Part 28 out of 53
INSPIRATION, an earnest, divinely-awakened, soul-subduing sense and
perception of the presence of the invisible in the visible, of the
infinite in the finite, of the ideal in the real, of the divine in the
human, and, in ecstatic moments, of very God in man, accompanied with a
burning desire to impart to others the vision revealed; distinguished as
"seraphic" from insanity as "demonic" by this, that the inspired man sees
an invisible which is there, and the insane an invisible which is _not_
there, states of mind so like otherwise that the one may be, and often
is, mistaken for the other, the inspired man taken for an insane, and the
insane man for an inspired.
INSPIRATION OF THE SCRIPTURES. According to one view the Scriptures
are throughout verbally inspired, and every word in them dictated by the
Spirit of God; according to another, though they are not verbally
inspired, they contain a record of divine things written under divine
inspiration; according to a third, though not written under divine
inspiration in any part, they contain a faithful record of a divine
revelation; and according to a fourth, they contain a record merely of
what a succession of God-fearing men in sympathy with each other and
their race saw and felt to be the clear purpose of God in His providence
of the world.
INSPIRED IDIOT, Horace Walpole's name for Oliver Goldsmith.
INSTITUTE OF FRANCE was established by the Directory in 1795, to
take the place of the four academies suppressed by the Convention two
years previously. In 1816 Louis XVIII. gave back the old names to its
four sections, viz. _L'Academie Francaise, L'Academie des Inscriptions et
Belles-lettres, L'Academie des Sciences_, and _L'Academie des Beaux
Arts_. In 1832 was added _L'Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques_.
Each academy has its own separate organisation and work, and participates
besides in the advantages of the common library, archives, and funds.
Election, which is in every case subject to government confirmation, is
by ballot, and every member receives an annual salary of at least 1500
francs. Government votes a sum of money annually to the Institute.
Members of the French Academy have special duties and privileges, and in
some cases special remuneration. They allot every year prizes for
eloquence and poetry; a prize "to the poor Frenchman who has done the
most virtuous action throughout the year," and one to the Frenchman "who
has written and published the book most conducive to good morals."
Membership in the Academie Francaise is strictly limited to 40 Frenchmen.
The others have, besides, from 40 to 70 members each, also Associate,
foreign and corresponding, members. The Institute centralises the pursuit
of all branches of knowledge and art, and has been the model of similar
national institutes in Madrid, Lisbon, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg.
INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, a celebrated work of Calvin's,
in exposition of the doctrines of the French Protestants, hence called
Calvinists in France. See CALVIN.
INTAGLIO, name given to a gem with a design incised in the surface.
INTELLECT, the faculty of clear and decisive intelligence, or of
instant and sure perception.
INTERLAKEN (2), a small town, a pretty place, on the Aar, in
Switzerland, "between the lakes" Thun and Brienz; it is near to some of
the finest Swiss scenery, and is a famous health resort, and visited
annually by 25,000 tourists.
INTERNATIONAL, THE, a secret socialistic organisation, the outcome
of the teaching of Karl Marx, which, though it has changed its name, has
wide-spread ramifications throughout Europe, the object of which appears
to be the emancipation of labour, and the assertion everywhere of the
sovereign rights of the working-man, to the extinction of all merely
national and class interests.
INTUITION, a name given to _immediate_ knowledge, as distinct from
_mediate_ or inferential knowledge, and which is matter of consciousness
or direct perception.
INTUS-SUSCEPTION, a displacement of the bowel, in which a higher
portion becomes folded or telescoped into a lower; is a frequent cause of
obstruction, and a serious, though not always fatal, condition; the term
is also applied to the process by which nutriment is absorbed and becomes
part of the system.
INVALIDES, HOTEL DES, an institution in Paris, founded by Louis XIV.
in 1674, for retired court servants and invalided soldiers; the church,
the nave of which is adorned with military trophies, is surmounted by a
majestic dome, under which the remains of Napoleon were deposited in
INVERARAY, county town of Argyllshire, on the NW. shore of Loch
Fyne, close to which is the castle, the residence of the Duke of Argyll.
INVERNESS (21), county town of Inverness-shire and capital of the
Northern Highlands, is situated on the Ness, near the Moray Firth, amid
picturesque surroundings, is rich in interesting memories; has several
public institutions, several manufactures, and a considerable trade; the
inhabitants are distinguished for the purity of their English.
INVERNESS-SHIRE (90), the largest county in Scotland, stretches from
the Moray Firth to the Atlantic, and includes many islands, Skye, the
Outer Hebrides (except Lewis), and others; it embraces a large part of
the Highlands, is very mountainous, has many glens and lochs, but little
fertile land; there are large deer forests, grouse moors, and sheep runs;
Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles (4406 ft.), is in
INVISIBLE, THE, He who or that which cannot be seen, felt, handled,
or even conceived of, and yet who or which _is_, and _alone is_, as no
one, as nothing else can be.
IO, in the Greek mythology a daughter of INACHOS (q. v.),
beloved by Zeus, whom Hera out of jealousy changed into a heifer and set
the hundred-eyed Argus to watch, but when Zeus had by Hermes slain the
watcher, Hera sent a gadfly to goad over the world, over which she ranged
distractedly till she reached Egypt, where Osiris married her, and was in
connection with him worshipped as Isis.
IODINE, a non-metallic element originally obtained from kelp, but
now found in South America in combination with sodium, used largely both
free and in combination in medicine and surgery, in photography, and in
making aniline dyes.
IODOFORM, a crystalline substance similar to chloroform in
composition, only in it iodine takes the place of chlorine; it is used in
surgery as an antiseptic.
IOLCUS, a town in Thessaly, the port from which the Argonauts sailed
in quest of the Golden Fleece.
ION, in the Greek mythology son of Apollo by Creusa, and exposed by
her in the cave where she bore him, but who was conveyed by the god to
Delphi and educated by a priestess, and was afterwards owned by his
mother, and became the ancestor of the Ionians, her husband, Xuthus,
being kept throughout in the dark.
IONA, a fertile little island 11/2 m. W. of Mull, where St. Columba
landed from Ireland A.D. 563, and built a monastery which was for
centuries the centre of ecclesiastical life and missionary enterprise
among the Scots of Scotland and Ireland and the Angles of the N. of
England. It is 31/2 m. long and 11/2 broad.
IONIA, ancient name of the western districts of Asia Minor between
the Hermus and the Maeander, with adjacent islands; was colonised by
Greeks 1050 B.C., and its chief cities, including Miletus, Ephesus,
Samos, Chios, and later Smyrna, formed the Ionian League; the Ionians
were noted for wealth, art, and luxury; coming under Persian yoke in 557
B.C. they deserted to Greece 479 B.C., in the great war, and became
again independent; from 387 B.C. they were again under Persia till
Alexander the Great took them and merged their history in that of the
IONIAN ISLANDS (250), a chain of forty mountainous islands lying off
the W. coast of Greece, the largest being Corfu (78), Santa Maura (25),
Cephalonia (80), and Zante (44). The climate is good, and there is much
fertile soil in the valleys except in Cephalonia; corn, grapes, and
currants are grown; sulphur and coal are found in Corfu; their history
has been very chequered; after belonging at different times to Venice,
France and Turkey, they were seized by Britain and constituted a
dependency in 1815; never satisfied with British rule, they were a source
of constant friction which Mr. Gladstone's mission in 1858 was
insufficient to allay, and were handed over to Greece in 1863.
IONIC ORDER, an order of Grecian architecture, characterised by the
volute of its capital in the form of a ram's horn, and in which the
cornice is dentated, the shaft fluted, and the entablature plain or
IONIC SCHOOL, the name of the earliest of the schools of philosophy
in Greece, the prominent members of which were natives of Ionia, one and
all of whom traced the beginning or basis of things back to the action of
some physical agent, such as water, air, fire, &c., and among whom are
reckoned such men as Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, and Heraclitus.
IOWA (1,754), one of the United States, on the right bank of the
Mississippi River, with Minnesota to the N. and Missouri to the S., and
the Missouri River on its western border; is well watered, very fertile,
and, though liable to extremes of temperature, very healthy; agriculture
flourishes, the country being an undulating plain and most of the soil
being arable; cereals and root crops are raised, cattle fed; there are
poultry and dairy farms; coal, gypsum, and lead are mined; manufactures
include mill products, canned meats, and agricultural implements; general
education in the State is advanced, State policy in this respect being
liberal; Iowa was admitted to the Union, 1846; Des Moines (32) is the
capital; Iowa (7) is the seat of the State University and of some
flour-mills and factories.
IPHICRATES, a famous Athenian general, the son of a shoemaker,
celebrated throughout Greece for his defeat of the Spartans in 392, as
well as for other great military exploits, for which he was rewarded by
his countrymen with almost unprecedented honours; _d_. 348 B.C.
IPHIGENIA, the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra; her father
having killed a favourite deer belonging to Artemis in Aulis as he was
setting out for Troy, the goddess was offended, and CALCHAS (q. v.),
when consulted, told him she could only be appeased by the
sacrifice of his daughter; this he proceeded to do, but as he was
preparing to offer her up the goddess descended in a cloud, carried her
off to Tauris, and made her a priestess in her temple. The story has been
dramatised by Euripides, Racine, and Geothe.
IPSUS, a small town in Phrygia, the scene of a great contest between
the generals of Alexander for succession to the empire.
IPSWICH (57), a town in Suffolk, on the Orwell, 12 m. from the sea;
is an old town, and has a number of interesting, as well as some
old-fashioned, buildings; is well provided with churches and educational
establishments, and was the birthplace of Cardinal Wolsey; manufactures
agricultural implements, and exports besides these leather, oil, coke and
IQUIQUE (16), important seaport in the N. of Chili; exports
nitrates, iodine, and silver.
IRAK-ARABI, ancient Babylonia watered by the Euphrates and the
IRAN, the ancient name or plateau of Asia, extending N. and S.
between the Hindu Kush and the Persian Gulf, and E. and W. between the
Indus and Kurdistan; inhabited by the Aryans; is the official name for
IRANIANS, the inhabitants of Iran, a people constituting an
important branch of the Indo-European family, including the Persians,
IRAWADI, a river, navigable throughout its whole course, formed by
the union of two streams from the mountains of Thibet; flows S. through
Burma 700 miles, passing Mandalay, and falling into the Bay of Bengal in
a delta, on one branch of which stands Rangoon.
IRELAND (5,175), an island rather more than half the size of and
lying to the west of England and Wales, from which it is divided by the
North Channel (13 m. wide), the Irish Sea (140 m.), and the St. George's
Channel (50 m.). It consists of a large undulating plain in the centre,
containing extensive bogs, several large loughs--Neagh, the Erne, Allen,
Derg, drained by the rivers Shannon, Barrow, Liffey, and Boyne, and
surrounded on almost all sides by maritime highlands, of which those on
the SW., NW., and E. are the highest. The N. and W. coasts are rugged and
much indented. The climate is milder, more equable, and somewhat more
rainy than that of England; but the cereal and green crops are the same.
