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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries by Richard Hakluyt

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** Transcriber's Notes **

The printed edition from which this e-text has been produced retains the
spelling and abreviations of Hakluyt's 16th-century original. In this
version, the spelling has been retained, but the following manuscript
abbreviations have been silently expanded:

- vowels with macrons = vowel + 'n' or 'm'
- q; = -que (in the Latin)
- y[e] = the; y[t] = that; w[t] = with

This edition contains footnotes and two types of sidenotes. Most footnotes
are added by the editor. They follow modern (19th-century) spelling
conventions. Those that don't are Hakluyt's (and are not always
systematically marked as such by the editor). The sidenotes are Hakluyt's
own. Summarizing sidenotes are labelled [Sidenote: ] and placed before the
sentence to which they apply. Sidenotes that are keyed with a symbol are
labeled [Marginal note: ] and placed at the point of the symbol, except in
poetry, where they are moved to the nearest convenient break in the text.

** End Transcriber's Notes **

Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries

Collected by

Edited by




"This elaborate and excellent Collection, which redounds as much to the
glory of the English Nation as any book that ever was published, has
already had sufficient complaints made in its behalf against our suffering
it to become so scarce and obscure, by neglecting to _republish_ it in a
fair impression, with proper illustrations and especially an _Index_. But
there may still be room left for a favourable construction of such neglect,
and the hope that nothing but the casual scarcity of a work so long since
out of print may have prevented its falling into those able hands that
might, by such an edition, have rewarded the eminent _Examples_ preserved
therein, the _Collector_ thereof and _themselves_ according to their

Thus wrote Oldys (The British Librarian, No III, March, 1737, page 137),
nearly 150. years ago, and what has been done to remove this, reproach? The
work has become so rare that even a reckless expenditure of money cannot
procure a copy [Footnote: Mr. Quantch, the eminent Bibliopole, is now
asking ú42 for a copy of the 1598-1600 edition.]

It has indeed long been felt that a handy edition of the celebrated
"Collection of the Early Voyages, Travels and Discoveries of the English
Nation," published by Richard Hakluyt 1598, 1599, 1600, was one of the
greatest desiderata of all interested in History, Travel, or Adventure. The
labour and cost involved have however hitherto deterred publishers from
attempting to meet the want except in the case of the very limited reprint
of 1809-12. [Footnote: Of this edition 250 copies were printed on royal
paper, and 75 copies on imperial paper.] As regards the labour involved,
the following brief summary of the contents of the Second Edition will give
the reader some idea of its extent. I refer those who desire a complete
analysis to Oldys.

Volume I. (1598) deals with Voyages to the North and North East, and
contains _One hundred and nine_ separate narratives, from Arthur's
Expedition to Norway in 517 to the celebrated Expedition to Cadiz, in the
reign of good Queen Bess. Amongst the chief voyages may be mentioned:
Edgar's voyage round Britain in 973; an account of the Knights of
Jerusalem; Cabot's voyages; Chancellor's voyages to Russia; Elizabeth's
Embassies, to Russia, Persia, &c.; the Destruction of the Armada; &c., &c.

Volume II. (1599) treats of Voyages to the South and South East, beginning
with that of the Empress Helena to Jerusalem in 337. The chief narratives
are those of Edward the Confessor's Embassy to Constantinople; The History
of the English Guard in that City; Richard Coeur de Lion's travels; Anthony
Beck's voyage to Tartary in 1330; The English in Algiers and Tunis (1400);
Solyman's Conquest of Rhodes; Foxe's narrative of his captivity; Voyages to
India, China, Guinea, the Canaries; the account of the Levant Company; and
the travels of Raleigh, Frobisher, Grenville, &c. It contains _One hundred
and sixty-five_ separate pieces.

Volume III. (1600) has _Two hundred and forty-three different narratives_,
commencing with the fabulous Discovery of the West Indies in 1170, by
Madoc, Prince of Wales. It contains the voyages of Columbus; of Cabot and
his Sons; of Davis, Smith, Frobisher, Drake, Hawkins; the Discoveries of
Newfoundland, Virginia, Florida, the Antilles, &c.; Raleigh's voyages to
Guiana; Drake's great Voyage; travels in South America, China, Japan, and
all countries in the West; an account of the Empire of El Dorado, &c.

The three volumes of the Second Edition therefore together contain _Five
hundred and seventeen_ separate narratives. When to this we add those
narratives included in the First Edition, but omitted in the Second, all
the voyages printed by Hakluyt or at his suggestion, such as "Divers
Voyages touching the Discoverie of America," "The Conquest of Terra
Florida," "The Historie of the West Indies," &c., &c., and many of the
publications of the Hakluyt Society, some idea may be formed of the
magnitude of the undertaking. I trust the notes and illustrations I have
appended may prove useful to students and ordinary readers; I can assure
any who may be disposed to cavil at their brevity that many a _line_ has
cost me hours of research. In conclusion, a short account of the previous
editions of Hakluyt's Voyages may be found useful.

The _First_ Edition (London: G. Bishop and R. Newberie) 1589, was in one
volume folio. It contains, besides the Dedication to Sir Francis Walsingham
(see page 3), a preface (see page 9), tables and index, 825 pages of
matter. The map referred to in the preface was one which Hakluyt
substituted for the one engraved by Molyneux, which was not ready in time
and which was used for the Second Edition.

The _Second_ Edition (London, G. Bishop, R. Newberie, and R, Barker), 1598,
1599, 1600, folio, 3 vols. in 2, is the basis of our present edition. The
celebrated voyage to Cadiz (pages 607-19 of first volume) is wanting in
many copies. It was suppressed by order of Elizabeth, on the disgrace of
the Earl of Essex. The first volume sometimes bears the date of 1598.
Prefixed is an Epistle Dedicatorie, a preface, complimentary verses, &c.
(twelve leaves). It contains 619 pages. Volume II. has eight leaves of
prefatory matter, 312 pages for _Part I_., and 204 pages for _Part II_. For
Volume III. there are also eight leaves for title, dedication, &c., and 868

The _Third_ Edition (London, printed by G. Woodfall), 1809-12, royal 410, 5
vols., is an excellent reprint of the two early editions. It is very
scarce, a poor copy fetching ú17 to ú18. Since this edition, there has been
no reprint of the Collection.

I have taken upon myself to alter the order of the different voyages. I
have grouped together those voyages which relate to the same parts of the
globe, instead of adopting the somewhat haphazard arrangement of the
original edition. This, and the indices I have added to each volume, will,
I hope, greatly assist the student. The maps, with the exception of the
facsimile ones, are modern; on them I have traced the presumed course of
the journey or journeys they refer to. The illustrations I have taken from
a variety of sources, which are always indicated.


EDINBURGH, _August 23rd_, 1884.










The Worthy Discoueries, &c. of the English toward the North and Northeast
by Sea,






A Briefe Commentary of the True State of Island and of the Northern Seas
and Lands Situate that Way:


The Memorable Defeat of the Spanish Huge Armada, Anno 1588.


The Principall Nauigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoueries of the
English Nation made by Sea or Ouer-land,




By Richard Hakluyt PREACHER,


ANNO 1599.




SIR FRANCIS WALSINGHAM KNIGHT, [Footnote: Born at Chislehurst, Kent, in
1536 He was educated at King's College Cambridge, where he specialty
devoted himself to the study of languages in which he became proficient.
Appointed Ambassador to Paris in 1570, he distinguished himself by the
extensive system of "secret police," or spies which he established. He was
present at the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, which did not excite in his
cold diplomatic mind the horror it created in England. On his return in
1573 he became Secretary of State. Ten years later he was Ambassador to
James VI of Scotland and in 1586 he sat as one of the commissioners on the
trial of Mary, Queen of Scots. In the matter of the Rabbington Conspiracy,
he is said to have "outdone the Jesuits in their own Low, and overreached
them in their equivocation." He died in 1590, in comparative disgrace with
his mistress.]


Right Honorable, I do remember that being a youth, and one of her Maiesties
scholars at Westminster [Footnote: We know little of Richard Hakluyt beyond
what we can gather from his writings. He was born at Eyton, in
Herefordshire in 1553; was educated, as we here learn, at Westminster
School and afterward, at Christ Church, Oxford, where geography was his
favourite study; In 1584 he went to Paris as Chaplain to the English
Embassy and, during his absence, was made Prebendary of Bristol. On his
return he published several works, Leo's "Geographical History of Africa,"
translated from the Spanish, and Peter Martyr's "History of the West
Indies" In 1605 he became Prebendary of Westminster, and Rector of
Wetherogset in Suffolk. He died in 1616. In compiling the present work,
Hakluyt had the assistance of Sir Walter Raleigh.] that fruitfull nurserie,
it was my happe to visit the chamber of M. Richard Hakluyt, my cosin, a
Gentleman of the Middle Temple, well knowen vnto you, at a time when I
found lying open vpon his boord certeine bookes of Cosmographie, with an
vniuersall Mappe: he seeing me somewhat curious in the view therof, began
to instruct my ignorance, by shewing me the diuision of the earth into
three parts after the olde account, and then according to the latter, &
better distribution, into more: he pointed with his wand to all the knowen
Seas, Gulfs, Bayes, Straights, Capes, Riuers, Empires, Kingdomes,
Dukedomes, and Territories of ech part, with declaration also of their
speciall commodities, & particular wants, which by the benefit of traffike,
& entercourse of merchants, are plentifully supplied. From the Mappe he
brought me to the Bible, and turning to the 107. Psalme, directed mee to
the 23 & 24 verses, where I read, that they which go downe to the sea in
ships, and occupy by the great waters, they see the works of the Lord, and
his woonders in the deepe, &c. Which words of the Prophet together with my
cousins discourse (things of high and rare delight to my yong nature) tooke
in me so deepe an impression, that I constantly resolued, if euer I were
preferred to the Vniuersity, where better time, and more conuenient place
might be ministred for these studies, I would by Gods assistance prosecute
that knowledge and kinde of literature, the doores whereof (after a sort)
were so happily opened before me.

According to which my resolution, when, not long after, I was remoued to
Christ-church in Oxford, my exercises of duety first performed, I fell to
my intended course, and by degrees read ouer whatsoeuer printed or written
discoueries and voyages I found extant either in the Greeke, Latine,
Italian, Spanish, Portugall, French, or English languages, and, in my
publike lectures was the first, that produced and shewed both the olde
imperfectly composed, and the new lately reformed Mappes, Globes, Spheares,
[Footnote: "Ortelius, in his 'Theatrum Orbis Terrarum,' the first edition
of which was in 1570, gives a list of about 150 geographical
treatises."--Hallam's "Literature of Europe," c. xvii. ž 53.] and other
instruments of this Art for demonstration in the common schooles, to the
singular pleasure, and generall contentment of my auditory. In continuance
of time, and by reason principally of my insight in this study, I grew
familiarly acquainted with the chiefest Captaines at sea, the greatest
Merchants, and the best Manners of our nation: by which meanes hauing
gotten somewhat more then common knowledge, I passed at length the narrow
seas into France with sir Edward Stafford, her Maiesties carefull and
discreet Ligier, where during my fiue yeeres abroad with him in his
dangerous and chargeable residencie in her Highnes seruice, I both heard in
speech, and read in books other nations miraculously extolled for their
discoueries and notable enterprises by sea, but the English of all others
for their sluggish security, and continuall neglect of the like attempts
especially in so long and happy a time of peace, either ignominiously
reported, or exceedingly condemned: which singular opportunity, if some
other people our neighbors had beene blessed with, their protestations are
often and vehement, they would farre otherwise haue vsed. And that the
trueth and euidence heerof may better appeare, these are the very words of
Popiliniere in his booke called L'Admiral de France, and printed at Paris.
Fol. 73. pag 1, 2. The occasion of his speech is the commendation of the
Rhodnais, who being (as we are) Islanders, were excellent in nauigation,
whereupon he woondereth much that the English should not surpasse in that
qualitie, in this sort: Ce qui m'a fait autresfois rechercher les
occasions, qui empeschent, que les Anglois, qui ont d'esprit, de moyens &
valeur assez, pour s'aquerir vn grand honeur parmi tous les Chrestiens, ne
se font plus valoir sur l'element qui leur est, & doit estre plus naturel
qu' Ó autres peuples: qui leur doiuent ceder en la structure, accommodement
& police de nauires: comme i' ay veu en plusieurs endroits parmi eux.
[Footnote: _Translation_ "This made me inquire into the reasons which
prevent the English, who have sufficient intelligence, means, and courage
to acquire great honour amongst all Christians, from shining more on the
element which is and ought to be more natural to them than to other
nations, who must needs yield to them in the building, fitting out, and
management of ships, as I have my self often witnessed when amongst them."]
Thus both hearing, and reading the obloquie of our nation, and finding few
or none of our owne men able to replie heerin: and further, not seeing any
man to haue care to recommend to the world, the industrious labors, and
painefull trauels of our countrey men: for stopping the mouthes of the
reprochers, my selfe being the last winter returned from France with the
honorable the Lady Sheffield, for her passing good behauior highly esteemed
in all the French court, determined notwithstanding all difficulties, to
vndertake the burden of that worke wherin all others pretended either
ignorance, or lacke of leasure, or want of sufficient argument, whereas (to
speake truely) the huge toile, and the small profit to insue, were the
chiefe causes of the refusall. I call the worke a burden, in consideration
that these voyages lay so dispersed, scattered, and hidden in seuerall
hucksters hands, that I now woonder at my selfe, to see how I was able to
endure the delayes, curiosity, and backwardnesse of many from whom I was to
receiue my originals: so that I haue iust cause to make that complaint of
the maliciousnes of diuers in our time, which Plinie [Footnote: Plinius.
lib. 25. cap. 1. Naturalis historiŠ.] made of the men of his age: At nos
elaborata ijs abscondere ßtque supprimere cupimus, & fraudare vitam etiam
alienis bonis, &c.

