Part 5 out of 5
=182-190=. Possibly Carlyle, although the author may have had in mind
a type rather than an individual.
=208-209. Averse, as Dido did=, etc. Dido, the mythical queen of
Carthage, being deserted by her lover AEneas, slew herself. She
afterward met him on his journey through Hades, but turned from him in
"In vain he thus attempts her mind to move
With tears and prayers and late repenting love;
Disdainfully she looked, then turning round
But fixed her eyes unmoved upon the ground,
And what he says and swears regards no more
Than the deaf rocks when the loud billows roar."
For entire episode, see _AEneid_, vi, 450-476.
=212. inviolable shade=. Holy, sacred, not susceptible to corruption.
Perhaps no other of Arnold's lines is so much quoted as this and the
=214=. Why "silver'd" branches?
=220=. dingles. Wooded dells.
=231-250=. Note the force of this elaborate and exquisitely sustained
image; how the mind is carried back from these turbid days of sick
unrest to the clear dawn of a fresh and healthy civilization. In the
course of an essay on Arnold, the late Mr. Richard Holt Hutton says of
this poem and this closing picture: "That most beautiful and graceful
poem on the _Scholar-Gipsy_ (the Oxford student who is said to have
forsaken academic study in order to learn, if it might be, those
potent secrets of nature, the traditions of which the gypsies are
supposed sedulously to guard) ends in a digression of the most vivid
beauty.... Nothing could illustrate better than this [closing] passage
Arnold's genius and his art.... His whole drift having been that
care and effort and gain and pressure of the world are sapping human
strength, he ends with a picture of the old-world pride and daring,
which exhibits human strength in its freshness and vigor.... I could
quote poem after poem which Arnold closes by some such buoyant
digression: a buoyant digression intended to shake off the tone of
melancholy, and to remind us that the world of imaginative life is
still wide open to us.... This problem is insoluble, he seems to say,
but insoluble or not, let us recall the pristine force of the human
spirit, and not forget that we have access to great resources
still.... Arnold, exquisite as his poetry is, teaches us first to
feel, and then to put by, the cloud of mortal destiny. But he does not
teach us, as Wordsworth does, to bear it." 
=232. As some grave Tyrian trader, etc=. Tyre, the second oldest and
most important city of Phoenicia, was, in ancient times, a strong
competitor for the commercial supremacy of the Mediterranean.
=236. AEgean Isles=. The AEgean Sea, that part of the Mediterranean
lying between Greece on the west, European Turkey on the north, and
Asia Minor on the east, is dotted with numerous small islands, many of
which are famous in Greek mythology.
=238. Chian wine=. Chios, or Scio, an island in the AEgean Sea (see
note above), was formerly celebrated for its wine and figs.
=239. tunnies=. A fish belonging to the mackerel family; found in the
=244. Midland waters=. The Mediterranean Sea.
=245. Syrtes=. The ancient name of Gulf of Sidra, off North Africa,
the chief arm of the Mediterranean on the south, =soft Sicily=. Sicily
is noted for its delightful climate; hence the term, "soft Sicily."
=247. western straits=. Strait of Gibraltar.
=250. Iberians=. Inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula, formed by
Portugal and Spain.
What atmosphere is given the poem by the first stanza? What quest is
to be begun, l. 10? What caused the "Scholar" to join himself to the
gipsies? What were his original intentions? Why, then, did he continue
with them till his death? Why would he avoid others than members of
the gipsy crew? Why his pensive air? To what truth does the author
suddenly awake? How does the Scholar-Gipsy yet live to him? Explain
fully lines 180-200. Note carefully the author's contrast between the
life led by the Scholar-Gipsy and our modern life. Which is better?
Why? Make an application of the figure of the Tyrian trader. Is it
apt? Why used by the poet? Discuss the verse form used. Is it adapted
to the theme of the poem? 
A monody to commemorate the author's friend, Arthur Hugh Clough, who
died at Florence, 1861.
Throughout this poem there is reference to the preceding selection,
_The Scholar-Gipsy_, of which it is the companion piece, and, in a
sense, the sequel. It is one of the four great elegies in the English
Thyrsis is a name common to both ancient and modern literature. In
the Idyls of Theocritus it is used as the name of a herdsman; in the
Eclogues of Vergil, of a shepherd; while in later writings it has come
to mean any rustic.