Flax is grown in the N. The tendency is to revert to pasturage however,
agriculture being generally in a backward state. Unfavourable land-laws,
small holdings, and want of capital have told heavily against the Irish
peasantry. Fisheries are declining. The chief manufacture is linen in
Belfast and other Ulster towns. Irish exports consist of dairy produce,
cattle, and linen, and are chiefly to Great Britain. Primary education is
largely supported by government grants; there are many excellent schools
and colleges; the chief universities are Dublin and the Royal (an
examining body only). In Ulster the Protestants slightly outnumber the
Roman Catholics, in all other parts the Roman Catholics are in a vast
majority. Ireland was occupied by Iberian peoples in prehistoric times;
these were conquered and absorbed by Celtic tribes; many kingdoms were
set up, and strife and confusion prevailed. There was Christianity in the
island before St. Patrick crossed from Strathclyde in the 5th century.
Invasions by Danes, 8th to 10th centuries, and conquest by Normans under
Henry II. 1162-1172, fomented the national disquiet. Under Tudor and
Stuart rule the history of the country is a long story of faction and
feud among the chiefs and nobles, of rebellions, expeditions, massacres,
and confiscations. Sympathy with the Stuarts brought on it the scourge of
Cromwell (1649) and the invasion by William III. Thereafter the penal
laws excluded Roman Catholics from Parliament. The union of the Irish
with the British Parliament took place in 1801. Catholic disabilities
were removed 1829. An agitation for the repeal of the Union was begun in
1842 by Daniel O'Connell, and carried on by the Fenian movement of 1867
and the Home Rule movement led by Charles Parnell. A Home Rule bill was
lost in the Commons in 1886, and another in the Lords in 1893. The Church
of Ireland (Protestant Episcopal) was disestablished in 1871. Since the
Union the executive has been in the hands of a lord-lieutenant,
secretary, and council appointed by the Crown. Ireland is far behind
Great Britain in wealth, and its population has been steadily declining.
IRELAND, SAMUEL WILLIAM HENRY, a notorious forger of Shakespearian
relics, born in London, son of a dealer in old books and prints; imposed
on his father and a number of lovers of the antique, till he was exposed
by Malone; he published a confession of his forgeries, and died in
obscurity and poverty (1777-1835).
IRENAEUS, one of the Fathers of the Church; was bishop of Lyons, and
suffered martyrdom about 202; had been a disciple of Polycarp; wrote
against the Gnostics in a work in Greek, which all to a few fragments in
Latin is lost.
IRE`NE, the daughter of Zeus and Themis, the Greek goddess of peace;
she was an object of worship both in Athens and Rome, is represented as
holding in her left arm a cornucopia, and in her right hand an olive
IRENE, empress of Constantinople, born in Athens, a poor orphan
girl, famous for her beauty, her talents, and her crimes; was banished to
Lesbos, where she maintained herself by spinning; has been canonised by
the Greek Church for her zeal in image worship (752-803).
IRETON, HENRY, born at Altenborough, Notts; graduated at Cambridge
1629, and studied law; on outbreak of Civil War he joined the
Parliamentarian party, and marrying Cromwell's daughter acquired great
influence; took a leading part in the prosecution of the king, was one of
his judges, and signed the warrant for his execution; kept by Cromwell in
Ireland in 1650, he proved a stern deputy, and died of the plague before
Limerick; he was a man of great vigour of character, whose zeal for
justice made him almost cruel (1611-1651).
IRIDIUM, a metallic elementary body of rare occurrence, and found in
the ores of platinum.
IRIS, the daughter of Thaumus (i. e. wonder) and of the ocean
nymph Electra (i. e. splendour); was the goddess of the rainbow, and as
such the messenger of the gods, particularly of Zeus and Hera, the
appearance of the rainbow being regarded as a sign that communications of
good omen were passing between heaven and earth, as it was to Noah that
they would continue to be kept up; she is represented as dressed in a
long wide tunic, over which hangs a light upper garment, and with golden
wings on her shoulders.
IRKUTSK (421), a central Siberian province, separated from China by
the Sayan Mountains; it has Lake Baikal on the E., Yenisei and Yakutsk on
the W. and N.; a rich pastoral country, watered by the navigable rivers
Angara and the Lena, agriculture, cattle rearing are prosperous
industries; there are gold, iron, and salt mines; one-third of the
population are forced colonists; the capital, Irkutsk (45), is the seat
of government for Eastern Siberia, an ecclesiastical centre, and the
chief emporium of commerce; it is the finest city in Siberia.
IRMIN, a Teutonic tribal deity; was honoured by wooden pillars with
his image on the top, greatly reverenced by the people; the constellation
"The Plough" was known as "Irmin's Chariot."
IRON AGE, the last of the three stages, stone, bronze, iron, which
mark the prehistoric development of most now civilised peoples; these, of
course, occurred at different periods, and were of different duration in
different cases; they are named from the material employed in making
cutting instruments and weapons; the forms of instruments are freer than
in the bronze period, and rectilineal gives places to free curvilineal
decoration; this age is marked, too, by the introduction of writing and
the beginning of literary and historic records. See AGES.
IRON CITY, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, from its numerous iron-works.
IRON CROWN, the crown of the ancient Lombard kings, a golden circlet
studded with jewels, and so called as enclosing a ring of iron said to
have been one of the nails of the cross, beaten out; Napoleon had it
brought from Monza, and crowned himself with it as king of Italy. It is
now in Vienna.
IRON DUKE, Duke of Wellington, from his iron will, it is surmised.
IRON GATE, the name given to dangerous rapids in the Danube at
Orsova, as it issues out of Hungary.
IRON HAND, GOETZ VON BERLICHINGEN (q. v.).
IRON MASK, MAN WITH THE, a prisoner who in the reign of Louis XIV.
wore, when he was transferred from prison to prison, what seemed an iron
mask to prevent any one discovering and revealing his identity, over
which to this day there hangs an impenetrable veil; he is reported to
have been young and of noble form, and the conclusion is that he was a
man of distinction.
IRONCLADS were originally wooden vessels protected by iron plates;
they were used at the siege of Gibraltar in 1782; the French had them in
the Crimean War, and in 1858 built four iron-plated line-of-battle ships;
in 1860 England built the _Warrior_, an iron steam battleship with
41/2-inch plates; since then new types have succeeded each other very
quickly; the modern ironclad is built of steel and armed with steel
plates sometimes 2 feet thick; the term is now loosely applied to all
armoured vessels, whether battleships, or cruisers, or gunboats, and
whether of iron or steel.
IRONSIDES, Cromwell's troopers, a thousand strong, and raised by him
in the Eastern counties of England, so called at first from the
invincibility displayed by them at Marston Moor; were selected by
Cromwell "as men," he says, "that had the fear of God before them, and
made conscience of what they did.... They were never beaten," he adds,
"and wherever they were engaged against the enemy, they beat
IRONY is a subtle figure of speech in which, while one thing is
said, some indication serves to show that quite the opposite is meant;
thus apparent praise becomes severe condemnation or ridicule; practical
irony is evinced in ostensibly furthering some one's hopes and wishes
while really leading him to his overthrow. Life and history are full of
irony in the contrast between ambitions and their realisation.
IRONY, SOCRATIC, the name given to a practice of Socrates with
pretentious people; "affecting ignorance and pretending to solicit
information, he was in the habit of turning round upon the sciolist and
confounding his presumption, both by the unlooked-for consequences he
educed by his incessant questions and by the glaring contradictions the
other was in the end landed by his admissions."
IROQUOIS, one of the most intelligent branches of the North American
Indians, comprised a confederation of five, afterwards six, tribes, among
whom the leading place was taken by the Mohawks; their territory lay
inland in what is now New York State and the basin of the St. Lawrence.
Numbering some 25,000, they maintained their own against the hereditary
foes by whom they were surrounded; they took kindly to English and Dutch
settlers, but were hostile to the French, and in the wars of the 18th
century were allies of England against the French; their descendants,
about 12,000, in reservations in Canada and New York are a peaceful
people, have accepted English religion and culture, and have proved
themselves skilful and industrious agriculturists.
IRREDUCIBLE CASE, name given to a cubic equation which cannot be
solved by the rule of CARDAN (q. v.).
IRTISH, an enormous river of Western Siberia and chief tributary of
the Obi; its course from the Altai Mountains runs NW. through the
Siberian plains for 1200 m.; it is navigable almost all the way in
summer, and in winter it is a highway for sledge traffic; on its banks
stand Semipalatinsk, Omsk, and Tobolsk.
IRVING, EDWARD, a great pulpit orator, born in Annan, Dumfriesshire;
bred for the Scotch Church, became in 1819 assistant to Dr. Chalmers in
Glasgow, and removed in 1822 to the Caledonian Church, London, where he
attracted to his preaching the world of fashion as well as intellect in
the city, who soon grew tired of him and left him, after which he took to
extravagances which did not draw them back, and drew around him instead a
set of people more fanatical than himself, and whose influence over him,
to which he weakly yielded, infatuated him still more; the result was
that he was deposed from the ministry of the Church that sent him forth,
and became for a time the centre of an organisation which still exists,
in a modified form, and bears his name; he was the bosom friend in his
early days of Thomas Carlyle, and no one mourned more over his aberration
than he, for he loved him to the end. "But for Irving," he says, "I had
never known what the communion of man with man means. His was the freest,
brotherliest, bravest human soul mine ever came in contact with; I call
him on the whole the best man I have ever, after trial enough, found in
this world, or now hope to find. Scotland sent him forth," he says, "a
herculean man, but our mad Babylon wore him and wasted him with all her
engines, and it took her 12 years"; he died in Glasgow, aged 42, "hoary
as with extreme age," and lies buried in a crypt of the cathedral there
IRVING, SIR HENRY (John Henry Brodribb), born near Glastonbury; was
at first a clerk in London, appeared on the Sunderland stage in 1856,
spent three years in Edinburgh, and gradually worked his way at Glasgow
and Manchester, till he was invited to London ten years afterwards; his
performance of Hamlet at the Lyceum in 1874 established his reputation as
a tragedian; since then he has remained at the head of his profession,
and both in this country and in America secured many triumphs in Macbeth,
Shylock, and other Shakespearian characters, and in roles like those of
Matthias in "The Bells," "Mephistopheles in Faust," &c.; he has
contributed to the literature of Acting, and received knighthood in 1895:
IRVING, WASHINGTON, popular American essayist and historian, born of
British parentage in New York, was delicate in early life; his education
suffered accordingly, and he travelled in Europe, 1804-6, visiting Italy,
France, and England; returning to New York he was called to the bar, put
he devoted himself to a literary career, only interrupted by one period
of commercial life, and occasional short terms of diplomatic service; he
first won fame by his "History of New York, by Diedrich Knickerbocker,"
1809, a good-natured satire on the Dutch settlers; the years 1815-32 he
spent in Europe studying and writing; his "Sketch-Book," 1819-20, was
very successful, as were "Bracebridge Hall," "Tales of a Traveller," and
other volumes which followed it; going to Spain in 1826 he began his
researches in Spanish history which resulted in "The Life of Columbus,"
"The Conquest of Granada," and other works which introduced English
readers to the Spain of the 15th and 16th centuries; on his return to
America he was treated with great respect by his countrymen; declining
the honours they would have given him had he turned aside to politics, he
continued to write; among his latest works were "Mahomet and his
Successors" and a "Life of Washington"; much courted in society, he was
kind and generous in disposition; his writings are marked by humour,
observation, and descriptive power; these qualities with an excellent
style place him in the foremost rank of American authors; he died,
unmarried, at Tarrytown, New York (1783-1859).
