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The 1995 CIA World Factbook

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Illicit drugs: increasingly a transshipment point for heroin and
cocaine

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $665 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $870 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $77 million

Currency: 1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1 - 1.00 (officially
fixed rate since 1940); unofficial parallel exchange rate of US$1 -
L$7 (January 1992), unofficial rate floats against the US dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Liberia:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 490 km (single track); note - three rail systems owned and
operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with
Liberian Government; one of these, the Lamco Railroad, closed in 1989
after iron ore production ceased; the other two have been shut down by
the civil war
standard gauge: 345 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 145 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 10,087 km
paved: 603 km
unpaved: gravel 5,171 km (includes 2,323 km of private roads of rubber
and timber firms, open to the public); earth 4,313 km

Ports: Buchanan, Greenville, Harper, Monrovia

Merchant marine:
total: 1,549 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 56,709,634
GRT/97,038,680 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 3, bulk 392, cargo 121, chemical tanker
114, combination bulk 33, combination ore/oil 57, container 124,
liquefied gas tanker 75, oil tanker 459, passenger 32, passenger-cargo
1, refrigerated cargo 58, roll-on/roll-off cargo 18, short-sea
passenger 1, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 54
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes 53 countries; the 10
major fleet flags are: United States 232 ships, Japan 190, Norway 166,
Greece 125, Germany 125, United Kingdom 102, Hong Kong 95, China 45,
Russia 41, and the Netherlands 34

Airports:
total: 59
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 43
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 3
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 11

@Liberia:Communications

Telephone system: NA telephones; telephone and telegraph service via
radio relay network; main center is Monrovia; most telecommunications
services inoperable due to insurgency movement
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 5
televisions: NA

@Liberia:Defense Forces

Branches: NA; the ultimate structure of the Liberian military force
will depend on who is the victor in the ongoing civil war

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 732,063; males fit for military
service 390,849 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $30 million, 2% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

LIBYA

@Libya:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Egypt and Tunisia

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 1,759,540 sq km
land area: 1,759,540 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: total 4,383 km, Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt
1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
Gulf of Sidra closing line: 32 degrees 30 minutes north

International disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled
in February 1994 that the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and
Libya belongs to Chad, and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May
1994; Libya has withdrawn some its forces in response to the ICJ
ruling, but still maintains an airfield in the disputed area; maritime
boundary dispute with Tunisia; claims part of northern Niger and part
of southeastern Algeria

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus,
depressions

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 8%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 90%

Irrigated land: 2,420 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: desertification; very limited natural fresh water
resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water
development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from
large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind
lasting one to four days in spring and fall; duststorms, sandstorms
international agreements: party to - Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea

@Libya:People

Population: 5,248,401 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (female 1,226,851; male 1,269,813)
15-64 years: 49% (female 1,261,424; male 1,331,093)
65 years and over: 3% (female 76,017; male 83,203) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.7% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 44.89 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 7.91 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.29 years
male: 62.12 years
female: 66.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.32 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan

Ethnic divisions: Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians,
Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Languages: Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the
major cities

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1984)
total population: 60%
male: 77%
female: 42%

Labor force: 1 million (includes about 280,000 resident foreigners)
by occupation: industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture
18%

@Libya:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al
Ishirakiyah
local short form: none

Digraph: LY

Type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the
populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyah, singular -
baladiyat); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al
Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az
Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha,
Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law;
separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Mu'ammar Abu Minyar
al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969)
head of government: Chairman of the General People's Committee
(Premier) Abd al Majid al-Qa'ud (since 29 January 1994)
cabinet: General People's Committee; established by the General
People's Congress
note: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples'
committees

Legislative branch: unicameral
General People's Congress: national elections are indirect through a
hierarchy of peoples' committees

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

Other political or pressure groups: various Arab nationalist movements
with almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely,
as well as some Islamic elements

Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, OPEC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in US: none

US diplomatic representation: none

Flag: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state
religion)

