1.--Most adverbs that are formed from adjectives by the addition of
_ly_, will admit the comparative adverbs _more and most, less_ and _least_,
before them:, as, _wisely, more wisely, most wisely; culpably, less
culpably, least culpably_. This is virtually a comparison of the latter
adverb, but the grammatical inflection, or degree, belongs only to the
former; and the words being written separately, it is certainly most proper
to parse them separately, ascribing the degree of comparison to the word
which expresses it. As comparison does not belong to adverbs in general, it
should not be mentioned in parsing, except in the case of those few which
are varied by it.

OBS. 2.--In the works of Milton, and occasionally in those of some other
poets of his age,[311] adverbs of two syllables, ending in _ly_, are not
only compared regularly like adjectives of the same ending, but are used in
the measure of iambic verse as if they still formed only two syllables.
Examples:--

"But God hath _wiselier_ arm'd his vengeful ire."
--_P. Lost_, B. x, l. 1022.

"Destroyers _rightlier_ call'd and plagues of men."
--_Ib._, B. xi, l. 699.

"And on his quest, where _likeliest_ he might find."
--_Ib._, B. ix, l. 414.

"Now _amplier_ known thy Saviour and thy Lord."
--_Ib._, B. xii, l. 544.

"Though thou wert _firmlier_ fasten'd than a rock."
--_Sam. Agon._, l. 1398.

"Not rustic, as before, but _seemlier_ clad."
--_P. Reg._, B. ii, l. 299.

-------------------------"Whereof to thee anon
_Plainlier_ shall be reveal'd."
--_Paradise Lost_, B. xii, l. 150.

------------"To show what coast thy sluggish erare
Might _easiliest_ harbour in."
--_Shakspeare, Cymb._, Act IV.

"Shall not myself be _kindlier_ mov'd than thou art?"
--_Id., Tempest_, Act V.

"But _earthlier_ happy is the rose distill'd."
--_Id., M. S. N. Dream_, Act I.

OBS. 3.--The usage just cited is clearly analogical, and has the obvious
advantage of adding to the flexibility of the language, while it also
multiplies its distinctive forms. If carried out as it might be, it would
furnish to poets and orators an ampler choice of phraseology, and at the
same time, obviate in a great measure the necessity of using the same words
both adjectively and adverbially. The words which are now commonly used in
this twofold character, are principally monosyllables; and, of adjectives,
monosyllables are the class which we oftenest compare by _er_ and _est_:
next to which come dissyllables ending in _y_; as, _holy, happy, lovely_.
But if to any monosyllable we add _ly_ to form an adverb, we have of course
a dissyllable ending in _y_; and if adverbs of this class may be compared
regularly, after the manner of adjectives, there can be little or no
occasion to use the primitive word otherwise than as an adjective. But,
according to present usage, few adverbs are ever compared by inflection,
except such words as may also be used adjectively. For example: _cleanly,
comely, deadly, early, kindly, kingly, likely, lively, princely, seemly,
weakly_, may all be thus compared; and, according to Johnson and Webster,
they may all be used either adjectively or adverbially. Again: _late,
later, latest_, is commonly contrasted in both senses, with _early,
earlier, earliest_; but if _lately, latelier, lateliest_, were adopted in
the adverbial contrast, _early_ and _late, earlier_ and _later, earliest_
and _latest_, might be contrasted as adjectives only.

OBS. 4.--The using of adjectives for adverbs, is _in general_ a plain
violation of grammar. Example: "_To_ is a preposition, governing the verb
_sell_, in the infinitive mood, _agreeable_ to Rule 18, which says, The
preposition TO governs the infinitive mood."--_Comly's Gram._, p. 137. Here
_agreeable_ ought to be _agreeably_; an adverb, relating to the participle
_governing_. Again, the using of adverbs for adjectives, is a fault as
gross. Example: "Apprehending the nominative to be put _absolutely._"--
_Murray's Gram._, p. 155. Here _absolutely_ ought to be _absolute_; an
adjective, relating to the word _nominative_. But, _in poetry_, there is
not only a frequent substitution of quality for manner, in such a way that
the adjective may still be parsed adjectively; but sometimes also what
_appears_ to be (whether right or wrong) a direct use of adjectives for
adverbs, especially in the higher degrees of comparison: as,

"_Firmer_ he roots him the _ruder_ it blow."
--_Scott, L. of L._, C. ii, st. 19.

"True ease in writing comes from art, not chance,
As those move _easiest_ who have learn'd to dance."
--_Pope, Ess. on Crit._

"And also now the sluggard _soundest_ slept."
--_Pollok, C. of T._, B. vi, l. 257.

"In them is _plainest_ taught, and _easiest_ learnt,
What makes a nation happy, and keeps it so."
--_Milton, P. R._, B. iv, l. 361.

OBS. 5.--No use of words can be _right_, that actually confounds the parts
of speech; but in many instances, according to present practice, the same
words may be used either adjectively or adverbially. _Firmer_ and _ruder_
are not adverbs, but adjectives. In the example above, they may, I think,
be ranked with the instances in which quality is poetically substituted for
manner, and be parsed as relating to the pronouns which follow them. A
similar usage occurs in Latin, and is considered elegant. _Easiest_, as
used above by Pope, may perhaps be parsed upon the same principle; that is,
as relating to _those_, or to _persons_ understood before the verb _move_.
But _soundest, plainest_, and _easiest_, as in the latter quotations,
cannot be otherwise explained than as being adverbs. _Plain_ and _sound_,
according to our dictionaries, are used both adjectively and adverbially;
and, if their superlatives are not misapplied in these instances, it is
because the words are adverbs, and regularly compared as such. _Easy_,
though sometimes used adverbially by reputable writers, is presented by our
lexicographers as an adjective only; and if the latter are right, Milton's
use of _easiest_ in the sense and construction of _most easily_, must be
considered an error in grammar. And besides, according to his own practice,
he ought to have preferred _plainliest_ to _plainest_, in the adverbial
sense of _most plainly_.

OBS. 6.--Beside the instances already mentioned, of words used both
adjectively and adverbially, our dictionaries exhibit many primitive terms
which are to be referred to the one class or the other, according to their
construction; as, _soon, late, high, low, quick, slack, hard, soft, wide,
close, clear, thick, full, scant, long, short, clean, near, scarce, sure,
fast_; to which may as well be added, _slow, loud_, and _deep_; all
susceptible of the regular form of comparison, and all regularly
convertible into adverbs in _ly_; though _soonly_ and _longly_ are now
obsolete, and _fastly_, which means _firmly_, is seldom used. In short, it
is, probably, from an idea, that no adverbs are to be compared by _er_ and
_est_ unless the same words may also be used adjectively, that we do not
thus compare _lately, highly, quickly, loudly_, &c., after the example of
Milton. But, however custom may sanction the adverbial construction of the
foregoing simple terms, the distinctive form of the adverb is in general to
be preferred, especially in prose. For example: "The more it was complained
of, the _louder_ it was praised."--_Daniel Webster, in Congress_, 1837. If
it would seem quaint to say, "The _loudlier_ it was praised," it would
perhaps be better to say, "The _more loudly_ it was praised;" for our
critics have not acknowledged _loud_ or _louder_ to be an adverb. Nor have
_slow_ and _deep_ been so called. Dr. Johnson cites the following line to
illustrate the latter as an _adjective_:

"Drink hellebore, my boy! drink _deep_, and scour thy brain. DRYDEN."
--_Joh. Dict., w. Deep_.

"Drink hellebore, my boy! drink deep, and _purge_ thy brain."
--_Dryd. IV. Sat. of Persius_.

OBS. 7.--In some instances, even in prose, it makes little or no difference
to the sense, whether we use adjectives referring to the nouns, or adverbs
of like import, having reference to the verbs: as, "The whole conception is
conveyed _clear_ and _strong_ to the mind."--_Blair's Rhet._, p, 138. Here
_clear_ and _strong_ are adjectives, referring to _conception_; but we
might as well say, "The whole conception is conveyed _clearly_ and
_strongly_ to the mind." "Against a power that exists _independent_ of
their own choice."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 46. Here we might as well say,
"exists _independently_;" for the independence of the power, in whichever
way it is expressed, is nothing but _the manner_ of its _existence_. "This
work goeth _fast_ on and prospereth."--_Ezra_. "Skill comes so _slow_, and
life so _fast_ doth fly."--_Davies_. Dr. Johnson here takes _fast_ and
_slow_ to be adjectives, but he might as well have called them adverbs, so
far as their meaning or construction is concerned. For what here qualifies
the things spoken of, is nothing but _the manner_ of their _motion_; and
this might as well be expressed by the words, _rapidly, slowly, swiftly_.
Yet it ought to be observed, that this does not prove the equivalent words
to be adverbs, and not adjectives. Our philologists have often been led
into errors by the argument of equivalence.

EXAMPLES FOR PARSING.

PRAXIS VIII.--ETYMOLOGICAL.

_In the Eighth Praxis, it is required of the pupil--to distinguish and
define the different parts of speech, and the classes and modifications of
the_ ARTICLES, NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, PRONOUNS, VERBS, PARTICIPLES, _and_
ADVERBS.

_The definitions to be given in the Eighth Praxis, are two for an article,
six for a noun, three for an adjective, six for a pronoun, seven for a verb
finite, five for an infinitive, two for a participle, two (and sometimes
three) for an adverb,--and one for a conjunction, a preposition, or an
interjection. Thus_:--

EXAMPLE PARSED.

"When was it that Rome attracted most strongly the admiration of
mankind?"--_R. G. Harper._

_When_ is an adverb of time. 1. An adverb is a word added to a verb, a
participle, an adjective, or an other adverb; and generally expresses time,
place, degree or manner. 2. Adverbs of time are those which answer to the
question, _When? How long? How soon?_ or, _How often?_ including these
which ask.

_Was_ is an irregular neuter verb, from _be, was, being, been_; found in
the indicative mood, imperfect tense, third person, and singular number. 1.
A verb is a word that signifies _to be, to act_, or _to be acted upon_. 2.
An irregular verb is a verb that does not form the preterit and the perfect
participle by assuming _d_ or _ed_. 3. A neuter verb is a verb that
expresses neither action nor passion, but simply being, or a state of
being. 4. The indicative mood is that form of the verb, which simply
indicates or declares a thing, or asks a question. 5. The imperfect tense
is that which expresses what took place, or was occurring, in time fully
past. 6. The third person is that which denotes the person or thing merely
spoken of. 7. The singular number is that which denotes but one.

_It_ is a personal pronoun, of the third person, singular number, neuter
gender, and nominative case. 1. A pronoun is a word used in stead of a
noun. 2. A personal pronoun is a pronoun that shows, by its form, of what
person it is. 3. The third person is that which denotes the person or thing
merely spoken of. 4. The singular number is that which denotes but one. 5.
The neuter gender is that which denotes things that are neither male nor
female. 6. The nominative case is that form or state of a noun or pronoun,
which usually denotes the subject of a finite verb.