To harpe no longer vpon this string, & to speake a word of that iust
commendation which our nation doe indeed deserue: it can not be denied, but
as in all former ages, they haue bene men full of actiuity, stirrers
abroad, and searchers of the remote parts of the world, so in this most
famous and peerlesse gouernement of her most excellent Maiesty, her
subiects through the speciall assistance, and blessing of God, in searching
the most opposite corners and quarters of the world, and to speake plainly,
in compassing the vaste globe of the earth more then once, haue excelled
all the nations and people of the earth. For, which of the kings of this
land before her Maiesty, had theyr banners euer beene in the Caspian sea?
which of them hath euer dealt with the Emperor of Persia, as her Maiesty
hath done, and obteined for her merchants large & louing; priuileges? who
euer saw before this regiment, an English Ligier in the stately porch of
the Grand Signor at Constantinople? who euer found English Consuls & Agents
at Tripolis in Syria, at Aleppo, at Babylon, at Balsara, and which is more,
who euer heard of Englishman at Goa before now? what English shippes did
heeretofore euer anker in the mighty riuer of Plate? passe and repasse the
vnpassable (in former opinion) straight of Magellan, range along the coast
of Chili, Peru, and all the backside of Noua Hispania, further then any
Christian euer passed, trauers the mighty bredth of the South sea, land
vpon the Luzones in despight of the enemy, enter into alliance, amity, and
traffike with the princes of the Moluccaes, & the Isle of Iaua, double the
famous Cape of Bona Speranza, ariue at the Isle of Santa Helena, & last of
al ruturne home most richly laden with the commodities of China, as the
subiects of this now florishing monarchy haue done?

Lucius Florus in the very end of his historie de gestis Romanorum recordeth
as a wonderfull miracle, that the Seres, (which I take to be the people of
Cathay, or China) sent ambassadors to Rome, to intreate friedship, as moued
with the fame of the maiesty of the Romane Empire. And haue not we as good
cause to admire, that the Kings of the MoluccŠs and Iaua maior, haue
desired the fauour of her maiestie, and the commerce & traffike of her
people? Is it not as strange that the borne naturalles of Iapan, and the
PhilippinŠs are here to be seene, agreeing with our climate, speaking our
language, and informing vs of the state of their Easterne habitations? For
mine owne part, I take it as a pledge of Gods further fauour both vnto vs
and them: to them especially, vnto whose doors I doubt not in time shall be
by vs caried the incomparable treasure of the truth of Christianity, and of
the Gospell, while we vse and exercise common trade with their marchants. I
must confesse to haue read in the excellent history intituled Origines of
Ioannes Goropius, a testimonie of king Henrie the viij, a prince of noble
memory, whose intention was once, if death had not preuented him, to haue
done some singular thing in this case: whose words speaking of his dealing
to that end with himselfe, he being a stranger, & his history rare, I
thought good in this place verbatim to record: Ante viginti & plus eo annos
ab Henrico Kneuetto Equite Anglo nomine Regis Henrici arram accepi, qua
conuenerat, Regio sumptu me totam Asiam, quoad Turcorum & Persarum Regum
commendationes, & legationes admitterentur, peragraturum. Ab his enim
duobus AsiŠ principibus facile se impetraturum sperabat, vt non sol¨m tut˛
mihi per ipsorum fines liceret ire, sed vt commendatione etiam ipsorum ad
confinia quoque daretur penetrare. Sumptus quidem non exiguus erat futurus,
sed tanta erat principi cognoscendi auiditas, vt nullis pecunijs ad hoc
iter necessarijs se diceret parsurum. O Dignum Regia Maiestate animum, O me
foelicem, si Deus non antŔ & Kneuettum & Regem abstulisset, quÓm reuersus
ab hac peregrinatione fuissem, &c. [Footnote: Ioannis Goropij Becari
originum lib. 5 pag 494. _Translation_: "More than twenty years before I
received from Henry Knevett, an English knight, in the name of King Henry,
a retaining fee, it being agreed that I should travel at the king's expense
throughout Asia, so far as the letters of introduction or embassies of the
Turkish and Persian monarchs would enable me. For he (the king) hoped
easily to obtain from these two Asiatic monarchs not only permission for me
to travel through their territories, but also, by their influence, through
the frontier states of their kingdoms. The cost was not to be light, but
such was that prince's eagerness, after knowledge that he declared he would
spare no expense for this journey. O mind worthy of regal dignity! O happy
me if God had not called away both Knevett and the king before I had
returned from that journey!"] But as the purpose of Dauid the king to
builde a house and temple to God was accepted, although Salomon performed
it: so I make no question, but that the zeale in this matter of the
aforesaid most renowmed prince may seeme no lesse worthy (in his kinde) of
acceptation, although reserued for the person of our Salomon her gratious
Maiesty, whome I feare not to pronounce to haue receiued the same Heroicall
spirit, and most honorable disposition, as an inheritance from her famous

Now wheras I haue alwayes noted your wisdome to haue had a speciall care of
the honor of her Maiesty, the good reputation of our country, & the
aduancing of nauigation, the very walles of this our Island, as the oracle
is reported to haue spoken of the sea forces of Athens: [Footnote: Plutarch
in the life of Themistocles.] and whereas I acknowledge in all dutifull
sort how honorably both by your letter and speech I haue bene animated in
this and other my trauels, I see my selfe bound to make presentment of this
worke to your selfe, as the fruits of your owne incouragements, & the
manifestation both of my vnfained seruice to my prince and country, and of
my particular duty to your honour: which I haue done with the lesse
suspition either of not satisfying the world, or of not answering your owne
expectation, in that according to your order, it hath passed the sight, and
partly also the censure of the learned phisitian M. Doctor Iames, a man
many wayes very notably qualified.

And thus beseeching God, the giuer of all true honor & wisdome to increase
both these blessings in you, with continuance of health, strength,
happinesse, and whatsoeuer good thing els your selfe can wish, I humbly
take my leaue.

London the 17. of Nouember.

Your honors most humble alwayes to be commanded




I haue thought it very requisite for thy further instruction and direction
in this historie (Good Reader) to acquaint thee brieflie with the Methode
and order which I haue vsed in the whole course thereof: and by the way
also to let thee vnderstand by whose friendly aide in this my trauell I
haue bene furthered: acknowledging that ancient speach to be no lesse true
then inenious, that the offence is great, Non agnoscere per quos
profeceris, not to speake of them by whom a man in his indeuours is

Concerning my proceeding therefore in this present worke, it hath bene
this. Whatsoeuer testimonie I haue found in any author of authoritie
appertaining to my argument, either stranger or naturall, I haue recorded
the same word for word, with his particular name and page of booke where it
is extant. If the same were not reduced into our common language, I haue
first expressed it in the same termes wherein it is originally written
whether it were a Latine, Italian, Spanish or Portugall discourse, or
whatsoeuer els, and thereunto in the next roome haue annexed the
signification and translation of the wordes in English. And to the ende
that those men which were the paynefull and personall trauellers might
reape that good opinion, and iust commendation which they haue deserued,
and further that euery man might answere for himselfe, iustifie his
reports, and stand accountable for his owne doings, I haue referred euery
voyage to his Author, which both in person hath performed, and in writing
hath left the same: for I am not ignorant of Ptolomies assertion, that
Peregrinationis historia, and not those wearie volumes bearing the titles
of vniuersall Cosmographie which some men that I could name haue published
as their owne, beyng in deed most vntruly and vnprofitablie ramassed and
hurled together, is that which must bring vs to the certayne and full
discouerie of the world.

Moreouer, I meddle in this worke with the Nauigations onely of our owne
nation: And albeit I alleage in a few places (as the matter and occasion
required) some strangers as witnesses of the things done yet are they none
but such as either faithfully remember, or sufficiently confirme the
trauels of our owne people: of whom (to speake trueth) I haue receiued more
light in some respects then all our owne Historians could affoord me in
this case, Bale, Foxe, and Eden onely excepted.

And it is a thing withall principally to be considered that I stand not
vpon any action perfourmed neere home, nor in any part of Europe commonly
frequented by our shipping, as for example: Not vpon that victorious
exploit not long since atchieued in our narow Seas agaynst that monstrous
Spanish army vnder the valiant and prouident conduct of the right
honourable the lord Charles Howard high Admirall of England: Not vpon the
good seruices of our two woorthie Generals in their late Portugall
expedition: Not vpon the two most fortunate attempts of our famous
Chieftaine Sir Frauncis Drake, the one in the Baie of Cales vpon a great
part of the enimies chiefest shippes the other neere the Islands vpon the
great Carrack of the East India, the first (though peraduenture not the
last) of that employment, that euer discharged Molucca spices in English
portes: these (albeit singular and happy voyages of our renowmed
countrymen) I omit, as things distinct and without the compasse of my
prescribed limites, beyng neither of remote length and spaciousnesse,
neither of search and discouerie of strange coasts, the chiefe subiect of
this my labour. [Footnote: Halkuyt afterwards, in his second edition, did
not omit these remarkable adventures.]

Thus much in breuitie shall serue thee for the generall order. Particularhe
I haue disposed and digested the whole worke into 3. partes, or as it were
Classes, not without my reasons. In the first I haue martialled all our
voyages of any moment that haue bene performed to the South and Southeast
parts of the world, by which I chiefly meane that part of Asia which is
neerest, and of the rest hithermost towards vs: For I find that the oldest
trauels as well of the ancient Britains, as of the English, were ordinarie
to Iudea which is in Asia, termed by them the Holy land, principally for
deuotions sake according to the time, although I read in Ioseph Bengorion a
very authenticall Hebrew author, a testimonie of the passing of 20000.
Britains valiant souldiours, to the siege and fearefull sacking of
Ierusalem vnder the conduct of Vespasian and Titus the Romane Emperour, a
thing in deed of all the rest most ancient. But of latter dayes I see our
men haue pierced further into the East, haue passed downe the mightie riuer
Euphrates, haue sayled from Balsara through the Persian gulfe to the Citie
of Ormuz, and from thence to Chaul and Goa in the East India, which
passages written by the parties themselues are herein to be read. To these
I haue added the Nauigations of the English made for the parts of Africa,
and either within or without the streights of Gibraltar: within to
Constantinople in Romania, to Alexandria, and Cayro in Egypt, to Tunez, to
Goletta, to Malta, to Algier, and to Tripolis in Barbary: without, to Santa
Cruz, to Asafi, to the Citie of Marocco, to the riuer of Senega, to the
Isles of Cape Verde, to Guynea, to Benyn, and round about the dreadfull
Cape of Bona Speranza, as farre as Goa.

The north, and Northeasterne voyages of our nation I haue produced in the
second place, because our accesse to those quarters of the world is later
and not so auncient as the former: and yet some of our trauailes that way
be of more antiquitie by many hundred yeeres, then those that haue bene
made to the westerne coastes of America. Vnder this title thou shalt first
finde the old northerne Nauigations of our Brittish Kings as of Arthur, of
Malgo, of Edgar Pacificus the Saxon Monarch, with that also of Nicholaus de
Linna vnder the North pole: next to them in consequence, the discoueries of
the bay of Saint Nicholas, of Colgoieue, of Pechora, of the Isles of
Vaigats, of Noua Zembla, and of the Sea eastwards towardes the riuer of Ob:
after this, the opening by sea of the great Dukedome and Empire of Russia,
with the notable and strange iourney of Master Ienkinson to Boghar in
Bactria. Whereunto thou maist adde sixe of our voyages eleuen hundred
verstes vp against the streame of Dwina to the towne of Vologhda thence one
hundred and fourescore verstes by land to Yeraslaue standing vpon the
mighty riuer of Volga: there hence aboue two thousand and fiue hundred
versts downe the streame to the ancient marte Towne of Astracan, and so to
the manifolde mouthes of Volga, and from thence also by ship ouer the
Caspian sea into Media, and further then that also with Camels vnto
Georgia, Armenia, Hyrcania, Gillan, and the cheefest Cities of the Empire
of Persia: wherein the Companie of Moscouie Marchants to the perpetual
honor of their Citie, and societie, haue performed more then any one, yea
then all the nations of Europe besides: which thing is also acknowledged by
the most learned Cosmographers and Historiographers of Christendome, with
whose honorable testimonies of the action not many for number, but
sufficient for authoritie I haue concluded this second part.