@Libya:Economy

Overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon
revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all export
earnings and about one-third of GDP. In 1990 per capita GDP was the
highest in Africa at $5,410, but GDP growth rates have slowed and
fluctuated sharply in response to changes in the world oil market.
Import restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to
periodic shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs. Windfall revenues
from the hike in world oil prices in late 1990 improved the foreign
payments position and resulted in a current account surplus through
1992. The nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account
for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly
agricultural products to include petrochemicals, iron, steel, and
aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for only 5% of GDP, it employs
18% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely
limit farm output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food
requirements. The UN sanctions imposed in April 1992 have not yet had
a major impact on the economy because Libya's oil revenues generate
sufficient foreign exchange which sustains imports of food, consumer
goods, and equipment for the oil industry and ongoing development
projects.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $32.9 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -0.9% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $6,510 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $8.1 billion
expenditures: $9.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.1
billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $7.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas
partners: Italy, Germany, Spain, France, UK, Turkey, Greece, Egypt

Imports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
partners: Italy, Germany, UK, France, Spain, Turkey, Tunisia, Eastern
Europe

External debt: $3.5 billion excluding military debt (1991 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 10.5% (1990)

Electricity:
capacity: 4,600,000 kW
production: 16.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,078 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Agriculture: 5% of GDP; cash crops - wheat, barley, olives, dates,
citrus fruits, peanuts; 75% of food is imported

Economic aid:
recipient: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $242 million
note: no longer a recipient

Currency: 1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.3555 (January 1995),
0.3596 (1994), 0.3250 (1993), 0.3013 (1992), 0.2684 (1991), 0.2699
(1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Libya:Transportation

Railroads:
note: Libya has had no railroad in operation since 1965, all previous
systems having been dismantled; current plans are to construct a
1.435-m standard gauge line from the Tunisian frontier to Tripoli and
Misratah, then inland to Sabha, center of a mineral-rich area, but
there has been no progress; other plans made jointly with Egypt would
establish a rail line from As Sallum, Egypt, to Tobruk with completion
set for mid-1994; no progress has been reported

Highways:
total: 19,300 km
paved: bituminous 10,800 km
unpaved: gravel, earth 8,500 km

Inland waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes
liquified petroleum gas 256 km); natural gas 1,947 km

Ports: Al Khums, Banghazi, Darnah, Marsa al Burayqah, Misratah, Ra's
Lanuf, Tobruk, Tripoli, Zuwarah

Merchant marine:
total: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 686,136 GRT/1,208,194 DWT

ships by type: cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 2,
oil tanker 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea passenger 4

Airports:
total: 146
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 24
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6
with paved runways under 914 m: 21
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 4
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 17
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 44

@Libya:Communications

Telephone system: 370,000 telephones; modern telecommunications system

local: NA
intercity: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, tropospheric scatter,
and 14 domestic satellites
international: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
satellite earth stations; submarine cables to France and Italy;
microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to
Greece; planned ARABSAT and Intersputnik satellite earth stations

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 12
televisions: NA

@Libya:Defense Forces

Branches: Armed Peoples of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah (includes Army,
Navy, and Air and Air Defense Command), Police

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 1,131,175; males fit for
military service 672,571; males reach military age (17) annually
54,676 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.4 billion, 6.1% of
GDP (1994 est.)

________________________________________________________________________

LIECHTENSTEIN

@Liechtenstein:Geography

Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 160 sq km
land area: 160 sq km
comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total 78 km, Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: claims 1,600 square kilometers of Czech
territory confiscated from its royal family in 1918; the Czech
Republic insists that restitution does not go back before February
1948, when the Communists seized power

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain;
cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 38%
forest and woodland: 19%
other: 18%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed,
but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Law of the
Sea

Note: landlocked; variety of microclimatic variations based on
elevation

@Liechtenstein:People

Population: 30,654 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (female 2,897; male 2,974)
15-64 years: 71% (female 10,853; male 10,777)
65 years and over: 10% (female 1,930; male 1,223) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.2% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.95 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.56 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.52 years
male: 73.86 years
female: 81.17 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic divisions: Alemannic 95%, Italian and other 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 87.3%, Protestant 8.3%, unknown 1.6%, other
2.8% (1988)

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Labor force: 19,905 of which 11,933 are foreigners; 6,885 commute from
Austria and Switzerland to work each day
by occupation: industry, trade, and building 53.2%, services 45%,
agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 1.8% (1990)

@Liechtenstein:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Furstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein

Digraph: LS

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular -
gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan,
Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719 (Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein
established)

National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989; assumed
executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und
zu Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968)
head of government: Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993); Deputy Head
of Government Dr. Thomas BUECHEL (since 15 December 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet; elected by the Diet; confirmed by the sovereign