_That_ is a conjunction. 1. A conjunction is a word used to connect words
or sentences in construction, and to show the dependence of the terms so
connected.

_Rome_ is a proper noun, of the third person, singular number, personified
feminine, and nominative case. 1. A noun is the name of any person, place,
or thing, that can be known or mentioned. 2. A proper noun is the name of
some particular individual, or people, or group. 3. The third person is
that which denotes the person or thing merely spoken of. 4. The singular
number is that which denotes but one. 5. The feminine gender is that which
denotes persons or animals of the female kind. 6. The nominative case is
that form or state of a noun or pronoun, which usually denotes the subject
of a finite verb.

_Attracted_ is a regular active-transitive verb, from _attract, attracted,
attracting, attracted_; found in the indicative mood, imperfect tense,
third person, and singular number. 1. A verb is a word that signifies _to
be, to act_, or _to be acted upon_. 2. A regular verb is a verb that forms
the preterit and the perfect participle by assuming _d_ or _ed_. 3. An
active-transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action which has some
person or thing for its object. 4. The indicative mood is that form of the
verb, which simply indicates or declares a thing, or asks a question. 5.
The imperfect tense is that which expresses what took place, or was
occurring, in time fully past. 6. The third person is that which denotes
the person or thing merely spoken of. 7. The singular number is that which
denotes but one.

_Most_ is an a adverb of degree, compared, _much, more, most_, and found in
the superlative. 1. An adverb is a word added to a verb, a participle, an
adjective, or an other adverb; and generally expresses time, place, degree,
or manner. 2. Adverbs of degree are those which answer to the question,
_How much? How little?_ or to the idea of _more or less_. 3. The
superlative degree is that which is _most_ or _least_ of all included with
it.

_Strongly_ is an adverb of manner. 1. An adverb is a word added to a verb,
a participle, an adjective, or an other adverb; and generally expresses
time, place, degree, or manner. 2. Adverbs of manner are those which answer
to the question, _How?_ or, by affirming, denying, or doubting, show _how_
a subject is regarded.

_The_ is the definite article. 1. An article is the word _the, an_, or _a_,
which we put before nouns to limit their signification. 2. The definite
article is _the_, which denotes some particular thing or things.

_Admiration_ is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter
gender, and objective case. 1. A noun is the name of any person, place, or
thing, that can be known or mentioned. 2. A common noun is the name of a
sort, kind, or class, of beings or things. 3. The third person is that
which denotes the person or thing merely spoken of. 4. The singular number
is that which denotes but one. 5. The neuter gender is that which denotes
things that are neither male nor female. 6. The objective case is that
form or state of a noun or pronoun, which usually denotes the object of a
verb, participle, or preposition.

_Of_ is a preposition. 1. A preposition is a word used to express some
relation of different things or thoughts to each other, and is generally
placed before a noun or a pronoun.

_Mankind_ is a common noun, collective, of the third person, conveying the
idea of plurality, masculine gender, and objective case. 1. A noun is the
name of any person, place, or thing, that can be known or mentioned. 2. A
collective noun, or noun of multitude, is the name of many individuals
together. 3. The third person is that which denotes the person or thing
merely spoken of. 4. The plural number is that which denotes more than one.
5. The masculine gender is that which denotes persons or animals of the
male kind. 6. The objective case is that form or state of a noun or
pronoun, which usually denotes the object of a verb, participle, or
preposition.

LESSON I.--PARSING.

"Wisely, therefore, is it ordered, and agreeably to the system of
Providence, that we should have nature for our instructor."--_Kames, El. of
Crit._, i, 358.

"It is surprising, how quickly, and for the most part how correctly, we
judge of character from external appearance."--_Id., ib._, i, 359.

"The members of a period connected by proper copulatives, glide smoothly
and gently along, and are a proof of sedateness and leisure in the
speaker."--_Id., ib._, ii, 33.

"Antithesis ought only to be occasionally studied, when it is naturally
demanded by the comparison or opposition of objects."--_Jamieson's Rhet._,
p. 102.

"Did men always think clearly, and were they at the same time fully masters
of the language in which they write, there would be occasion for few
rules."--_Ib._, 102. "Rhetoric, or oratory, is the art of speaking justly,
methodically, floridly, and copiously, upon any subject, in order to touch
the passions, and to persuade."--_Bradley's Literary Guide_, p. 155.

"The more closely we follow the natural order of any subject we may be
investigating, the more satisfactorily and explicitly will that subject be
opened to our understanding."--_Gurney's Essays_, p. 160.

"Why should we doubt of that, whereof our sense
Finds demonstration from experience?
Our minds are here, and there, below, above;
Nothing that's mortal, can so swiftly move."--_Denham_.

LESSON II.--PARSING.

"If we can discern particularly and precisely what it is, which is most
directly obedience or disobedience to the will and commands of God; what is
truly morally beautiful, or really and absolutely deformed; the question
concerning liberty, as far as it respects ethics, or morality, will be
sufficiently decided."--_West, on Agency_, p. xiii.

"Thus it was true, historically, individually, philosophically, and
universally, that they did not like to retain God in their
knowledge."--_Cox, on Christianity_, p. 327.

"We refer to Jeremiah Evarts and Gordon Hall. They had their imperfections,
and against them they struggled discreetly, constantly, successfully, until
they were fitted to ascend to their rest."--_N. Y. Observer_, Feb. 2d,
1833.

"Seek not proud riches; but such as thou mayst get justly, use soberly,
distribute cheerfully and leave contentedly."--_Ld. Bacon._

"There are also some particularly grievous sins, of which conscience justly
accuses us; sins committed more or less presumptuously and willingly,
deliberately and repeatedly."--_Bickersteth, on Prayer_, p. 59.

"And herein I apprehend myself now to suffer wrongfully, being slanderously
reported, falsely accused, shamefully and despitefully used, and hated
without a cause."--_Jenks's Prayers_, p. 173.

"Of perfect knowledge, see, the dawning light
Foretells a noon most exquisitely bright!
Here, springs of endless joy are breaking forth!
There, buds the promise of celestial worth!"--_Young._

LESSON III--PARSING.

"A true friend unbosoms freely, advises justly, assists readily, adventures
boldly, takes all patiently, defends courageously, and continues a friend
unchangeably."--_Penn's Maxims._

"That mind must be wonderfully narrow, that is wholly wrapped up in itself;
but this is too visibly the character of most human minds."--_Burgh's
Dignity_, ii, 35.

"There is not a man living, who wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a
plan adopted for the abolition of slavery; but there is only one proper and
effectual mode by which it can be accomplished, and that is, by legislative
authority."--_Geo. Washington_, 1786.

"Sloth has frequently and justly been denominated the rust of the soul. The
habit is easily acquired; or, rather, it is a part of our very nature to be
indolent."--_Student's Manual_, p. 176.

"I am aware how improper it is to talk much of my wife; never reflecting
how much more improper it is to talk much of myself."--_Home's Art of
Thinking_, p. 89.

"Howbeit whereinsoever any is bold, (I speak foolishly,) I am bold also.
Are they Hebrews? so am I. Are they Israelites? so am I. Are they the seed
of Abraham? so am I. Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak as a fool,) I
am more."--_2 Cor._, xi.

"Oh, speak the wondrous man! how mild, how calm,
How greatly humble, how divinely good,
How firm establish'd on eternal truth."--_Thomson_.

IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

ERRORS RESPECTING ADVERBS.

"We can much easier form the conception of a fierce combat."--_Blair's
Rhet._, p. 167.

[FORMULE--Not proper, because the adjective _easier_ is used as an adverb,
to qualify the verb _can form._ But, according to Observation 4th on the
Modifications of Adverbs, "The using of adjectives for adverbs, is in
general a plain violation of grammar." Therefore, _easier_ should be _more
easily_; thus, "We can much _more easily_ form the conception of a fierce
combat."]

"When he was restored, agreeable to the treaty, he was a perfect
savage."--_Webster's Essays_, p. 235. "How I shall acquit myself suitable
to the importance of the trial."--_Duncan's Cic._, p. 85. "Can any thing
show your holiness how unworthy you treat mankind?"--_Spect._, No. 497. "In
what other [language,] consistent with reason and common sense, can you go
about to explain it to him?"--_Lowth's Gram., Pref._, p. viii. "Agreeable
to this rule, the short vowel Sheva has two characters."--_Wilson's Hebrew
Gram._, p. 46. "We shall give a remarkable fine example of this
figure."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 347. "All of which is most abominable
false."--_Barclay's Works_, iii, 431. "He heaped up great riches, but
passed his time miserable."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, ii, 202. "He is never
satisfied with expressing any thing clearly and simple."--_Blair's Rhet._,
p. 96. "Attentive only to exhibit his ideas clear and exact, he appears
dry."--_Ib._, p. 100. "Such words as have the most liquids and vowels,
glide the softest."--_Ib._, p. 129. "The simplest points, such as are
easiest apprehended."--_Ib._, p. 312. "Too historical, to be accounted a
perfect regular epic poem."--_Ib._, p. 441. "Putting after them the oblique
case, agreeable to the French construction."--_Priestley's Gram._, p. 108.
"Where the train proceeds with an extreme slow pace."--_Kames, El. of
Crit._, i, 151. "So as scarce to give an appearance of succession."--_Ib._,
i, 152. "That concord between sound and sense, which is perceived in some
expressions independent of artful pronunciation."--_Ib._, ii, 63. "Cornaro
had become very corpulent, previous to the adoption of his temperate
habits."--_Hitchcock, on Dysp._, p. 396. "Bread, which is a solid and
tolerable hard substance."--_Sandford and Merton_, p. 38. "To command every
body that was not dressed as fine as himself."--_Ib._, p, 19. "Many of them
have scarce outlived their authors."--_Pref. to Lily's Gram._, p. ix.
"Their labour, indeed, did not penetrate very deep."--_Wilson's Heb.
Gram._, p. 30. "The people are miserable poor, and subsist on
fish."--_Hume's Hist._, ii, 433. "A scale, which I took great pains, some
years since, to make."--_Bucke's Gram._, p. 81. "There is no truth on earth
so well established as the truth of the Bible."--_Taylor's District
School_, p. 288. "I know of no work so much wanted as the one Mr. Taylor
has now furnished."--DR. NOTT: _ib._, p. ii. "And therefore their requests
are seldom and reasonable."--_Taylor_: _ib._, p. 58. "Questions are easier
proposed than rightly answered."--_Dillwyn's Reflections_, p. 19. "Often
reflect on the advantages you possess, and on the source from whence they
are all derived."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 374. "If there be no special Rule
which requires it to be put forwarder."--_Milnes's Greek Gram._, p. 234.
"The Masculine and Neuter have the same Dialect in all Numbers, especially
when they end the same."--_Ib._, p. 259.