IRVINGITES, the name given to the Catholic Apostolic Church as
founded by Edward Irving, which is repudiated by them, as disclaiming all
earthly leadership; their ministry is after the Apostolic order, includes
prophets, evangelists, and pastors, and they employ material symbols in
their worship besides those of water in baptism and wine in communion,
such as incense; the Eucharist they regard as a sacrifice, and they
believe in the permanency of the spiritual gifts of the primitive Church.
ISAAC, a Hebrew patriarch, son of Abraham, born to him when he was
old; a mild man with no great force of character, and a contrast to
Ishmael, his half-brother; lived to a great age.
ISSAC I., COMNENUS, Emperor of the East from 1057 to 1059; raised to
the throne by the army; ruled well, but falling ill and fearing he had
not long to live. He retired and spent his two remaining years in a
monastery; he was a student and annotator of Homer.
ISSAC II., ANGELUS, Emperor of the East; a good man, but weak;
became emperor in 1185, was dethroned by his brother Alexis in 1195;
reinstated by the Crusaders in 1203, but overthrown six months after in
ISAC OF YORK, the father of Rebecca in "Ivanhoe."
ISABELLA, queen of Castile; her marriage with Ferdinand of Aragon
led to the union under one sceptre of the crowns of Aragon and Castile,
which was followed 10 years after by their united occupancy of the throne
of all Spain; she was an able woman, and associated with her husband in
every affair of State (1451-1504). See FERDINAND V.
ISABELLA II., ex-queen of Spain, daughter of Ferdinand VII.;
succeeded him in 1833; was forced to leave the country in 1868; took
refuge in France, and in 1870 abdicated in favour of her son.
ISABEY JEAN BAPTISTE, French portrait-painter, born at Nancy;
painted many of the notabilities of France in his day (1767-1855).
ISAEUS, an Attic orator, and the teacher of Demosthenes; wrote 64
orations, of which only 10 are extant, and these not on political issues
but forensic, and particularly the law of inheritance.
ISAIAH, one of the great Hebrew prophets, the son of one Amoz; was a
citizen of Jerusalem, evidently of some standing, and who flourished
between 750 and 700 B.C.; like AMOS (q. v.), he foresaw the
judgment that was coming on the nation for its unfaithfulness, but felt
assured that God would not altogether forsake His people, and that "a
remnant," God's elect among them, would be saved--that though the casket
would be shattered in pieces, the jewel it contained would be preserved.
See HEBREW PROPHECY.
ISAIAH, THE ASCENSION OF, an apocryphal book giving an incoherent
account of the martyrdom of Isaiah, and a vision he had under the reign
of Hezekiah, apparently the origin of the tradition in Heb. xi. 37, about
the prophet having been "sawn asunder."
ISAIAH, THE PROPHECIES OF, consist of two divisions, the first
extending from chap. i. to chap. xxxix., and the second from chap. xl. to
the end; these two divisions were for long believed to be throughout the
work of Isaiah the son of Amoz, but modern criticism assigns them in the
main to different authors, the one living 150 years after the other; and
the reasons for this conclusion are that the author of the latter
belonged to a different period of Jewish history from that of the former,
is not of the same temper, and has much deeper spiritual insight, while
his hopes and expectations are built on a more spiritual view of the
method of salvation, the Messiah of the former, for instance, being a
conquering king, and that of the latter a suffering Redeemer, who to save
the nation has to bear the burden of its sins, and the brunt of them, and
so bearing, bear them away.
ISAMBERT, FRANCOIS ANDRE, a noteworthy French lawyer, politician,
and historian, born at Aunay; began to practise in Paris at the age of
twenty-six; becoming known in politics, he gained considerable renown by
certain works on French law and by his advocacy of the claims of the
liberated slaves in the French West Indies; entering the Chamber of
Deputies after the Revolution of July 1830, he set himself to oppose the
Jesuits and to further freedom; "The Religious Conditions of France and
Europe" and a "History of Jerusalem" were among his later works; he died
at Paris (1792-1857).
ISANDULA, place 110 m. NW. of Durban, where a force of British
troops was encamped in January 22, 1879, and was set upon and almost
annihilated by a body of Zulus.
ISAURIA, in ancient times this name was given to the northern slopes
of the Taurus in Asia Minor, what is now Karamania; the Isaurians were a
wild, savage people; from the 1st to the 4th centuries they were the
terror of neighbouring States, and gave Rome herself considerable
trouble; but from the 5th century they disappear from history.
ISCHIA (22), a beautiful volcanic island 6 m. off the Bay of Naples;
its scenery, climate, and mineral springs make it a health resort; it
produces excellent fruits and wines; it is liable to severe earthquakes;
in the last (1883), 4000 persons perished. The chief town (3) bears the
ISCHL, a town in Upper Austria, picturesquely situated on the river
Traun, 33 m. SE. of Salzburg; famous for its saline baths; has
salt-works, where 8000 tons of salt are annually manufactured.
ISENGRIN, the wolf, typifying the feudal baron in the epic tale of
Reynard the Fox, as the fox does the Church. See REYNARD.
ISER, a German river, which rises in the Tyrol N. of Innsbruck,
passes through Muenich, and falls into the Danube after a course of 180 m.
ISERE, a river in the SE. of France, which gives name to a dep.
(572), and which, after a course of 180 m. falls into the Rhone near
ISERLOHN (22), a town in Prussian Westphalia, 14 m. SE. of Dortmund;
is picturesquely situated, and is engaged in iron-ware manufacture.
ISHMAEL, the son of Abraham and the handmaid Hagar, cast out of
Abraham's household at 15; he became skilful with the bow, and founded a
great nation, the Arabs; for the offering of Isaac on Moriah the Arabs
substitute the offering of Ishmael on Arafat, near Mecca; Mahomet claimed
descent from him; he gives name in modern life to a social outcast driven
into antagonism to social arrangements.
ISIDORE, ST., BISHOP OF SEVILLE, born at Carthagena, a distinguished
man and ecclesiastic, who exercised great influence on Latin
Christianity, and on both civil and ecclesiastical matters in Spain, and
left a large number of writings of varied interest; he was animated at
once by a severe sense of duty and by an admirable Christian spirit
(570-638). Festival, April 4.
ISINGLASS, a gelatine substance prepared from the sounds or
air-bladders of certain fresh-water fishes, the sturgeon in particular;
it is imported from Russia, Brazil, and the Hudson Bay Territory.
ISIS, an Egyptian divinity, the wife and sister of Osiris and mother
of Horus, the three together forming a trinity, which is
characteristically Egyptian, and such as often repeats itself in Egyptian
mythology, and typifying the life of the sun, Osiris representing that
luminary slain at night and sorrowed over by his sister Isis, reviving in
the morning in his son Horus, and wedded anew to his sister Isis as his
wife; passed into the mythology of the Greeks, Isis became identified
first with Demeter and then with the Moon, while in that of Rome she
figures as the Universe-mother.
ISLA, JOSE FRANCISCO DE, a Spanish Jesuit, celebrated as a preacher
and a humorist and satirist of the stamp of Cervantes; his principal work
"Friar Gerund," a satire on the charlatanism and bombast of the popular
preaching friars of the day, as Don Quixote was on the false chivalry;
the friars he satirised were too strong for him, and he was expelled from
Spain, retired to Italy, and died at Bologna in extreme poverty
ISLAM or ISLAMISM, the religion of Mahomet, "that we must
_submit_ to God; that our whole strength lies in resigned submission to
Him, whatsoever He do to us, for this world and the other; this is the
soul of Islam; it is properly the soul of Christianity; Christianity also
commands us, before all, to be resigned to God. This is yet the highest
wisdom that Heaven has revealed to our earth." See "Heroes and
ISLAND OF SAINTS, a name given to Ireland in the Middle Ages.
ISLANDS OF THE BLESSED, fabled islands of the far west of the ocean,
where the favoured of the gods after death are conceived to dwell in
ISLAY (7), a large mountainous Island 13 m. W. of Kintyre, Scotland;
much of it is cultivated; dairy produce, cattle, and sheep are exported;
there are lead, copper, and manganese mines, marble quarries, and salmon
fisheries; the distilleries produce 400,000 gallons of whisky annually.
ISLINGTON (319), a district of London, 21/2 m. N. of St. Paul's;
contains the division of Holloway, Highbury, Barnsbury, and part of
ISMAIL PASHA, khedive of Egypt from 1863, who was obliged by the
Powers to abdicate in 1879.
ISMAILIA, a small town on Suez Canal; was the head-quarters of the
work during the construction of the Canal.
ISMAILIS, one of the Mohammedan sects which support the claim of the
house of Ali, Mahomet's cousin, to supremacy among the faithful;
originating about A.D. 770, they rose to importance in the 10th century
under Abdallah, a Persian, who introduced Zoroastrian ideas into their
creed and prophesied the appearance of a Madhi or Messiah who should be
greater than the Prophet himself; becoming latterly extremely
rationalistic the sect lost its influence in the 13th century, and its
representatives in Syria and Persia are now comparatively obscure; in
Turkey and Egypt, however, several Madhis have arisen, of whom the last,
Mohammed Ahmed, _b_. 1843, gained possession of the Soudan, defeated the
Egyptian army in 1883, two years later captured Khartoum, but died at
Omdurman shortly afterwards.
ISMENE, the sister of Antigone, who requested, as her accomplice, to
be promoted to be sharer in her fate.
ISOCRATES, an Athenian rhetorician, of a school that was an offshoot
of the SOPHISTS (q. v.), and the whole merit of whose oratory
depended upon style or literary finish and display; he is said to have
starved himself to death after the battle of Cheronea at the age of 98
because he could not brook to outlive the humiliation of Greece by Philip
of Macedon and the destruction of its freedom (436-338 B.C.).
ISODORIAN DECRETALS, a body of ecclesiastical decretals imposed upon
the Church under the name of ISODORE OF SEVILLE (q. v.).
