The 1995 CIA World Factbook

To search for information on a specific country from the list below, search for @country: @Afganistan, for example. You can also search directly for one of the categories of that country as follows: @Afganistan:Geography @Afganistan:People @Afganistan:Government @Afganistan:Economy @Afganistan:Transportation @Afganistan:Communications @Afganistan:Defense Forces TABLE OF CONTENTS Publication Information Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa
This page contains affiliate links. As Amazon Associates we earn from qualifying purchases.
  • 1995
FREE Audible 30 days

To search for information on a specific country from the list below, search for @country: @Afganistan, for example. You can also search directly for one of the categories of that country as follows:

@Afganistan:Defense Forces


Publication Information
Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

American Samoa
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean

The Bahamas
Baker Island
Bassas da India
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bouvet Island
British Indian OceanTerritory
British Virgin Islands

Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d’Ivoire
Czech Republic

Dominican Republic

El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

The Gambia
Gaza Strip
Glorioso Islands

Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Hong Kong
Howland Island

Indian Ocean
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) Italy

Jan Mayen
Jarvis Island
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry) Juan de Nova Island

Kingman Reef
Korea, North
Korea, South


Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands

Navassa Island
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands


Pacific Ocean
Palmyra Atoll
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Puerto Rico



Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Serbia and Montenegro
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka

Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Turks and Caicos Islands

United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States

Virgin Islands

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa




A. The United Nations System (a graphical file not available in the C. International Organizations and Groups D. Abbreviations for Selected International Environmental Agreements E. Selected International Environmental Agreements F. Weights and Measures
G. Estimates of Gross Domestic Product on an Exchange Rate Basis H. Cross-Reference List of Geographic Items


Publication Information for The World Factbook 1995
The printed version of the Factbook is published annually in July by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information was provided by the American Geophysical Union, Bureau of the Census, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Mapping Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Maritime Administration, National Science Foundation (Polar Information Program), Naval Maritime Intelligence Center, Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Board on Geographic Names, US Coast Guard, and others.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:
Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public and Agency Information Washington, DC 20505
Telephone: [1] (703) 351-2053

US Government officials should obtain copies of The World Factbook directly from their own organization or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. This publication is also available in microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes.
This publication may be purchased by telephone (VISA or MasterCard) or mail from:

Superintendent of Documents
P.O. Box 371954
Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800

A subscription to this publication may be purchased from:
Document Expediting (DOCEX) Project Exchange and Gift Division
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20540
Telephone: [1] (202) 707-9527

This publication may be purchased in printed form, photocopy, microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes from:
National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: [1] (703) 487-4650

This publication may be purchased in photocopy or microform from:
Photoduplication Service Library of Congress Washington, DC 20540-5234
Telephone: [1] (202) 707-5640



There have been some significant changes in this edition. The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands became the independent nation of Palau. The gross domestic product (GDP) of all countries is now presented on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than on the old exchange rate basis. There is a new entry on Age structure and the Airports entry now includes unpaved runways. The Communications category has been restructured and now includes the entries of Telephone system, Radio, and Television. The remainder of the entries in the former Communications category-Railroads, Highways, Inland waterways, Pipelines, Ports, Merchant marine, and Airports-can now be found under a new category called Transportation. There is a new appendix listing estimates of gross domestic product on an exchange rate basis for all nations. A reference map of the Republic of South Africa is included. The electronic files used to produce the Factbook have been restructured into a database. As a result, the formats of some entries in this edition have been changed. Additional changes will occur in the 1996 Factbook.

Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for abbreviations for international organizations and groups and Appendix D for abbreviations for selected international environmental agreements)
avdp. — avoirdupois
c.i.f. — cost, insurance, and freight CY — calendar year
DWT — deadweight ton
est. — estimate
Ex-Im — Export-Import Bank of the United States f.o.b. — free on board
FRG — Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91 FSU — former Soviet Union
FY — fiscal year
FYROM — The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia GDP — gross domestic product
GDR — German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91 GNP — gross national product
GRT — gross register ton
GWP — gross world product
km — kilometer
kW — kilowatt
kWh — kilowatt hour
m — meter
NA — not available
NEGL — negligible
nm — nautical mile
NZ — New Zealand
ODA — official development assistance OOF — other official flows
PDRY — People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91
sq km — square kilometer
sq mi — square mile
UAE — United Arab Emirates
UK — United Kingdom
US — United States
USSR — Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information dated before 25 December 1991 YAR — Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91
Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Airports: Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. Paved runways have concrete or asphalt surfaces; unpaved runways have grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces.

Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1995 is used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 July 1995, with population growth rates estimated for calendar year 1995. Major political events have been updated through April 1995.

Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

Digraphs: The digraph is a two-letter “country code” that precisely identifies every entity without overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the digraph for Afghanistan. It is a standardized geopolitical data element promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 10-3 by the National Bureau of Standards (now called National Institute of Standards and Technology) at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by the Office of the Geographer at the US Department of State. The digraph is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful for interchanging data between databases.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 184 nations, including 178 of the 185 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, former Yugoslavia, and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 6 nations that are not in the UN – Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official development assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is defined as financial assistance which is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of LDCs, and contains a grant element of at least 25%. OOF transactions are also official government assistance, but with a main objective other than development and with a grant element less than 25%. OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im Bank credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration of intent.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. “Nation” refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. “Dependent area” refers to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. There are 266 entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

184 — UN members (excluding the former Yugoslavia, which is still counted by the UN)
7 — nations that are not members of the UN–Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu

1 — Taiwan

6 — Australia–Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
2 — Denmark–Faroe Islands, Greenland 16 — France–Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 2 — Netherlands–Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 3 — New Zealand–Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 3 — Norway–Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 1 — Portugal–Macau
16 — United Kingdom–Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 14 — United States–American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island

6 — Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

4 — oceans–Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean
1 — World
266 — total

Exchange rate:
The official value of a nation’s monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.

GDP methodology: In the “Economy” section, GDP dollar estimates for all countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a GDP estimate in local currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. On average, one thousand dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars – converted to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate – will buy in the other country. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP estimates are based on extrapolation of numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. Currency exchange rates depend on a variety of international and domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output. In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One important caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percentage of GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer tries to estimate the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note: The numbers for GDP and other economic data can not be chained together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods and practices.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

Gross national product (GNP): The value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

Gross world product (GWP): The aggregate value of all goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs – narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil). Coca (Erythroxylum coca) is a bush, and the leaves contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush. Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid). Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual. Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual. Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine. Mandrax is the Southwest Asian slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, in slang referred to as Quaaludes in North America or Mandrax in Southwest Asia Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).
Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and semisynthetic narcotics. Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium poppy. Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.
Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year old in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

International disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international boundaries and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Irrigated land: The figure refers to the land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Land use: The land surface is categorized as arable land – land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops – land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures – land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland – under dense or open stands of trees; and other – any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert).

Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but is not involved with the day- to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition – the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.

Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register. Captive register – A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country; also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state. Flag of convenience register – A national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.
Flag state – The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Flag state maritime legislation determines how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.
Internal register – A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags. Merchant ship – A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.
Register – The record of a ship’s ownership and nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of such individual ships’ registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship’s ultimate owner.

Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National product: The total output of goods and services in a country in a given year. See GDP methodology, Gross domestic product (GDP), and Gross national product (GNP).

Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends. Starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have taken into account the effects of the growing incidence of AIDS infections; in 1993 these countries were Burkina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Thailand, Brazil, and Haiti.

Telephone numbers: All telephone numbers presented in the Factbook consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not presented is the international access code which varies from country to country. For example, an international direct dial phone call placed from the United States to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:

011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx where
011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls (01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls), [34] is the country code for Spain,
(1) is the city code for Madrid,
577 is the local exchange,
and xxxx is the local telephone number.
An international direct dial phone call placed from another country to the United States would be as follows:

international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx where [1] is the country code for the United States, (202) is the area code for Washington, DC, 939 is the local exchange,
and xxxx is the local telephone number.

Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY). FY93/94 refers to the fiscal year that began in calendar year 1993 and ended in calendar year 1994 as defined in the Fiscal Year entry of the Economy section for each nation. FY90-94 refers to the four fiscal years that began in calendar year 1990 and ended in calendar year 1994.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates. The Handbook of International Economic Statistics, published annually in September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, Eastern Europe, the newly independent republics of the former nations of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, and selected other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever The World Factbook is available.