"And children are more busy in their play
Than those that wisely'st pass their time away."--_Butler_, p. 163.

CHAPTER IX.--CONJUNCTIONS.

A Conjunction is a word used to connect words or sentences in construction,
and to show the dependence of the terms so connected: as, "Thou _and_ he
are happy, _because_ you are good."--_Murray_.

OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1.--Our connective words are of four kinds; namely, relative pronouns,
conjunctive adverbs,[312] conjunctions, and prepositions. These have a
certain resemblance to one another, so far as they are all of them
_connectives_; yet there are also characteristical differences by which
they may in general be easily distinguished. Relative pronouns represent
antecedents, and stand in those relations which we call cases; conjunctive
adverbs assume the connective power in addition to their adverbial
character, and consequently sustain a double relation; conjunctions,
(except the introductory correspondents,) join words or sentences together,
showing their relation either to each other or to something else;
prepositions, though naturally subject themselves to something going
before, assume the government of the terms which follow them, and in this
they differ from all the rest.

OBS. 2.--Conjunctions do not express any of the real objects of the
understanding, whether things, qualities, or actions, but rather the
several modes of connexion or contrast under which these objects are
contemplated. Hence conjunctions were said by Aristotle and his followers
to be in themselves "devoid of signification;" a notion which Harris, with
no great propriety, has adopted in his faulty definition[313] of this part
of speech. It is the office of this class of particles, to link together
words, phrases, or sentences, that would otherwise appear as loose shreds,
or unconnected aphorisms; and thus, by various forms of dependence, to give
to discourse such continuity as may fit it to convey a connected train of
thought or reasoning. The skill or inability of a writer may as strikingly
appear in his management of these little connectives, as in that of the
longest and most significant words in the language.

"The current is often evinced by the straws,
And the course of the wind by the flight of a feather;
So a speaker is known by his _ands_ and his _ors_,
Those stitches that fasten his patchwork together."--_Robert F. Mott_.

OBS. 3.--Conjunctions sometimes connect entire sentences, and sometimes
particular words or phrases only. When one whole sentence is closely linked
with an other, both become clauses or members of a more complex sentence;
and when one word or phrase is coupled with an other, both have in general
a common dependence upon some other word in the same sentence. In
etymological parsing, it may be sufficient to name the conjunction as such,
and repeat the definition above; but, in syntactical parsing, the learner
should always specify the terms connected. In many instances, however, he
may conveniently abbreviate his explanation, by parsing the conjunction as
connecting "what precedes and what follows;" or, if the terms are
transposed, as connecting its own clause to the second, to the third, or to
some other clause in the context.

OBS. 4.--However easy it may appear, for even the young parser to _name the
terms_ which in any given instance are connected by the conjunction, and of
course to know for himself _what these terms are_,--that is, to know what
the conjunction does or does not, connect,--it is certain that a multitude
of grammarians and philosophers, great and small, from Aristotle down to
the latest modifier of Murray, or borrower from his text, have been
constantly contradicting one an other, if not themselves, in relation to
this matter. Harris avers, that "the Conjunction connects, _not Words, but
Sentences_;" and frames his definition accordingly. See _Hermes_, p. 237.
This doctrine is true of some of the conjunctions, but it is by no means
true of them all. He adds, in a note, "Grammarians have usually considered
the Conjunction as connecting rather single Parts of Speech, than whole
Sentences, and that too with the addition of like with like, Tense with
Tense, Number with Number, Case with Case, &c. This _Sanctius_ justly
explodes."--_Ib._, p. 238. If such has been the usual doctrine of the
grammarians, they have erred on the one side, as much as our philosopher,
and his learned authorities, on the other. For, in this instance, Harris's
quotations of Latin and Greek writers, prove only that Sanctius, Scaliger,
Apollonius, and Aristotle, held the same error that he himself had
adopted;--the error which Latham and others now inculcate, that, "There are
always _two propositions_ where there is one Conjunction."--_Fowler's E.
Gram._, 8vo, 1850, p. 557.

OBS. 5.--The common doctrine of L. Murray and others, that, "Conjunctions
connect the same moods and tenses of verbs, and cases of nouns and
pronouns," is not only badly expressed, but is pointedly at variance with
their previous doctrine, that, "Conjunctions very often unite sentences,
when they appear to unite only words; as in the following instances: 'Duty
_and_ interest forbid vicious indulgences;' 'Wisdom _or_ folly governs us.'
Each of these forms of expression," they absurdly say, "contains two
sentences."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 124; _Smith's_, 95; _Fisk's_, 84;
_Ingersoll's_, 81. By "_the same moods, tenses_, or _cases_," we must needs
here understand some _one mood, tense_, or _case_, in which the connected
words _agree_; and, if the conjunction has any thing to do with this
agreement, or sameness of mood, tense, or case, it must be because words
only, and not sentences, are connected by it. Now, _if, that, though, lest,
unless_, or any other conjunction that introduces the subjunctive, will
almost always be found to connect different moods, or rather to subjoin one
sentence to another in which there is a different mood. On the contrary,
_and, as, even, than, or_, and _nor_, though they may be used to connect
sentences, do, in very many instances, connect words only; as, "The _king
and queen_ are an amiable pair."--_Murray._ "And a being of _more than
human_ dignity stood before me."--_Dr. Johnson._ It cannot be plausibly
pretended, that _and_ and _than_, in these two examples, connect clauses or
sentences. So _and_ and _or_, in the examples above, connect the nouns
only, and not "sentences:" else our common rules for the agreement of verbs
or pronouns with words connected, are nothing but bald absurdities. It is
idle to say, that the construction and meaning are not _what they appear to
be_; and it is certainly absurd to contend, that conjunctions always
connect sentences; or always, words only. One author very strangely
conceives, that, "Conjunctions may be said either always to connect words
only, or always to connect sentences, _according to the view which may be
taken of them_ in analyzing."--_Nutting's Gram._, p. 77.

OBS. 6.--"Several words belonging to other parts of speech, are
occasionally used as conjunctions. Such are the following: _provided,
except_, verbs; _both_, an adjective; _either, neither, that_, pronouns;
_being, seeing_, participles; _before, since, for_, prepositions. I will do
it, _provided_ you lend some help. Here _provided_ is a conjunction, that
connects the two sentences. 'Paul said, _Except_ these abide in the ship,
ye cannot be saved.' Here _except_ is a conjunction. _Excepting_ is also
used as a participle and conjunction. '_Being_ this reception of the gospel
was so anciently foretold.'--_Bishop Pearson._ '_Seeing_ all the
congregation are holy.'--_Bible_. Here _being_ and _seeing_ are used as
conjunctions."--_Alexander's Gram_:, p. 50. 'The foregoing remark, though
worthy of some attention, is not altogether accurate. _Before_, when it
connects sentences, is not a conjunction, but a conjunctive adverb.
_Provided_, as cited above, resembles not the verb, but the perfect
participle. _Either_ and _neither_, when they are not conjunctions, are
pronominal adjectives, rather than pronouns. And, to say, that, "words
_belonging to other parts of speech_, are used as _conjunctions_," is a
sort of solecism, which leaves the learner in doubt to what class they
_really_ belong. _Being_, and _being that_, were formerly used in the sense
of _because, since, or seeing that_; (Lat. _cum, quoniam_, or _quando_;)
but this usage is now obsolete. So there is an uncommon or obsolete use of
_without_, in the sense of _unless_, or _except_; (Lat. _nisi_;) as, "He
cannot rise _without_ he be helped." _Walker's Particles_, p. 425. "Non
potest _nisi_ adjutus exsurgere."--_Seneca._

CLASSES.

Conjunctions are divided into two general classes, _copulative_ and
_disjunctive_; and a few of each class are particularly distinguished from
the rest, as being _corresponsive_.

I. A _copulative conjunction_ is a conjunction that denotes an addition, a
cause, a consequence, or a supposition: as, "He _and_ I shall not dispute;
_for, if_ he has any choice, I shall readily grant it."

II. A _disjunctive conjunction_ is a conjunction that denotes opposition of
meaning: as, "_Though_ he were dead, _yet_ shall he live."--_St. John's
Gospel_. "Be not faithless, _but_ believing."--_Id._

III. The _corresponsive conjunctions_ are those which are used in pairs, so
that one refers or answers to the other: as, "John came _neither_ eating
_nor_ drinking."--_Matt._, xi, 18. "But _if_ I cast out devils by the
Spirit of God, _then_ the kingdom of God is come unto you."--_Ib._, xii,
28.

OBS.--Not all terms which stand in the relation of correspondents, or
corresponsives, are therefore to be reckoned _conjunctions_; nor are both
words in each pair always of the same part of speech: some are adverbs; one
or two are adjectives; and sometimes a conjunction answers to a preceding
adverb. But, if a word is seen to be the mere precursor, index,
introductory sign, or counterpart, of a conjunction, and has no relation or
import which should fix it in any other of the ten classes called parts of
speech, it is, clearly, a conjunction,--a _corresponding_ or
_corresponsive_ conjunction. It is a word used _preparatively_, "to connect
words or sentences in construction, and to show the dependence of the terms
so connected."

LIST OF THE CONJUNCTIONS.

1. The Copulatives; _And, as, both, because, even, for, if, that, then,
since, seeing, so_.

2. The Disjunctives; _Or, nor, either, neither, than, though, although,
yet, but, except, whether, lest, unless, save, provided, notwithstanding,
whereas_.

3. The Corresponsives; _Both--and; as--as; as--so; if--then; either--or_;
_neither--nor; whether--or; though_, or _although--yet_.

OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1.--By some writers, the words, _also, since, too, then, therefore_,
and _wherefore_, are placed among the copulative conjunctions; and _as, so,
still, however_, and _albeit_, among the disjunctive; but Johnson and
Webster have marked most of these terms as _adverbs_ only. It is perhaps of
little moment, by which name they are called; for, in some instances,
conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs do not differ very essentially. _As,
so, even, then, yet_, and _but_, seem to belong sometimes to the one part
of speech, and sometimes to the other. I call them adverbs when they
chiefly express time, manner, or degree; and conjunctions when they appear
to be mere connectives. _As, yet_, and _but_, are generally conjunctions;
but _so, even_, and _then_, are almost always adverbs. _Seeing_ and
_provided_, when used as connectives, are more properly conjunctions than
any thing else; though Johnson ranks them with the adverbs, and Webster, by
supposing many awkward ellipses, keeps them with the participles. Examples:
"For these are not drunken, as ye suppose, _seeing_ it is but the third
hour of the day."--_Acts_, ii, 15. "The senate shall have power to adjourn
themselves, _provided_ such adjournment shall not exceed two days at a
time."--_Constitution of New Hampshire_.