ISOLDE, the wife of King Mark of Cornwall, who, under the potency of
some philter which she had inadvertently taken, conceived an illicit
passion for Sir Tristram, her husband's nephew, the story of which is
celebrated in mediaeval romance.
ISPAHAN (60), the ancient capital of Persia, 226 m. S. of Teheran,
on the river Zenderud, which, as its greatest glory, is spanned by a
noble bridge of 34 arches; it stands in a fertile plain abounding in
groves and orchards, amid ruins of its former grandeur, and is a centre
of Mohammedan learning; the inhabitants are said to have at one time
numbered a million; it produces rich brocades and velvets, firearms,
sword-blades, and much ornamental ware; there are many fine buildings,
and signs of returning prosperity.
ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF, the name given to the northern kingdom of the 10
tribes of the Israelites which revolted from the kingdom of Judah after
the death of Solomon.
ISRAeELS, JOSEF, a Dutch oil and water-colour artist and etcher, born
in Groeningen; studied in Amsterdam and Paris; devoting himself to _genre_
subjects, he has depicted the pathetic side of the life of the Dutch
fisher-folks with great sympathy and power; he won a _grand prix_ at the
Paris Exhibition of 1889; _b_. 1824.
ISRAFEEL, in the Mohammedan mythology an angel whose office it will
be to sound the trumpet on the resurrection morning.
ISSUS, a river in Cilicia, Asia Minor, where Alexander the Great
defeated Darius, 333 B.C.
ISSY (12), a village 1/2 m. SW. of Paris, where Davout was defeated by
Bluecher on 3rd July 1815, and which suffered severely during the siege of
Paris by the Germans in 1870-71.
ISTAMBOUL, the Turkish name for Constantinople.
ISTHMIAN GAMES, one of the four Pan-Hellenic festivals; they were
periodically celebrated in honour of Poseidon or Neptune at the isthmus
of Corinth, in Greece, whence the name.
ISTRIA (299), a mountainous territory of Austria, in the NE. corner
of the Adriatic; yields olive-oil, figs, and vines, though often swept by
sirocco and bora winds.
ISUMBRAS, ST., a hero of mediaeval romance, a proud man subdued by
God's justice into a penitent and a humble.
ITALIAN ARCHITECTURE. The style of architecture called Italian was
first developed by Filippo Bruneschelli, and flourished during the 15th,
16th, and 17th centuries; it was an adaptation of classical circular-arch
form to modern requirements. In Rome it conformed most to ancient types;
in Venice it assumed its most graceful form. It was more suitable to
domestic than to ecclesiastical work; but the dome is an impressive
feature, and St. Peter's a noble church.
ITALIC SCHOOL, the name given to the school of PYTHAGORAS
(q. v.) who taught philosophy in Italy.
ITALIC VERSION, THE, a version of the Scriptures into Latin on the
basis of the Septuagint, executed in N. Italy under episcopal authority
from other versions in circulation; being of mixed quality and far from
satisfactory, JEROME (q. v.) undertook its revision with the
view of a new translation into Latin known as the Vulgate direct from the
Hebrew and Greek originals.
ITALY (30,536), the central one of three peninsulas stretching into
the Mediterranean Sea, in the S. of Europe, has the Adriatic and
Tyrrhenian Seas respectively on the E. and W., and is separated from
France, Switzerland, and Austria in the N. by the various ranges of the
Alps. Between the Alps and the Apennines lies the extensive, fertile
plain of Lombardy, watered by the river Po, and containing several large
lakes, such as Garda, Como, and Maggiore. The Apennines form a very
picturesque chain of mountains 5000 ft. high down the centre of the
country. The climate varies in different districts, but is mostly warm.
Malaria curses many parts in autumn. Agriculture is extensive, but
primitive in manner, and the peasantry are very poor. The most important
crops are cereals, including rice and maize, grapes, olives, and
chestnuts, and in the S. oranges and lemons. Italian wines are of
indifferent quality. Coal and iron are scarce; sulphur is produced in
large quantities in Sicily. There are large quarries of marble and
alabaster. The most important industries are silk, glass, and porcelain.
There is an extensive foreign trade, chiefly with France and Great
Britain; the exports consist of silk, sulphur, marble, fruit, and wine;
the imports of coal, iron, and textile goods. The religion is Roman
Catholic; education is now compulsory. The Gothic kingdom of Italy was
founded on the ruins of the Roman Empire, A.D. 489. In succession the
country was conquered by the forces of the Byzantine Empire, by the
Lombards, and by the Franks. From the 11th century onwards its history
has been one of constant internal strife and confusion. The presence of
the papal power in Rome, the rise of such rich trading republics as the
cities of Milan, Florence, Naples, Genoa, and Venice, the pretensions of
French kings and German emperors, and factions like those of the Guelphs
and Ghibellines, produced endless complications and ruinous wars. In the
16th century the influence of the Austro-Spanish house of Charles V.
became dominant; his son, Philip II., was king of Milan and Naples. In
more recent times the small states of Italy were continually involved in
the wars which devastated Europe, and passed in alliance or in
subordination into the hands of Austria, France, and Spain alternately.
The last 50 years have seen the unification of the kingdom. After the
abortive movement of Mazzini came Cavour and Garibaldi, who, after severe
struggles against the Austrians in the North and the despots of Southern
Italy, proclaimed Victor Emmanuel king of Italy in 1861. By various steps
the whole of the peninsula, with the islands of Sardinia and Sicily, have
been brought into the kingdom. The temporal power of the Pope ceased in
1870. The Government is a constitutional monarchy. Franchise is
exercised by every citizen who can read and write. Conscription is in
force for army and navy. These are both strong, the navy one of the best
in Europe. Finances are bad; the debt amounts to L520,000,000, and
taxation is ruinous.
ITHACA (10), one of the Ionian Islands, and one of the smallest,
known now under the name Thiaki; it was the home of Ulysses, and his
domain as king when he set out for the Trojan War, and which he did not
see again till his return after twenty years. Also a town (11) in New
York State, U.S., seat of CORNELL UNIVERSITY (q. v.).
ITHURIEL, an angel whom Milton represents as sent by Gabriel to
search for Satan in Paradise, who had found entrance by eluding the
vigilance of the guard; he was armed with a _spear_, the touch of which
could unmask any disguise, and by means of which he discovered Satan
lurking in the garden in the form of a toad.
ITINERARY, a name given among the Romans to an account or a map of
the principal routes through the empire and the stations along them.
ITURBIDE, AUGUSTINE DE, a Mexican general, emancipated Mexico from
the yoke of Spain; seized the crown and was proclaimed emperor in 1822,
was obliged to abdicate next year and leave the country, but returning,
was immediately arrested, and shot (1783-1824).
IVAN (i. e. John), the name of two grand-dukes and four czars of
Russia; the two grand-dukes were Ivan I., grand-duke from 1328 to 1340,
and Ivan II., his son, grand-duke from 1353 to 1359.
IVAN III., surnamed The Threatening, sought to free Russia from the
yoke of the Tartars who had held it tributary for two centuries; gained
victories over the Tartars and the Poles, and was the first to receive at
Moscow ambassadors from other Powers of Europe; reigned from 1462 to
IVAN IV., surnamed The Terrible, grandson of the preceding, assumed
the sovereignty at 14, had himself crowned in 1545, and took the title of
Czar; his first great ambition was to destroy the Tartar power, which he
did at Kasan and Astrakhan, receiving homage thereafter from almost all
the Tartar chiefs; on the death of his wife in 1563 he lost all
self-restraint, and by the ferocity of his wars provoked hostility which
the Pope, who had been appealed to, interposed to appease; in a fit of
passion he killed his eldest son, whom he loved, remorse for which
embittered his last days and hastened his end (1530-1584).
IVANHOE, the hero of Sir Walter Scott's novel of the name, the
disinherited son of Cedric of Rotherwood, who falls in love with Rowena,
a ward of his father, but by the exhibition of his prowess as a knight is
at the intercession of King Richard, reconciled to his father, with the
result that he marries Rowena.
IVANOVA (32), a Russian town in Vladimir, 210 m. NE. of Moscow,
engaged in the manufacture of cotton, and known as the "Manchester of
IVANOVITCH, IVAN, a lazy, good-natured impersonation of the typical
Russian, as John Bull is of the Englishman, and Brother Jonathan of the
IVES, ST., a town on the Ouse, in Huntingdonshire, 50 m. N. of
London, where Oliver Cromwell resided from 1631 to 1635; the chief
industries are malting and brewing.
IVIZA (22), the most westerly of the Balearic Isles, is hilly and
well wooded, with fertile valleys and important fisheries.
IVORY COAST, a territory on the K. of the Gulf of Guinea, belonging
partly to Liberia and partly to France and Britain.
IVORY GATE, the gate spoken of in Virgil through which dreams pass
that do not turn out true. See HORN GATE.
IVRY, a village in the dep. of Eure, NE. of Dreux, famous for the
victory of Henry of Navarre over the Leaguers in 1590.
IXION, the king of the LAPITHAE (q. v.), who being admitted
to heaven attempted to do violence to Hera, and whom Zeus deluded to
embrace a phantom image of her instead, whereby he became the father of
the Centaurs, and whom Zeus thereafter punished by fastening him hands
and feet to an eternally revolving wheel in hell.
IZALIO, a volcano in the republic of San Salvador, which first
announced its existence by a fissure opening in 1798 on the plain that
now surrounds it, from which there vomited lava and cinders, accompanied
JABALPUR (84), a town, district, and one of the four divisions of
the Central Provinces, India; the town is an important commercial and
railway centre, situated 228 m. SW. of Allahabad; cotton and carpets are
amongst its chief manufactures.
JACK, a familiar form of John, the most widely spread of Christian names,
and said to be derived from the French JACQUES or, as others maintain,
from JANKIN, a distinctive form of JOHAN or JOHN; JOHNKIN gives us JOCK
and JOCKEY; from its extreme commonness it has acquired that slightly
contemptuous signification observable in such compounds as "every man
JACK," "JACK-of-all-trades," "JACK-an-apes," and the name as applied to
the _knaves_ in playing-cards, and to the small white ball used as a mark
in the game of bowls is an example of its transferred sense.
JACKAROO, name given in Australia to a green-horn from England
inexperienced in bush life.
JACKDAW OF RHEIMS, one of the INGOLDSBY LEGENDS (q. v.).
JACKSON, 1, a prosperous manufacturing city (21) in Michigan,
U.S.A., on the Grand River, 70 m. W. of Detroit; has various mills,
iron-works, breweries, &c., and bituminous coal-mines on its outskirts.
2, A cotton market-town (10), capital of Madison County, Tennessee, on
the South Fork of the Forked Deer River, 107 m. SE. of Cairo, Illinois.