Legislative branch: unicameral
Diet (Landtag): elections last held on 24 October 1993 (next to be
held by March 1997); results - VU 50.1%, FBP 41.3%, FL 8.5%; seats -
(25 total) VU 13, FBP 11, FL 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal
cases, Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Oswald
KRANTZ; Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Otmar HASLER; The Free List
(FL)

Member of: CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, GATT, IAEA, ICRM, IFRCS, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in US: in routine diplomatic matters,
Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy

US diplomatic representation: the US has no diplomatic or consular
mission in Liechtenstein, but the US Consul General at Zurich
(Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold
crown on the hoist side of the blue band

@Liechtenstein:Economy

Overview: Despite its small size and limited natural resources,
Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized,
free-enterprise economy with a vital service sector and living
standards on par with its large European neighbors. Low business taxes
- the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have
induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to
establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state
revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland
and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. Liechtenstein plans
to join the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a
bridge between EFTA and EU) in 1995.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $630 million (1990
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $22,300 (1990 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $259 million
expenditures: $292 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1990 est.)

Exports: $NA
commodities: small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps,
hardware, pottery
partners: EC countries 42.7%, EFTA countries 20.9% (Switzerland
15.4%), other 36.4% (1990)

Imports: $NA
commodities: machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor
vehicles
partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 23,000 kW
production: 150 million kWh
consumption per capita: 5,230 kWh (1992)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics,
pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Agriculture: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 -
1.2880 (January 1995), 1.3677 (1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992),
1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Liechtenstein:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 18.5 km; note - owned, operated, and included in statistics of
Austrian Federal Railways
standard gauge: 18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)

Highways:
total: 322.93 km
paved: 322.93 km

Ports: none

Airports: none

@Liechtenstein:Communications

Telephone system: 25,400 telephones; limited, but sufficient automatic
telephone system
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: linked to Swiss networks by cable and radio relay

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
radios: NA
note: linked to Swiss networks

Television:
broadcast stations: NA
televisions: NA
note: linked to Swiss networks

@Liechtenstein:Defense Forces

Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland

________________________________________________________________________

LITHUANIA

@Lithuania:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and
Russia

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 65,200 sq km
land area: 65,200 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: total 1,273 km, Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland
91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline: 108 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: dispute with Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) over
the position of the Nemunas (Nemen) River border presently located on
the Lithuanian bank and not in midriver as by international standards

Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Natural resources: peat

Land use:
arable land: 49.1%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 22.2%
forest and woodland: 16.3%
other: 12.4%

Irrigated land: 430 sq km (1990)

Environment:
current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum
products and chemicals at military bases
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
Change

@Lithuania:People

Population: 3,876,396 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (female 426,616; male 444,556)
15-64 years: 65% (female 1,299,052; male 1,227,420)
65 years and over: 12% (female 313,217; male 165,535) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.71% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.46 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.95 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.37 years
male: 66.68 years
female: 76.3 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic divisions: Lithuanian 80.1%, Russian 8.6%, Polish 7.7%,
Byelorussian 1.5%, other 2.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic, Lutheran, other

Languages: Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98%

Labor force: 1.836 million
by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry
18%, other 40% (1990)