OBS. 2.--_Since_, when it governs
a noun after it, is a preposition: as, "Hast thou commanded the morning
_since thy days_?"--_Job_. _Albeit_ is equivalent in sense to _although_,
and is properly a conjunction; but this old compound is now nearly or quite
obsolete. _As_ is sometimes a relative pronoun, sometimes a conjunctive
adverb, and sometimes a copulative conjunction. Example of the last: "We
present ourselves _as_ petitioners." If _as_ is ever disjunctive, it is not
so here; nor can we parse it as an adverb, because it comes between two
words that are essentially in apposition. The equivalent Latin term _quasi_
is called an adverb, but, in such a case, not very properly: as, "Et colles
_quasi_ pulverem pones;"--"And thou shalt make the hills _as_
chaff."--_Isaiah_, xli, 15. So _even_, which in English is frequently a
sign of emphatic repetition, seems sometimes to be rather a conjunction
than an adverb: as, "I, _even_ I, am the Lord."--_Isaiah_, xliii, 11.

OBS. 3.--_Save_ and _saving_, when they denote exception, are not adverbs,
as Johnson denominates them, or a verb and a participle, as Webster
supposes them to be, or prepositions, as Covell esteems them, but
disjunctive conjunctions; and, as such, they take the same case after as
before them; as, "All the conspirators, _save_ only _he_, did that they
did, in envy of great Caesar."--_Shak._ "All this world's glory seemeth
vain, and all their shows but shadows, _saving she_."--_Spenser_. "Israel
burned none of them, _save Hazor_ only."--_Joshua_. xi, 13. "And none of
them was cleansed, _saving Naaman_ the Syrian."--_Luke_, iv, 27. _Save_ is
not here a transitive verb, for Hazor was not _saved_ in any sense, but
utterly destroyed; nor is Naaman here spoken of as _being saved by an other
leper_, but as being cleansed when others were not. These two conjunctions
are now little used; and therefore the propriety of setting the nominative
after them and treating them as conjunctions, is the more apt to be
doubted. The Rev. Matt. Harrison, after citing five examples, four of which
have the nominative with _save_, adds, without naming the part of speech,
or assigning any reason, this decision, which I think erroneous: "In all
these passages, _save_ requires after it the objective case." His five
examples are these: "All, _save_ I, were at rest, and enjoyment."--
_Frankenstein_. "There was no stranger with us, in the house, _save we_
two."--_1 Kings_, iii, 18.

"And nothing wanting is, _save she_, alas!"
--DRUMMOND _of Hawthornden_.

"When all slept sound, _save she_, who bore them both."
--ROGERS, _Italy_, p. 108.

"And all were gone, _save him_, who now kept guard."
--_Ibid._, p. 185.

OBS. 4.--The conjunction _if_ is sometimes used in the Bible to express,
not a supposition of what follows it, but an emphatic negation: as, "I have
sworn in my wrath, _if_ they shall enter into my rest."--_Heb._, iv, 3.
That is, _that they shall not enter_. The same peculiarity is found in the
Greek text, and also in the Latin, and other versions. _Or_, in the
obsolete phrase, "_or ever_," is not properly a conjunction, but a
conjunctive adverb of time, meaning _before_. It is supposed to be a
corruption of _ere_: as, "I was set up from everlasting, from the
beginning, _or ever_ the earth was."--_Prov._, viii, 23. "And we, _or ever_
he come near, are ready to kill him."--_Acts_, xxiii, 15. This term derives
no support from the original text.

OBS. 5.--There are some peculiar phrases, or combinations of words, which
have the force of conjunctions, and which it is not very easy to analyze
satisfactorily in parsing: as, "And _for all_ there were so many, yet was
not the net broken."--_John_, xxi, 11. Here _for all_ is equivalent to
_although_, or _notwithstanding_; either of which words would have been
more elegant. _Nevertheless_ is composed of three words, and is usually
reckoned a conjunctive adverb; but it might as well be called a disjunctive
conjunction, for it is obviously equivalent to _yet, but_, or
_notwithstanding_; as, "I am crucified with Christ: _nevertheless_ I live;
_yet not_ I, _but_ Christ liveth in me."--_Gal._, ii, 20. Here, for
_nevertheless_ and _but_, we have in the Greek the same particle [Greek:
de]. "Each man's mind has some peculiarity, _as well as_ his
face."--_Locke_. "Relative pronouns, _as well as_ conjunctions, serve to
connect sentences."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 124. Here the first _as_
corresponds to the second, but _well_ not being used in the literal sense
of an adverb, some judicious grammarians take the whole phrase as a
conjunction. It is, however, susceptible of division: as, "It is adorned
with admirable pieces of sculpture, _as well_ modern _as_
ancient."--_Addison_.

OBS. 6.--So the phrases, _for as much as, in as much as, in so much that_,
if taken collectively, have the nature of conjunctions; yet they contain
within themselves correspondent terms and several different parts of
speech. The words are sometimes printed separately, and sometimes partly
together. Of late years, _forasmuch, inasmuch, insomuch_, have been usually
compounded, and called adverbs. They might as well, perhaps, be called
conjunctions, as they were by some of our old grammarians; for two
conjunctions sometimes come together: as, "Answering their questions, _as
if_[314] it were a matter that needed it."--_Locke_. "These should be at
first gently treated, _as though_ we expected an imposthumation,"--_Sharp_.
"But there are many things which we must acknowledge to be true,
_notwithstanding that_ we cannot comprehend them."--_Beattie's Moral
Science_, p. 211. "There is no difference, _except that_ some are heavier
than others."--"We may be playful, _and yet_ innocent; grave, _and yet_
corrupt."--_Murray's Key_, p. 166.

OBS. 7.--Conjunctions have no grammatical modifications, and are
consequently incapable of any formal agreement or disagreement with other
words; yet their import as connectives, copulative or disjunctive, must be
carefully observed, lest we write or speak them improperly. Example of
error: "Prepositions are _generally set before_ nouns _and_
pronouns."--_Wilbur's Gram._, p. 20. Here _and_ should be _or_; because,
although a preposition usually governs a noun _or_ a pronoun, it seldom
governs both at once. And besides, the assertion above seems very naturally
to mean, that nouns and pronouns _are generally preceded_ by
prepositions--as gross an error as dullness could invent! L. Murray also
says of prepositions: "They are, _for the most_ part, put before nouns
_and_ pronouns."--_Gram._, p. 117. So Felton: "They generally stand before
nouns _and_ pronouns."--_Analytic and Prac. Gram._, p. 61. The blunder
however came originally from Lowth, and out of the following admirable
enigma: "Prepositions, _standing by themselves in construction_, are put
before nouns _and_ pronouns; _and_ sometimes after verbs; but _in this sort
of composition_ they are _chiefly prefixed_ to verbs: as, _to outgo, to
overcome_."--_Lowth's Gram._, p. 66.

OBS. 8.--The opposition suggested by the disjunctive particle _or_, is
sometimes merely nominal, or verbal: as, "That object is a triangle, _or_
figure contained under three right lines."--_Harris_. "So if we say, that
figure is a sphere, _or_ a globe, _or_ a ball."--_Id., Hermes_, p. 258. In
these cases, the disjunction consists in nothing but an alternative of
words; for the terms connected describe or name the same thing. For this
sense of _or_, the Latins had a peculiar particle, _sive_, which they
called _Subdisjunctiva_, a _Subdisjunctive_: as, "Alexander _sive_ Paris;
Mars _sive_ Mavors."--_Harris's Hermes_, p. 258. In English, the
conjunction _or_ is very frequently equivocal: as, "They were both more
ancient than Zoroaster _or_ Zerdusht."--_Campbell's Rhet._, p. 250;
_Murray's Gram._, p. 297. Here, if the reader does not happen to know that
_Zoroaster_ and _Zerdusht_ mean the same person, he will be very likely to
mistake the sense. To avoid this ambiguity, we substitute, (in judicial
proceedings,) the Latin adverb _alias, otherwise_; using it as a
conjunction subdisjunctive, in lieu of _or_, or the Latin _sive_: as,
"Alexander, _alias_ Ellick."--"Simson, _alias_ Smith, _alias_
Baker."--_Johnson's Dict._

EXAMPLES FOR PARSING.

PRAXIS IX.--ETYMOLOGICAL.

_In the Ninth Praxis, it is required of the pupil--to distinguish and
define the different parts of speech, and the classes and modifications of
the_ ARTICLES, NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, PRONOUNS, VERBS, PARTICIPLES, ADVERBS,
_and_ CONJUNCTIONS.

_The definitions to be given in the Ninth Praxis, are two for an article,
six for a noun, three for an adjective, six for a pronoun, seven for a verb
finite, five for an infinitive, two for a participle, two (and sometimes
three) for an adverb, two for a conjunction,--and one for a preposition, or
an interjection. Thus_:--

EXAMPLE PARSED.

"If thou hast done a good deed, boast not of it."--_Maxims_.

_If_ is a copulative conjunction. 1. A conjunction is a word used to
connect words or sentences in construction, and to show the dependence of
the terms so connected. 2. A copulative conjunction is a conjunction that
denotes an addition, a cause, a consequence, or a supposition.

_Thou_ is a personal pronoun, of the second person, singular number,
masculine gender, and nominative case. 1. A pronoun is a word used in stead
of a noun. 2. A personal pronoun is a pronoun that shows, by its form, of
what person it is. 3. The second person is that which denotes the hearer,
or the person addressed. 4. The singular number is that which denotes but
one. 5. The masculine gender is that which denotes persons or animals of
the male kind. 6. The nominative case is that form or state of a noun or
pronoun, which usually denotes the subject of a finite verb.

_Hast done_ is an irregular active-transitive verb, from _do, did, doing,
done_; found in the indicative mood, perfect tense, second person, and
singular number. 1. A verb is a word that signifies _to be, to act_ or _to
be acted upon_. 2. An irregular verb is a verb that does not form the
preterit and the perfect participle by assuming _d_ or _ed_. 3. An
active-transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action which has some
person or thing for its object. 4. The indicative mood is that form of the
verb, which simply indicates or declares a thing, or asks a question. 5.
The perfect tense is that which expresses what has taken place, within some
period of time not yet fully past. 6. The second person is that which
denotes the hearer, or the person addressed. 7. The singular number is that
which denotes but one.

_A_ is the indefinite article. 1. An article is the word _the, an_, or _a_,
which we put before nouns to limit their signification. 2. The indefinite
article is _an_ or _a_, which denotes one thing of a kind, but not any
particular one.