Touching the westerne Nauigations, and trauailes of ours, they succeede
naturallie in the third and last roome, for asmuch as in order and course
those coastes, and quarters came last of all to our knowledge and
experience. Herein thou shall reade the attempt by Sea of the sonne of one
of the Princes of Northwales in saylng and searching towards the west more
then 400. yeeres since: the offer made by Christopher Columbus that
renowned Genouoys to the most sage Prince of noble memoire King Henrie the
7. with his prompt and cheerefull acceptation thereof, and the occasion
whereupon it became fruitlesse, and at that time of no great effect to this
kingdome: then followe the letters Patentes of the foresaid noble Prince
giuen to Iohn Cabot a Venetian and his 3. sonnes, to discouer & conquer in
his name, and vnder his Banners vnknowen Regions who with that royall
incouragement & contribution of the king himselfe, and some assistance in
charges of English Marchants departed [Footnote: Robert Fabian] with 5.
sailes from the Port of Bristoll accompanied with 300. Englishmen, and
first of any Christians found out that mightie and large tract of lande and
Sea, from the circle Arcticke as farre as Florida, as appeareth in the
discourse thereof. The triumphant reigne of King Henry the 8. yelded some
prosecution of this discouerie for the 3. voyages performed, and the 4.
intended for all Asia by his Maiesties selfe, do approoue and confirme the
same. Then in processe of yeeres ariseth the first English trade to
Brasill, the first passing of some of our nation in the ordinarie Spanish
fleetes to the west Indies, and the huge Citie of Mexico in Noua Hispania.
Then immediately ensue 3. voyages made by M. Iohn Hawkins now Knight, then
Esquire, to Hispaniola, and the gulfe of Mexico: vpon which depende sixe
verie excellent discourses of our men, whereof some for 15. or 16. whole
yeeres inhabited in New Spaine, and ranged the whole Countrie, wherein are
disclosed the cheefest secretes of the west India, which may in time turne
to our no smal aduantage. The next leaues thou turnest, do yeelde thee the
first valiant enterprise of Sir Francis Drake vpon Nombre de Dios, the
mules laden with treasure which he surprised, and the house called the
Cruzes, which his fire consumed: and therewith is ioyned an action more
venterous then happie of Iohn Oxnam of Plimmouth written, and confessed by
a Spaniard, which with his companie passed ouer the streight Istme of
Darien, and building certaine pinnesses on the west shoare, was the first
Englishman that entered the South sea. To passe ouer Master Frobisher, and
his actions which I haue also newly though briefely printed, and as it were
reuiued, whatsoeuer Master Iohn Dauis hath performed in continuing that
discouery, which Master Frobisher began for the northwest passage, I haue
faithfully at large communicated it with thee, that so the great good hope,
& singular probabilities & almost certaintie therof, which by his industry
haue risen, may be knowen generally of all men, that some may yet still
proscute so noble an action. Sir Humfrey Gilbert, that couragious Knight,
and very expert in the mysteries of Nauigation amongst the rest is not
forgotten: his learned reasons & arguments for the proofe of the passage
before named, together with his last more commendable resolution then
fortunate successe, are here both to be read. The continuance of the
historie, produceth the beginnings, and proceedings of the two English
Colonies planted in Virginia at the charges of sir Walter Raleigh, whose
entrance vpon those newe inhabitations had bene happie, if it had ben as
seruiously followed, as it was cheerefuly vndertaken. I could not omit in
this parte the two voyages made not long since to the Southwest, whereof I
thinke the Spanyard hath had some knowledge, and felt some blowes: the one
of Master Edward Fenton, and his consort Master Luke Warde: the other of
Master Robert Withrington, and his hardie consort Master Christopher Lister
as farre as 44. degrees of southerly latitude, set out at the direction and
charge of the right honorable the Earle of Cumberland, both which in diuers
respectes may yelde both profite and pleasure to the reader, being
carefully perused.

For the conclusion of all, the memorable voyage of Master Thomas Candish
into the South sea, and from thence about the globe of the earth doth
satisfie mee, and I doubt not but will fully content thee: which as in time
it is later then that of Sir Franncis Drake, so in relation of the
PhilippinŠs, Iapan, China and the Isle of S. Helena it is more particular,
and exact: and therfore the want of the first made by Sir Frauncis Drake
will be the lesse: wherein I must confesse to haue taken more then
ordinarie paines, meaning to haue inserted it in this worke but being of
late (contrary to my expectation) seriously delt withall, not to anticipate
or preuent another mans paines and charge in drawing all the seruices of
that worthie Knight into one volume, I haue yeelded vnto those my freindes
which pressed me in the matter, referring the further knowledge of his
proceedings to those intended discourses. [Footnote: This, however, he
printed privately.]

Now for the other part of my promise, I must craue thy further patience
friendly reader, and some longer suspence from the worke it selfe, in
acquainting thee with those vertuous gentlemen and others which partly for
their priuate affection to my selfe, but chiefely for their deuotion to the
furtherance of this my trauaile, haue yelded me their seuerall good
assistances: for I accompt him vnworthy of future fauours, that is not
thankefull for former benefites. In respect of a generall incouragement in
this laborious trauaile, it were grosse ingratitude in me to forget and
wilfull maliciousnes not to confesse that man, whose onely name doth carrie
with it sufficient estimation and loue, and that is Master Edward Dier, of
whom I will speake thus much in few wordes, that both my selfe and my
intentions herein by his friendly meanes haue bene made knowne to those,
who in sundrie particulars haue much steeded me. More specially in my first
part, Master Richard Staper Marchant of London, hath furnished me with
diuers thinges touching the trade of Turkie, and other places in the East.
Master William Burrowgh, Clarke of her Maiesties nauie and Master Anthonie
Ienkinson, both gentlemen of great experience, and obseruations in the
north Regions, haue much pleasured me in the second part. In the third and
last besides myne owne extreeme trauaile in the histories of the Spanyards,
my cheefest light hath bene receiued from Sir Iohn Hawkins, Sir Walter
Raleigh, and my kinseman Master Richard Hakluyt of the middle Temple.

And whereas in the course of this history often mention is made of many
beastes, birds, fishes, serpents, plants, fruits, hearbes, rootes,
apparell, armour, boates, and such other rare and strange curiosities,
which wise men take great pleasure to reade of, but much more contentment
to see: herein I my selfe to my singular delight haue bene as it were
rauished in beholding all the premisses gathered together with no small
cost, and preserued with no litle diligence, in the excellent Cabinets of
my very worshipfull and learned friends M. Richard Garthe, one of the
Clearkes of the pettie Bags, and M. William Cope Gentleman Vssier to the
right Honourable and most prudent Counseller (the Seneca of our common
wealth,) the Lord Burleigh, high Treasourer of England.

Nowe, because peraduenture it would bee expected as necessarie, that the
descriptions of so many parts of the world would farre more easily be
conceiued of the Readers, by adding Geographicall, and Hydrographicall
tables thereuuto, thou art by the way to be admonished that I haue
contented my selfe with inserting into the worke one of the best generall
mappes of the world onely, vntill the comming out of a very large and most
exact terrestriall Globe, collected and reformed according to the newest,
secretest, and latest discoueries, both Spanish Portugall, and English,
composed by M. Emmerie Mollineux of Lambeth, a rare Gentleman in his
profession, being therein for diuers yeeres, greatly supported by the purse
and liberalitie of the worshipfull marchant M. William Sanderson.
[Footnote: This map it has been found impossible to reproduce in facsimile,
though every effort has been made, a facsimile of Ziegler's Map of 1532 has
been substituted as a Frontispiece to this Volume.]

This being the summe of those things which I thought good to admonish thee
of (good Reader) it remaineth that thou take the profite and pleasure of
the worke: which I wish to bee as great to thee, as my paines and labour
haue bene in bringing these rawe fruits vnto this ripenesse, and in
reducing these loose papers into this order. Farewell.




[Footnote: He was the grandson of Thomas, second Duke of Norfolk and was
born in 1536. He entered the army early, and distinguished himself in
suppressing the rebellion of the Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland in
1568 (for full particulars of which see Froude, "History of England," vol
IX, p 96). He became Lord High Admiral in 1585, and rendered great service
in 1588 against the Invincible Armada. In 1596 he was created Earl of
Nottingham for his Expedition against Cadiz in conjunction with the Earl of
Essex. In 1601 he suppressed the revolt of the latter and made him
prisoner. He was present at Elizabeth's death in 1603, and the following
year went as ambassador to Spain. He died in 1624, never having forfeited
in any way the confidence of his sovereign or the esteem of his


Right Honourable and my very good Lord, after I had long since published in
Print many Nauigations and Discoueries of strangers in diuers languages, as
well here at London, as in the citie of Paris, during my fiue yeeres abode
in France, with the woorthie Knight Sir Edward Stafford your brother in
lawe, her maiesties most prudent and carefull Ambassador ligier with the
French King: and had waded on still farther and farther in the sweet studie
of the historie of Cosmographie, I began at length to conceiue, that with
diligent obseruation, some thing might be gathered which might commend our
nation for their high courage and singular actiuitie in the Search and
Discouerie of the most vnknowen quarters of the world. Howbeit, seeing no
man to step forth to vndertake the recording of so many memorable actions,
but euery man to folow his priuate affaires: the ardent loue of my countrey
deuoured all difficulties, and as it were with a sharpe goad prouoked me
and thrust me forward into this most troublesome and painfull action. And
after great charges and infinite cares after many watchings, toiles, and
trauels, and wearing out of my weake body: at length I haue collected three
seuerall Volumes of the English Nauigations Traffiques, and Discoueries, to
strange, remote, and farre distant countreys. Which worke of mine I haue
not included within the compasse of things onely done in these latter
dayes, as though litle, or nothing woorthie of memorie had bene performed
in former ages: but mounting aloft by the space of many hundred yeares,
haue brought to light many very rare and worthy monuments, which long haue
ben miserably scattered in mystic corners, & retchlesly hidden in mistie
darkenesse, and were very like for the greatest part to haue bene buried in
perpetual obliuion. The first Volume of this worke I haue thus for the
present brought to light, reseruing the other two vntill the next Spring,
when by Gods grace they shall come to the Presse. In the meane season
bethinking my selfe of some munificent and bountifull Patrone, I called to
mind your honourable Lordship, who both in regard of my particular
obligation, and also in respect of the subiect and matter, might iustly
chalenge the Patronage thereof. For first I remembered how much I was
bound, and how deeply indebted for my yongest brother Edmund Hackluyt, to
whom for the space of foure whole yeares your Lordship committed the
gouernment and instruction of that honorable yong noble man, your sonne &
heire apparant, the lord William Howard, of whose high spirit and wonderful
towardlinesse full many a time hath he boasted vnto me. Secondly, the
bounden duetie which I owe to your most deare sister the lady Sheffield, my
singular good lady & honorable, mistresse, admonished me to be mindfull of
the renoumed familie of the Howards. Thirdly, when I found in the first
Patent graunted by Queene Marie to the Moscouie companie, that my lord your
father being then lord high Admirall of England was one of the first
fauourers and furtherers, with his purse and countenance, of the strange
and wonderfull Discouerie of Russia, the chiefe contents of this present
Volume, then I remembred the sage saying of sweet Isocrates, That sonnes
ought not onely to be inheritors of their fathers substance but also of
their commendable vertues and honours. But what speake I of your ancestors
honors (which to say the trueth are very great, and such as our Cronicles
haue notably blazoned) when as your owne Heroicall actions from time to
time haue shewed themselues so admirable, as no antiquitie hath affoorded
greater, and the future times will not in haste (I thinke) performe the
like. To come to some particulars when the Emperors sister the spouse of
Spaine, with a Fleete of an 130. sailes, stoutly and proudly passed the
narow Seas, your Lordship accompanied with ten ships onely of her Maiesties
Name Roiall, enuironed their Fleet in most strange and warrelike sort,
enforced them to stoope gallant, and to vaile their bonets for the Queene
of England, and made them perfectly to vnderstand that olde speach of the
prince of Poets:

Non illi imperium pelagi sŠu˙mmque tridentem,
sed tibi sorte datum.

[Footnote: Virgil, Ăneid I _Translation_ "Not to him is given by fate the
empire of the ocean and the potent trident, but to thee."]

Yet after they had acknowledged their dutie, your lordship on her Maiesties
behalfe conducted her safely through our English chanell, and performed all
good offices of honor and humanitie to that forren Princesse. At that time
all England beholding your most honorable cariage of your selfe in that so
weightie seruice, began to cast an extraordinarie eie vpon your lordship,
and deeply to conceiue that singular hope which since by your most worthie
& wonderfull seruice, your L. hath more then fully satisfied. I meane
(among others) that glorious triumphant, and thrise-happy victory atchieued
against that huge and haultie Spanish Armada (which is notably described in
the ende of this volume) wherein being chiefe and sole Commander vnder her
sacred and roiall Maiestie, your noble gouernment and worthy behauior, your
high wisedom, discretion and happinesse, accompanied with the heauenly
blessing of the Almightie, are shewed most euidently to haue bene such as
all posteritie and succeeding ages shall neuer cease to sing and resound
your infinite prayse and eternall commendations. As for the late renoumed
expedition and honorable voyage vnto Cadiz, the vanquishing of part of the
king of Spaines Armada, the destruction of the rich West Indian Fleete, the
chasing of so many braue and gallant Gallics, the miraculous winning,
sacking, and burning of that almost impregnable citie of Cadiz, the
surprising of the towne of Faraon vpon the coast of Portugal, and other
rare appendances of that enterprise, because they be hereafter so
iudicially set downe, by a very graue and learned Gentleman, which was an
eye witnesse in all that action, I referre your good L. to his faithfull
report, wherein I trust (as much as in him lay) he hath wittingly depriued
no man of his right. Vpon these and other the like considerations, I
thought it fit and very conuenient to commend with all humilitie and
reuerence this first part of our English Voiages & Discoueries vnto your
Honors fauourable censure and patronage.