JACKSON, ANDREW, GENERAL, president of the United States, born at
Waxhaw, N. Carolina, adopted law as a profession, and in 1788 became
public prosecutor at Nashville; took a prominent part in establishing the
State of Tennessee, of which he subsequently became a senator and a,
judge; during the war with Britain (1812-14) be came to the front and
crowned a series of successes by his great victory over Sir E. Pakenham
at New Orleans; for a time he was governor of the newly purchased State
of Florida, but resigning, he again entered the U.S. Senate in 1823;
five years later he became President, and in 1832 was again elected; his
Presidency is associated with the readjustment of the tariff on a purely
protective basis, which led to disputes with S. Carolina, the sweeping
away of the United States Bank, the wiping out of the national debt in
1835, and the vigorous enforcement of claims against the French for
damage done during the Napoleonic wars; his imperious yet honest nature
led him to make a more frequent use of the President's veto than any of
his predecessors (1767-1845).
JACKSON, THOMAS JONATHAN, known as Stonewall Jackson, an American
general, born in Virginia; bred for the army; distinguished himself in
the Mexican War; retired from the army in 1853, and became a professor in
Mathematics and Military Science in Virginia; was appointed
brigadier-general in the Confederate army at the outbreak of the Civil
War, and earned the _nom de guerre_ of "Stonewall" by his firmness at the
battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861; distinguished himself in subsequent
engagements; at Chancellorville was by mistake fired at in the dark and
mortally wounded by his own men on May 6, 1863; he was a man of the
Cromwell stamp, and his death was not only a blow to his own party, but
matter of grief to the whole American nation (1824-1863).
JACKSONVILLE, 1, the chief seat of commerce (17) in Florida State,
is situated on St. John's River, some 20 m. from its mouth; is a busy
railway centre, and has an active river trade in lumber, cotton, fruits,
&c., and is a health resort. 2, Capital (13) of Morgan County, Illinois,
is pleasantly situated on a fertile plain, 34 m. SW. of Springfield; is
noted as an educational centre, and for its many charity asylums; its
manufactures embrace woollens, paper, &c.
JACOB, a Hebrew patriarch, younger son of Isaac and Rebecca, the
favourite of his mother, and had twelve sons, the fathers of the twelve
tribes of Israel; his character and the story of his life are naively
delineated in the book of Genesis.
JACOB, JEAN CLAUDE, a serf from the Jura Mountains, 120 years old,
who was brought from his native place to figure as "dean of the human
race" in Paris at the great federation festival of June 1790.
JACOBI, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH, a German philosopher, born at
Duesseldorf; bred for business, and after engaging in it for a time threw
it up for a revenue appointment; devoted all his by-hours to philosophy
and correspondence with eminent men, and was appointed President of the
Academy of Sciences at Muenich in 1807; he formed no system and he founded
no school; his thoughts present themselves in a detached form, and are to
be gathered from letters, dialogues, and imaginative works; he contended
for the dogma of "immediate cognition as the special organ of the
supersensuous," and failed to see, as SCHWEGLER notes, that said
cognition "has already described a series of subjective intermediating
movements, and can pretend to immediacy only in entire oblivion of its
own nature and origin" (1743-1819).
JACOBI, KARL GUSTAVO, a celebrated German mathematician, born at
Potsdam, of Jewish birth; was professor at Koenigsberg and Berlin, and one
of the founders of the theory of determinants (1801-1851).
JACOBINS, a political club, originally known as the Club Breton,
which was founded in Paris during the French Revolution; so called from
its place of meeting in the Rue St. Honore, which had previously been a
Jacobin friar convent; it exercised a great influence over the course of
the Revolution, and had affiliated societies all over the country,
working along with it; its members were men of extreme revolutionary
views, procured the death of the king, exterminated the Girondists,
roused the lowest classes against the middle, and were the ruling spirits
during the Reign of Terror, of whom Robespierre was the chief, the fall
of whom sealed their doom; they were mobbed out of their place of meeting
with execrations on Hallow-Eve 1794.
JACOBITES, a name given to certain partisans of Eutychean sect in
the 17th century in the East, from the name of their leader.
JACOBITES, the name given to the adherents of the Stuart dynasty in
Great Britain after their expulsion from the throne in 1688, and derived
from that of James II., the last Stuart king; they made two great
attempts to restore the exiled dynasty, in 1715 and 1745, but both were
unsuccessful, after which the movement exhausted itself in an idle
sentimentality, which also is by this time as good as extinct.
JACOBS, a German Greek scholar, born at Gotha; editor of "Anthologia
JACOBUS, a gold coin of the reign of James I., worth 25 shillings.
JACOBY, JOHAN, a Prussian politician, born in Koenigsberg; bred to
medicine, but best known as a politician in a liberal interest, which
involved him in prosecutions; was imprisoned for protesting against the
annexation of Alsace and Lorraine; he was a man of fearless honesty, and
one day had the courage to say to the Emperor William I., "It is the
misfortune of kings that they will not listen to the truth" (1805-1877).
JACOTOT, JEAN JOSEPH, a celebrated educationalist, born at Dijon,
France; after holding various educational appointments, he in 1818 became
professor of the French Language and Literature at Louvain, and
subsequently held the post of Director of the Military Normal School; he
is noted for his "Universal Method" of education, which is based on his
assumption that men's minds are of equal calibre (1770-1840).
JACQUARD LOOM, a loom with an apparatus for weaving figures in
textiles, such as silks, muslins, and carpets, which was the invention of
an ingenious Frenchman, born in Lyons, of the name of Joseph Marie
JACQUERIE, the name given to an insurrection of French peasants
against the nobles in the ILE OF FRANCE (q. v.), which broke out
on May 21, 1358, during the absence of King John as a prisoner in
England; it was caused by the oppressive exactions of the nobles, and was
accompanied with much savagery and violence, but the nobles combined
against the revolt, as they did not do at the time of Revolution,
preferring rather to leave the country in a pet, and it was extinguished
on the 9th June following.
JACQUES BONHOMME, a name given to a French peasant as tamely
submissive to taxation.
JADE, is the common name of about 150 ornamental stones, but belongs
properly only to nephrite, a pale grey, yellowish, or white mineral found
in New Zealand, Siberia, and chiefly in China, where it is highly valued.
JAEL, the Jewish matron who slew Sisera the Canaanitish captain,
smiting a nail into his temples as he lay asleep in her tent, Judges iv.
JAEN (26), a picturesque cathedral city, capital of a province of
the same name, in Andalusia, Spain, on a tributary of the Guadalquivir,
50 m. NW. of Granada; the province (438) lies along the valley of the
Guadalquivir, and was once a Moorish kingdom.
JAGGANNATHA. See JUGGERNAUT.
JAGHIR, revenue from land or the produce of it, assigned in India by
the Government to an individual as a reward for some special service.
JAHN, FRED. L., a German patriot, born in Pomerania; did much to
rouse his country into revolt against the domination of France in 1813
JAHN, JOHAN, a Catholic theologian and Orientalist, born in Moravia;
held professorships in Olmuetz and Vienna; was distinguished as a Biblical
scholar, author of "Biblical Archaeology," in five vols., as well as an
Introduction to the Old Testament, with Grammar, Lexicons, &c., in
connection with the Biblical languages (1750-1816).
JAHN, OTTO, philologist and archaeologist, born at Kiel; after
holding the post of lecturer at Kiel and Greifswald he, in 1847, was
appointed to the chair of Archaeology in Leipzig; becoming involved in the
political troubles of 1848-49, he lost his professorial position, but
subsequently held similar appointments at Bonn and Berlin; his voluminous
writings, which cover the field of Greek and Roman art and literature,
and include valuable contributions to the history of music, are of
first-rate importance (1813-1869).
JAIL FEVER, the popular name of a fever now known to be a severe
form of typhus, such as happened in 1579 at the "Black Assize," so called
as so many of those in the conduct of it died infected by the prisoners.
JAINAS, sects of Hindus scattered up and down India, allied to the
Buddhists, though ecclesiastically in open antagonism to them; they
reject the Veda of the Brahmans, and oppose to it another of their own,
as also their caste and their sacerdotalism, though they observe the
rules of caste among themselves; like the Buddhists, they are divided
into an ascetic class and a lay, but monasticism is not developed to the
same degree among them. There are two principal sects, "the white-gowns"
and "the air-clad," i. e. naked, though it is only at meals, which they
eat in common, that the latter strip naked; "Not only do they abstain
from animal food, but they drink only filtered water, breathe only
through a veil, and go sweeping the ground before them for fear of
swallowing or crushing any smallest animalcule." In religion they are
atheists, and admit of no Creator or of any perfection of being at the
beginning, only at the end. They distinguish between soul and body, and
regard the former as eternal; evil is not in mere existence, but in life,
and their Nirvana is a blessedness without break or end. We know little
or nothing of the history of these sects; with them conduct is
everything; their origin is of later date than that of the Buddhists. See
BARTH'S "RELIGIONS OF INDIA," translated by the Editor.
JALAPA (16), capital of the Mexican State of Vera Cruz, is prettily
situated at the base of the Cordilleras, 60 m. NW. of Vera Cruz city.
JALISCO (1,250), a maritime state in Mexico facing the Pacific;
consists chiefly of elevated plateau; enjoys a fine climate; has
long-established mining industries, some agriculture, and a growing trade
in cotton and woollen goods, tobacco, &c.; capital, Guadalajara.
JAMAICA ("Land of Springs") (640, of which 15 are whites), a British
crown colony, the largest and most important of the British West India
Islands; is one of the Greater Antilles group, and lies some 90 m. S. of
the eastern end of Cuba; its greatest length E. and W. 144 m.; is
traversed by the Blue Mountains (7400 ft.), whose slopes are clad with
luxuriant forests of mahogany, cedar, satin-wood, palm, and other trees;
of the numerous rivers, only one, the Black River, is navigable and that
for only flat-bottomed boats and canoes; there are many harbours
(Kingston finest), while good roads intersect the island; the climate is
oppressively warm and somewhat unhealthy on the coast, but delightful in
the interior highlands; for administrative purposes the land area is
divided into three counties, Surrey, Middlesex, and Cornwall; the chief
trade-products are dye-woods, fruit, sugar, rum, coffee, and spices;
discovered in 1494 by Columbus, and since 1670 a possession of England.
JAMES, the name of three disciples of Christ; James, the elder son
of Zebedee, by order of the high-priest was put to death by Herod
Agrippa; James, the younger son of Alphaeus; and James, the brother of the
Lord, stoned to death.