_Good_ is a common adjective, of the positive degree; compared irregularly,
_good, better, best_. 1. An adjective is a word added to a noun or pronoun,
and generally expresses quality. 2. A common adjective is any ordinary
epithet, or adjective denoting quality or situation. 3. The positive degree
is that which is expressed by the adjective in its simple form.

_Deed_ is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter
gender, and objective case. 1. A noun is the name of any person, place or
thing, that can be known or mentioned. 2. A common noun is the name of a
sort, kind, or class, of beings or things. 3. The third person is that
which denotes the person or thing merely spoken of. 4. The singular number
is that which denotes but one. 5. The neuter gender is that which denotes
things that are neither male nor female. 6. The objective case is that form
or state of a noun or pronoun, which usually denotes the object of a verb,
participle or preposition.

_Boast_ is a regular active-intransitive verb, from _boast, boasted,
boasting, boasted_; found in the imperative mood, present tense, second
person, and singular number. 1. A verb is a word that signifies _to be, to
act_ or _to be acted upon_. 2. A regular verb is a verb that forms the
preterit and the perfect participle by assuming _d_ or _ed_. 3. An
active-intransitive verb is a verb that expresses an action which has no
person or thing for its object. 4. The imperative mood is that form of the
verb, which is used in commanding, exhorting, entreating, or permitting. 5.
The present tense is that which expresses what now exists, or is taking
place. 6. The second person is that which denotes the hearer, or the person
addressed. 7. The singular number is that which denotes but one.

_Not_ is an adverb or manner, expressing negation. 1. An adverb is a word
added to a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an other adverb; and
generally expresses time, place, degree, or manner. 2. Adverbs of manner
are those which answer to the question, _How?_ or, by affirming, denying,
or doubting, show _how_ a subject is regarded. _Of_ is a preposition. 1. A
preposition is a word used to express some relation of different things or
thoughts to each other, and is generally placed before a noun or a pronoun.

_It_ is a personal pronoun, of the third person, singular number, neuter
gender, and objective case. 1. A pronoun is a word used in stead of a noun.
2. A personal pronoun is a pronoun that shows, by its form, of what person
it is. 3. The third person is that which denotes the person or thing merely
spoken of. 4. The singular number is that which denotes but one. 5. The
neuter gender is that which denotes things that are neither male nor
female. 6. The objective case is that form or state of a noun or pronoun
which usually denotes the object of a verb, participle, or preposition.

LESSON I.--PARSING.

"In all gratifications, disgust ever lies nearest to the highest pleasures;
and therefore let us not marvel, if this is peculiarly the case in
eloquence. By glancing at either poets or orators, we may easily satisfy
ourselves, that neither a poem nor an oration which aims continually at
what is fine, showy, and sparkling, can please us long. Wherefore, though
we may wish for the frequent praise of having expressed ourselves well and
properly, we should not covet repeated applause for being bright and
splendid."--CICERO, _de Oratore_.

"The foundation of eloquence, as well as of every other high attainment, is
practical wisdom. For it happens in oratory, as in life, that nothing is
more difficult, than to discern what is proper and becoming. Through lack
of such discernment, gross faults are very often committed. For neither to
all ranks, fortunes, and ages, nor to every time, place, and auditory, can
the same style either of language or of sentiment be adapted. In every part
of a discourse, as in every part of life, we must consider what is suitable
and decent; and this must be determined with reference both to the matter
in question, and to the personal character of those who speak and those who
hear."--CICERO, _Orator ad Brutum_.

"So spake th' Omnipotent, and with his words
All seem'd well pleas'd; all seem'd, but were not all."--_Milton_.

LESSON II.--PARSING.

"A square, though not more regular than a hexagon or an octagon, is more
beautiful than either: for what reason, but that a square is more simple,
and the attention is less divided?"--_Kames, El. of Crit._, i, 175.

"We see the material universe in motion; but matter is inert; and, so far
as we know, nothing can move it but mind: therefore God is a spirit. We do
not mean that his nature is the same as that of our soul; for it is
infinitely more excellent. But we mean, that he possesses intelligence and
active power in supreme perfection; and, as these qualities do not belong
to matter, which is neither active nor intelligent, we must refer them to
that which is not matter, but mind."--_Beattie's Moral Science_, p. 210.

"Men are generally permitted to publish books, and contradict others, and
even themselves, as they please, with as little danger of being confuted,
as of being understood."--_Boyle_.

"Common reports, if ridiculous rather than dangerous, are best refuted by
neglect."--_Kames's Thinking_, p. 76. "No man is so foolish, but that he
may give good counsel at a time; no man so wise, but he may err, if he take
no counsel but his own."--_Ib._, p. 97.

"Young heads are giddy, and young hearts are warm,
And make mistakes for manhood to reform."--_Cowper_.

LESSON III.--PARSING.

"The Nouns denote substances, and those either natural, artificial, or
abstract. They moreover denote things either general, or special, or
particular. The Pronouns, their substitutes, are either prepositive, or
subjunctive."--_Harris's Hermes_, p. 85.

"In a thought, generally speaking, there is at least one capital object
considered as acting or as suffering. This object is expressed by a
substantive noun: its action is expressed by an active verb; and the thing
affected by the action is expressed by an other substantive noun: its
suffering, or passive state, is expressed by a passive verb; and the thing
that acts upon it, by a substantive noun. Beside these, which are the
capital parts of a sentence, or period, there are generally underparts;
each of the substantives, as well as the verb, may be qualified: time,
place, purpose, motive, means, instrument, and a thousand other
circumstances, may be necessary to complete the thought."--_Kames, El. of
Crit._, ii, 34.

"Yet those whom pride and dullness join to blind,
To narrow cares and narrow space confined,
Though with big titles each his fellow greets,
Are but to wits, as scavengers to streets."--_Mallet_.

IMPROPRIETIES FOR CORRECTION.

ERRORS RESPECTING CONJUNCTIONS.

"A Verb is so called from the Latin _verbum_, or _word._"--_Bucke's
Classical Gram._, p. 56.

[FORMULE.--Not proper, because the conjunction _or_, connecting _verbum_
and _word_, supposes the latter to be _Latin_. But, according to
Observation 7th, on the Classes of Conjunctions, "The import of
connectives, copulative or disjunctive, must be carefully observed, lest we
write or speak them improperly." In this instance, _or_ should be changed
to _a_; thus, "A _Verb_ is so called from the Latin _verbum, a word_" that
is, "which means, _a word_."]

"References are often marked by letters and figures."--_Gould's Adam's
Gram._, p. 283. (1.) "A Conjunction is a word which joins words and
sentences together."--_Lennie's E. Gram._, p. 51; _Bullions's_, 70;
_Brace's_, 57. (2.) "A conjunction is used to connect words and sentences
together."--_Smith's New Gram._, p. 37. (3.) "A conjunction is used to
connect words and sentences."--_Maunders Gram._, p. 1. (4.) "Conjunctions
are words used to join words and sentences."--_Wilcox's Gram._, p. 3. (5.)
"A Conjunction is a word used to connect words and sentences."--
_M'Culloch's Gram._, p. 36; _Hart's_, 92; _Day's_, 10. (6.) "A Conjunction
joins words and sentences together."--_Mackintosh's Gram._, p. 115;
_Hiley's_, 10 and 53. (7.) "The Conjunction joins words and sentences
together."--_L. Murray's Gram._, 2d Edition, p. 28. (8.) "Conjunctions
connect words and sentences to each other."--_Wright's Gram._, p. 35. (9.)
"Conjunctions connect words and sentences."--_Wilcox's Gram._, p. 80;
_Wells's_, 1st Ed., 159 and 168. (10.) "The conjunction is a part of speech
used to connect words and sentences."--_Weld's Gram._, 2d Ed., p. 49. (11.)
"A conjunction is a word used to connect words and sentences together."--
_Fowler's E. Gram._, Sec.329. (12.) "Connectives are words which unite words
and sentences in construction."--_Webster's Philos. Gram._, p. 123;
_Improved Gram._, 81. "English Grammar is miserably taught in our district
schools; the teachers know but little or nothing about it."--_Taylor's
District School_, p. 48. "Least, instead of preventing, you draw on
Diseases."--_Locke, on Ed._, p. 40. "The definite article _the_ is
frequently applied to adverbs in the comparative and superlative
degree."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 33; _Ingersoll's_, 33; _Lennie's_, 6;
_Bullions's_, 8; _Fisk's_, 53, and others. "When nouns naturally neuter are
converted into masculine and feminine."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 38.
"This form of the perfect tense represents an action completely past, and
often at no great distance, but not specified."--_Ib._, p. 74. "The
Conjunction Copulative serves to connect or to continue a sentence, by
expressing an addition, a supposition, a cause, &c."--_Ib._, p. 123. "The
Conjunction Disjunctive serves, not only to connect and continue the
sentence, but also to express opposition of meaning in different
degrees."--_Ib._, p. 123. "Whether we open the volumes of our divines,
philosophers, historians, or artists, we shall find that they abound with
all the terms necessary to communicate their observations and
discoveries."--_Ib._, p. 138. "When a disjunctive occurs between a singular
noun, or pronoun, and a plural one, the verb is made to agree with the
plural noun and pronoun."--_Ib._, p. 152: _R. G. Smith, Alger, Gomly,
Merchant, Picket, et al._ "Pronouns must always agree with their
antecedents, and the nouns for which they stand, in gender and
number."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 154. "Verbs neuter do not act upon, or
govern, nouns and pronouns."--_Ib._, p. 179. "And the auxiliary both of the
present and past imperfect times."--_Ib._, p. 72. "If this rule should not
appear to apply to every example, which has been produced, nor to others
which might be adduced."--_Ib._, p. 216. "An emphatical pause is made,
after something has been said of peculiar moment, and on which we desire to
fix the hearer's attention."--_Ib._, p. 248; _Hart's Gram._, 175. "An
imperfect phrase contains no assertion, or does not amount to a proposition
or sentence."--_Murray's Gram._, p. 267. "The word was in the mouth of
every one, but for all that, the subject may still be a secret."--_Ib._, p.
213. "A word it was in the mouth of every one, but for all that, as to its
precise and definite idea, this may still be a secret."--_Harris's Three
Treatises_, p. 5. "It cannot be otherwise, in regard that the French
prosody differs from that of every other country in Europe."--_Smollett's
Voltaire_, ix, 306. "So gradually as to allow its being engrafted on a
subtonic."--_Rush, on the Voice_, p. 255. "Where the Chelsea or Maiden
bridges now are."--_Judge Parker_. "Adverbs are words joined to verbs,
participles, adjectives, and other adverbs."--_Smith's Productive Gram._,
p. 92. "I could not have told you, who the hermit was, nor on what mountain
he lived."--_Bucke's Classical Gram._, p. 32. "_Am_, or _be_ (for they are
the same) naturally, or in themselves signify _being_."--_Brightland's
Gram._, p. 113. "Words are distinct sounds, by which we express our
thoughts and ideas."--_Infant School Gram._, p. 13. "His fears will detect
him, but he shall not escape."--_Comly's Gram._, p. 64. "_Whose_ is equally
applicable to persons or things."--WEBSTER _in Sanborn's Gram._, p. 95.
"One negative destroys another, or is equivalent to an affirmative."--
_Bullions, Eng. Gram._, p. 118.