And here by the way most humbly crauing pardon, and alwayes submitting my
poore opinion to your Lordships most deep and percing insight, especially
in this matter, as being the father and principall fauourer of the English
Nauigation, I trust it shall not be impertinent in passing by, to point at
the meanes of breeding vp of skilfull Sea-men and Mariners in this Realms.
Sithence your Lordship is not ignorant, that ships are to litle purpose
without skilfull Sea-men; and since Sea-men are not bred vp to perfection
of skill in much lesse time (as it is said) then in the time of two
prentiships; and since no kinde of men of any profession in the common
wealth passe their yeres in so great and continuall hazard of life; and
since of so many, so few grow to gray heires: how needfull it is, that by
way of Lectures and such like instructions, these ought to haue a better
education, then hitherto they haue had; all wise men may easily iudge. When
I call to minde, how many noble ships haue been lost, how many worthy
persons haue bene drenched in the sea, and how greatly this Realme hath
bene impouerished by losse of great Ordinance and other rich commodities
through the ignorance of our Sea-men, I haue greatly wished there were a
Lecture of Nauigation read in this Citie, for the banishing of our former
grosse ignorance in Marine causes, and for the increase and generall
multiplying of the sea-knowledge in this age, wherein God hath raised so
generall a desire in the youth of this Realme to discouer all parts of the
face of the earth, to this Realme in former ages not knowen. And, that it
may appeare that this is no vaine fancie nor deuise of mine, it may please
your Lordship to vnderstand, that the late Emperour Charles the fift,
considering the rawnesse of his Sea-men, and the manifolde shipwracks which
they susteyned in passing and repassing betweene Spaine and the West
Indies, with an high reach and great foresight, established not onely a
Pilote Maior, for the examination of such as sought to take charge of ships
in that voyage, but also founded a notable Lecture of the Art of
Nauigation, which is read to this day in the Contractation house at Siuil.
The readers of which Lecture haue not only carefully taught and instructed
the Spanish Mariners by word of mouth, but also haue published sundry exact
and worthy treatises concerning Marine causes, for the direction and
incouragement of posteritie. The learned works of three of which readers,
namely of Alonso de Chauez, of Hieronymo de Chauez, and of Roderigo
Zamorano came long ago very happily to my hands, together with the straight
and seuere examining of all such Masters as desire to take charge for the
West Indies. Which when I first read and duely considered, it seemed to mee
so excellent and so exact a course as I greatly wished, that I might be so
happy as to see the like order established here with vs. This matter, as it
seemeth, tooke no light impression in the royall brest of that most
renowmed and victorious prince King Henry the eight of famous memory, who
for the increase of knowledge in his Seamen, with princely liberalitie
erected three seuerall Guilds or brotherhoods, the one at Deptford here
vpon the Thames, the other at Kingston vpon Hull, and the third at
Newcastle vpon Tine: which last was established in the 28. yeere of his
reigne. The chiefe motiues which induced his princely wisedome hereunto
himselfe expresseth in maner following: Vt magistri, marinarij,
gubernatores, & alij officiarij nauium, iuuentutem suam in exercitatione
gubernationis nauium transigentes, mutilati aut aliquo alio casu in
paupertatem collapsi, aliquod releuamen ad eorum sustentationem habeant,
quo non sol¨m illi reficiantur, ver¨m etiam alij iuuenes moueantur &
instigentur ad eandem artem exercendam, ratione cuius, doctiores & aptiores
fiant nauibus & alijs vasis nostris & aliorum quorumc˙nque in Mare
gubernandis & manutenendis, tam pacis, quÓm belli tempore, c¨m opus
postulet, etc. [Footnote: _Translation_ "That masters, mariners pilots, and
other officers of ships, who have passed their youth in the profession of
navigating vessels, being mutilated, or reduced to poverty through any
other cause, might have some means of subsistence, by which not only they
may be made comfortable but by which other youths may be induced and led to
the exercise of the same profession, through which they may become more apt
to and skilful in the pilotage and management at sea of ships and vessels
in times of peace or war, as is neccssary," etc.] To descend a little
lower, king Edward the sixth, that prince of peerelesse hope, with the
aduice of his sage and prudent Counsaile, before he entered into the
Northeasterne discouery, aduanced the worthy and excellent Sebastian Cabota
to be grand Pilot of England, allowing him a most bountifull pension of
166. li. vj. s. viij. d. by the yeere during his life as appeareth in his
Letters Patents which are to be seene in the third part of my worke. And if
God had granted him longer life, I doubt not but as he dealt most royally
in establishing that office of Pilote Maior (which not long after to the
great hinderance of this Common wealth was miserably turned to other
priuate vses) so his princely Maiestie would haue shewed himselfe no nigard
in erecting, in imitation of Spaine, the like profitable Lecture of the Art
of Nauigation. And surely when I considered of late the memorable bountie
of sir Thomas Gresham, [Footnote: He was the son of Sir Richard Gresham,
merchant and Lord Mayor of London, and was born in 1519. Educated at
Cambridge, he was placed under his uncle, Sir John Gresham, and enrolled a
member of the Mercers Company. His father had been the king's agent at
Antwerp, and the person who succeeded him, having mismanaged the royal
affairs, Sir Thomas was sent over in 1552. to retrieve them. This he was
most successful in doing. Elizabeth removed him from his office, but soon
restored and knighted him. He planned and erected the Royal Exchange in
London, in imitation of that of Antwerp, and the queen opened it in person
in 1570. Having built a mansion in Bishopsgate Street, he directed by his
will that it should be converted into habitations and lecture rooms for
seven professors or lecturers on the seven liberal sciences, and their
salaries to be paid out of the revenues of the Royal Exchange. These and
other benefactions procured for him the name of the "Royal Merchant." He
died in 1579. Gresham College has since been converted into the General
Excise Office, and the lectures have been given in a room over the
Exchange.] who being but a Merchant hath founded so many chargeable
Lectures, and some of them also which are Mathematicall, tending to the
aduancement of Marine causes; I nothing doubted of your Lordships
forwardnes in settling and establishing of this Lecture: but rather when
your Lordship shall see the noble and rare effects thereof, you will be
heartily sory that all this while it hath not bene erected. As therefore
our skill in Nauigation hath hitherto bene very much bettered and increased
vnder the Admiraltie of your Lordship; so if this one thing be added
thereunto, together with seuere and straight discipline, I doubt not but
with Gods good blessing it will shortly grow to the hiest pitch and top of
all perfection: which whensoeuer it shall come to passe, I assure my selfe
it will turne to the infinite wealth and honour of our Countrey, to the
prosperous and speedy discouerie of many rich lands and territories of
heathens and gentiles as yet vnknowen, to the honest employment of many
thousands of our idle people, to the great comfort and reioycing of our
friends, to the terror, daunting and confusion of our foes. To ende this
matter, let me now I beseech you speake vnto your Lordship, as in times
past the elder Scipio spake to Cornelius Scipio Africanus: Qu˛ sis,
Africane, alacrior ad tutandam Rempublicam, sic habeto: Omnibus, qui
patriam conseruauerint, adiuuerint, auxerint, certum esse in coelo, ac
definitum locum, vbi beati Šuo sempiterno fruantur. It remaineth therefore,
that as your Lordship from time to time vnder her most gracious and
excellent Maiestie, haue shewed your selfe a valiant protectour, a carefull
conseruer, and an happy enlarger of the honour and reputation of your
Countrey; so at length you may enioy those celestial blessings, which are
prepared to such as tread your steps, and seeke to aspire to such diuine
and heroical vertues. And euen here I surcease, wishing all temporal and
spirituall blessings of the life present and that which is to come to be
powred out in most ample measure, not onely vpon your honourable Lordship,
the noble and vertuous Lady your bedfellow, and those two rare iewels, your
generous off-springs, but also vpon all the rest wheresoeuer of that your
noble and renowmed family. From London the 7. day of this present October

Your honours most humble alwayes to be commanded:

Richard Hakluyt Preacher.


A preface to the Reader as touching the principall Voyages
and discourses in this first part.

Hauing for the benefit and honour of my Countrey zealously bestowed so many
yeres, so much trauaile and cost, to bring Antiquities smothered and buried
in darke silence, to light, and to preserue certaine memorable exploits of
late yeres by our English nation atchieued, from the greedy and deuouring
lawes of obliuion: to gather likewise, and as it were to incorporate into
one body the torne and scattered limmes of our ancient and late Nauigations
by Sea, our voyages by land, and traffiques of merchandise by both: and
hauing (so much as in me lieth) restored ech particular member, being
before displaced, to their true ioynts and ligaments; I meane, by the helpe
of Geographie and Chronologie (which I may call the Sunne and the Moone,
the right eye and the left of all history) referred ech particular relation
to the due time and place: I do this second time (friendly Reader, if not
to satisfie, yet at least for the present to allay and hold in suspense
thine expectation) presume to offer vnto thy view this first part of my
threefold discourse. For the bringing of which into this homely and
rough-hewen shape, which here thou seest; what restlesse nights, what
painefull dayes, what heat, what cold I haue indured; how many long &
chargeable iourneys I haue trauailed; how many famous libraries I haue
searched into; what varietie of ancient and moderne writers I haue perused;
what a number of old records, patents, priuleges, letters, &c. I haue
redeemed from obscuritie and perishing; into how manifold acquaintance I
haue entered; what expenses I haue not spared; and yet what faire
opportunities of priuate game, preferment, and ease I haue neglected;
albeit thyselfe canst hardly imagine, yet I by daily experience do finde &
feele, and some of my entier friends can sufficiently testifie. Howbeit (as
I told thee at the first) the honour and benefit of this common weale
wherein I liue and breathe, hath made all difficulties seeme easie, all
paines and industrie pleasant and all expenses of light value and moment
vnto me.

For (to conteine myselfe onely within the bounds of this present discourse
and in the midst thereof to begin) wil it not in all posteritie be as great
a renowme vnto our English nation to haue bene the first discouerers of a
Sea beyond the North cape (neuer certainly knowen before) and of a
conuenient passage into the huge Empire of Russia by the bay of S. Nicholas
and the riuer of Duina; as for the Portugales to haue found a Sea beyond
the Cape of Buona Esperanza, and so consequently a passage by Sea into the
East Indies; or for the Italians and Spaniards to haue discouered vnknowen
landes so many hundred leagues Westward and Southwestward of the streits of
Gibraltar, & of the pillers of Hercules? Be it granted that the renowmed
Portugale Vasques de Gama trauersed the maine Ocean Southward of Africke:
Did not Richard Chanceler and his mates performe the like Northward of
Europe? Suppose that Columbus that noble and high-spinted Genuois escried
vnknowen landes to the Westward of Europe and Africke: Did not the valiant
English knight sir Hugh Willoughby; did not the famous Pilots Stephen
Burrough, Arthur Pet, and Charles Iackman accoast Noua Zembia, Colgoieue,
and Vaigatz to the North of Europe and Asia? Howbeit you will say perhaps,
not with the like golden successe, not with such deductions of Colonies,
nor attaining of conquests. True it is that our successe hath not bene
correspondent vnto theirs: yet in this our attempt the vncertaintie of
finding was farre greater, and the difficultie and danger of searching was
no whit lesse. For hath not Herodotus (a man for his time, most skilfull
and iudicial in Cosmographie, who writ aboue 2000. yeeres ago) in his 4.
booke called Melpomene, signified vnto the Portugales in plaine termes;
that Africa, except the small Isthmus between the Arabian gulfe and the
Mediterran sea, was on all sides enuironed with the Ocean? And for the
further confirmation thereof, doth he not make mention of one Neco an
Ăgyptian King, who (for trials sake) sent a fleet of Phoenicians downe the
Red sea, who setting forth in Autumne and sailing Southward till they had
the Sunne at noonetide vpon their sterbourd (that is to say hauing crossed
the Ăquinoctial and the Southerne tropique) after a long Nauigation
directed their course to the North and in the space of 3. years enuironed
all Africk, passing home through the Gaditan strait and arriuing in Ăgypt.
And doth not [Footnote: Lib. 2. nat. hist. cap. 67.] Plinie tell them that
noble Hanno in the flourishing time and estate of Carthage sailed from
Gades in Spaine to the coast of Arabia foelix, and put down his whole
iournall in writing? Doth he not make mention that in the time of Augustus
CŠsar the wracke of certaine Spanish ships was found floating in the
Arabian gulfe? And, not to be ouer tedious in alleaging of testimonies,
doth not Strabo in the 2. booke of his Geography, together with Cornelius
Nepos and Plinie in the place beforenamed, agree all in one, that one
Eudoxus fleeing from King Lathyrus, and sailing downe the Arabian bay,
sailed along, doubled the Southern point of Africk, and at length arriued
at Gades? And what should I speake of the Spaniards? Was not diuine
[Footnote: In TimŠo] Plato (who liued so many ages ago and plainely
described their West Indies vnder the name of Atlantis) was not he (I say)
instead of a Cosmographer vnto them? Were not those Carthaginians mentioned
by Aristotle lib. [Footnote: [Greek: peri thaumasion akousmaton]] de
admirabil. auscult. their forerunners? And had they not Columbus to stirre
them vp and pricke them forward vnto their Westerne discoueries; yea to be
their chiefe loads man and Pilot? Sithens therefore these two worthy
Nations had those bright lampes of learning (I meane the most ancient and
best Philosophers, Historiographers and Geographers) to shewe them light;
and the load starre of experience (to wit those great exploits and voyages
layed vp in store and recorded) whereby to shape their course: what great
attempt might they not presume to vndertake? But alas our English nation,
at the first setting foorth for their Northeasterne discouery, were either
altogether destitute of such cleare lights and inducements or if they had
any inkling at all it was as misty as they found the Northren seas, and so
obscure and ambiguous, that it was meet rather to deterre them then to giue
them encouragement.