Arthur Hugh Clough (1819-1861), whose poetry is closely akin in spirit
to Arnold's, was a young man of genius and promise. He studied at both
Rugby and Oxford, where he and Arnold were intimately associated and
became fast friends. In 1869 his health began to fail, and two years
later he died in Florence, Italy, where he had gone in the hope of
being benefited by the climate.
Arnold, in a letter to his mother dated April, 1866, says of his poem:
"Tell dear old Edward [Arnold] that the diction of the Thyrsis was
modelled on that of Theocritus, whom I have been much reading during
the two years this poem has been forming itself, and that I meant the
diction to be so artless as to be almost heedless. However, there is
a mean which must not be passed, and before I reprint this I will
consider well all objections. The images are all from actual
observation.... The cuckoo in the wet June morning, I heard in the
garden at Woodford, and all those three stanzas, which you like, are
reminiscences of Woodford. Edward has, I think, fixed on the two
stanzas I myself like best: 'O easy access,' and 'And long the way
appears.' I also like 'Where is the girl,' and the stanza before it;
but that is because they bring certain places and moments before
me.... It is probably too quiet a poem for the general taste, but I
think it will stand wear." To his friend, John Campbell Shairp, Arnold
wrote, a few days later: "Thyrsis is a very quiet poem, but, I think,
solid and sincere. It will not be popular, however. It had long been
in my head to connect Clough with that Cumner country, and, when I
began, I was carried irresistibly into this form. You say, truly, that
there was much in Clough (the whole prophetic side, in fact) which one
cannot deal with in this way.... Still, Clough had the idyllic side,
too; to deal with this suited my desire to deal again with that Cumner
country. Anyway, only so could I treat the matter this time. _Valeat
=1.= Note how the tone of the poem is struck in the first line.
=2. In the two Hinkseys.= That is, North and South Hinksey. See note,
l. 125, _The Scholar-Gipsy._
=4. Sibylla's name.= In ancient mythology the Sibyls were certain
women reputed to possess special powers of prophecy, or divination,
and who claimed to make special intercession with the gods in behalf
of those who resorted to them. Do you see why their "name" would be
used on signs as here mentioned?
=6. ye hills.= See note, l. 30, _The Scholar-Gipsy._
=14. Ilsley Downs.= The surface of East and West Ilsley parishes, in
Berkshire, some twelve or fourteen miles south of Oxford, is broken by
ranges of plateau-like hills, known in England as _downs_.
=15. The Vale.= White Horse Vale; the upper valley of the River Ock,
westward from Oxford. =weirs=. See note, l. 95, _The Scholar-Gipsy._
=19. And that sweet city with her dreaming spires.= Arnold's intense
love for Oxford and the surrounding country appears in many of his
essays and poems. In the introduction to his _Essays on Criticism_,
Vol. I, occurs the following tribute: "Beautiful city! so venerable,
so lovely, so unravaged by the fierce intellectual life of our
century, so serene!
'There are our young barbarians all at play!'
And yet, steeped in sentiment as she lies, spreading her garments to
the moonlight, and whispering from her towers the last enchantment of
the Middle Age, who will deny that Oxford, by her ineffable charm,
keeps ever calling us nearer the true goal of all of us, to the ideal,
to perfection--to beauty, in a word, which is only truth seen from
another side?... Home of lost causes and forsaken beliefs and
unpopular names and impossible loyalties! what example could ever so
inspire us to keep down the Philistine in ourselves, what teacher
could ever so save us from that bondage to which we are all prone,
that bondage which Goethe, in his incomparable lines on the death of
Schiller, makes it his friend's highest praise ... to have left miles
out of sight behind him: the bondage of 'was uns alle baendigt, Das
=20.= Compare with Lowell's lines on June, in _The Vision of Sir
=24. Once pass'd I blindfold here.= That is, at one time I could have
passed here blindfolded, being so familiar with the country. Can you
think of any other possible interpretation?
=31-40.= Compare the thought here to that of Milton's _Lycidas_, ll.
23-38. A comparison of the two poems entire, in thought and structure,
will be found to be both interesting and profitable. =Shepherd-pipe=
(l. 35). The term =pipe=, also reed (l. 78), is continually used in
pastoral verse as symbolic of poetry and song. 