"No sooner does he peep into
The world, but he has done his do."--_Hudibras_.

CHAPTER X.--PREPOSITIONS.

A Preposition is a word used to express some relation of different things
or thoughts to each other, and is generally placed before a noun or a
pronoun: as, "The paper lies _before_ me _on_ the desk."

OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1.--The relations of things to things in nature, or of words to words
in discourse, are infinite in number, if not also in variety. But just
classification may make even infinites the subjects of sure science. Every
_relation_ of course implies more objects, and more terms, than one; for
any one thing, considered merely in itself, is taken independently,
abstractly, irrelatively, as if it had no relation or dependence. In all
correct language, the grammatical relation of the _words_ corresponds
exactly to the relation of the _things_ or _ideas_ expressed; for the
relation of words, is their dependence, or connexion, _according to the
sense._ This relation is oftentimes immediate, as of one word to an other,
without the intervention of a preposition; but it is seldom, if ever,
reciprocally equal; because dependence implies subordination; and mere
adjunction is a sort of inferiority.

OBS. 2.--To a preposition, the _prior_ or _antecedent_ term may be a noun,
an adjective, a pronoun, a verb, a participle, or an adverb; and the
_subsequent_ or _governed_ term may be a noun, a pronoun, a pronominal
adjective, an infinitive verb, or a participle. In some instances, also, as
in the phrases, _in vain, on high, at once, till now, for ever, by how
much, until then, from thence, from above_, we find adjectives used
elliptically, and adverbs substantively, after the preposition. But, in
phrases of an adverbial character, what is elsewhere a preposition often
becomes an adverb. Now, if prepositions are concerned in expressing the
various relations of so many of the different parts of speech, multiplied,
as these relations must be, by that endless variety of combinations which
may be given to the terms; and if the sense of the writer or speaker is
necessarily mistaken, as often as any of these relations are misunderstood,
or their terms misconceived; how shall we estimate the importance of a
right explanation, and a right use, of this part of speech?

OBS. 3.--The grammarian whom Lowth compliments, as excelling all others, in
"acuteness of investigation, perspicuity of explication, and elegance of
method;" and as surpassing all but Aristotle, in the beauty and perfectness
of his philological analysis; commences his chapter on conjunctions in the
following manner: "Connectives are the subject of what follows; which,
_according_ as they connect _either Sentences or Words_, are called by the
different _Names_ of _Conjunctions_ OR _Prepositions._ Of these Names, that
of the Preposition is taken from a _mere accident_, as _it_ commonly stands
in connection before _the Part, which it connects._ The name of the
Conjunction, as is evident, has reference to its essential character. Of
these two we shall consider the Conjunction _first_, because it connects,
_not Words_, but Sentences."--_Harris's Hermes_, p. 237.

OBS. 4.--In point of order, it is not amiss to treat conjunctions before
prepositions; though this is not the method of Lowth, or of Murray. But, to
any one who is well acquainted with these two parts of speech, the
foregoing passage cannot but appear, in three sentences out of the four,
both defective in style and erroneous in doctrine. It is true, that
conjunctions generally connect sentences, and that prepositions as
generally express relations between particular words: but it is true also,
that conjunctions _often_ connect words only; and that prepositions, by
governing antecedents, relatives, or even personal pronouns, may serve to
subjoin sentences to sentences, as well as to determine the relation and
construction of the particular words which they govern. Example: "The path
seems now plain and even, _but_ there are asperities and pitfalls, _over
which_ Religion only can conduct you."--_Dr. Johnson._ Here are three
simple sentences, which are made members of one compound sentence, by means
of _but_ and _over which_; while two of these members, clauses, or
subdivisions, contain particular words connected by _and._

OBS. 5.--In one respect, the preposition is the _simplest_ of all the parts
of speech: in our common schemes of grammar, it has neither classes nor
modifications. Every connective word that governs an object after it, is
called a preposition, _because it does so_; and in etymological parsing, to
name the preposition as such, and define the name, is, perhaps, all that is
necessary. But in syntactical parsing, in which we are to omit the
definitions, and state the construction, we ought to explain what terms the
preposition connects, and to give a rule adapted to this office of the
particle. It is a palpable defect in nearly all our grammars, that their
syntax contains NO SUCH RULE. "Prepositions govern the objective case," is
a rule for _the objective case_, and not for the syntax of _prepositions._
"Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts
expressed by them," is the principle for the latter; a principle which we
cannot neglect, without a shameful lameness in our interpretation;--that
is, when we pretend to parse syntactically.

OBS. 6.--Prepositions and their
objects very often precede the words on which they depend, and sometimes at
a great distance. Of this we have an example, at the opening of Milton's
Paradise Lost; where "_Of_," the first word, depends upon "_Sing_," in the
sixth line below; for the meaning is--"_Sing of man's first disobedience_,"
&c. To find the terms of the relation, is to find the _meaning_ of the
passage; a very useful exercise, provided the words have a meaning which is
worth knowing. The following text has for centuries afforded ground of
dispute, because it is doubtful in the original, as well as in many of the
versions, whether the preposition _in_ (i. e., "_in the regeneration_")
refers back to _have followed_, or forward to the last verb _shall sit_:
"Verily I say unto you that ye who have followed me, _in_ the regeneration,
when the Son of man shall sit _in_ the throne of his glory, ye also shall
sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel."--_Matt._,
xix, 28. The second _in_ is manifestly wrong: the Greek word is [Greek:
epi], _on_ or _upon_; i. e., "_upon_ the throne of his glory."

OBS. 7.--The prepositions have, from their own nature, or from custom, such
an _adaptation_ to particular terms and relations, that they can seldom be
used one for an other without manifest impropriety. Example of error:
"Proper seasons should be allotted _for_ retirement."--_Murray's Key_, p.
173. We do not say "_allotted for_," but "_allotted to_:" hence _for_ is
either wrong in itself or misplaced. Such errors always vex an intelligent
reader. He sees the terms mismatched, the intended connection doubtful, the
sense obscured, and wishes the author could have valued his own meaning
enough to have made it intelligible;--that is, (to speak technically,)
enough to have made it a certain clew to his syntax. We can neither parse
nor correct what we do not understand. Did the writer mean, "Proper seasons
should be _allotted to_ retirement?"--or, "Proper _seasons for_ retirement
should be allotted?"--or, "Seasons _proper for_ retirement should be
alloted?" [sic--KTH] Every expression is incorrigibly bad, the meaning of
which cannot be known. Expression? Nay, expression it is not, but only a
mock utterance or an abortive attempt at expression.

OBS. 8.--Harris observes, in substance, though in other words, that almost
all the prepositions were originally formed to denote relations of place;
that this class of relations is primary, being that which natural bodies
maintain at all times one to an other; that in the continuity of place
these bodies form the universe, or visible whole; that we have some
prepositions to denote the _contiguous_ relation of bodies, and others for
the _detached_ relation; and that both have, by _degrees_, been extended
from local relations, to the relations of subjects incorporeal. He appears
also to assume, that, in such examples as the following,--"Caius _walketh
with_ a staff; "--"The statue _stood upon_ a pedestal;"--"The river _ran
over_ a sand;"--"He _is going_ to Turkey;"--"The sun _is risen_ above the
hills;"--"These figs _came from_ Turkey;"--the antecedent term of the
relation is not the verb, but the noun or pronoun before it. See _Hermes_,
pp. 266 and 267. Now the true antecedent is, unquestionably, that word
which, in the order of the sense, the preposition should immediately
follow: and a verb, a participle, or an adjective, may sustain this
relation, just as well as a substantive. "_The man spoke of colour_," does
not mean, "_The man of colour spoke_;" nor does, "_The member from Delaware
replied_," mean, "_The member replied from Delaware_"

OBS. 9.--To make this matter more clear, it may be proper to observe
further, that what I call the order of the sense, is not always that order
of the words which is fittest to express the sense of a whole period; and
that the true antecedent is that word to which the preposition, and its
object would naturally be subjoined, were there nothing to interfere with
such an arrangement. In practice it often happens, that the preposition and
its object cannot be placed immediately after the word on which they
depend, and which they would naturally follow. For example: "She hates the
means _by which_ she lives." That is, "She hates the means which she _lives
by_." Here we cannot say, "She hates the means she _lives by which_;" and
yet, in regard to the preposition _by_, this is really the order of the
sense. Again: "Though thou shouldest bray a fool _in a mortar among wheat
with a pestle_, yet will not his foolishness depart from him."--_Prov._,
xxvii, 23. Here is no transposition to affect our understanding of the
prepositions, yet there is a liability to error, because the words which
immediately precede some of them, are not their true antecedents: the text
does not really speak of "_a mortar among wheat_" or of "_wheat with a
pestle_." To what then are the _mortar_, the _wheat_, and the _pestle_, to
be mentally subjoined? If all of them, to any one thing, it must be to the
_action_ suggested by the verb _bray_, and not to its object _fool_; for
the text does not speak of "_a fool with a pestle_," though it does _seem_
to speak of "_a fool in a mortar_, and _among wheat_." Indeed, in this
instance, as in many others, the verb and its object are so closely
associated that it makes but little difference in regard to the sense,
whether you take both of them together, or either of them separately, as
the antecedent to the preposition. But, as the instrument of an action is
with the agent rather than with the object, if you will have the
substantives alone for antecedents, the natural order of the sense must be
supposed to be this: "Though _thou with_ a pestle shouldest bray a, _fool
in_ a mortar [and] _among_ wheat, yet will not his _foolishness from_ him
depart." This gives to each of the prepositions an antecedent different
from that which I should assign. Sanborn observes, "There seem to be _two
kinds_ of relation expressed by prepositions,--an _existing_ and a
_connecting_ relation."--_Analyt. Gram._, p. 225. The latter, he adds, "_is
the most important_."--_Ib._, p. 226. But it is the former that admits
nothing but _nouns_ for antecedents. Others besides Harris may have adopted
this notion, but I have never been one of the number, though a certain
author scruples not to charge the error upon me. See _O. B Peirce's Gram._,
p. 165.