@Lithuania:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Digraph: LH

Type: republic

Capital: Vilnius

Administrative divisions: 44 regions (rajonai, singular - rajonas) and
11 municipalities*: Akmenes Rajonas, Alytaus Rajonas, Alytus*,
Anyksciu Rajonas, Birsionas*, Birzu Rajonas, Druskininkai*, Ignalinos
Rajonas, Jonavos Rajonas, Joniskio Rajonas, Jurbarko Rajonas,
Kaisiadoriu Rajonas, Marijampoles Rajonas, Kaunas*, Kauno Rajonas,
Kedainiu Rajonas, Kelmes Rajonas, Klaipeda*, Klaipedos Rajonas,
Kretingos Rajonas, Kupiskio Rajonas, Lazdiju Rajonas, Marijampole*,
Mazeikiu Rajonas, Moletu Rajonas, Neringa* Pakruojo Rajonas, Palanga*,
Panevezio Rajonas, Panevezys*, Pasvalio Rajonas, Plunges Rajonas,
Prienu Rajonas, Radviliskio Rajonas, Raseiniu Rajonas, Rokiskio
Rajonas, Sakiu Rajonas, Salcininky Rajonas, Siauliai*, Siauliu
Rajonas, Silales Rajonas, Siltues Rajonas, Sirvinty Rajonas, Skuodo
Rajonas, Svencioniu Rajonas, Taurages Rajonas, Telsiu Rajonas, Traky
Rajonas, Ukmerges Rajonas, Utenos Rajonas, Varenos Rajonas,
Vilkaviskio Rajonas, Vilniaus Rajonas, Vilnius*, Zarasu Rajonas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 25
November 1992; elected acting president by Parliament 25 November 1992
and elected by direct vote 15 February 1993); election last held 14
February 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS
was elected; note - on 25 November 1992 BRAZAUSKAS was elected
chairman of Parliament and, as such, acting president of the Republic;
he was confirmed in office by direct balloting 15 February 1993
head of government: Premier Adolfas SLEZEVICIUS (since 10 March 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on the
nomination of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Seimas (parliament): elections last held 26 October and 25 November
1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results - LDDP 51%; seats - (141
total) LDDP 73, Conservative Party 30, LKDP 17, LTS 8, Farmers' Union
4, LLS 4, Center Union 2, others 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (LKDP),
Povilas KATILIUS, chairman; Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania
(LDDP), Adolfas SLEZEVICIUS, chairman; Lithuanian Nationalist Union
(LTS), Rimantas SMETONA, chairman; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party
(LSDP), Aloyzas SAKALAS, chairman; Farmers' Union, Jonas CIULEVICIUS,
chairman; Center Union, Romualdas OZOLAS, chairman; Conservative
Party, Vytautas LANDSBERGIS, chairman; Lithuanian Polish Union (LLS),
Rytardas MACIKIANEC, chairman

Other political or pressure groups: Homeland Union; Lithuanian Future
Forum; Farmers Union

Member of: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alfonsas EIDINTAS
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860, 2639
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador James W. SWIHART, Jr.
embassy: Akmenu 6, Vilnius 2600
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [370] (2) 223-031
FAX: [370] (2) 222-779

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red

@Lithuania:Economy

Overview: Since independence in September 1991, Lithuania has made
steady progress in developing a market economy. Almost 50% of state
property has been privatized and trade is diversifying with a gradual
shift away from the former Soviet Union to Western markets. In
addition, the Lithuanian government has adhered to a disciplined
budgetary and financial policy which has brought inflation down from a
monthly average of around 14% in first half 1993 to an average of 3.1%
in 1994. Nevertheless, the process has been painful with industrial
output in 1993 less than half the 1991 level. The economy appeared to
have bottomed out in 1994, and Vilnius's policies have laid the
groundwork for vigorous recovery over the next few years. Recovery
will build on Lithuanian's strategic location with its ice-free port
at Klaipeda and its rail and highway hub in Vilnius connecting it with
Eastern Europe, Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and on its agriculture
potential, highly skilled labor force, and diversified industrial
sector. Lacking important natural resources, it will remain dependent
on imports of fuels and raw materials.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $13.5 billion (1994
estimate as extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1992)

National product real growth rate: -0.5% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,500 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (monthly average 1994)

Unemployment rate: 4.5% (January 1995)

Budget:
revenues: $258.5 million
expenditures: $270.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1992 est.)

Exports: $2.2 billion (1994)
commodities: electronics 18%, petroleum products 5%, food 10%,
chemicals 6% (1989)
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Germany

Imports: $2.7 billion (1994)
commodities: oil 24%, machinery 14%, chemicals 8%, grain NA% (1989)
partners: Russia, Germany, Belarus

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate -52% (1992); accounts for 35% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 6,190,000 kW
production: 18.9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 4,608 kWh (1993)

Industries: industry's share in the economy has been declining
substantially over the past year, due to the economic crisis and the
growth of services in the economy; among branches which are still
important: metal-cutting machine tools 6.6%, electric motors 4.6%,
television sets 6.2%, refrigerators and freezers 5.4%; other branches:
petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making,
textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery,
optical equipment, electronic components, computers, and amber

Agriculture: employs around 18% of labor force; accounts for 25% of
GDP; sugar, grain, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables, meat, milk,
dairy products, eggs, fish; most developed are the livestock and dairy
branches, which depend on imported grain; net exporter of meat, milk,
and eggs

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and
Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; limited producer
of illicit opium; mostly for domestic consumption

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-86), $NA million; Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million