=38-45. Needs must I lose them=, etc. That is, I must lose them, etc.
Arnold's great ambition was to devote his life to literature, which
circumstances largely prevented; while Clough was eager to take a more
active part in life, not being content with the uneventful career of a
poet, =irk'd= (l. 40). Annoyed; worried. =keep= (l. 43). Here used in
the sense of remain, =silly= (l. 45). Harmless; senseless. The word has
an interesting history.
=46-50=. Like Arnold, Clough held lofty ideals of life, and grieved to
see men living so far below their privileges. This, with his loss
of faith in God, tinged his poetry with sadness. The storms (l. 49)
allude to the spiritual, political, and social unrest of the last of
the first half, and first of the last half, of the nineteenth century.
=51-60. So ... So....= Just as the cuckoo departs with the bloom of
the year, so he (Clough) went, l. 48. =With blossoms red and white=
(l. 55). The white thorn, or hawthorn, very common in English gardens.
=62. high Midsummer pomps=. Explained in the following lines.
=71. light comer=. That is, the cuckoo. Compare
"O blithe New-comer."
--WORDSWORTH, _Lines to the Cuckoo_.
=77. swains=. Consult dictionary.
=78. reed=. See note, l. 35 of poem.
=79. And blow a strain the world at last shall heed=. On the whole,
Clough's poetry was either ignored or harshly criticised by the
=80. Corydon=. In the Idyls of Theocritus, Corydon and Thyrsis,
shepherd swains, compete for a prize in music.
=84. Piping a ditty sad for Bion's fate=. Bion of Smyrna, Asia Minor,
a celebrated bucolic poet of the second century B.C., spent the later
years of his life in Sicily, where it is supposed he was poisoned.
His untimely death was lamented by his follower and pupil, Moschus of
Syracuse, in an idyl marked by melody and genuine pathos. =ditty=.
In a general sense, any song; usually confined, however, to a song
narrating some heroic deed. 
=85. cross the unpermitted ferry's flow=. That is, cross the river
of Woe, over which Charon ferried the shades of the dead to Hades.
Mythology records several instances, however, of the ferry being
passed by mortals. See note, ll. 34-39, _Memorial Verses_; also ll.
207-210, _The Scholar-Gipsy_, of this volume.
=88-89. Proserpine=, wife to Pluto (l. 86) and queen of the
underworld, was anciently honored, with flower festivals in Sicily, as
the goddess of the spring.
=90. And flute his friend like Orpheus=, etc. See note, ll. 34-39,
=94. She knew the Dorian water's gush divine=. The river Alpheus,
in the northwestern part of the Peloponnesus--the country of the
Dorians--disappears from the surface and flows in subterranean
channels for some considerable part of its course to the sea. In
ancient Greek mythology it was reputed to rise again to the surface in
central Sicily, in the vale of Enna, the favorite haunt of Proserpine,
as the fountain of Arethusa.
=95-96. She knew each lily white which Enna yields=, etc. According to
Greek mythology, Proserpine was gathering flowers in the vale of Enna
when carried off by Pluto.
=97. She loved the Dorian pipe=, etc. What reason or reasons can you
give for Proserpine's love of things Dorian?
=106. I know the Fyfield tree=. See l. 83, _The Scholar-Gipsy_.
=109. Ensham, Sanford=. Small towns on the Thames; the former, some
four miles above Oxford; the latter, a like distance below.
=123. Wytham flats=. Some three miles above Oxford, along the Thames.
=135. sprent. Sprinkled=. The preterit or past participle of _spreng_
(obsolete or archaic).
=155. Berkshire=. See note, l. 58, _The Scholar-Gipsy_.
=167. Arno-vale=. The valley of the Arno, a river in Tuscany, Italy,
on which Florence is situated.
=175. To a boon ... country he has fled=. That is, to Italy.
=177. the great Mother=. Ceres, the earth goddess.