OBS. 10.--It is a very common error among grammarians, and the source of
innumerable discrepancies in doctrine, as well as one of the chief means of
maintaining their interminable disputes, that they suppose _ellipses_ at
their own pleasure, and supply in every given instance just what words
their fancies may suggest. In this work, I adopt for myself, and also
recommend to others, the contrary course of avoiding on all occasions the
supposition of any _needless_ ellipses. Not only may the same preposition
govern more than one object, but there may also be more than one antecedent
word, bearing a joint relation to that which is governed by the
preposition. (1.) Examples of joint objects: "There is an inseparable
connection BETWEEN _piety and virtue_."--_Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 171. "In
the conduct of Parmenio, a mixture OF _wisdom and folly_ was very
conspicuous."--_Ib._, p. 178. "True happiness is an enemy TO _pomp and
noise_"--_Ib._, p. 171. (2.) Examples of joint antecedents: "In unity
consist the _welfare and security_ OF every society."--_Ib._, p. 182. "It
is our duty to be _just and kind_ TO our fellow--creatures, and to be
_pious and faithful_ TO Him that made us."--_Ib._, p. 181. If the author
did not mean to speak of being _pious to God_ as well as _faithful to Him_,
he has written incorrectly: a comma after _pious_, would alter both the
sense and the construction. So the text, "For I am meek, and lowly in
heart," is commonly perverted in our Bibles, for want of a comma after
_meek_. The Saviour did not say, he was _meek in heart_: the Greek may be
_very literally_ rendered thus: "For gentle am I, and humble in heart."

OBS. 11.--Many writers seem to suppose, that no preposition can govern more
than one object. Thus L. Murray, and his followers: "The ellipsis of the
_preposition_, as well as of the verb, is seen in the following instances:
'He went into the abbeys, halls, and public buildings;' that is, 'He went
into the abbeys, he went into the halls, and he went into the public
buildings.'--'He also went through all the streets, and lanes of the city;'
that is, 'Through all the streets, and through all the lanes,'
&c."--_Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p. 219. See the same interpretations in
_Ingersoll's Gram._, p. 155; _Merchant's_, 100; _Picket's_, 211; _Alger's_,
73; _Fish's_, 147; _Guy's_, 91; _Adams's_, 82; _R. C. Smith's_, 183;
_Hamlin's_, 105; _Putnam's_, 139; _Weld's_, 292. Now it is plain, that in
neither of these examples is there any such ellipsis at all. Of the three
prepositions, the first governs three nouns; the second, two; and the
third, one only. But the last, (which is _of_,) has two antecedents,
_streets_ and _lanes_, the comma after _streets_ being wrong; for the
author does not speak of all the streets in the world, but of _all the
streets and lanes_ of a particular city. Dr. Ash has the same example
without the comma, and supposes it only an ellipsis of the preposition
_through_, and even that supposition is absurd. He also furnished the
former example, to show an ellipsis, not of the verb _went_, but only of
the preposition _into_; and in this too he was utterly wrong. See _Ash's
Gram._, p. 100. Bicknell also, whose grammar appeared five years before
Murray's, confessedly copied the same examples from Ash; and repeated, not
the verb and its nominative, but only the prepositions _through_ and
_into_, agreeably to Ash's erroneous notion. See his _Grammatical Wreath_,
Part i, p. 124. Again the principles of Murray's supposed ellipses, are as
inconsistent with each other, as they are severally absurd. Had the author
explained the second example according to his notion of the first, he
should have made it to mean, '_He also went_ through all the streets _of
the city_, and _he also went_ through all the lanes _of the city_.' What a
pretty idea is this for a principle of grammar! And what a multitude of
admirers are pretending to carry it out in parsing! One of the latest
writers on grammar says, that, "_Between him and me_" signifies, "_Between
him, and between me_!"--_Wright's Philosophical Gram._, p. 206. And an
other absurdly resolves a simple sentence into a compound one, thus:
"'There was a difficulty between John, and his brother.' That is, there was
a difficulty between John, and _there was a difficulty between_ his
brother."--_James Brown's English Syntax_, p. 127; and again, p. 130.

OBS. 12.--Two prepositions are not unfrequently connected by a conjunction,
and that for different purposes, thus: (1.) To express two different
relations at once; as, "The picture of my travels _in and around_
Michigan."--_Society in America_, i, 231. (2.) To suggest an alternative in
the relation affirmed; as, "The action will be fully accomplished _at or
before_ the time."--_Murray's Gram._, i, 72. Again: "The First Future Tense
represents the action as yet to come, _either with or without_ respect to
the precise time."--_Ib._; and _Felton's Gram._, p. 23. _With_ and
_without_ being direct opposites, this alternative is a thing of course,
and the phrase is an idle truism. (3.) To express two relations so as to
affirm the one and deny the other; as, "Captain, yourself are the fittest
to live and reign not _over_, but next and immediately _under_ the
people."--_Dryden_. Here, perhaps, "_the people_" may be understood after
_over_. (4.) To suggest a mere alternative of words; as, "NEGATIVELY, adv.
_With or by_ denial."--_Webster's Dict._ (5.) To add a similar word, for
aid or force; as, "Hence adverbs of time were necessary, _over and above_
the tenses."--See _Murray's Gram._, p. 116. "To take effect _from and
after_ the first day of May."--_Newspaper_.

OBS. 13.--In some instances, two prepositions come directly together, so as
jointly to express a sort of compound relation between what precedes the
one and what follows the other: as, "And they shall sever the wicked _from
among_ the just."--_Matt._, xiii, 49. "Moses brought out all the rods _from
before_ the Lord."--_Numb._, xvii, 9. "Come out _from among_ them."--_2
Cor._, vi, 17. "From Judea, and _from beyond_ Jordan."--_Matt_. iv, 25.
"Nor a lawgiver _from between_ his feet."--_Gen._, xlix, 10. Thus the
preposition _from_, being itself adapted to the ideas of motion and
separation, easily coincides with any preposition of place, to express this
sort of relation; the terms however have a limited application, being used
only between _a verb_ and _a noun_, because the relation itself is between
_motion_ and _the place_ of its beginning: as, "The sand _slided from
beneath_ my feet."--_Dr. Johnson_. In this manner, we may form _complex
prepositions_ beginning with _from_, to the number _of about_ thirty; as,
_from amidst, from around, from before, from behind_, &c. Besides these,
there are several others, of a more questionable character, which are
sometimes referred to the same class; as, _according to, as to, as for,
because of, instead of, off of, out of, over against_, and _round about_.
Most or all of these are sometimes resolved in a different way, upon the
assumption that the former word is an adverb; yet we occasionally find some
of them compounded by the hyphen: as, "Pompey's lieutenants, Afranius and
Petreius, who lay _over-against_ him, decamp suddenly."--_Rowe's Lucan_,
Argument to B. iv. But the common fashion is, to write them separately; as,
"One thing is set _over against_ an other."--_Bible_.

OBS. 14.--It is not easy to fix a principle by which prepositions may in
all cases be distinguished from adverbs. The latter, we say, do not govern
the objective case; and if we add, that the former do _severally_ require
some object after them, it is clear that any word which precedes a
preposition, must needs be something else than a preposition. But this
destroys all the doctrine of the preceding paragraph, and admits of no such
thing as a _complex preposition_; whereas that doctrine is acknowledged, to
some extent or other, by every one of our grammarians, not excepting even
those whose counter-assertions leave no room for it. Under these
circumstances, I see no better way, than to refer the student to the
definitions of these parts of speech, to exhibit examples in all needful
variety, and then let him judge for himself what disposition ought to be
made of those words which different grammarians parse differently.

OBS. 15.--If our prepositions were to be divided into classes, the most
useful distinction would be, to divide them into _Single_ and _Double_. The
distinction which some writers make, who divide them into "_Separable_ and
_Inseparable_," is of no use at all in parsing, because the latter are mere
syllables; and the idea of S. R. Hall, who divides them into "_Possessive_
and _Relative_," is positively absurd; for he can show us only _one_ of the
former kind, and that one, (the word _of_,) is not always such. A _Double
Preposition_, if such a thing is admissible, is one that consists of two
words which in syntactical parsing must be taken together, because they
jointly express the relation between two other terms; as, "The waters were
dried up _from off_ the earth."--_Gen._, viii, 13. "The clergy kept this
charge _from off_ us."--_Leslie, on Tithes_, p. 221. "Confidence in an
unfaithful man in time of trouble, is like a broken tooth, and a foot _out
of_ joint."--_Prov._, xxv, 19. "The beam _out of_ the timber shall answer
it."--_Hab._, ii, 11. _Off_ and _out_ are most commonly adverbs, but
neither of them can be called an adverb here.

OBS. 16.--Again, if _according to_ or _as to_ is a preposition, then is
_according_ or _as_ a preposition also, although it does not of itself
govern the objective case. _As_, thus used, is called a conjunction by
some, an adverb by others. Dr. Webster considers _according_ to be always a
participle, and expressly says, "It is never a preposition."--_Octavo
Dict._ The following is an instance in which, if it is not a preposition,
it is a participle: "This is a construction _not according_ to the rules of
grammar."--_Murray's Gram._, Vol. ii, p. 22. But _according to_ and
_contrary to_ are expressed in Latin and Greek by single prepositions; and
if _to_ alone is the preposition in English, then both _according_ and
_contrary_ must, in many instances, be _adverbs_. Example: "For dost thou
sit as judging me _according to_ the law, and _contrary_ to law command me
to be smitten?" (See the Greek of Acts, xxiii, 3.) _Contrary_, though
literally an adjective, is often made either an adverb, or a part of a
complex preposition, unless the grammarians are generally in error
respecting it: as, "Ha dares not act _contrary to_ his instructions."--
_Murray's Key_, p. 179.

OBS. 17.--J. W. Wright, with some appearance of analogy on his side, but
none of usage, everywhere adds _ly_ to the questionable word _according_;
as, "We are usually estimated _accordingly to_ our company."--
_Philosophical Gram._, p. 127. "_Accordingly to_ the forms in which they
are employed."--_Ib._, p. 137. "_Accordingly to_ the above principles, the
_adjective_ ACCORDING (or _agreeable_) is frequently, but improperly,
substituted for the adverb ACCORDINGLY (or _agreeably_.)"--_Ib._, p. 145.
The word _contrary_ he does not notice; but, on the same principle, he
would doubtless say, "He dares not act _contrarily_ to his instructions."
We say indeed, "He acted _agreeably_ to his instructions;"--and not, "He
acted _agreeable_ to his instructions." It must also be admitted, that the
adverbs _accordingly_ and _contrarily_ are both of them good English words.
If these were adopted, where the character of _according_ and _contrary_ is
disputable, there would indeed be no longer any occasion to call these
latter either adverbs or prepositions. But the fact is, that _no good
writers have yet preferred them_, in such phrases; and the adverbial ending
_ly_ gives an additional syllable to a word that seems already quite too
long.