But besides the foresaid vncertaintie into what dangers and difficulties
they plunged themselues, Animus meminisse horret, I tremble to recount. For
first they were to expose themselues vnto the rigour of the sterne and
vncouth Northren seas, and to make triall of the swelling waues and
boistrous winds which there commonly do surge and blow: then were they to
saile by the ragged and perilous coast of Norway, to frequent the vnhaunted
shoares of Finmark, to double the dreadfull and misty North cape, to beare
with Willoughbres land, to run along within kenning of the Countreys of
Lapland and Corelia, and as it were to open and vnlocke the seuen-fold
mouth of Duina. Moreouer, in their Northeasterly Nauigations, vpon the seas
and by the coasts of Condora, Colgoieue, Petzora, Ioughoria, Samoedia, Noua
Zembla, &c. and their passing and returne through the streits of Vaigats,
vnto what drifts of snow and mountaines of yce euen in Iune, Iuly, and
August, vnto what hideous ouerfals, vncertaine currents, darke mistes and
fogs, and diuers other fearefull inconueniences they were subiect and in
danger of, I wish you rather to learne out of the voyages of sir Hugh
Willoughbie, Stephen Burrough, Arthur Pet and the rest, then to expect in
this place an endlesse catalogue thereof. And here by the way I cannot but
highly commend the great industry and magnanimity of the Hollanders, who
within these few yeeres haue discouered to 78. yea (as themselues affirme)
to 81. degrees of Northerly latitude [Footnote: This is wrong. The
Austro-Hungarian Expedition of 1872-1874 only reached 81░ in Franz Josef
Land. Barentz certainly neuer penetrated beyond 77░ or 78░] yet with this
prouiso; that our English nation led them the dance, brake the yce before
them, and gaue them good leaue to light their candle at our torch
[Footnote: This refers to the expeditions of Willoughby (1553), Frobisher
(1576-7), Pett, Jackman (1580), and Davis (1585)]. But nowe it is high time
for vs to weigh our ancre, to hoise vp our sailes, to get cleare of these
boistrous, frosty, and misty seas, and with all speede to direct our course
for the milde, lightsome, temperate, and warme Atlantick Ocean, ouer which
the Spaniards and Portugales haue made so many pleasant prosperous and
golden voyages. And albeit I cannot deny, that both of them in their East
and West Indian Nauigations haue indured many tempests, dangers, and
shipwracks: yet this dare I boldly affirme; first that a great number of
them haue satisfied their fame-thirsty and gold-thirsty mindes with that
reputation and wealth, which made all perils and misaduentures seeme
tolerable vnto them, and secondly, that their first attempts (which in this
comparison I doe onely stand vpon) were no whit more difficult and
dangerous, then ours to the Northeast. For admit that the way was much
longer, yet was it neuer barred with ice, mist, or darknes, but was at all
seasons of the yeere open and Nauigable; yea and that for the most part
with fortunate and fit gales of winde. Moreouer they had no forren prince
to intercept or molest them, but their owne Townes, Islands and maine lands
to succour them. The Spaniards had the Canary Isles: and so had the
Portugales the Isles of the Acores of Porto santo, of Madera, of Cape verd,
the castle of Mina, the fruitfull and profitable Isle of S. Thomas, being
all of them conueniently situated, and well fraught with commodities. And
had they not continuall and yerely trade in some one part or other of
Africa, for getting of slaues, for sugar, for Elephants teeth, graines,
siluer, gold and other precious wares, which serued as allurements to draw
them on by little and little, and as proppes to stay them from giuing ouer
their attempts? But nowe let vs leaue them and returne home vnto ourselues.

In this first volume (Friendly Reader) besides our Northeasterne
Discoueries by sea, and the memorable voyage of M. Christopher Hodson, and
M. William Burrough, Anno 1570. to the Narue, wherein with merchants ships
onely, they tooke fiue strong and warrelike ships of the Freebooters, which
lay within the sound of Denmark of purpose to intercept our English Fleete:
besides 1 all these (I say) thou maiest find here recorded, to the lasting
honor of our nation, all their long and dangerous voyages for the
aduauncing of traffique by riuer and by land to all parts of the huge and
wide Empire of Russia: as namely Richard Chanceler his first fortunate
arriuall at Newnox, his passing vp the riuer of Dwina to the citie of
Vologda for the space of 1100. versts, and from thence to Yaruslaue,
Rostoue, Peraslaue, and so to the famous citie of Mosco, being 1500. versts
trauell in all. Moreouer, here thou hast his voiage penned by himselfe
(which I hold to be very authentical, & for the which I do acknowledge my
selfe beholding vnto the excellent Librarie of the right honorable my lord
Lumley) wherein he describeth in part the state of Russia, the maners of
the people and their religion, the magnificence of the Court, the maiestie,
power, and riches of the Emperour, and the gracious entertainment of
himselfe. But if he being the first man, and not hauing so perfect
intelligence as they that came after him, doeth not fullie satisfie your
expectation in describing the foresayd countrey and people; I then referre
you to Clement Adams his relation next following, to M. Ienkinsons
discourse as touching that argument to the smooth verses of M. George
Turberuile, and to a learned and excellent discourse set downe pag. 536. of
this volume, [Footnote: Refers to _original_ edition.] and the pages
following. Vnto all which (if you please) you may adde Richard Iohnsons
strange report of the Samoeds pag. 316. But to returne to our voyages
performed within the bounds of Russia, I suppose (among the rest) that
difficult iourney of Southam and Sparke, from Colmogro and S. Nicholas
Baie, vp the great riuer of Onega, and so by other riuers and lakes to the
citie of Nouogrod velica vpon the West frontier of Russia, to be right
woorthy of obseruation; as likewise that of Thomas Alcock from Mosco to
Smolensko, and thence to Tirwill in Polonia, pag. 339. & that also of M.
Hierome Horsey from Mosco to Vobsko, and so through Liefland to Riga,
thence by the chiefe townes of Prussia and Pomerland to Rostok, and so to
Hamburg, Breme, Emden, &c. Neither hath our nation bene contented onely
throughly to search into all parts of the Inland, and view the Northren,
Southerne, and Westerne frontiers, but also by the rulers of Moscua, Occa
and Volga, to visite Cazan and Astracan, the farthest Easterne and
Southeasterne bounds of that huge Empire. And yet not containing themselues
within all that maine circumference they haue aduentured their persons,
shippes, and goods, homewards and outwards, foureteene times ouer the
vnknowen and dangerous Caspian sea; that valiant, wise, and personable
gentleman M. Anthonie Ienkinson being their first ring-leader: who in Anno
1558. sailing from Astracan towards the East shore of the Caspian sea, and
there arriuing at the port of Mangusla, trauelled thence by Vrgence and
Shelisur, and by the riuers of Oxus and Ardok, 40. dayes iourney ouer
desert and wast countreys, to Boghar a principall citie of Bactria, being
there & by the way friendly entertained, dismissed, and safely conducted by
certaine Tartarian kings and Murses. Then haue you a second Nauigation of
his performance to the South shore of the foresayd Caspian sea, together
with his landing at Derbent, his arriuall at Shabran, his proceeding vnto
Shamaky, the great curtesie vouchsafed on him by Obdolowcan king of Hircan,
his iourney after of 30. dayes Southward, by Yauate, Ardouil, and other
townes and cities to Casben, being as then the seate imperiall of Shaugh
Thamas the great Sophy of Persia, with diuers other notable accidents in
his going foorth, in his abode there, and in his returne home. Immediately
after you haue set downe in fiue seuerall voiages the successe of M.
Ienkinsons laudable and well-begun enterprise, vnder the foresayd Shaugh
Thamas, vnder Shally Murzey the new king of Hircan, and lastly our
traffique with Osman Basha the great Turkes lieutenant at Derbent.
Moreouer, as in M. Ienkinsons trauel to Boghar the Tartars, with their
territories, habitations, maner of liuing, apparell, food, armour, &c. are
most liuely represented vnto you: so likewise in the sixe Persian Iournals
you may here and there obserue the state of that countrey, of the great
Shaugh and of his subiects, together with their religion, lawes, customes,
& maner of gouernment, their coines, weights and measures, the distances of
places, the temperature of the climate and region, and the natural
commodities and discommodities of the same.

Furthermore in this first Volume, all the Ambassages and Negociations from
her Maiestie to the Russian Emperor, or from him vnto her Maiestie, seemed
by good right to chalenge their due places of Record. As namely, first that
of M. Randolph, 1568. then the emploiment of M. Ienkinson 1571. thirdly,
Sir Ierome Bowes his honorable commission and ambassage 1582. and last of
all the Ambassage of M. Doct. Fletcher 1588. Neither do we forget the
Emperours first Ambassador Osep Napea, his arriuall in Scotland, his most
honourable entertainment and abode in England, and his dismission into
Russeland. In the second place we doe make mention of Stephen Tuerdico, and
Pheodata Pogorella; thirdly, of Andrea Sauin; and lastly, of Pheodor
Andrewich Phisemski. And to be briefe, I haue not omitted the Commissions,
Letters, Priuileges, Instructions, Obseruations, or any other Particulars
which might serue both in this age, and with all posteritie, either for
presidents in such like princely and weightie actions to bee imitated, or
as woorthy monuments in no wise to bee buried in silence. Finally that
nothing should be wanting which might adde any grace or shew of perfection
vnto this discourse of Russia; I haue prefixed before the beginning
thereof, the petigree and genealogie of the Russian Emperors and Dukes,
gathered out of their owne Chronicles by a Polonian, containing in briefe
many notable antiquities and much knowledge of those partes as likewise
about the conclusion, I haue signified in the branch of a letter the last
Emperour Pheodor Iuanowich his death, and the inauguration of Boris
Pheodorowich vnto the Empire.

But that no man should imagine that our forren trades of merchandise haue
bene comprised within some few yeeres or at least wise haue not bene of any
long continuance, let vs now withdraw our selues from our affaires in
Russia, and ascending somewhat higher, let vs take a sleight suruey of our
traffiques and negotiations in former ages. First therefore the reader may
haue recourse vnto the 137 page [Footnote: This refers to the original
edition] of this Volume & there with great delight and admiration, consider
out of the iudicial Historiographer Cornelius Tacitus, that the Citie of
London fifteene hundred yeeres agoe in the time of Nero the Emperour was
most famous for multitude of merchants and concourse of people. In the
pages folowing he may learne out of Venerable Beda, that almost 900. yeeres
past, in the time of the Saxons, the said citie of London was multorum
emporium populorum, a Mart towne for many nations. There he may behold, out
of William of Malmesburie, a league concluded betweene the most renowned
and victorious Germane Emperour Carolus Magnus, and the Saxon king Offa,
together with the sayd Charles his patronage and protection granted vnto
all English merchants which in those dayes frequented his dominions. There
may hee plainly see in an auncient testimonie translated out of the Saxon
tongue, how our merchants were often woont for traffiques sake, so many
hundred yeeres since, to crosse the wide Seas and how their industry in so
doing was recompensed. Yea, there mayest thou obserue (friendly Reader)
what priuileges the Danish king Canutus obtained at Rome of Pope Iohn of
Conradus the Emperour, and of king Rudolphus for our English merchants
Aduenturers of those times. Then if you shall thinke good to descend vnto
the times and ages succeeding the conquest, there may you partly see what
our state of merchandise was in the time of king Stephen and of his
predecessor, and how the Citie of Bristol (which may seeme somewhat
strange) was then greatly resorted vnto with ships from Norway and from
Ireland. There may you see the friendly league betweene king Henry the
second, and the famous Germane Emperour Friderick Barbarossa, and the
gracious authorizing of both their merchats to traffique in either of their
dominions. And what need I to put you in mind of king Iohn his fauourable
safe conduct, whereby all forren merchants were to haue the same priuileges
here in England, which our English merchants enioied abroad in their
seuerall countreys. Or what should I signifie vnto you the entercourse of
league and of other curtesies betweene king Henry the third, and Haquinus
king of Norway; and likewise of the free trade of merchandise between their
subiects: or tell you what fauours the citizens of Colen, of Lubek, and of
all the Hansetownes obtained of king Edward the first; or to what high
endes and purposes the generall, large, and stately Charter concerning all
outlandish merchants whatsoeuer was by the same prince most graciously
published? You are of your owne industry sufficiently able to conceiue of
the letters & negotiatios which passed between K. Edward the 2. & Haquinus
the Noruagian king; of our English merchants and their goods detained vpon
arrest at Bergen in Norway; and also of the first ordination of a Staple,
or of one onely setled Mart towne for the vttering of English woolls &
woollen fells instituted by the sayd K. Edward last before named. All which
(Reader) being throughly considered, I referre you then to the Ambassages,
Letters, Traffiques, and prohibition of Traffiques, concluding and
repealing of leagues, damages, reprisals, arrests, complaints,
supplications, compositions and restitutions which happened in the time of
king Richard the 2. and king Henry the 4. between the said kings and their
subiects on the one partie; and Conradus de Zolner, Conradus de Iungingen,
and Vlricus de Iungingen, three of the great masters of Prussia, and their
subiects, with the common societie of the Hans-townes on the other partie.
In all which discourse you may note very many memorable things; as namely
first the wise, discreet, and cautelous dealing of the Ambassadors and
Commissioners of both parts, then the wealth of the foresaid nations, and
their manifold and most vsuall kinds of wares vttered in those dayes, as
likewise the qualitie, burthen, and strength of their shipping, the number
of their Mariners, the maner of their combates at sea, the number and names
of the English townes which traded that way, with the particular places as
well vpon the coast of Norway, as euery where within the sound of Denmark
which they frequented; together with the inueterate malice and craftie
crueltie of the Hanse. And because the name, office, and dignitie of the
masters generall or great Masters of Prussia would otherwise haue been
vtterly darke and vnknowen to the greater part of Readers, I haue set downe
immediatly before the first Prussian ambasasage, pagina 158 [Footnote: This
means, of course, page 158 of _original_ edition.] a briefe and orderly
Catalogue of them all, containing the first originall and institution of
themselues and of their whole knightly order and brotherhood, with the
increase of reuenues and wealth which befell them afterward in Italy and
Germany and the great conquests which they atchieued vpon the infidels of
Prussia, Samogitia, Curland, Liefland, Lituania, &c. also their decay and
finall ouerthrow, partly by the reuolt of diuers Townes and Castles vnder
their iurisdiction, and partly by the meanes of their next mightie
neighbour the King of Poland.