=181-190=. Daphnis, the ideal Sicilian shepherd of Greek pastoral
poetry, was said to have followed into Phrygia his mistress Piplea,
who had been carried off by robbers, and to have found her in the
power of the king of Phrygia, Lityerses. Lityerses used to make
strangers try a contest with him in reaping corn, and to put them to
death if he overcame them. Hercules arrived in time to save Daphnis,
took upon himself the reaping contest with Lityerses, overcame him,
and slew him. The Lityerses-song connected with this tradition was,
like the Linus-song, one of the early, plaintive strains of Greek
popular poetry, and used to be sung by the corn reapers. Other
traditions represented Daphnis as beloved by a nymph, who exacted from
him an oath to love no one else. He fell in love with a princess, and
was struck blind by the jealous nymph. Mercury, who was his father,
raised him to heaven, and made a fountain spring up in the place from
which he ascended. At this fountain the Sicilians offered yearly
sacrifices. See Servius, _Comment, in Vergil. Bucol_., V, 20, and
=191-200=. Explain the lines. =Sole= (l. 192). See l. 563, _Sohrab and
Rustum_. =soft sheep= (l. 198). Note the use of the adjective _soft_.
Cf. _soft Sicily_, l. 245, _The Scholar-Gipsy_.
=201-202. A fugitive and gracious light=, etc. What is the light
sought by the Scholar-Gipsy and by the poet? Beginning with l. 201,
explain the succeeding stanzas, sentence by sentence, to the close of
the poem. Then sum up the thought in a few words.
What is the author's mood, as shown by the first stanza? What is his
purpose in recalling the haunts once familiar to him about Oxford?
Why the mention of the Scholar-Gipsy? What is the significance of the
"tree" so frequently alluded to in the poem? Discuss stanzas 4 and 5
as to meaning. To what is Thyrsis (Clough) likened in stanzas 6, 7,
and 8? Where, however, is there a difference? Apply ll. 81-84 to
Clough and Arnold. How do you explain the "easy access" of the Dorian
shepherds to Proserpine, l. 91? What digression is made in ll.
131-150? What is the poet's attitude toward life? Why will he not
despair so long as the "lonely tree" remains? What comparison does
he make between Clough and the Scholar-Gipsy? What is the "gracious
light," l. 201? Where found? What voice whispers to him amid the
"heart-wearying roar" of the city? What effect does it have upon him?
Does it give him courage or fortitude? Discuss the verse form and
diction of the poem.
_Rugby Chapel_ (1857), one of Arnold's best-known and most
characteristic productions, was written in memory of his father, Dr.
Thomas Arnold, famous as the great head-master at Rugby. Dr. Arnold
was born at East Cowes in the Isle of Wight, June 13, 1795, and as a
boy was at school at Warminster and Winchester. In 1811 he entered
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and having won recognition as a
scholar, was awarded a fellowship of the Oriel in 1815. Three years
later he settled at Laleham, where, in 1820, he married Mary Penrose,
daughter of Justice Penrose, and where, two years later, was born
Matthew, who was destined to win marked distinction among English men
of letters. In 1827 he was elected head-master at Rugby, and shortly
afterward began those important reforms which have placed him among
the greatest educators of his century. Chief among his writings is
his _History of Rome_, published in several volumes. In 1841 he was
appointed Regius Professor of History at Oxford. He died very suddenly
on Sunday, June 12, 1842, and on the following Friday his remains
were interred in the chancel of Rugby Chapel, immediately under the
communion table. 
In his poem Arnold has drawn a vivid picture of a strong, helpful,
hopeful, unselfish soul, cheering and supporting his weaker comrades
in their upward and onward march--a picture of the guide and companion
of his earlier years; and in so doing he has preserved his father's
memory to posterity in a striking and an abiding way.
=1-13=. Note carefully the tone of these introductory lines, and
determine the poet's purpose in opening the poem in this mood. The
picture inevitably calls to mind Bryant's lines, _The Death of
=16. gloom=. The key-word to the preceding lines. Explain why it calls
to mind the poet's father. Keats makes a similar use of the word
_forlorn_ in his _Ode to the Nightingale_.
Forlorn! the very word is like a bell
To toll me back from thee to my sole self."
=30-33=. Discuss the figure as to its aptness.
=37. shore=. A word common to hymns.
=38-57=. Discuss the poet's idea of the future life as set forth in
these lines. Can you think of any other author or authors who have
held a like view?