OBS. 18.--_Instead_ is reckoned an adverb by some, a preposition by others;
and a few write _instead-of_ with a needless hyphen. The best way of
settling the grammatical question respecting this term, is, to write the
noun _stead_ as a separate word, governed by _in_. Bating the respect that
is due to anomalous usage, there would be more propriety in compounding _in
quest of, in lieu of_, and many similar phrases. For _stead_ is not always
followed by _of_, nor always preceded by _in_, nor always made part of a
compound. We say, _in our stead, in your stead, in their stead_, &c.; but
_lieu_, which has the same meaning as _stead_, is much more limited in
construction. Examples: "In _the stead_ of sinners, He, a divine and human
person, suffered."--_Barnes's Notes_. "Christ suffered in _the place_ and
_stead_ of sinners."--_Ib._ "_For_, in its primary sense, is _pro, loco
alterius_, in _the stead_ or _place_ of _another_."--_Lowth's Gram._, p.
65.

"If it may stand him more in _stead_ to lie."
--_Milt., P. L._, B. i, l. 473.

"But here thy sword can do thee little _stead_."
--_Id., Comus_, l. 611.

OBS. 19.--_From forth_ and _from out_ are two poetical phrases, apparently
synonymous, in which there is a fanciful transposition of the terms, and
perhaps a change of _forth_ and _out_ from adverbs to prepositions. Each
phrase is equivalent in meaning to _out of_ or _out from. Forth_, under
other circumstances, is never a preposition; though _out_, perhaps, may be.
We speak as familiarly of going _out doors_, as of going _up stairs_, or
_down cellar_. Hence _from out_ may be parsed as a complex preposition,
though the other phrase should seem to be a mere example of hyperbaton:

"I saw _from out_ the wave her structures rise."--_Byron_.

"Peeping _from forth_ their alleys green."--_Collins_.

OBS. 20.--"_Out of_ and _as to_," says one grammarian, "are properly
prepositions, although they are double words. They may be called _compound_
prepositions."--_Cooper's Gram._, p. 103. I have called the _complex_
prepositions _double_ rather than _compound_, because several of the single
prepositions are compound words; as, _into, notwithstanding, overthwart,
throughout, upon, within, without_. And even some of these may follow the
preposition _from_; as, "If he shall have removed _from within_ the limits
of this state." But _in_ and _to, up_ and _on, with_ and _in_, are not
always compounded when they come together, because the sense may positively
demand that the former be taken as an adverb, and the latter only as a
preposition: as, "I will come _in to_ him, and will sup with him."--_Rev._,
iii, 20. "A statue of Venus was set _up on_ Mount Calvary."--_M'Ilvaine's
Lectures_, p. 332. "The troubles which we meet _with in_ the
world."--_Blair_. And even two prepositions may be brought together without
union or coalescence; because the object of the first one may be expressed
or understood _before_ it: as, "The man whom you spoke _within_ the
street;"--"The treatment you complain _of on_ this occasion;"--"The house
that you live _in in_ the summer;"--"Such a dress as she had _on in_ the
evening."

OBS. 21.--Some grammarians assume, that, "Two prepositions in immediate
succession require a noun to be _understood_ between them; as, 'Hard by, a
cottage chimney smokes, _From betwixt_ two aged oaks.'--'The mingling notes
came softened _from below_.'"--_Nutting's Gram._, p. 105. This author would
probably understand here--"From _the space_ betwixt two aged oaks;"--"came
softened from _the region_ below _us_." But he did not consider all the
examples that are included in his proposition; nor did he rightly regard
even those which he cites. The doctrine will be found a very awkward one in
practice; and an other objection to it is, that most of the ellipses which
it supposes, are entirely imaginary. If there were truth in his assumption,
the compounding of prepositions would be positively precluded. The terms
_over-against_ and _round-about_ are sometimes written with the hyphen, and
perhaps it would be well if all the complex prepositions were regularly
compounded; but, as I before suggested, such is not the present fashion of
writing them, and the general usage is not to be controlled by what any
individual may think.

OBS. 22.--Instances may, doubtless, occur, in which the object of a
preposition is suppressed by ellipsis, when an other preposition follows,
so as to bring together two that do not denote a compound relation, and do
not, in any wise, form one complex preposition. Of such suppression, the
following is an example; and, I think, a double one: "They take pronouns
_after instead of before_ them."--_Fowler, E. Gram._, Sec.521. This may be
interpreted to mean, and probably does mean--"They take pronouns after
_them_ in _stead_ of _taking them_ before them."

OBS. 23.--In some instances, the words _in, on, of, for, to, with_, and
others commonly reckoned prepositions, are used after infinitives or
participles, in a sort of _adverbial_ construction, because they do not
govern any objective; yet not exactly in the usual sense of adverbs,
because they evidently express the relation between the verb or participle
and a nominative or objective going before. Examples: "Houses are built to
live _in_, and not to look _on_; therefore let use be preferred before
uniformity, except where both may be had."--_Ld. Kames_. "These are not
mysteries for ordinary readers to be let _into_."--ADDISON: _Joh. Dict., w.
Let._ "Heaven is worth dying _for_, though earth is not worth living
_for_."--_R. Hall_. "What! have ye not houses to eat and to drink
_in_?"--_1 Cor._, xi, 22. This is a very peculiar idiom of our language;
and if we say, "Have ye not houses _in which_ to eat and to drink?" we form
_an other_ which is not much less so. Greek: "[Greek: Mae gar oikias ouk
echete eis to esthiein kai pinein];" Latin: "Num enim domos non habetis ad
manducandum et bibendum?"--_Leusden_. "N'avez vous pas des maisons pour
manger et pour boire?"--_French Bible_.[315]

OBS. 24.--In OBS. 10th, of Chapter Fourth, on Adjectives, it was shown that
words of _place_, (such as, _above, below, beneath, under_, and the like,)
are sometimes set before nouns in the character of adjectives, and not of
prepositions: as, "In the _above_ list,"--"From the _above_
list."--_Bullions', E. Gram._, p. 70. To the class of adjectives also,
rather than to that of adverbs, may some such words be referred, when,
without governing the objective case, they are put _after_ nouns to signify
place: as, "The _way_ of life is _above_ to the wise, that he may depart
from _hell beneath_."--_Prov._, xv, 24. "Of any thing that is in _heaven
above_, or that is in the _earth beneath_."--_Exod._, xx, 4.

"Say first, of _God above_ or _man below_,
What can we reason but from what we know?"--_Pope_.

LIST OF THE PREPOSITIONS.

The following are the principal prepositions,
arranged alphabetically: _Aboard, about, above, across, after, against,
along, amid_ or _amidst, among_ or _amongst, around, at, athwart;--Bating,
before, behind, below, beneath, beside or besides, between_ or _betwixt,
beyond, by;--Concerning;--Down, during;--Ere, except, excepting;--For,
from;--In, into;--Mid_ or _midst;--Notwithstanding;--Of, off,[316] on, out,
over, overthwart;--Past, pending;--Regarding, respecting,
round;--Since;--Through, throughout, till, to, touching, toward_ or
_towards;--Under, underneath, until, unto, up, upon;--With, within,
without_.

OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1.--Grammarians differ considerably in their tables of the English
prepositions. Nor are they all of one opinion, concerning either the
characteristics of this part of speech, or the particular instances in
which the acknowledged properties of a preposition are to be found. Some
teach that, "Every preposition requires an _objective case_ after
it."--_Lennie_, p. 50; _Bullions, Prin. of E. Gram._, p. 69. In opposition
to this, I suppose that the preposition _to_ may take an _infinitive verb_
after it; that _about_ also may be a preposition, in the phrase, "_about to
write_;" that _about, above, after, against, by, for, from, in, of_, and
some other prepositions, may govern _participles_, as such; (i. e. without
making them nouns, or cases;) and, lastly, that after a preposition an
_adverb_ is sometimes construed substantively, and yet is indeclinable; as,
_for once, from afar, from above, at unawares_.

OBS. 2.--The writers just quoted, proceed to say: "When a _preposition does
not govern_ an objective case, it becomes an adverb; as, 'He rides
_about_.' But in such phrases as, _cast up, hold out, fall on_, the words
_up, out_, and _on_, must be considered as _a part_ of the _verb_, rather
than as prepositions or adverbs."--_Lennie's Prin. of E. Gram._, p. 50;
_Bullions's_, p. 59; _his Analyt. and P. Gram._, p. 109. Both these
sentences are erroneous: the one, more particularly so, in expression; the
other, in doctrine. As the preposition is chiefly distinguished by its
regimen, it is absurd to speak of it as governing nothing; yet it does not
always govern the objective case, for participles and infinitives have no
cases. _About, up, out_, and _on_, as here cited, are all of them
_adverbs_; and so are all other particles that thus qualify verbs, without
governing any thing. L. Murray grossly errs when ha assumes that, "The
distinct component parts of such phrases as, _to cast up, to fall on, to
bear oat, to give over, &c._, are _no guide_ to the sense of the whole."
Surely, "to cast _up_" is to cast _somehow_, though the meaning of the
phrase may be "_to compute_." By this author, and some others, all _such
adverbs_ are absurdly called _prepositions_, and are also as absurdly
declared to be _parts_ of the preceding verbs! See _Murray's Gram._, p.
117; _W. Allen's_, 179; _Kirkham's_, 95; _R. G. Smith's_, 93; _Fisk's_, 86;
_Butler's_, 63; _Wells's_, 146.

OBS. 3--In comparing the different English grammars now in use, we often
find the primary distinction of the parts of speech, and every thing that
depends upon it, greatly perplexed by the _fancied ellipses_, and _forced
constructions_, to which their authors resort. Thus Kirkham: "Prepositions
are sometimes erroneously called adverbs, when their nouns are understood.
'He rides _about_;' that is, about the _town, country_, or _something_
else. 'She was _near_ [the _act_ or _misfortune_ of] falling;' 'But do not
_after_ [that _time_ or _event_] lay the blame on me.' 'He came _down_ [the
_ascent_] from the hill;' 'They lifted him _up_ [the _ascent_] out of the
pit.' 'The angels _above_;'--above _us_--'Above these lower _heavens_, to
us invisible, or dimly seen.'"--_Gram._, p. 89. The errors of this passage
are almost as numerous as the words; and those to which the doctrine leads
are absolutely innumerable. That _up_ and _down_, with verbs of motion,
imply ascent and descent, as _wisely_ and _foolishly_ imply wisdom and
folly, is not to be denied; but the grammatical bathos of coming "_down
[the ascent] from the hill" of science_, should startle those whose faces
are directed upward! _Downward ascent_ is a movement worthy only of
Kirkham, and his Irish rival, Joseph W. Wright. The _brackets_ here used
are Kirkham's, not mine.

OBS. 4.--"Some of the _prepositions_," says L. Murray, "have the

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