JAMES I., king of Scotland from 1406 to 1437, son of Robert III.,
born at Dunfermline; in 1406, while on a voyage to France, he was
captured by the English and detained by Henry IV. for 18 years, during
which time, however, he was carefully trained in letters and in all
knightly exercises; returning to Scotland in 1424 with his bride, Jane
Beaufort, niece of the English king, he took up the reins of government
with a firm hand; he avenged himself on the nobles by whose connivance he
had been kept so long out of his throne, reduced the turbulent
Highlanders to order, and introduced a number of beneficial reforms (e. g.
a wider parliamentary franchise, a fixed standard for the coinage, a
supreme court of civil jurisdiction, a renovated system of weights and
measures), and widened Scotland's commercial relations with the
Continent; he was a man of scholarly tastes, a patron of learning, and
exhibits no mean poetic gift in his well-known poem the "King's Quhair";
his vigorous and sometimes harsh and vindictive efforts to lower the
powers of the nobility procured him their inveterate hatred, and in 1437
he was murdered in the Dominican monastery at Perth by a band of
JAMES II., king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460, son of preceding;
during his minority the country was torn by rival factions amongst the
nobility, the chief point of contest being the wardship of the young
king; an attempt on the part of the conspirators who had murdered James
I. to place their leader, the Earl of Athole, on the throne, was
frustrated; in 1449 James assumed the duties of his kingship, and in the
same year married Mary, the daughter of the Duke of Gueldres; an English
war then being waged on the Borders was brought to a close, and the young
king entered vigorously upon administrative reforms; in these efforts he
was hampered by the opposition of the nobility, and his fiery temper led
him to participate in the murder of the chief obstructionist, the Earl of
Douglas; protection given to the exiled Douglases by the Yorkists led
James to support the claims of Henry VI. in England; he was killed by the
bursting of a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle (1430-1460).
JAMES III., king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488, son of James II.;
was during his minority under the care of his mother and Bishop Kennedy
of St. Andrews, the Earl of Angus being lieutenant-general of the
kingdom; but the bishop and the earl died before he was 14, and the
nobility fell into faction and disorder again; the first to gain power
was Lord Boyd (whose son married the king's sister), but a charge of
treason brought about his downfall and exile; the king married Princess
Margaret of Denmark in 1469, and gave himself up to a life of quiet ease
surrounded by men of art and culture, while his brothers Albany and Mar,
by their military tastes and achievements, won the affections of the
nobles; James, becoming jealous, imprisoned them; Albany, who had
intrigued with Edward IV., fled to France, Mar died in Craigmillar
Castle; while the king and his army were marching to meet expected
English action in 1482 the nobles, instigated by Archibald, Bell-the-Cat,
seized and hanged the royal favourites at Lauder, and committed the king
to Edinburgh Castle; a short reconciliation was effected, but was soon
broken, and civil war ensued; the defeat of the royalist forces at
Sauchieburn took place in 1488; the king escaped from the field, but was
thrown from his horse, and taking refuge in a house at Beaton's Mill, was
there slain (1462-1488).
JAMES IV., king of Scotland from 1488 to 1513, participated in the
rebellion which overthrew his father, James III., and succeeded him; but
in remorse for his unfilial conduct wore an iron belt all his life;
during his youth his supporters carried on the government in their own
interests, and despoiled the nobles who had been loyal to the late king;
but when he came of age he showed his independence in choosing good
advisers, among them Sir Andrew Wood; his reign was marked by resistance
to the claims of the Roman pontiff, by the firm and wise administration
of law, the fostering of agriculture, of shipbuilding, and other
industries; in 1503 James married Margaret, daughter of Henry VII.; after
that king's death relations between the two countries became strained;
two English men-of-war captured Andrew Barton's privateers; the jewels
which the queen inherited from her father were retained by Henry VIII.,
and James maintained an alliance with Henry's enemy, France; at the
solicitation of the French queen, against the advice of his own queen and
nobles, he invaded England in 1513, but the invasion ended in disaster at
Flodden, where he and the flower of his army perished; he was an able but
a headstrong, a pleasure-loving, and an extravagant man (1472-1513).
JAMES V., king of Scotland from 1513 to 1542, was only an infant
when he succeeded to his father's throne; his mother was regent till her
marriage with young Angus, when the nobles called James IV.'s cousin,
Albany, from France to assume the regency; French and English factions
sprang up; Henry VIII. intrigued in the affairs of the country; anarchy
and civil war ensued, and Albany retired to France in 1524; in that year
the queen-mother, aided by Henry, took the young king from Sir David
Lyndsay, to whom he had been entrusted, and assumed the government again
in his name; the Douglas family usurped his person and the government in
1525; but James asserted himself three years later, and began to reign in
person, displaying judgment and resolution, banishing the Douglases,
keeping order in the Highlands and on the Borders, establishing the
College of Justice, protecting the peasantry from the tyranny of the
barons, and fostering trade by a commercial treaty with the Netherlands;
he married (1) Princess Magdalene of France in 1537, and (2) Mary of
Guise in 1538; Henry, aggrieved by James's failure to meet him in
conference on Church matters, and otherwise annoyed, sent 30,000 men into
Scotland in 1542; disaffection prevented the Scottish forces from acting
energetically, and the rout of Solway Moss took place; the king, vexed
and shamed, sank into a fever and died at Falkland; in this reign the
Reformation began to make progress in Scotland, and would have advanced
much farther but that James had to support the clergy to play off their
power against the nobles (1512-1542)
JAMES VI. OF SCOTLAND AND I. OF ENGLAND, son of Mary, Queen of
Scots, and Darnley, born in Edinburgh Castle; was proclaimed king of
Scotland when only 13 months old, in 1567; entrusted to the Earl of Mar,
and educated by George Buchanan; Moray, Lennox, Mar, and Morton were
successively regents, till James assumed the government in 1581,
executing Morton and choosing Arran and Lennox for his advisers; plots
and counter-plots, the Raid of Ruthven (1582), the siege of Stirling by
some of the nobles with 10,000 troops, mostly from England, the surrender
of the king and the fall of Arran in 1585, the insurrection of the
Catholic nobles 1491-94, and the Gowrie Conspiracy in 1600, betrayed the
restlessness of the kingdom, and the weakness of the king; James married
Anne of Denmark 1589; on the death of Elizabeth, in 1603, he succeeded to
the throne of England as JAMES I.; was at first popular, but soon
forfeited all confidence by his favouritism; he governed through
creatures like Carr, Earl of Somerset, and the infamous Buckingham, whose
indiscretion brought about a war with Spain in 1624; James died
immediately afterwards; he has been described by Sully as "the wisest
fool in Christendom"; his conduct was certainly much less creditable than
his conversation; he held absurdly high views of the royal prerogative;
but he sold patents of nobility, and was careless of the misdeeds of his
ministers; he did not live to see revolution, but he saw its precursor in
the loosening of the bonds of sympathy between sovereign and people
JAMES II. OF ENGLAND AND VII. OF SCOTLAND, the son of Charles I.,
reigned in succession to Charles II. from 1685 to 1688; during the
Commonwealth he was a soldier in France and Spain; at the Restoration
returned to England as Duke of York, and became Lord High Admiral;
avowing himself a Catholic in 1671, the Test Act of 1673 enforced his
resignation, and thenceforward repeated attempts were made to exclude him
from the succession; on becoming king he promised to maintain the Church
and to respect the liberties of the people, but his government all the
same was arbitrary and tyrannical; he paraded his Catholicism, persecuted
the Covenanters, subordinated English interests to French, permitted the
"Bloody Assize," suspended the Test Act, violated the rights of the
Universities, gave Church offices to Roman Catholics, and by these and
many other acts of despotism made his deposition necessary; leading
statesmen invited William of Orange to assume the throne, and James fled
to France; an invasion of Ireland in 1689 ended in his defeat at Boyne
Water; he retired again to France, and lived at St. Germains till his
JAMES, EPISTLE OF, a Catholic epistle of the New Testament, presumed
to have been written by James, the brother of the Lord, addressed to
Jewish Christians who, in accepting Christianity, had not renounced
Judaism, and the sphere in which it moves is that of Christian morality,
agreeably to the standard of ethics given in the Sermon on the Mount. The
author looks upon Judaism as the basis of Christianity, and as on the
moral side leading up to it, in correspondence with the attestation of
Christ, that "salvation is of the Jews."
JAMES, G. P. R., historical novelist, born in London; wrote as many
as a hundred novels, beginning with "Richelieu" in 1829, which brought
him popularity, profit, and honour; was burlesqued by Thackeray
JAMES, SIR HENRY, military engineer; superintended the geological
survey of Ireland, and became in 1854 director-general of the Ordnance
JAMES, HENRY, an American theological writer, a disciple of
Swedenborg, and an exponent of his system (1811-1882).
JAMES, HENRY, American novelist, born in New York: studied law at
Harvard, but was eventually drawn into literature, and after a spell of
magazine work established his reputation as a novelist in 1875 with
"Roderick Hudson"; most of his life has been spent in Italy and England,
and the writing of fiction has been varied with several volumes of
felicitous criticism, chiefly on French life and literature; his novels
are characterised by a charming style, by a delicate discriminating
analysis of rather uneventful lives, and by an almost complete absence of
strong dramatic situation; _b_. 1843.
JAMES, JOHN ANGELL, most influential Congregationalist of his time,
born in Dorsetshire; was pastor of Carr's Lane Chapel, Birmingham, from
1805 to 1859; won the esteem of all parties; published the "Anxious
Inquirer," and many other works (1785-1859).
JAMES, ST., James, the son of Zebedee, the patron saint of Spain;
his attribute the sword, by which he was decapitated.
JAMES RIVER, an important river of Virginia, U.S., formed by the
junction of the Jackson and the Cowpasture, and flows in a south-easterly
direction across Virginia, falling into the Atlantic at the S. end of
Chesapeake Bay. It has a course of 450 m., and is navigable as far as
JAMESON, ANNA, _nee_ Murphy, English literary lady and art critic,
born in Dublin; authoress of "Sacred and Legendary Art," "Legends of the
Monastic Orders," "Legends of the Madonna," &c.; left unfinished at her
death a work on Our Lord and John the Baptist as represented in art,
which was completed afterwards by Lady Eastlake (1794-1860).
JAMESON, GEORGE, a Scotch portrait-painter, born in Aberdeen; many
of his portraits are to be met with in Scottish mansion-houses; his work
has been unduly lauded, and himself extravagantly designated the
"Scottish Vandyck" (1586-1644).
JAMESON, DR. LEANDER STARR, leader of the raid upon Johannesburg,
born at Edinburgh; studied medicine in his native city and in London;
established himself at Kimberley in 1878, and under the patronage of Mr.
Rhodes became the popular administrator for the South Africa Company at
Fort Salisbury in 1891; from Mafeking in December of 1896 he started,
with a body of 500 troopers, upon his ill-fated incursion into the
Transvaal to assist the Uitlanders of Johannesburg; at Krugersdorp the
raiders, exhausted by a 24 hours' ride, were repelled by a superior force
of Boers, and compelled to surrender; having been handed over to the
British authorities, "Dr. Jim," as he was familiarly called, was tried in
London, and condemned to 15 months' imprisonment, but was liberated on
account of ill-health after about five months' incarceration; _b_. 1853.