Currency: introduced the convertible litas in June 1993

Exchange rates: litai per US$1 - 4 (fixed rate 1 May 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Lithuania:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 2,010 km
broad gauge: 2,010 km 1.524-m gauge (120 km electrified) (1990)

Highways:
total: 44,200 km
paved: 35,500 km
unpaved: earth 8,700 km (1990)

Inland waterways: 600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 105 km; natural gas 760 km (1992)

Ports: Kaunas, Klaipeda

Merchant marine:
total: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 275,893 GRT/321,440 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 28, combination bulk 11, railcar carrier
3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Airports:
total: 96
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 14
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 63

@Lithuania:Communications

Telephone system: 900,000 telephones; 240 telephones/1,000 persons;
telecommunications system ranks among the most modern of the former
Soviet republics
local: NA
intercity: land lines and microwave radio relay
international: international connections no longer depend on the
Moscow gateway switch, but are established by satellite through Oslo
from Vilnius and through Copenhagen from Kaunas; 1 EUTELSAT and 1
INTELSAT earth station; an NMT-450 analog cellular network operates in
Vilnius and other cities and is linked internationally through
Copenhagen by EUTELSAT; international electronic mail is available;
land lines or microwave to former USSR republics

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 26, shortwave 1, longwave 1
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 3
televisions: NA

@Lithuania:Defense Forces

Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force, Security
Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard (Skat)

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 949,663; males fit for military
service 750,386; males reach military age (18) annually 27,630 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $30 million, 2% of
GDP (1994); note - for 1995 defense expenditures were $54 million at
exchange rate conversion

________________________________________________________________________

LUXEMBOURG

@Luxembourg:Geography

Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany

Map references: Europe

Area:
total area: 2,586 sq km
land area: 2,586 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: total 359 km, Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany
138 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: none

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys;
uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to
Moselle floodplain in the southeast

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 21%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: deforestation; air and water pollution in urban areas
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83;
signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Note: landlocked

@Luxembourg:People

Population: 404,660 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (female 35,372; male 36,645)
15-64 years: 68% (female 136,960; male 137,792)
65 years and over: 14% (female 35,774; male 22,117) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.57% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 12.61 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 9.42 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.95 years
male: 73.31 years
female: 80.75 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic divisions: Celtic base (with French and German blend),
Portuguese, Italian, and European (guest and worker residents)

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant and Jewish 3%

Languages: Luxembourgisch, German, French, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Labor force: 177,300 (one-third of labor force is foreign workers,
mostly from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and Germany)
by occupation: services 65%, industry 31.6%, agriculture 3.4% (1988)

@Luxembourg:Government

Names:
conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand-Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg

Digraph: LU

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher,
Luxembourg

Independence: 1839

National holiday: National Day, 23 June (1921) (public celebration of
the Grand Duke's birthday)

Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964); Heir
Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke JEAN, born 16 April 1955)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNKER (since 1 January
1994); Vice Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the sovereign

Legislative branch: unicameral
Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes): elections last held on 12
June 1994 (next to be held by June 1999); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (60 total) CSV 21, LSAP 17, DP 12, Action Committee
for Democracy and Pension Rights 5, Greens 5
note: the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory body whose
views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de
Justice)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Social People's Party (CSV),
Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES; Socialist Workers Party (LSAP), Ben FAYOT;
Democratic Party (DP), Henri GRETHEN; Action Committee for Democracy
and Pension Rights, Roby MEHLEN; other minor parties

Other political or pressure groups: group of steel companies
representing iron and steel industry; Centrale Paysanne representing
agricultural producers; Christian and Socialist labor unions;
Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and Shopkeepers Federation

Member of: ACCT, Australia Group, Benelux, CCC, CE, EBRD, EC, ECE,
EIB, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, MTCR,
NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alphonse BERNS
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Clay CONSTANTINOU
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: PSC 11, Luxembourg City; APO AE 09132-5380
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light
blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue
and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

@Luxembourg:Economy

Overview: The stable, prosperous economy features moderate growth, low
inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small
but highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until
recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified,
particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade,
growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the
decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing
proportion of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic
union with Belgium on trade and most financial matters, is also
closely connected economically to the Netherlands, and as a member of
the 15-member European Union enjoys the advantages of the open
European market.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $9.2 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: 2.6% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $22,830 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 2.4% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $4 billion
expenditures: $4.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Exports: $6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities: finished steel products, chemicals, rubber products,
glass, aluminum, other industrial products
partners: EC 76%, US 5%