After all these, out of 2. branches of 2. ancient statutes, is partly
shewed our trade and the successe thereof with diuers forren Nations in the
time of K. Henry the sixth.

Then followeth the true processe of English policie, I meane that excellent
and pithy treatise de politia conseruatiua maris: which I cannot to any
thing more fitly compare, then to the Emperour of Russia his palace called
the golden Castle, and described by Richard Chanceller page 264. [Footnote:
_Ibidem_.] of this volume: whereof albeit the outward apparance was
but homely and no whit correspondent to the name, yet was it within so
beautified and adorned with the Emperour his maiesticall presence, with the
honourable and great assembly of his rich-attired Peers and Senatours, with
an inualuable and huge masse of gold and siluer plate, & with other
princely magnificence; that well might the eyes of the beholders be
dazeled, and their cogitations astonished thereat. For indeed the exteriour
habit of this our English politician, to wit, the harsh and vnaffected
stile of his substantiall verses and the olde dialect of his wordes is
such; as the first may seeme to haue bene whistled of Pans oaten pipe, and
the second to haue proceeded from the mother of Euander; but take you off
his vtmost weed, and beholde the comelinesse, beautie, and riches which lie
hid within his inward sense and sentence, and you shall finde (I wisse) so
much true and sound policy, so much delightfull and pertinent history, so
many liuely descriptions of the shipping and wares in his time of all the
nations almost in Christendome, and such a subtile discouery of outlandish
merchants fraud, and of the sophistication of their wares, that needes you
must acknowledge, that more matter and substance could in no wise be
comprised in so little a roome. [Footnote: The poem here alluded to was
written between 1416 and 1438, as appears from the lines:

"For Sigismond, the great Emperour
Wich yet reigneth, when he was in this land
With King Henryy the fifth" etc.

Sigismund died in 1438, and visited England in 1416.] And notwithstanding
(as I said) his stile be vnpolished, and his phrases somewhat out of vse,
yet, so neere as the written copies would giue me leaue, I haue most
religiously without alteration obserued the same, thinking it farre more
conuenient that himselfe should speake, then that I should bee his
spokesman, and that the Readers should enioy his true verses, then mine or
any other mans fained prose.

Next after the conclusion of the last mentioned discourse, the Reader may
in some sort take a vieu of our state of merchandise vnder K. Edward the
fourth, as likewise of the establishing of an English company in the
Netherlands, and of all the discreet prouisoes, iust ordinations, &
gratious priuileges conteined in the large Charter which was granted for
the same purpose.

Now besides our voyages and trades of late yeeres to the North and
Northeast regions of the world, and our ancient traffique also to those
parts; I haue not bene vnmindefull (so farre as the histories of England
and of other Countreys would giue me direction) to place in the fore-front
of this booke those forren conquests, exploits, and trauels of our English
nation, which haue bene atchieued of old. Where in the first place (as I am
credibly informed out of Galfridas Monumetensis, and out of M. Lambert his
[Greek: Archaionomia]) I haue published vnto the world the noble actes of
Arthur and Malgo two British Kings. Then followeth in the Saxons time K.
Edwin his conquest of Man and Anglesey, and the expedition of Bertus into
Ireland. Next succeedeth Octher making relation of his doings, and
describing the North Countreys, vnto his soueraigne Lord K. Ecfrid. After
whom Wolstans Nauigation within the Sound of Denmark is mentioned, the
voyage of the yong Princes Edmund and Edward into Sweden and Hungarie is
recorded, as likewise the mariage of Harald his daughter vnto the Russian
duke Ieruslaus. Neither is that Englishman forgotten, who was forced to
traueile with the cruel Tartars into their Countrey, and from thence to
beare them company into Hungary and Poland. And because those Northeasterne
Regions beyond Volga, by reason of the huge deserts, the colde climate, and
the barbarous inciuilitie of the people there inhabiting, were neuer yet
throughly traueiled by any of our Nation, nor sufficiently knowen vnto vs:
I haue here annexed vnto the said Englishmans traueile, the rare &
memorable iournals of 2. Friers, who were some of the first Christians that
trauailed farthest that way, and brought home most particular intelligence
& knowledge of all things which they had seene. These Friers were sent as
Ambassadours vnto the sauage Tartars (who had as then wasted and ouerrunne
a great part of Asia, and had pierced farre into Europe with fire and
sword) to mitigate their fury, and to offer the glad tidings of the Gospel
vnto them. The former, namely Iohannes de Plano Carpini (whose iourney,
because he road sixe moneths poste directly beyond Boristhenes, did, I
thinke, both for length and difficultie farre surpasse that of Alexander
the great, vnto the riuer of Indus) was in the yeere 1246. sent with the
authoritie and commission of a Legate from Pope Innocentius the fourth: who
passed through more garisons of the Tartars, and wandered ouer more vast,
barren, and cold deserts, then (I suppose) an army of an hundred thousand
good souldiers could haue done. The other, to wit, William de Rubricis, was
1253. by the way of Constantinople, of the Euxin sea, and of Taurica
Chersonesus imployed in an ambassage from Lewis the French King (waging
warre as then against the Saracens in the Holy land) vnto one Sartach a
great duke of the Tartars, which Sartach sent him forthwith vnto his father
Baatu, and from Baatu he was conducted ouer many large territories vnto the
Court of Mangu-Can their Emperour. Both of them haue so well played their
parts, in declaring what befell them before they came at the Tartars, what
a terrible and vnmanerly welcomming they had at their first arriuall, what
cold intertainment they felt in traueiling towards the great Can, and what
slender cheere they found at his Court, that they seeme no lesse worthy of
praise then of pitie. But in describing of the Tartars Countrey, and of the
Regions adiacent, in setting downe the base and sillie beginnings of that
huge and ouerspreading Empire, in registring their manifolde warres and
bloody conquests, in making relation of their herds and mooueable Townes,
as likewise of their food, apparell and armour, and in setting downe their
vnmercifull lawes, their fond superstitions, their bestiall liues their
vicious maners, their slauish subiection to their owne superiours, and
their disdainfull and brutish inhumanitie vnto strangers, they deserue most
exceeding and high commendation. Howbeit if any man shall obiect that they
haue certaine incredible relations; I answere, first that many true things
may to the ignorant seeme incredible. But suppose there be some particulars
which hardly will be credited; yet thus much I will boldly say for the
Friers, that those particulars are but few, and that they doe not auouch
them vnder their owne names, but from the report of others. Yet farther
imagine that they did auouch them, were they not to be pardoned as well as
Herodotus, Strabo, Plutarch, Plinie, Solinus, yea & a great many of our new
principall writers, whose names you may see about the end of this Preface;
euery one of which hath reported more strange things then the Friers
between the both? Nay, there is not any history in the world (the most Holy
writ excepted) whereof we are precisely bound to beleeue ech word and
syllable. Moreouer sithens these two iournals are so rare, that Mercator
and Ortelius (as their letters vnto me do testifie) were many yeeres very
inquisitiue, and could not for all that attaine vnto them; and sithens they
haue bene of so great accompt with those two famous Cosmographers, that
according to some fragments of them they haue described in their Mappes a
great part of those Northeastern Regions; sith also that these two
relations containe in some respect more exact history of those vnknowen
parts, then all the ancient and newe writers that euer I could set mine
eyes on; I thought it good if the translation should chance to swerue in
ought from the originals (both for the preseruation of the originals
themselues, and the satisfying of the Reader) to put them downe word for
word in that homely stile wherein they were first penned. And for these two
rare iewels, as likewise for many other extraordinary courtesies, I must
here acknowledge my selfe most deepely bounded vnto the right reuerend,
graue and learned Prelate, my very good lord the Bishop of Chichester, and
L. high Almner vnto her Maiestie; by whose friendship and meanes I had free
accesse vnto the right honor my L. Lumley his stately library, and was
permitted to copy out of ancient manuscripts, these two iournals and some
others also.

After these Friers (thought not in the next place) foloweth a testimonie of
Gerardus Mercator, and another of M. Dee, concerning one Nicholas de Linna
an English Franciscan Frier.

Then succeedeth the long iourney of Henry Earle of Derbie, and afterward
king of England into Prussia & Lithuania, with a briefe remembrance of his
valiant exploits against the Infidels there; as namely, that with the help
of certaine his Associates, he vanquished the king of Letto his armie, put
the sayd king to flight, tooke and slew diuers of his captains, aduanced
his English colours vpon the wall of Vilna, & made the citie it selfe to
yeeld. Then mention is made also of Tho. of Woodstock his trauel into
Pruis, and of his returne home. And lastly, our old English father Ennius,
I meane, the learned, wittie, and profound Geffrey Chaucer, vnder the
person of his knight, doeth full iudicially and like a cunning
Cosmographer, make report of the long voiages and woorthy exploits of our
English Nobles, Knights, & Gentlemen, to the Northren, and to other partes
of the world in his dayes.

Neither haue we comprehended in this Volume, onely our Trades and Voiages
both new and old; but also haue scattered here and there (as the
circumstance of times would giue vs leaue) certaine fragments concerning
the beginnings, antiquities, and grouth of the classical and warrelike
shipping of this Island: as namely, first of the great nauie of that
victorious Saxon prince king Edgar, mentioned by Florentius Wigorniensis,
Roger Houeden, Rainulph of Chester, Matthew of Westminster, Flores
historiarum, & in the libel of English policie, pag. 224. and 225. of this
present volume. [Footnote: _Original_ edition.] Of which Authors some
affirme the sayd fleet to haue consisted of 4800. others of 4000. some
others of 3600. ships: howbeit (if I may presume to gloze vpon the text) I
verily thinke that they were not comparable, either for burthen, strength,
building, or nimble stirrage vnto the ships of later times, and specially
of this age. But howsoeuer it be, they all agree in this, that by meanes of
the sayd huge Fleet he was a most puissant prince; yea, and some of them
affirme together with William of Malmesbury, that he was not onely
soueraigne lord of all the British seas, and of the whole Ile of Britanne
it selfe, but also that he brought vnder his yoke of subiection, most of
the Isles and some of the maine lands adiacent. And for that most of our
Nauigators at this time bee (for want of trade and practise that way)
either vtterly ignorant or but meanely skilfull, in the true state of the
Seas, Shoulds and Islands, lying between the North part of Ireland and of
Scotland, I haue for their better encouragement (if any weightie action
shall hereafter chance to drawe them into those quarters) translated into
English a briefe treatise called A Chronicle of the Kings of Man. Wherein
they may behold as well the tragical and dolefull historie of those parts
for the space almost of 300. yeeres, as also the most ordinarie and
accustomed nauigations through those very seas, and amidst those
Northwesterne Isles called the Hebrides, so many hundred yeeres agoe. For
they shall there read, that euen then (when men were but rude in sea causes
in regard of the great knowledge which we now haue) first Godredus Crouan
with a whole Fleet of ships throughly haunted some places in that sea;
secondly, that one Ingemundus setting saile out of Norway, arriued vpon the
Isle of Lewis; then, that Magnus the king of Norwau came into the same seas
with 160. sailes, and hauing subdued the Orkney Isles in his way, passed on
in like conquering maner, directing his course (as it should seeme) euen
through the very midst, and on all sides of the Hebrides, who sailing
thence to Man, conquered it also, proceeding afterward as farre as
Anglesey; and lastly crossing ouer from the Isle of Man to the East part of
Ireland. Yea, there they shall read of Godredus the sonne of Olauus his
voiage to the king of Norway, of his expedition with 80. ships against
Sumerledus, of Sumerled his expedition with 53. ships against him; of
Godred his flight and second iourney into Norway, of Sumerled his second
arriuall with 160. shippes at Rhinfrin vpon the coast of Man, and of many
other such combates, assaults, & voyages which were performed onely vpon
those seas & Islands. And for the bringing of this woorthy monument to
light, we doe owe great thanks vnto the iudiciall and famous Antiquarie M
Camden. But sithens we are entred into a discourse of the ancient warrehke
shipping of this land the reader shall giue me leaue to borow one
principall note out of this litle historie, before I quite take my leaue
thereof, and that is in few words, that K. Iohn passed into Ireland with a
Fleet of 500. sailes; so great were our sea-forces euen in his time.
Neither did our shipping for the warres first begin to flourish with king
Iohn, but long before his dayes in the reign of K. Edward the Confessor, of
William the Conquerour, of William Rufus and the rest, there were diuers
men of warre which did valiant seruice at sea, and for their paines were
roially rewarded. All this and more then this you may see recorded, pag.
19. [Footnote: Of original edition.] out of the learned Gentleman M.
Lambert his Perambulation of Kent; namely, the antiquitie of the Kentish
Cinque ports, which of the sea-townes they were, how they were
infranchised, what gracious priuileges and high prerogatiues were by diuers
kings vouchsafed vpon them, and what seruices they were tied vnto in regard
thereof; to wit, how many ships, how many souldiers mariners, Garsons, and
for how many dayes each of them, and all of them were to furnish for the
kings vse; and lastly what great exploits they performed vnder the conduct
of Hubert of Burrough, as likewise against the Welshmen, vpon 200. French
ships, and vnder the commaund of captaine Henry Pay. Then haue you, pag.
130, [Footnote: Of original edition.] the franke and bountifull Charter
granted by king Edward the first, vpon the foresayd Cinque portes: & next
thereunto a Roll of the mightie fleet of seuen hundred ships which K.
Edward the third had with him vnto the siege of Caleis: out of which Roll
(before I proceed any further) let me giue you a double obseruation. First
that these ships, according to the number of the mariners which were in all
14151. persons, seeme to haue bene of great burthen; and secondly, that
Yarmouth an hauen towne in Northfolke (which I much wonder at) set foorth
almost twise as many ships and mariners, as either the king did at his owne
costs and charges, or as any one citie or towne in England besides. Howbeit
Tho. Walsingham maketh plaine and euident mention of a farre greater Fleete
of the same king; namely, of 1100. shippes lying before Sandwich, being all
of them sufficiently well furnished. Moreouer the Reader may behold, pag.
205, [Footnote: Of original edition.] a notable testimonie of the mightie
ships of that valiant prince king Henry the 5. who (when after his great
victory at Agincourt the Frenchmen to recouer Harflew had hired certain
Spanish and Italian ships and forces, & had vnited their owne strength vnto
them) sent his brother Iohn Duke of Bedford to encounter them, who bidding
them battell got the victory, taking some of their ships and, sinking
others, and putting the residue to dishonorable flight. Likewise comming
the next yeere with stronger powers, and being then also ouercome, they
were glad to conclude a perpetuall league with K. Henry: & propter eorum
naues (saieth mine Author) that is for the resistance of their ships, the
sayd king caused such huge ships to be built, quales non erant in mundo, as
the like were not to be found in the whole world besides.