Location: Southern Asia, north of Pakistan

Map references: Asia

total area: 647,500 sq km
land area: 647,500 sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

International disputes: periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports clientsin country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources also are active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan’s civil war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line); support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 15%
forest and woodland: 3%
other: 39%

Irrigated land: 26,600 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification
natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding
international agreements: party to – Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified – Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Note: landlocked


Population: 21,251,821 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (female 4,342,218; male 4,507,141) 15-64 years: 56% (female 5,406,675; male 6,443,734) 65 years and over: 2% (female 256,443; male 295,610) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 14.47% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 42.69 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.53 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 120.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 152.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.37 years
male: 45.98 years
female: 44.72 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.21 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan

Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi’a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 29%
male: 44%
female: 14%

Labor force: 4.98 million
by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)


conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan
local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan local short form: Afghanestan
former: Republic of Afghanistan

Digraph: AF

Type: transitional government

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular – velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol

Note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional government has declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari’a)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Burhanuddin RABBANI (Interim President July- December 1992; President since 2 January 1993); Vice President Mohammad NABI MOHAMMADI (since NA); election last held 31 December 1992 (next to be held NA); results – Burhanuddin RABBANI was elected to a two-year term by a national shura, later amended by multi-party agreement to 18 months; note – in June 1994 failure to agree on a transfer mechanism resulted in RABBANI’s extending the term to 28 December 1994; following the expiration of the term and while negotiations on the formation of a new government go on, RABBANI continues in office head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992) cabinet: Council of Ministers

Note: term of present government expired 28 December 1994; factional fighting since 1 January 1994 has kept government officers from actually occupying ministries and discharging government responsibilities; the government’s authority to remove cabinet members, including the Prime Minister, following the expiration of their term is questionable

Legislative branch: a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members was chosen by the shura in January 1993; non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but a new court system has not yet been organized

Political parties and leaders: current political organizations include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim KHALILI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI; Jumbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul Rashid DOSTAM; Taliban (Religious Students Movement), Mohammad OMAR

Note: the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded

Other political or pressure groups: the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the countryside and their shuras (councils) are now administering most cities outside Kabul; tribal elders and religious students are trying to wrest control from them; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders; religious students (talib)


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Abdul RAHIM chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770, 3771
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516
consulate(s) general: New York
consulate(s): Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation:
none; embassy was closed in January 1989

Flag: NA; note – the flag has changed at least twice since 1992


Overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than 15 years of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million refugees and Iran about 3 million. About 1.4 million Afghan refugees remain in Pakistan and about 2 million in Iran. Another 1 million probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Although reliable data are unavailable, gross domestic product is lower than 13 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport.

National product: GDP $NA

National product real growth rate: NA%

National product per capita: $NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 56.7% (1991)

Unemployment rate: NA%

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA million (1991 est.)

Exports: $188.2 million (f.o.b., 1991) commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium, Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports: $616.4 million (c.i.f., 1991) commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea, Germany

External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (FY90/91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP

capacity: 480,000 kW
production: 550 million kWh
consumption per capita: 39 kWh (1993)

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products – wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton

Illicit drugs: an illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world’s second-largest opium producer after Burma (950 metric tons in 1994) and a major source of hashish

Economic aid:
recipient: $450 million US assistance provided 1985-1993; the UN provides assistance in the form of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 – 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note – these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rates

Fiscal year: 21 March – 20 March


total: 24.6 km
broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

total: 21,000 km
paved: 2,800 km
unpaved: gravel 1,650 km; earth 16,550 km (1984)

Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to about 500 metric tons

Pipelines: petroleum products – Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports: Keleft, Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

total: 48
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 15
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 14 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 6


Telephone system: 31,200 telephones; limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; 1 public telephone in Kabul local: NA
intercity: NA
international: one link between western Afghanistan and Iran (via satellite)

broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2 radios: NA

broadcast stations: several television stations run by factions and local councils which provide intermittent service televisions: NA