Imports: $8.3 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities: minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
partners: Belgium 37%, Germany 31%, France 12%, US 2%

External debt: $800 million (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -0.5% (1990); accounts for 25% of
GDP

Electricity:
capacity: 1,238,750 kW
production: 1.374 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 3,395 kWh (1993)

Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal
products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Agriculture: accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry);
principal products - barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine
grapes; cattle raising widespread

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1 - 31.549 (January
1995), 33,456 (1994), 34.597 (1993), 32.150 (1992), 34.148 (1991),
33.418 (1990); note - the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian
franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Luxembourg:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 271 km
standard gauge: 271 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified; 178 km
double track) (1994)

Highways:
total: 5,108 km
paved: 5,062 km (95 km of limited access divided highway)
unpaved: 46 km (1992)

Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River

Pipelines: petroleum products 48 km

Ports: Mertert

Merchant marine:
total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,129,466 GRT/1,790,988
DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 6,
container 2, liquefied gas tanker 8, oil tanker 7, passenger 2,
refrigerated cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2

Airports:
total: 2
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with paved runways under 914 m: 1

@Luxembourg:Communications

Telephone system: 230,000 telephones; highly developed, completely
automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables; nationwide
mobile phone system
local: NA
intercity: buried cable
international: 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: NA

Television:
broadcast stations: 3 and 1 direct-broadcast satellite link
televisions: NA

@Luxembourg:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 103,990; males fit for military
service 85,912; males reach military age (19) annually 2,190 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $129 million, 1.2% of
GDP (1994)

________________________________________________________________________

MACAU

(overseas territory of Portugal)

@Macau:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total area: 16 sq km
land area: 16 sq km
comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total 0.34 km, China 0.34 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: not specified

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: NA
natural hazards: NA
international agreements: party to - Ozone Layer Protection (extended
from Portugal)

Note: essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect the two
islands to the peninsula on mainland

@Macau:People

Population: 490,901 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (female 56,991; male 60,944)
15-64 years: 68% (female 167,366; male 165,168)
65 years and over: 8% (female 23,537; male 16,895) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.25% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 14.5 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.21 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.86 years
male: 77.41 years
female: 82.43 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Macanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Macau

Ethnic divisions: Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%

Religions: Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none 45.8%,
other 1.2% (1981)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Cantonese is the language of
commerce

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
total population: 90%
male: 93%
female: 86%

Labor force: 180,000 (1986)
by occupation: NA

@Macau:Government

Names:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Macau
local long form: none
local short form: Ilha de Macau

Digraph: MC

Type: overseas territory of Portugal scheduled to revert to China in
1999

Capital: Macau

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular -
concelho); Ilhas, Macau

Independence: none (territory of Portugal; Portugal signed an
agreement with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20
December 1999; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect
Macau's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 year
after transition)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau; basic law
drafted primarily by Beijing awaiting final approval

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since 9
March 1986)
head of government: Governor Gen. Vasco Joachim Rocha VIEIRA (since 20
March 1991)
cabinet: Consultative Council; consists of five members appointed by
the governor, two nominated by the governor, five members elected for
a four-year term (2 represent administrative bodies, 1 represents
moral, cultural, and welfare interests, and 2 economic interests), and
three statuatory members

Legislative branch: unicameral
Legislative Assembly: elections last held on 10 March 1991 (next to be
held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (23 total, 8
elected by universal suffrage, 8 by indirect suffrage, and 7 appointed
by the governor) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Association to Defend the Interests of
Macau; Macau Democratic Center; Group to Study the Development of
Macau; Macau Independent Group

Other political or pressure groups: wealthy Macanese and Chinese
representing local interests, wealthy pro-Communist merchants
representing China's interests; in January 1967 the Macau Government
acceded to Chinese demands that gave China veto power over
administration

Member of: CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, IMO (associate), INTERPOL
(subbureau), WTO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (Chinese territory under
Portuguese administration)

US diplomatic representation: the US has no offices in Macau, and US
interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

Flag: the flag of Portugal is used

@Macau:Economy

Overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling)
and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have
spawned other small industries - toys, artificial flowers, and
electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP,
and the clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of export
earnings; the gambling industry represented well over 40% of GDP in
1992. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and
energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw
materials and capital goods.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $4.8 billion (1993
est.)