=58-59=. The poet asks this question only to answer it in the lines
following. Compare and contrast the two classes of men spoken of;
their aims in life and their achievements. Why is the path of those
who have chosen a "clear-purposed goal" pictured so difficult? Who are
they that start well, but fall out by the wayside? 
=90-93=. Compare with Byron's description of a storm in the Alps,
Canto III, _Childe Harold_.
From peak to peak, the rattling crags among
Leaps the live thunder."
=98-101=. So unstable is the hold of the "snow-beds" on the mountain
sides that travellers passing beneath them are forbidden by the guides
to speak, lest their voices precipitate an avalanche. See ll. 160-169,
_Sohrab and Rustum_.
=117-123=. What human frailties are indicated in the answer to the
host's question? Note the contrast in the succeeding lines.
=124-144=. The imagery of these lines is drawn from Dr. Arnold's
life at Rugby. Under his care frequent excursions were made into the
neighboring Westmoreland Hills. Nothing perhaps gives a better idea of
the man than the description of his "delight in those long mountain
walks, when they would start with their provisions for the day,
himself the guide and life of the party, always on the lookout how
best to break the ascent by gentle stages, comforting the little ones
in their falls and helping forward those who were tired, himself
always keeping with the laggers, that none might strain their strength
by trying to be in front with him; and then, when his assistance was
not wanted, the liveliest of all--his step so light, his eye so
quick in finding flowers to take home to those who were not of the
party."--ARTHUR PENRHYN STANLEY.
=171. In the rocks=. That is, among the rocks.
=190. Ye=. Antecedent?
=208. City of God=.
"There is a river the streams whereof shall make glad the _city of
--_Psalms_, xlvi: 4.
* * * * *
INDEX TO NOTES
Abbey towers, 192.
AEgean Isles, 202,
Alcmena's dreadful son, 182.
All red ... bathed in foam, 170.
Aloof he sits, etc., 159.
And that ... more, 169,
Arthur's court, 169.
Art them not Rustum? 160.
As some grave Tyrian trader, etc., 202
As when some hunter, etc., 162.
At my boy's years, 156.
_Austerity of Poetry_, 194.
Averse, as Dido did, etc., 200.
Bagley Wood, 199.
Be govern'd, 160.
Belgrave Square, 195.
Berkshire moors, 198.
Bethnal Green, 195.
Blessed sign, 171.
Blow a strain the world at last shall heed, 206.
Bow'd his head, 161.
Breathed on by rural Pan, 178.
Bruited up, 162.
By thy father's head, 160.
Caked the sand, 163.
Chian wine, 202.
Chisell'd broideries, 176.
Chorasmian stream, 181.
Christ Church hall, 199
City of God, 211.
Clusters of lonely mounds, 181
Common chance, 156.
Common fight, 156.
Cool gallery, 177.
Cross and recross, 198.
Cross the unpermitted ferry's flow, 207.
Dance around the Fyfield elm in May, 199.
Dearer to the red jackals, etc., 162.
Do not we ... await it too? 200.
_Dover Beach_, 183.
_East London_, 195.
_Epilogue to Rising's Laocooen_, 191.
Eternal passion! eternal pain! 185,
Even clime, 194.--
Faun with torches, 183.
Favour'd guest of Circe, 180.
Ferment the milk of mares, 157.
Fight unknown and in plain arms,159.
Find a father thou hast never seen,156.
First grey of morning fill'd the east, 155.
Flute his friend, like Orpheus,' etc., 207.
Foliaged marble forest, 177.
For a cloud, etc., 161.
Fugitive and gracious light, etc. 208.
Full struck, 161.
_Geist's Grave_, 191.
Girl's wiles, 161.
Glanvil's book, 198.
Godstow Bridge, 199.
Goethe in Weimar sleeps, 196.
Go to! 159.
Grand Old Man, 188.
Great Mother, 208.
Green isle, 169.
Hair that red, 164.
Happy Islands, 181.
Hark ... sun, 166.
Have found, 162.
Heap a stately mound, etc., 163.
Heaths starr'd with broom, 166.
Hera's anger, 181.
He spoke ... men, 159.
High Midsummer pomps, 206.
His long rambles ... ground, 170.
Holly trees and juniper, 172.
Holy Lassa, 177.
Holy well, 166.
Honied nothings, 172.
How thick the bursts, etc., 185.