JAMESON, ROBERT, naturalist, born in Leith; appointed professor of
Natural History in Edinburgh University in 1804; wrote several works on
mineralogy and geology (1773-1853).
JAMES'S PALACE, ST., a palace, a brick building adjoining St.
James's Park, London, where drawing-rooms were held, and gave name to the
English Court in those days as St. Stephen's does of the Parliament.
JAMIESON, DR. JOHN, a Scotch antiquary, born in Glasgow; bred for
the Church; was Dissenting minister in Nicolson Street Church, Edinburgh;
widely known as author of the "Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish
Language"; wrote other works of less note (1759-1838).
JAMYN, AMADIS, a French poet, a protege of Ronsard's; was a good
JAN MAYEN LAND, a volcanic island, 35 m. in length, situated in the
Arctic Ocean between Iceland and Spitzbergen; is the head-quarters of
considerable seal and whale fisheries; discovered in 1611 by a Dutch
JANE EYRE, a novel by Charlotte Bronte; published in 1847.
JANICULUM, one of the hills of Rome, on the right bank of the Tiber.
JANIN, JULES GABRIEL, critic and novelist, born at St. Etienne,
France; took to journalism early, and established a reputation by his
lively dramatic criticisms in the _Journal des Debats_; his gift of ready
composition betrayed him into a too prolific output of work, and it is
doubtful if any of his many novels and articles will long survive his day
and generation; they, however, brought him wealth and celebrity in his
own lifetime; he succeeded in 1870 to Sainte-Beuve's chair in the French
JANIZARIES, a Turkish military force organised in 1330, and more
perfectly in 1336; composed originally of Christian youths taken
prisoners in war or kidnapped, and trained as Mohammedans; from being at
first 10,000, and fostered by the privileges granted them, increased to
300,000 or 400,000 strong, till they became unruly and a danger to the
State, when, after various unsuccessful attempts to crush them, they were
in 1826 overborne by the Sultan Mahmoud II. and dissolved.
JANNAEUS, ALEXANDER, the second of the Asmonaean kings of Judea;
reigned in the beginning of the century before Christ; insulted the Jews
by profaning the rites of their religion, and roused a hostility against
him which was appeased only by his death, the news of which was received
with expressions of triumphant exultation.
JANNES AND JAMBRES, the two Egyptian magicians who thought to
outrival Moses in the performance of his miracles; supposed to be
referred to in 2 Tim. iii. 8 as "withstanding" him.
JANSEN, CORNELIUS, a Dutch theologian and bishop of Ypres, born in
Louvain; studied the works of Augustine, and wrote a book entitled
"Augustinus" in exposition of that great Father's doctrine of grace,
which was published after his death, and which gave occasion to a great
controversy between his followers, in France especially, and the Jesuits
JANSENISTS, a party in the Roman Catholic Church, supporters of
Jansen's views, who, in opposition to the Jesuits, maintained the
Augustinian principle of the sovereign and irresistible nature of divine
grace. The most celebrated members of the party were the
PORT-ROYALISTS (q. v.) of France, in particular Arnauld and
Pascal, and they were opposed not only by the Jesuits, but by both Louis
XIV. and the Pope. Driven from France on the death of Louis, they took
refuge in Holland, and thither the Pope Clement XI. followed them, first
in 1713, hurling a bull against them, and then in 1719 by
ex-communicating them and driving them for good from within the pale of
the Catholic Church.
JANUARIUS, ST., a Christian who suffered martyrdom under Diocletian,
and whose head is preserved in Naples with a phial containing his blood
which, on certain occasions, liquefies when brought into contact with the
head. Recourse is had to it on the occasion of public calamities, not
without desired effects, and it is an object of worship. Festival,
JANUARY, the first month of the year, so called as sacred to
JANUS (q. v.).
JANUARY, EDICT OF, edict of date January 17, 1562, on which
Catherine de Medecis granted certain concessions to the Protestants.
JANUS, a very ancient Italian deity who presided over the beginning
of the several divisions of time, as well as the beginning of all
enterprises, in connection with which he was worshipped; he had two
heads, or faces, one of which looked behind into the past and the other
before into the future, and this power of penetrating into both it is
said Saturn endowed him with as a reward for receiving him on earth when
he was driven out of heaven.
JAPAN (40,719), an island empire of the N. Pacific, lying along the
E. coast of Asia, and separated from Corea and Primorsk by the Sea of
Japan, consists of Honshiu (31,000), Shikoku (3,000), Kyushu (6,000),
Yezo (314), and 4000 small islands; though not of volcanic origin, the
islands are the most mountainous in the world, have many volcanoes and
sulphur springs, and are subject to earthquakes; they are very
picturesque, and have peaks from 8000 to 12,000 ft. high; the rivers are
too swift for navigation; the coast, not much indented, has yet some good
harbours; the valleys are well wooded, but the soil not very fertile;
temperature and climate are various; nowhere is the heat intense, but in
some parts the winter is very cold; there is much rain, but on the whole
it is healthy; the chief industry is agriculture; farming is careful and
intelligent; rice, cereals, pulse, tea, cotton, and tobacco are raised,
and many fruits; gold, silver, all the useful metals, coal, granite, some
decorative stones are found, but good building-stone is scarce; the
manufacture of porcelain, lacquer-work, and silk is extensive, and in
some artistic work the Japanese are unrivalled; the chief ports are
Yokohama (143), on the E. of Honshiu, which has grown up since 1854, when
the country was opened to trade; and Hyogo (143), on the S. coast of the
same island, where are also shipbuilding yards; the chief exports are
tea, silk, and rice; imports cotton, woollen, iron goods, and chemicals;
the Japanese, sprung from an ancient union of Tartars with Ainos and with
S. Malays, are a kindly, courteous, law-abiding folk, with highly
developed artistic tastes; education is compulsory, and well provided
for; religion is Shintoism and Buddhism, but Christianity is gaining
rapid ground; the government is in the hands of the Mikado, who rules now
with the aid of ministers and two houses of parliament; education,
government, army, and navy--indeed the whole modern civilisation of the
country--is on Western lines, though until 1853 foreigners were excluded;
a civil war in 1867-68 effected the change from the old feudalism, and
the amazing success of Japan in the war against China in 1894 has proved
that the new civilisation is no mere veneer; the capital is Tokyo
JAPHETH, one of the three sons of Noah and the ancestor of the
Gentiles, as distinct from the descendants of Shem, or the Semites, and
of Ham, or the Hamites. See IAPETOS.
JAQUES, or the "melancholy" a cynical moraliser in Shakespeare's "As
You Like It."
JARNAC, a town on the Charente, celebrated as the scene of a victory
which the Catholics, commanded by the Duc d'Anjou, afterwards Henry III.
obtained in 1569 over the Huguenots commanded by Conde.
JAROSLAV (79), on the Volga, 160 m. NE. of Moscow, is capital of the
government of Jaroslav; is an important river-port, a seat of theological
and legal culture, and has cotton manufactures.
JARPNOONK, a mesmeric or hypnotic state produced by Hindu conjurers.
JARROW (34), in Durham, on the Tyne, 7 m. below Newcastle; is a
coal-shipping port, and has extensive shipbuilding and iron manufactures;
in ancient times its monastery was made famous by the Venerable Bede.
JARVIE, BAILIE NICOL, a Glasgow magistrate; an original character in
Scott's "Rob Roy."
JASHER, BOOK OF, a Hebrew book twice quoted in the Old Testament, no
longer extant; believed to have been a collection of national ballads.
JASMIN, JACQUES, a Gascon barber and poet, who by his romances,
burlesques, and odes, published between 1835 and 1849, raised the patois
of the S. of France to the status of a literary language, and created a
wholesome influence on French life and letters (1778-1864).
JASON, a mythological Greek hero, son of AEson, king of Iolcos;
brought up by the centaur Chiron, was supplanted on the throne by his
half-brother Pelias; undertook the leadership of the Argonautic
expedition, assisted by Medea in this enterprise; he took her to wife,
but cast her off for Creusa, whom Medea to avenge herself killed, with
her father and her two sons by Jason, she herself escaping to Athens in a
chariot drawn by winged dragons; Jason took refuge from her fury in the
sanctuary of Poseidon near Corinth, where the timber of the ship Argo
deposited there breaking up fell upon him and crushed him to death.
JASPER, an opaque quartz found in all colours, and spotted, striped,
and clouded; is valued in ornamental lapidary work because of the polish
JASSY (90), ancient capital of Moldavia, situated 89 m. NE. of
Bucharest; is the seat of an archbishop and a university, and has a large
community of Jews; trades largely with Russia in corn, spirits, and wine.
JATAKA, a Pali collection of stories recounting 550 previous
"births" of the Buddha, the earliest collection of popular tales, and the
ultimate source of many of AEsop's fables and Western folk-lore legends.
JATS, are the principal race in the Punjab, where they number 41/2
millions, and are engaged in agriculture. There is much debate as to
their origin and their racial relationship.
JAVA (23,868), the finest island of the Indian Archipelago, lying
between Sumatra and Bali, with the Indian Ocean on the S. and the Java
Sea separating it from Borneo on the N., lies E. and W., traversed by a
mountain chain with a rich alluvial plain on the N.; there are many
volcanoes; the climate is hot, and on the coast unhealthy; the mountains
are densely wooded, and the teak forests are valuable; the plain is
fertile; coffee, tea, sugar, indigo, and tobacco are grown and exported;
all kinds of manufactured goods, wine, spirits, and provisions are
imported; the natives are Malays, more civilised than on neighbouring
islands; there are 240,000 Chinese, many Europeans and Arabs; the island
is nearly as large as England, and belongs to Holland; the chief towns
are Batavia (105) and Samarang (70), both on the N.
JAY, JOHN, American statesman, born in New York, and called to the
bar in 1768; took a part in the struggle for independence second only to
Washington's; represented his country subsequently in Madrid and London;
was first Chief-Justice of the United States, and from 1795 to 1801
governor of New York (1745-1829).
JAY, WILLIAM, eminent Congregationalist minister, born in Wiltshire;
was first a stone-mason, but entered the ministry, and after a short term
of service near Chippenham was pastor of Argyle Chapel, Bath, for 62
years. He was an impressive preacher and a popular writer (1769-1853).
JAYADEVA, a Hindu poet, born near Burdwan, in Bengal, flourished in
the 12th century, whose great work, the "Gita Govinda," the "Song of the
Shepherd Krishna," has been translated by Sir Edwin Arnold as the "Indian
Song of Songs," in celebration of the love of Krishna and his wife Radha;
it has often been compared with the "Song of Songs," in the Hebrew
JEAN D'EPEE (Jean, i. e. the Frenchman with the sword), a name
given to Napoleon by his partisans who conspired for his restoration in
JEAN JACQUES, Rousseau, from his Christian name.