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $10,000 (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.7% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $305 million
expenditures: $298 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1989 est.)

Exports: $1.8 billion (1992 est.)
commodities: textiles, clothing, toys
partners: US 35%, Hong Kong 12.5%, Germany 12%, China 9.9%, France 8%
(1992 est.)

Imports: $2 billion (1992 est.)
commodities: raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods
partners: Hong Kong 33%, China 20%, Japan 18% (1992 est.)

External debt: $91 million (1985)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity:
capacity: 258,000 kW
production: 950 million kWh
consumption per capita: 2,093 kWh (1993)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture,
tourism

Agriculture: rice, vegetables; food shortages - rice, vegetables,
meat; depends mostly on imports for food requirements

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1 - 8.034 (1991-94), 8.024 (1990),
8.030 (1989); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of
1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Macau:Transportation

Railroads: 0 km

Highways:
total: 42 km
paved: 42 km

Ports: Macau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: none usable, 1 under construction; 1 seaplane station

@Macau:Communications

Telephone system: 52,000 telephones; fairly modern communication
facilities maintained for domestic and international services
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: high-frequency radio communication facility; access to
international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and
China; 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 3, shortwave 0
radios: 115,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 0; note - TV programs received from Hong Kong
televisions: NA

@Macau:Defense Forces

Branches: NA

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 141,160; males fit for military
service 78,578 (1995 est.)

Note: defense is responsibility of Portugal

________________________________________________________________________

MACEDONIA, THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area:
total area: 25,333 sq km
land area: 24,856 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries: total 748 km, Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece
228 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: dispute with Greece over name, symbols, and
certain constitutional provisions

Climate: hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with
heavy snowfall

Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys;
there are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country
bisected by the Vardar River

Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel,
low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulphur, timber

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 5%
meadows and pastures: 20%
forest and woodland: 30%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants
natural hazards: high seismic risks
international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection

Note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and
Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of:People

Population: 2,159,503 (July 1995 est.)
note: the Macedonian government census of July 1994 put the population
at 1.94 million, but ethnic allocations were likely undercounted

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (female 257,876; male 277,314)
15-64 years: 67% (female 711,810; male 733,903)
65 years and over: 8% (female 97,475; male 81,125) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.9% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 15.82 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.7 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74 years
male: 71.87 years
female: 76.3 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.02 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic divisions: Macedonian 65%, Albanian 22%, Turkish 4%, Serb 2%,
Gypsies 3%, other 4%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian
3%, other 3%

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 591,773 (June 1994)
by occupation: manufacturing and mining 40% (1992)

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of:Government

Names:
conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija

Abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.

Digraph: MK

Type: emerging democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 34 counties (opstinas, singular - opstina)
Berovo, Bitola, Brod, Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci,
Kicevo, Kocani, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo,
Negotino, Ohrid, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar,
Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba,
Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo,
Vinica

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: 8 September

Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991);
election last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1997); results
- Kiro GLIGOROV was elected by the Assembly in 1991; reelected by
popular vote in 1994
head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 4
September 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; elected by the majority vote of all the
deputies in the Sobranje

Legislative branch: unicameral
Assembly (Sobranje): elections last held 16 and 30 October 1994 (next
to be held November 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (120 total) seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, Judicial Court of the Republic

Political parties and leaders: Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia
(SDSM; former Communist Party), Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president; Party
for Democratic Prosperity (PDP); note - two factions competing for
party name; one faction is led by Abdurahman HALITI and the other
faction is led by Arber XHAFFERI; National Democratic Party (NDP),
Ilijas HALINI, president; Alliance of Reform Forces of Macedonia -
Liberal Party (SRSM-LP), Stojan ANDOV, president; Socialist Party of
Macedonia (SPM), Kiro POPOVSKI, president; Internal Macedonian
Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National
Unity (VMRO-DPMNE), Ljupco GEORGIEVSKI, president; Party of Yugoslavs
in Macedonia (SJM), Milan DURCINOV, president; Democratic Party (DP),
Petar GOSEV, president

Other political or pressure groups: Movement for All Macedonian Action
(MAAK); Democratic Party of Serbs; Democratic Party of Turks; Party
for Democratic Action (Slavic Muslim)

Member of: CCC, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, OSCE (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: the US recognized The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia on 8 February 1994

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Victor D. COMRAS
liaison office: ul. 27 Mart No. 5, 9100 Skopje
mailing address: USLO Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC
20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] (91) 116-180
FAX: [389] (91) 117-103