But to leaue our ancient shipping, and descend vnto later times, I thinke
that neuer was any nation blessed of IEHOVAH, with a more glorious and
wonderfull victory vpon the Seas, then our vanquishing of the dreadfull
Spanish Armada, 1588. But why should I presume to call it our vanquishing;
when as the greatest part of them escaped vs, and were onely by Gods
out-stretched arme ouerwhelmed in the Seas, dashed in pieces against the
Rockes, and made fearefull spectacles and examples of his iudgements vnto
all Christendome. An excellent discourse whereof, as likewise of the
honourable expedition vnder two of the most noble and valiant peeres of
this Realme, I meane the renoumed Erle of Essex, and the right honorable
the lord Charles Howard, lord high Admirall of England, made 1596. vnto the
strong citie of Cadiz, I haue set downe as a double epiphonema to conclude
this my first volume withall. Both of which, albeit they ought of right to
haue bene placed among the Southerne voyages of our nation, yet partly to
satisfie the importunitie of some of my special friends, and partly, not
longer to depriue the diligent Reader of two such woorthy and long expected
discourses, I haue made bold to straine a litle curtesie with that methode
which I first propounded vnto my selfe.

And here had I almost forgotten to put the Reader in mind of that learned
and Philosophical treatise of the true state of Iseland, and so
consequently of the Northren Seas & regions lying that way, wherein a great
number of none of the meanest Historiographers and Cosmographers of later
times, as namely, Munster, Gemma Frisius, Zieglerus, Krantzius, Saxo
Grammaticus, Olaus Magnus, Peucerus and others, are by euident arguments
conuinced of manifold errors, that is to say, as touching the true
situation and Northerly latitude of that Island, and of the distance
thereof from other places, touching the length of dayes in Sommer and of
nights in Winter, of the temperature of the land and sea, of the time and
maner of the congealing, continuance, and thawing of the Ice in those Seas,
of the first Discouerie and inhabiting of that Island, of the first
planting of Christianitie there, as likewise of the continuall flaming of
mountains, strange qualities of fountaines, of hel-mouth, and of purgatorie
which those authors haue fondly written and imagined to be there. All which
treatise ought to be the more acceptable, first in that it hath brought
sound trueth with it, and secondly, in that it commeth from that farre
Northren climate which most men would suppose could not affoord any one so
learned a Patrone for it selfe.

And thus (friendly Reader) thou seest the briefe summe and scope of all my
labours for the common-wealths sake, and thy sake, bestowed vpon this first
Volume: which if thou shall as thankefully accept, as I haue willingly and
freely imparted with thee, I shall bee the better encouraged speedily to
acquaint thee with those rare, delightfull and profitable histories, which
I purpose (God willing) to publish concerning the Southerne and Westerne
parts of the World.

* * * * *


Hygon ho Brochthonos.

Ossoi gaian echousi Brotoi henos ekpephyasi
hos allaela horan ethnesi charma physei.
Hos de thaliplagktos metekiathen ethnea pleista,
hoikoi mimnazous axiagastos ephy.
Exocha Brettanoi d', alloin schisthentes erantai,
idmenai allothroun phyla polysperea.
Indous hesperious kai eoous, Aithiopas te
kai Moschous, kai pant eschatounta genae.
Touton d' oia malista, klyta, klytos Haklyutos
graphen ariphradeos, mnaem aei essomenon.]

* * * * *

In nauales RICHARDI HAKLUYTI Commentarios.

Anglia magnarum foecunda puerpera rerum,
siue solum spectes nobile, siue salum;
QuŠ quantum sumptis se nobilitauent armis,
siue domi gessit prŠlia, siue foris;
Multorum celebrant matura volumina: tantŠ
Insula materiem paruula laudis alit.
At se in quot, qualÚsque, & quando effuderit oras,
qua fidit ignotum peruia classis iter,
Solius Hakluyti decus est, prŠdiuite penna
ostendisse suis ciuibus ausa mari
QuŠcunque idcirco celeri gens Anglica naui,
Oceani tristes spernere docta minas,
A primi generÝsque & gentis origine gessit,
qua via per fluctus vlla pattre potest,
Siue decus laudÚmque secuta, vt & hostibus alas
demeret, atque suis lŠta pararet opes:
Hoc opus Hakluyti; cui debet patria multum,
cui multum, patriŠ quisquis amicus erit
Qui re nßmque magis se nostra Britannta iactat,
quÓm quod sit prŠter cŠtera classe potens?
Quam prius obsessam tenebris sic liberat, vt nunc
quisque sciat quÓm sit nobile classis opus.
Quam si DŠdalicŔ vtemur surgemus in altum,
sin autem IcaricŔ, quod voret, Šquor habet.

Eiusdem in eundem

Qui graui primus cecinit camoena
Aureum vellus, procerÚsque GrŠcos,
quos sibi adiunxit comites Ianson
Vectus in Argo
Naue, quÓm prim¨m secuisse fluctus
prŠdicant salsos, sibi comparauit
Inde non vnquam moritura magnŠ
prŠmia famŠ
Tanta si merces calamum secuta
VnicŠ nauis referentis acta,
Quanta Rachardum manet Hakluytum
gloria? cuius
Penna descripsit freta mille, mille
InsulŠ nostrŠ celeres carinas,
QuŠ per immensi loca peruolarunt
omnia mundi
Senties gratam patriam, tuŠque
Laudis Štern¨m memorem, & laboris:
QuŠ tua cura, calamˇque totum
ibit in orbem:
Quam doces omni studio fouere
Nauticum robur, validßmque classem.
Hac luet quisquis violentus Anglo
vsserit hostis.

* * * * *

In eximium opus R. HAKLUYTI de Anglorum ad disiunctissimas regiones
nauigationibus GVLIELMI CAMDENI Hexastichon.

Anglia quŠ penit¨s toto discluditur orbe,
Angulus orbis erat, paruus & orbis erat.
Nunc c¨m sepositos alios detexent orbes,
Maximus orbis honos, Orbis & orbis erit.
At quid Haklute tibi monstranti hŠc debeat orbis?
Laus tua, crede mihi, non erit orbe minor.

* * * * *

Di Marc' Antonio Pigafeta Gentilhuomo Vicentino

Ignota mi starei, con poco honore
Sepolta nell' oscure, antiche carte,
S'alcun de figli miei con spesa & arte
Non hauesse hor scoperto il mio splendore

Ramusio pria pieno d' ardente amore
Manifesto le mie piu riche parte,
Che son lß doue il Maragnon diparte,
E doue il Negro allaga, e'l Gange scorre,
Hakluyto poi senza verun risguardo
Di fatica o di danno accolt' hÓ insieme,
Ci˛ c' hÓ potuto hauer da typhi Inglesi.
Onde vedrassie dove bella sguardo,
E la Dwina agghiaccia, e l' Obi freme,
Et altri membri miei non ben palesi.

(Article Hakluyt's Voyages.) p. 137.

Oldys (having given a list of the contents of the three volumes of Hakluyt)

This summary may sufficiently intimate what a treasury of maritime
knowledge it is, wherefore we shall here take our leave of it, with
referring only to a needful observation or two:

And first, As it has been so useful to many of our authors, not only in
Cosmography, and Navigation, but in History, especially that of the
glorious reign in which so many brave exploits were atchievcd; As it has
been such a LEADING STAR TO THE NAVAL HISTORIES since compiled; and saved
from the wreck of oblivion many exemplary incidents in the lives of our
most renowned navigators; it has therefore been unworthily omitted in the
English historical library. And lastly, though the first volume of this
collection, does frequently appear, by the date, in the title page, to be
printed in 1599, the reader is not thence to conclude the said volume was
then reprinted, but only the title page, as upon collating the books we
have observed, and further, that in the said last printed title page, there
is no mention made of the Cadiz Voyage; to omit which, might be one reason
of reprinting that page; for it being one of the most prosperous and
honourable enterprizes that ever the Earl of Essex was ingaged in, and he
falling into the Queen's unpardonable displeasure at this time, our author,
Mr. Hakluyt, might probably receive command or direction, even from one of
the patrons to whom these Voyages are dedicated, who was of the contrary
faction not only to suppress all memorial of that action in the front of
this book, but even cancel the whole narrative thereof at the end of it, in
all the copies (far the greatest part of the impression) which remained
unpublished. And in that castrated manner the volume has descended to
posterity; not but if the castration was intended to have been concealed
from us, the last leaf of the preface would have been reprinted also, with
the like omission of what is there mentioned concerning the insertion of
this Voyage. But at last, about the middle of the late King's reign, an
uncastrated copy did arise, and the said Voyage was reprinted from it,
whereby many imperfect books have been made complete.


Every reader conversant in the annals of oar Naval transactions will
cheerfully acknowledge the merit of Richard Hakluyt, who devoted his
studies to the investigation of those periods of the English history, which
regard the improvement of navigation and commerce. He had the advantage of
an academical education. He was elected Student of Christ-Church in Oxford
in 1570, and was therefore contemporary with Sidney at the University. To
him we are principally indebted for a clear and comprehensive description
of those noble discoveries of the English nation made by sea or over land
to the most distant quarter of the earth. His incomparable industry was
remunerated with every possible encouragement by Sir Francis Walsingham and
Sir Philip Sidney. To the latter, as to a most generous promoter of all
ingenious and useful knowledge, he inscribed his first collection of
voyages and discoveries, printed in 1582. Thus animated and encouraged, he
was enabled to leave to posterity the fruits of his unwearied labours--an
invaluable treasure of nautical information, preserved in volumes, which
even at this day, affix to his name a brilliancy of reputation, which a
series of ages can never efface or obscure.


Lib 9. cap. 10.

Anno Christi, 517. Arthurus, secundo regni sui anno subiugatis totius
HyberniŠ partibus, classem suam direxit in Islandiam, eßmque debellato
populo subiugauit. Exin diuulgato per cŠteraa insulas rumore, qu˛d ei nulla
Prouincia resistere poterat, Doldauius rex GotlandiŠ, & Gunfacius rex
Orcadum vltro venerunt, promissˇque vectigali subiectionem fecerunt. Emensa
deinde hyeme, reuersus est in Britanniam, stat˙mque regni in firmam pacem
renouans, moram duodecim annis ibidem fecit.

The same in English.

In the yere Of Christ, 517. king Arthur in the second yeere of his reigne,
hauing subdued all parts of Ireland, sailed with his fleet into Island, and
brought it and the people thereof vnder his subiection. The rumour
afterwards being spread thorowout all the other Islands, that no countrey
was able to withstand him, Doldamus the king of Gotland, and Gunfacius the
king of Orkney, came voluntarily vnto him, and yeelded him their obedience
promising to pay him tribute. The Winter being spent, he returned into
Britaine, and establishing his kingdome in perfect peace, he continued
there for the space of twelue yeres.

Lib 9. cap. 12.

Missis deinde in diuersa regna Legatis, inuitantur tam ex Gallijs quÓm ex
collateralibus Insulis Oceani qui ad curiam venire deberent, &c. Et paul˛
post: Ex collateralibus autem Insulis Guillaumurius rex HyberniŠ, Maluasius
rex IslandiŠ, Doldauius rex GotlandiŠ, Gunnasius rex Orchadum, Lot rex
NoruegiŠ, Aschihus rex Danorum.

The same in English.