JEAN PAUL, RICHTER (q. v.), from his Christian name.
JEANNE D'ALBRET. See D'ALBRET, JEANNE.
JEANNE D'ARC. See JOAN OF ARC.
JEBB, PROFESSOR, eminent Greek scholar, born in Dundee; elected in
1889 Regius Professor of Greek in Cambridge; has represented Cambridge in
Parliament since 1891; edited "Sophocles," "The Attic Orators,"
"Introduction to Homer," &c.; B. 1841.
JEDBURGH (3), county town of Roxburghshire, picturesquely situated
on the Jed, 30 m. SW. of Berwick, and 10 m. SW. of Kelso; is an ancient
town of many historic memories; made a royal burgh by David I.; contains
the ruins of an abbey, and has some woollen manufactures.
JEDDAH (46), a town on the Red Sea, 65 m. W. of Mecca, of which it
is the port, where the pilgrims disembark for the holy city; is a place
of trade, less considerable than it once was.
JEEJEEBHOY, SIR JAMSETJEE, Indian philanthropist, a Parsee by birth
and creed, born in Bombay; realised a fortune as a merchant, and employed
it in releasing debtors from jail by paying their debts, and in founding
a hospital and schools; in 1857 was made a baronet (1783-1859).
JEFFERIES, JOHN RICHARD, writer on rural subjects, born near
Swindon, Wilts, son of a gamekeeper; was first a journalist and novelist,
but attained success in "The Gamekeeper at Home," 1878; other books
display a very accurate faculty of observation and description, a
reverence for nature, for rural scenes and people; "The Story of my
Heart," 1883, is an introspective and somewhat morbid autobiography; he
died after six years' illness at Goring, Sussex; Prof. Saintsbury
pronounces him "the greatest minute describer of English country life
since White of Selborne" (1848-1887).
JEFFERSON, JOSEPH, comedian, born in Philadelphia, of theatrical
lineage; was on the stage at the age of 3; made his first success in New
York as Dr. Pangloss in 1857, and in London in 1865 began to play his
most famous role, Rip van Winkle, a most exquisite exhibition of
histrionic genius; B. 1829.
JEFFERSON, THOMAS, American statesman, born at Shadwell, Virginia;
took a prominent part in the Revolution, and claimed to have drawn up the
Declaration of Independence; he secured the decimal coinage for the
States in 1783; was plenipotentiary in France in 1784, and subsequently
minister there; third President, 1801-1807, he saw the Louisiana purchase
and the prohibition of the slave-trade; after his retirement he devoted
himself to furthering education till his death at Monticello, Va.; he was
a man of extremes, but honest and consistent in his policy (1743-1826).
JEFFREY, FRANCIS, LORD, a celebrated critic and lawyer, born in
Edinburgh; trained for and called to the bar in 1794; with a fine
cultivated literary taste devoted himself principally to literary
criticism, and being a Whig in politics was associated with the
originators of the _EDINBURGH REVIEW_ (q. v.), and became its
first editor in 1802, which he continued to be till 1829, contributing to
its pages all along articles of great brilliancy; he was distinguished
also at the bar in several famous trials; became Lord Advocate of
Scotland in 1830, M.P. for Edinburgh in 1832, and finally, in 1834, one
of the judges in the Court of Session; lie was a dark-eyed, nimble little
man, of alert intelligence and quick in all his movements; died at
Craigcrook, near Edinburgh (1773-1850).
JEFFREYS, BARON, of infamous memory, born in Wales; became
Chief-Justice of England in 1863; was one of the advisers and promoters
of the tyrannical proceedings of James II.'s reign, and notorious for his
cruel and vindictive judgments as a judge, to the indignation of the
people; tried to escape on the arrival of William; was discovered lurking
in a public-house at Wapping, and apprehended and committed to the Tower,
where he died (1648-1689).
JEHOVAH, the name of God in the Hebrew Scriptures as
_self-existent_, and the Creator and Lord of all things, in the regard of
the Jews too sacred to be pronounced, and which in the Authorised Version
is often rendered by the word LORD in small capital letters.
JEHOVIST, the presumed author of the Jehoistic portions of the
Pentateuch. See ELOHIST.
JEKYLL, DR., AND MR. HYDE, the good nature and the bad struggling
for the ascendency in the same person, generally to the defeat of the
JELF, RICHARD WILLIAM, Principal of King's College, London; was
educated at Oxford, became Fellow of Oriel, canon of Christ's Church, and
Principal of King's College; is remembered chiefly for his rigid
orthodoxy and for the part he played in depriving Maurice of his
professorship at King's College (1798-1871).
JEMAPPES (11), a manufacturing Belgian town, 3 m. W. of Mons, where
Dumouriez in the name of the French Republic defeated the Austrians in
JEMINDAR, a native officer in the Indian army of rank equal to that
of lieutenant in the British.
JENA (13), in Saxe-Weimar, on the Saale, 14 m. SE. of Weimar, an old
town with memories of Luther, Goethe, and Schiller; has a university
founded to be a centre of Reformation influence, and since associated
with Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, and the Schlegels, who were teachers
there; on the same day in October 14, 1806, two victories were won near
the town by French troops over the Prussians, the collective name for
both being "the battle of Jena."
"JENKINS'S EAR," refers to an incident which provoked a war with
Spain in 1739, viz., the conduct of the officer of a Spanish guardship
not far from Havana towards the captain of an English trading ship of the
name of Jenkins; the Spaniards boarded his ship, could find nothing
contraband on board, but treated him cruelly, cut off his left ear, which
he brought home in wadding, to the inflaming of the English people
against Spain, with the above-named issue.
JENNER, EDWARD, an English physician, born in Berkeley, and
practised there; was the discoverer of inoculation with cowpox as a
preventive of smallpox, or vaccination as it is called, a discovery which
has immortalised his name (1749-1822).
JENNER, SIR WILLIAM, an eminent physician, born at Chatham; held
several professorships in University College; was physician to the Queen
and the Prince of Wales; discovered the symptoms which differentiate
typhus from typhoid fever (1815-1899).
JEPHTHAH, one of the Judges of Israel, famed for his rash vow in the
event of victory to offer in sacrifice the first object that came out of
his house on his return, and which happened to be his daughter and only
child, and whom it would seem he sacrificed, after allowing her two
months to bewail her fate along with her maidens; it is not said her
father sacrificed her, and it is thought she was only doomed to perpetual
JEREMIAD, a lament over degeneracy in modern times.
JEREMIAH, a Hebrew prophet, born at Anathoth, a priestly city 3 m.
N. of Jerusalem, where, after his removal thither, he spent as a prophet
the greater part of his life, viz., from 629 to 588 B.C.; his prophecy
was a lifelong protest against the iniquity and folly of his countrymen,
and was conceived in bitter foreboding of the hopeless ruin they were
bringing down upon their heads; his faithfulness offended friend and foe
alike, and more than one plot was laid against his life, which was one of
ever-deepening sadness and one long wail over the ruin of the country he
so loved; he lived to see the issue of his prediction in the captivity of
the people, though he did not go into captivity with them, the conqueror
having allowed him to remain as he wished; he appears to have died in
Egypt; he was the author of "Lamentations," and it is thought of sundry
of the Psalms. See HEBREW PROPHECY.
JERICHO, an ancient city of Palestine, in the SW. of a plain of the
same name that extends W. of the Jordan and NW. of the Dead Sea; it was
the first city taken by the Israelites when they entered the Holy Land,
the walls falling down before them after being compassed for seven days
by the priests blowing on rams' horns and followed by the people.
JEROME, JEROME KLAPTA, dramatist, journalist, &c., author of "Idle
Thoughts of an Idle Fellow," "Three Men in a Boat," "Diary of a
Pilgrimage," &c., as also of plays; editor of the _Idler_ and of a weekly
magazine journal, _To-Day_; _b_. 1861.
JEROME, ST., a Father of the Church, born in N. Illyria, of rich
parents, presumably Christian, although he first became Christian himself
of his own election after he was grown up; and from the day of his
baptism, "he left," as he says, "not only parents and kindred, but the
accustomed luxuries of delicate life"; his fame rests on a translation of
the Scriptures into Latin, known as the Vulgate, which he executed at
Bethlehem at intervals from A.D. 385 to 404, with the design of showing
to the Latin world what was and what was not contained in the original
documents for the faith of the Church, and with the result, that in the
long run the Old and the New Testaments were for the first time presented
to and received by the Church as both of equal, or at least common
authority, and as both sections of one book (331-420).
JEROME OF PRAGUE, born at Prague; studied there and at Oxford (where
he came under Wycliffe's influence), Paris, Heidelberg, and Cologne;
acquired great learning, and displayed great energy and oratorical power;
attracted the notice of the Kings of Poland and Hungary; joined John Huss
in his agitation against the abuses of the Church; became involved in the
movement against Huss, and though he recanted, afterwards withdrew his
recantation, and was burned at Constance (about 1365-1416.)
JERROLD, DOUGLAS, dramatist and celebrated wit, born in London, son
of a theatrical magistrate; began life as a printer; composed "Black-eyed
Susan"; contributed to _Punch_ "Mrs. Caudle's Lectures" among other
pieces, and edited magazines; the keenness of his satire was the reflex
of a feeling heart (1803-1857).
JERSEY (55), the largest and richest of the Channel Islands, lies 15
m. off the French coast, 100 m. S. of Portland Bill, is oblong in shape,
with great bays in the coast, and slopes from the N. to the SW.; the soil
is devoted chiefly to pasture and potato culture; the exports are early
potatoes for the London market and the famous Jersey cattle, the purity
of whose breed is carefully preserved; the island is self-governing, has
a somewhat primitive land tenure, is remarkably free from poverty and
crime, has been under the English crown since 1066; the capital is St.
Helier (29), where there is a college, a public library, a harbour, and a
JERSEY CITY (206), the most populous city in New Jersey, is
separated from New York, of which it is practically a part, only by the
Hudson River; has no pretension to beauty, but is a busy railway centre;
has very varied manufactures, including sugar, flour, machinery, and
chemicals, extensive shipping interests, and great trade in iron, coal,
and agricultural produce.
JERUSALEM (41), the capital of Palestine, holy city of the Jews,
belonged originally to the Jebusites, but was captured by David and made
his capital; a strong place, built on four hills 2000 ft. above the
Mediterranean, enclosed within walls and protected nearly all round by
deep valleys and rising grounds beyond; it has been so often besieged,
overthrown, and rebuilt that the present city stands on rubbish heaps,
the ruins of ancient structures.
JERUSALEM, KINGDOM OF, kingdom founded by Godfrey of Bouillon in
1099 and overthrown by Saladin in 1187.
JERUSALEM DELIVERED, an epic poem in 20 cantos by Tasso and
published in 1575, the appearance of which constitutes one of the great
epochs in the history of literature.