Huge world, 178.
Hurrying fever, 194.
Hurtling Polar lights, 164.
Hyde Park, 191.
I came ... passing wind, 162.
I know the Fyfield tree, 207.
Ilsley Downs, 204.
Indian Caucasus, 159.
In his light youth, 194.
Inly-written chart, 186.
Inviolable shade, 201.
Iron age, 196.
Iron coast, 173.
Is Merlin prisoner, etc., 174.
Is she not come? 168.
Just-pausing Genius, 200.
Kai Khosroo, 159.
_Kaiser Dead_, 187.
Kara Kul, 157.
Kept uninfringed my nature's law, 186.
King Marc, 169.
Lasher pass, 199.
Launcelot's guest at Joyous Gard, 170.
Leper recollect, 164.
Light comer, 206.
Like that autumn star, 161.
Like that bold Caesar, etc., 173.
_Lines Written in Kensington Gardens_, 178.
Lion's heart, 159.
Lions sleeping, 180.
Lips that rarely form them now, 191.
Loud Tyntagel's hill, 169.
Lovely orphan child, 170.
Luminous home, 163.
Marcus Aurelius, 194.
_Memorial Verses_, 196.
Midland waters, 202.
Milk-barr'd onyx-stones, 181.
Miserere Domine, 192.
Moonstruck knight, 171.
My princess ... good night, 171.
Needs must I lose them, etc., 206.
Never was that field lost or that foe saved, 160.
New bathed stars, 163.
Northern Sir, 163.
O'er ... sea, 169.
Of age and looks, etc., 162.
Old-world Breton history, 173.
Once pass'd I blindfold here, 205.
One lesson, 193.
One slight helpless girl, 159.
On that day, 163.
Oxford towers, 198.
O wanderer from a Grecian shore, 184.
Painter and musician too, 193.
Pan's flute music, 180.
Passing weary, 175.
Pen-bryn's bold bard, 187.
Persian King, 157.
Phoebus-guarded ground, 191.
Piping a ditty sad for Bion's fate, 206.
Posting here and there, 173.
Prick'd upon this arm, etc., 162.
Prince Alexander, 174.
_Quiet Work_, 193.
Recks not, 171.
Red-fruited yew tree, 200.
Remember all thy valour, 161.
Right for the polar star, 163.
Roman Emperor, 171.
_Rugby Chapel_, 209.
_Saint Brandan_, 164.
Scythian ... embers, 181.
Secret in his breast, 171.
See what the day brings, 180.
She knew each lily white which Enna yields, etc., 207.
She knew the Dorian water's gush divine, 207.
She loved the Dorian pipe, etc., 207.
Sibylla's name, 204.
Snow-haired Zal, 159.
Soft sheep, 208.
Soft Sicily, 202.
_Sohrab and Rustum_, 149.
Son of Italy, 194.
So ... So ..., 206.
Stranger-knight, ill-starr'd, 170.
Strange unloved uproar, 178.
Sun sparkled, etc., 161.
Tartar camp, 155.
That old king, 162.
That sweet city with her dreaming spires, 205.
_The Church of Brou_, 176.
_The Forsaken Merman_, 165.
_The Last Word_, 188.
There, go! etc., 157.
_The Scholar-Gipsy_, 197.
_The Strayed Reveller_, 179.
Thine absent master, 191.
Thou had'st one aim, etc., 200.
Thou hast not lived, 200.
Thou possessest an immortal lot etc., 200.
Thou wilt not fright me so, 160.
Thracian wild, 184.
To a boon ... country he has fled, 208.
Too clear web, etc., 185.
_Tristram and Iseult_, 167.
Unconscious hand, 162.
Unknown sea, 182.
Virgilian cry, 191.
Wattled cotes, 198.
Welcomed here, 170.
Western straits, 202.
_West London_, 195.
What boots it, 171.
What endless active life, 178.
What foul fiend rides thee? 171.
Whether that ... or in some quarrel, 157.
Which much to have tried, etc., 200.
Wild white horses, 165.
With a bitter smile, etc., 161.
With blossoms red and white, 206.
_Worldly Place_, 194.
Wychwood bowers, 199.
Wytham flats, 207.
Yellow Tiber, 177.
_Youth's Agitations_, 194.