After that king Arthur sending his messenger into diuers kingdomes, he
summoned such as were to come to his Court, as well out of France, as out
of the adiacent Islands of the sea, &c. and a little after: From those
adiacent Islands came Guillaumarius king of Ireland, Maluasius king of
Island, Doldauius king of Gotland, Gunnasius king of Orkney, Lot the king
of Norway, and Aschilius the king of Denmarke.

Lib 9. cap. 19.

At reges cŠterarum Insularam, quoniam non duxerant in morem equites habere,
pedites quot quisque debebat, promittunt, ita vt ex sex Insulis, videlicet,
HyberniŠ, IslandiŠ, GotlandiŠ, Orcadum, NoruegiŠ, atque DaciŠ, sexies
viginti millia essent annumerata.

The same in English.

But the kings of the other Islands, because it was not their custome to
breed vp horses, promised the king as many footmen, as euery man was bound
to send: so that out of the six Islands, namely of Ireland, Island,
Gotland, Orkney, Norway, and Denmarke, the king had sixe score thousand
souldiers sent him.

* * * * *

A testnnome of the right and appendances of the crowne of the kingdome of
Britaine, taken out of M. Lambard, his [Greek: Arkaionomia], fol 137.
pag. 2.

Arthurus qui fuit quondam inclytissimus Rex Britonum, vir magnus fuit &
animosus, & miles illustris. Parum fuit ei regnum istud, non fuit animus
eius contentus regno BritanniŠ. Subiugauit igitur sibi strenuŔ Scantiam
totam, quŠ modo Norweia vocatur, & omnes insulas vltra Scantiam, scz.
Islandiam, & Grenlandiam, quŠ sunt de appendicijs NorweiŠ, & Suechordam, &
Hyberniam, & Gutlandiam, & Daciam, Semelandiam, Winlandiam, Curlandiam,
Roe, Femelandiam, Wirelandiam, Flandriam, Cherelam, Lappam, & omnes alias
terras & insulas, Orientalis Oceani vsque Russiam (in Lappa scilicet posuit
Orientalem metam regni BritanniŠ) & multas insulas vltra Scantiam, vsque
dum sub Septentrione, quŠ sunt de appendicibus ScantiŠ, quŠ modo Norweia
vocatur. Fuerunt autem ibi Christiani occultŔ. Arthurus autem Christianus
optimus fuit, & fecit eos baptizari, & vnum Deum per totam Norweiam
venerari, & vnam fidem Christi semper inuiolatam custodire, & suscipere.
Ceperunt vniuersi proceres NorweiŠ vxores suas de nobili gente Britonum
tempore illo, vnde Norwegienses dicunt se exijsse de gente & sanguine regni
huius. Impetrauit enim temporibus illis Arthurus rex Ó domino Papa, & Ó
Curia Romana, quod confirmata sit Norweia, in perpetuum coronŠ BritanniŠ in
augmentum regni huius, vocauÝtque illam dictus Arthurus Cameram BritanniŠ.
Hac ver˛ de causa dicunt Norwegienses, se debere in regno isto cohabitare &
dicunt se esse de corpore regni huius, scilicet de corona BritanniŠ.
Maluerunt enim manere in regno isto, quÓm in terra eorum propria. Terra
enim eorum arida est, & montuosa, & sterilis, & non sunt ibi segetes nisi
per loca. Ista ver˛ opulenta est, & fertilis, & crescunt hic segetes, &
cŠtera vniuersa. Qua ex causa sŠpius per vices gesta sunt bella atrocissima
inter Anglos & Norwegienses, & interfecti sunt innumerabiles. Occupauerunt
ver˛ Norwegienses terras multas & insulas regni huius, quas adhuc detinent
occupatas, nec potuerunt vnquam postea penitus euelli. Tandem mod˛
confederati sunt nobis fide, & sacramento, & per vxores suas, quas postea
ceperunt de sanguine nostro, & per affinitates, & coniugia. Ita demum
constituit, & eis concessit bonus rex Edouardus propinquus noster (qui fuit
optimus filius pacis) per commune consilium totius regni. Qua de causa
possent, & debent prŠdicti de cŠtero nobiscum cohabitare, & remanere in
regno, sicut coniurati fratres nostri.

The same in English.

Arthur which was sometimes the most renowmed king of the Britains, was a
mightie, and valiant man, and a famous warriour. This kingdome was too
litle for him, & his minde was not contented with it. He therefore
valiantly subdued all Scantia, which is now called Norway, and all the
Islands beyond Norway, to wit, Island and Greenland, which are apperteining
vnto Norway, Sweueland, Ireland, Gotland, Denmarke, Someland, Windland,
Curland, Roe, Femeland, Wireland, Flanders, Cherilland, Lapland, and all
the other lands & Islands of the East sea, euen vnto Russia (in which
Lapland he placed the Easterly bounds of his Brittish Empire) and many
other Islands beyond Norway, euen vnder the North pole, which are
appendances of Scantia, now called Norway. These people were wild and
sauage, and had not in them the loue of God nor of their neighbors, because
all euil commeth from the North, yet there were among them certeine
Christians liuing in secret. But king Arthur was an exceeding good
Christian, and caused them to be baptized, and thorowout all Norway to
worship one God, and to receiue and keepe inuiolably for euer, faith in
Christ onely. At that time all the noble men of Norway tooke wiues of the
noble nation of the Britaines, whereupon the Norses say, that they are
descended of the race and blood of this kingdome. The aforesayd king Arthur
obteined also in those dayes of the Pope & court of Rome, that Norway
should be for euer annexed to the crowne of Britaine for the inlargement of
this kingdome, and he called it the chamber of Britaine. For this cause the
Norses say, that they ought to dwell with vs in this kingdome, to wit, that
they belong to the crowne of Britaine: for they had rather dwell here then
in their owne natiue countrey, which is drie and full of mountaines, and
barren, and no graine growing there, but in certeine places. But this
countrey of Britaine is fruitfull, wherein corne and all other good things
do grow and increase, for which cause many cruell battels haue bene
oftentimes fought betwixt the Englishmen and the people of Norway, and
infinite numbers of people haue bene slaine, & the Norses haue possessed
many lands and Islands of this Empire, which vnto this day they doe
possesse, neither could they euer afterwards be fully expelled. But now at
length they are incorporated with vs by the receiuing of our religion and
sacraments, and by taking wiues of our nation, and by affinitie, and
marriages. For so the good king Edward (who was a notable mainteiner of
peace) ordeined and granted vnto them by the generall consent of the whole
kingdome, so that the people may, and ought from hencefoorth dwell and
remaine in this kingdome with vs as our louing sworne brethren.

* * * * *

A testimonie out of the foresayd Galfridus Monumetensis concerning the
conquests, of Malgo, king of England. Lib. II. cap. 7.

Vortipono successit Malgo, omnium ferŔ BritanniŠ pulcherrimus, multorum
tyrannoram depulsor, robustus armis, largior cŠteris, & vltra modum
probitate prŠclarus. Hic etiam totam Insulam obtinuit, & sex
comprouinciales Oceani Insulas: Hyberniam videlicet, atque Islandiam,
Gotlandiam, Orcades, Noruegiam, Daciam, adiecit dirissimis prŠlijs
potestati suŠ.

The same in English.

Malgo succeeded Vortiponus which was the goodliest man in person of all
Britaine, a prince that expulsed many tyrants. He was strong and valiant in
warre, taller then most men that then liued, and exceeding famous for his
vertues. This king also, obteined the gouernment of the whole Island of
Britaine, and by most sharpe battailes he recouered to his Empire the sixe
Islands of the Ocean sea, which before had bene made tributaries by king
Arthur, namely Ireland, Island, Gotland, Orkney, Norway, and Denmarke.

* * * * *

The conquest of the Isles of Anglesey and Man by Edwin the Saxon king of
Northumberland written in the second Booke and fift Chapter of Beda his
Ecclesiasticall historie of the English nation.

Eduinus Nordanhumbrorum gentis, id est, eius quŠ ad borealem Humbri
fluminis plagam inhabitat, maiore potentia cunctis qui Britanniam incolunt,
Anglorum pariter & Britonum populis prŠfuit, prŠter Cantuarios tant¨m,
necn˛n & Menauias Britonum insulas, quŠ inter Hiberniam & Britanniam sitŠ
sunt, Anglorum subiecit potestati.

The same in English.

Edwin king of the people Northumberland, that is to say of them which
inhabit to the North of the riuer Humber, being of greater authontie then
any other potentate in the whole Isle of Britaine, bare rule as well ouer
the English as the British nation, except onely the people of Kent: who
also brought in subiection vnder the English, the Isles of Man and
Anglesey, and the other Northwesterne Isles of the Britons, which are
situate betweene Britaine and Ireland.

Another testimonie alledged by Beda to the same purpose. Lib 2. cap 9.

Anno ab incarnatione Domini sexcentesimo vicesimo quarto, gens
Nordanhumbrorum, hoc est, ea natio Anglorum quŠ ad aquilonarem Humbri
fluminis plagam habitat, c¨m rege suo Eduino, verbum fidei (prŠdicante
Paulino, cuius supra meminimus) suscepit: cui videlicŔt regi in auspicium
suscipiendŠ fidei, & regni coelestis potestas & terrem creuerat imperij:
ita vt (quod nemo Anglorum ante eum fecit) omnes BritanniŠ fines, qua vel
ipsorum vel Britonum ProuinciŠ habitabantur, sub ditione acceperit. Quýn &
Menauias insulas (sicut & supra docuimus) imperio subiugauit Anglorum.
Quarum prior quŠ ad austrum est, & situ amplior & frugum prouentu atque
vbertate foelicior, nongentarum sexaginta familiarum mensuram, iuxta
Šstimationem Anglorum, secunda trecentarum & vltrÓ spatium tenet.

The Same in English.

In the yeere from the incarnation of our Lord, sixe hundreth twentie and
foure, the people of Northumberland, to wit, those English people which
inhabit on the North side of the riuer of Humber, together with their king
Edwin, at the Christian preaching and perswasion of Paulinus aboue
mentioned, embraced the Gospel. Vnder which king, after he had once
accepted of the Christian faith, the power both of the heauenly & of his
earthly kingdome was inlarged; insomuch, that he (which no English king had
done before him) brought vnder his subiection all the prouinces of
Britaine, which were inhabited either by the English men themselues, or by
the Britons. Moreouer, he subdued vnto the crowne of England (as we haue
aboue signified) the Hebrides, commonly called the Westerne Islands. The
principall wherof being more commodiously and pleasantly seated towards the
South, and more abounding with corne then the rest, conteineth according to
the estimation of the English, roome enough for 960. families, and the
second for 300. and aboue.

* * * * *

The voyage of Bertus, generall of an armie sent into Ireland by Ecfridus
king of Northumberland, in the yere of our Lord 684, out of the 4. Booke
and 26. Chapter of Beda his Ecclesiasticall Hystorie.

Anno DominicŠ incarnationis sexcentesimo octogesimo quarto, Ecfridus rex
Nordanhumbrorum, misso Hiberniam c¨m excercitu duce Berto, vastauit miserŔ
gentem innoxiam, & nationi Anglorum semper amicissimam, ita vt nec
ecclesijs quidem aut monasterijs manus, parceret hostilis. At insulani &
quantum valuere armis arma repellebant, & inuocantes diuinŠ auxilum
pietatis coelitus se vindicari continuis di¨ imprecationibus postulabant.
Et quamuis maledici regnum Dei possidere non possint, creditum tamen est,
quod hi qui merito impietatis suŠ maledicebantur, ocyus Domino vindice,
poenas sui reatus luerent.

The same in English.

In the yeere of our Lord 684, Ecfrid the king of Northumberland sent
captaine Bert into Ireland with an armie, which Bert miserably wasted that
innocent nation being alwayes most friendly vnto the people of England,
insomuch that the fury of the enemy spared neither churches nor
monasteries. Howbeit the Islanders to their power repelled armes with
armes, and crauing Gods aid from heauen with continuall imprecations and
curses, they pleaded for reuenge. And albeit cursed speakers can by no
meanes inherit the kingdome of God, it was thought notwithstanding, that
they which were accursed for their impiety did not long escape the
vengeance of God imminent for their offences.

* * * * *

The voyage of Octher made to the Northeast parts beyond Norway, reported by
himselfe vnto Alfred the famous king of England, about the yere 890.

Octher said, that the countrey wherein he dwelt was called Helgoland.
Octher tolde his lord king Alfred that he dwelt furthest North of any other
Norman. [Sidenote: Fynnes live by hunting and fishing.] He sayd that he
dwelt towards the North part of the land toward the West coast: and
affirmed that the land, notwithstanding it stretcheth marueilous farre
towards the North, yet it is all desert and not inhabited, vnlesse it be
very few places, here and there, where certeine Finnes dwell vpon the
coast, who liue by hunting all the Winter, and by fishing in Summer. He
said that vpon a certeine time he fell into a fantasie and desire to prooue
and know how farre that land stretched Northward, and whether there were
any habitation of men North beyond the desert. Whereupon he tooke his
voyage directly North along the coast, hauing vpon his steereboord alwayes
the desert land, and vpon the leereboord the maine Ocean: and continued his
course for the space of 3. dayes. [Sidenote: The Place wither the whale
hunters trauel.] In which space he was come as far towards the North, as
commonly the whale hunters vse to trauell. Whence he proceeded in his
course still towards the North so farre as he was able to saile in other 3.
dayes. At the end whereof he perceiued that the coast turned towards the
East, or els the sea opened with a maine gulfe into the land, he knew not
how farre. Well he wist and remembred, that he was faine to stay till he

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