Flag: 16-point gold sun (Vergina, Sun) centered on a red field

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of:Economy

Overview: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although the
poorest republic in the former Yugoslav federation, can meet basic
food and energy needs through its own agricultural and coal resources.
Its economic decline will continue unless ties are reforged or
enlarged with its neighbors Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Greece,
and Bulgaria. The economy depends on outside sources for all of its
oil and gas and most of its modern machinery and parts. An important
supplement of GDP is the remittances from thousands of Macedonians
working in Germany and other West European nations. Continued
political turmoil, both internally and in the region as a whole,
prevents any swift readjustments of trade patterns and economic
programs. The country's industrial output and GDP are expected to
decline further in 1995. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's
geographical isolation, technological backwardness, and potential
political instability place it far down the list of countries of
interest to Western investors. Resolution of the dispute with Greece
and an internal commitment to economic reform would encourage foreign
investment over the long run. In the immediate future, the worst
scenario for the economy would be the spread of fighting across its
borders.

National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $1.9 billion (1994
est.)

National product real growth rate: -15% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $900 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 54% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1993 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Exports: $1.06 billion (1993)
commodities: manufactured goods 40%, machinery and transport equipment
14%, miscellaneous manufactured articles 23%, raw materials 7.6%, food
(rice) and live animals 5.7%, beverages and tobacco 4.5%, chemicals
4.7% (1990)
partners: principally Serbia and Montenegro and the other former
Yugoslav republics, Germany, Greece, Albania

Imports: $1.2 billion (1993)
commodities: fuels and lubricants 19%, manufactured goods 18%,
machinery and transport equipment 15%, food and live animals 14%,
chemicals 11.4%, raw materials 10%, miscellaneous manufactured
articles 8.0%, beverages and tobacco 3.5% (1990)
partners: other former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Albania, Germany,
Bulgaria

External debt: $840 million (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate -14% (1993)

Electricity:
capacity: 1,600,000 kW
production: NA kWh
consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Industries: low levels of technology predominate, such as, oil
refining by distillation only; produces basic liquid fuels, coal,
metallic chromium, lead, zinc, and ferronickel; light industry
produces basic textiles, wood products, and tobacco

Agriculture: meets the basic needs for food; principal crops are rice,
tobacco, wheat, corn, and millet; also grown are cotton, sesame,
mulberry leaves, citrus fruit, and vegetables; agricultural production
is highly labor intensive

Illicit drugs: limited illicit opium cultivation; transshipment point
for Southwest Asian heroin

Economic aid:
recipient: US $10 million (for humanitarian and technical assistance)
EC promised a 100 ECU million economic aid package (1993)

Currency: the denar, which was adopted by the Macedonian legislature
26 April 1992, was initially issued in the form of a coupon pegged to
the German mark; subsequently repegged to a basket of seven currencies

Exchange rates: denar per US$1 - 39 (November 1994), 865 (October
1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of:Transportation

Railroads:
total: 922 km
standard gauge: 922 km 1.435-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total: 10,591 km
paved: 5,091 km
unpaved: gravel 1,404 km; earth 4,096 km (1991)

Inland waterways: none, lake transport only

Pipelines: none

Ports: none

Airports:
total: 16
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 11
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of:Communications

Telephone system: 125,000 telephones
local: NA
intercity: NA
international: no satellite links

Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 2, shortwave 0
radios: 370,000

Television:
broadcast stations: 5 (relays 2)
televisions: 325,000

@Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 585,403; males fit for military
service 474,467; males reach military age (19) annually 19,693 (1995
est.)

Defense expenditures: 7 billion denars, NA% of GNP (1993 est.); note -
conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the prevailing
exchange rate could produce misleading results

________________________________________________________________________

MADAGASCAR

@Madagascar:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Mozambique

Map references: Africa

Area:
total area: 587,040 sq km
land area: 581,540 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island,
Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all
administered by France)

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz,
tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
meadows and pastures: 58%
forest and woodland: 26%
other: 11%

Irrigated land: 9,000 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and
overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw
sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna
unique to the island are endangered
natural hazards: periodic cyclones
international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified -
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along
Mozambique Channel

@Madagascar:People

Population: 13,862,325 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (female 3,231,647; male 3,265,715)
15-64 years: 50% (female 3,511,699; male 3,413,564)

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