@Afghanistan:Defense Forces

Branches: the military still does not exist on a national scale; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized among the various mujahedin and former regime leaders

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,646,789; males fit for military service 3,011,777; males reach military age (22) annually 200,264 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion – $450 million, 15% of GDP (1990 est.); the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget




Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Map references: Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

total area: 28,750 sq km
land area: 27,400 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: the Albanian Government supports protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians in Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public sector jobs and representation in government; Albania is involved in a bilaterlal dispute with Greece over border demarcation, the treatment of Albania’s ethnic Greek minority, and migrant Albanian workers in Greece

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 4%
meadows and pastures: 15%
forest and woodland: 38%
other: 22%

Irrigated land: 4,230 sq km (1989)

current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast
international agreements: party to – Biodiversity, Climate Change

Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)


Population: 3,413,904 (July 1995 est.) note: IMF, working with Albanian government figures, estimates the population at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen since 1990

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (female 520,186; male 563,953) 15-64 years: 62% (female 1,026,321; male 1,104,371) 65 years and over: 6% (female 112,252; male 86,821) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 21.7 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.22 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.81 years
male: 70.83 years
female: 77.02 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian

Ethnic divisions: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955) total population: 72%
male: 80%
female: 63%

Labor force: 1.5 million (1987)
by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)


conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia
former: People’s Socialist Republic of Albania

Digraph: AL

Type: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular – rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People’s Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992) cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
People’s Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor): elections last held 22 March 1992; results – DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats – (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2 note: 6 members of the Democratic Party defected making the present seating in the Assembly DP 86, ASP 38, SDP 7, DAP 6, RP 1, UHP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: there are at least 28 political parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP); Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek minority party), Sotir QIRJAZATI, first secretary; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance Party (DAP), Neritan CEKA, chairman; Unity for Human Rights Party (UHP), Vasil MELO, chairman; Ecology Party (EP), Namik HOTI, chairman


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lublin Hasan DILJA chancery: Suite 1010, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942, 8187
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph E. LAKE embassy: Rruga E. Elbansanit 103, Tirane mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624 telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20
FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center


Overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-94 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. Stabilization policies – including a strict monetary policy, public sector layoffs, and reduced social services – have improved the government’s fiscal situation and reduced inflation. The recovery was spurred by the remittances of some 20% of the population which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Foreign assistance and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes. Albania’s limited industrial sector, now less than one-sixth of GDP, continued to decline in 1994. A sharp fall in chromium prices reduced hard currency receipts from the mining sector. Large segments of the population, especially those living in urban areas, continue to depend on humanitarian aid to meet basic food requirements. Unemployment remains a severe problem accounting for approximately one-fifth of the work force. Growth is expected to continue in 1995, but could falter if Albania becomes involved in the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, workers’ remittances from Greece are reduced, or foreign assistance declines.

National product: GDP – purchasing power parity – $3.8 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 11% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $1,110 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 18% (1994 est.)

revenues: $1.1 billion
expenditures: $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.)

Exports: $112 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Greece, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary

Imports: $621 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece

External debt: $920 million (1994 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate -10% (1993 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP (1993 est.)

capacity: 770,000 kW
production: 4 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,200 kWh (1994)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Agriculture: accounts for 55% of GDP; arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; 80% of arable land now in private hands; 60% of the work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium production

Economic aid:
recipient: $303 million (1993)

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 – 100 (January 1995), 99 (January 1994), 97 (January 1993), 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 543 km line connecting Podgorica (Serbia and Montenegro) and Shkoder completed August 1986
standard gauge: 509 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 34 km 0.950-m gauge (1990)

total: 18,450 km
paved: 17,450 km
unpaved: earth 1,000 km (1991)

Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)

Ports: Durres, Sarande, Shergjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
total: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT

total: 11
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 2


Telephone system: about 55,000 telephones; about 15 telephones/1,000 persons
local: primitive; about 11,000 telephones in Tirane, the capital city intercity: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences
international: inadequate; carried through the Tirane exchange and transmitted through Italy on 240 microwave radio relay circuits and through Greece on 150 microwave radio relay circuits

broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0 radios: 515,000 (1987 est.)

broadcast stations: 9
televisions: 255,000 (1987 est.)

@Albania:Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 919,085; males fit for military service 755,574; males reach military age (19) annually 33,323 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: 330 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993); note – conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results




Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Map references: Africa

total area: 2,381,740 sq km
land area: 2,381,740 sq km
comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total 6,343 km, Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Libya claims part of southeastern Algeria; land boundary dispute with Tunisia settled in 1993

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 13%
forest and woodland: 2%
other: 82%

Irrigated land: 3,360 sq km (1989 est.)

current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides
international agreements: party to – Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified – Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)


Population: 28,539,321 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (female 5,678,879; male 5,885,246) 15-64 years: 56% (female 7,887,885; male 8,033,508) 65 years and over: 3% (female 557,636; male 496,167) (July 1995 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.25% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 29.02 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.05 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 50.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.01 years
male: 66.94 years
female: 69.13 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian

Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 57%
male: 70%
female: 46%

Labor force: 6.2 million (1992 est.) by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)


conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza’iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah
local short form: Al Jaza’ir

Digraph: AG

Type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular – wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M’Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988 and 23 February 1989

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lamine ZEROUAL (since 31 January 1994); next election to be held by the end of 1995
head of government: Prime Minister Mokdad SIFI (since 11 April 1994) cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral; note – suspended since 1992 National People’s Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani): elections first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992, effectively suspending the Assembly); results – percent of vote by party NA; seats – (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first round; note – elections (provincial and municipal) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results – FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Abdelkader HACHANI (all under arrest), Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Abdelhamid MEHRI, Secretary General; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, Secretary General note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed


Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Osmane BENCHERIF chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-18-54, 69-38-75 FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79
consulate(s): none (Oran closed June 1993)

Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)


Overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and almost all export earnings; Algeria has the fifth largest reserves of natural gas in the world and ranks fourteenth for oil. Algiers’ efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched a comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve macroeconomic stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial progress toward macroeconomic adjustment, in 1992 the reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September 1993, a new government was formed, and one priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process. Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994.

National product: GDP – purchasing power parity – $97.1 billion (1994 est.)

National product real growth rate: 0.2% (1994 est.)

National product per capita: $3,480 (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1994 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1994 est.)

revenues: $14.3 billion
expenditures: $17.9 billion (1995 est.)

Exports: $9.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994) commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97% partners: Italy 21%, France 16%, US 14%, Germany 13%, Spain 9%

Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer goods 11.8% (1990)
partners: France 29%, Italy 14%, Spain 9%, US 9%, Germany 7%

External debt: $26 billion (1994)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 35% of GDP (including hydrocarbons)

capacity: 5,370,000 kW
production: 18.3 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 587 kWh (1993)

Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP (1993) and employs 22% of labor force; products- wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, cattle; net importer of food – grain, vegetable oil, sugar

Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), $375 million

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 – 42.710 (January 1995), 35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993), 21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year


total: 4,733 km
standard gauge: 3,576 km 1.435-m gauge (299 km electrified; 215 km double track)
narrow gauge: 1,157 km 1.055-m gauge

total: 95,576 km
paved: concrete, bituminous 57,346 km unpaved: gravel, crushed stone, earth 38,230 km

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km

Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
total: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,211 DWT

ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas tanker 9, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1

total: 139
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 9 with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 23 with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 20 with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 24 with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 41


Telephone system: 822,000 telephones; excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the south local: NA
intercity: 12 domestic satellite links; 20 additional satellite links are planned
international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT earth station

broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0 radios: 5.2 million

broadcast stations: 18
televisions: 1.6 million

@Algeria:Defense Forces

Branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49 7,124,894; males fit for military service 4,373,272; males reach military age (19) annually 313,707 (1995 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion – $1.3 billion, 2.7% of GDP (1994)



(territory of the US)

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Map references: Oceania

total area: 199 sq km
land area: 199 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 5%
meadows and pastures: 0%
forest and woodland: 75%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; in many areas of the island water supplies come from roof catchments natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March international agreements: NA

Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 57,366 (July 1995 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.82% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 36.21 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.91 years
male: 71.03 years
female: 74.85 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)

noun: American Samoan(s)
adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English; most people are bilingual