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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of The English Nation, v. 7 by Richard Hakluyt

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Denny. The 11 day in the plying to the Westwards we descried a sayle out of
our maine toppe, and in the afternoone betweene two and three of the clocke
hauing raysed her hull, the weather became calme, so that the ship could
not fetch her. I sent off my Skiffe throughly manned, furnished with shot
and swords, The Cherubin, and the Margaret and Iohn doing the like. Vpon
this the sayle stood off againe, and the night approching, our boates lost
her and so returned. In this our pursute after the sayle the Centurion
being left a sterne, the next morning wee missed her, and spent that day in
plying vp and down seeking her. And for as much as euery of the ships had
receiued order, that, if by extremity of weather or any other mischance
they should be seuered from our Fleete, they should meete and ioyne at
Flores, we, according to the instructions of Sir Edward Denny, proceeded to
the finding of my Lord Thomas Howard, being in the heigth appointed and not
able to holde the same by reason of extreme tempestes which forced vs to
the Isles of Flores and Coruo, which we made the 14 day in the morning, and
there also ioyned againe with the Centurion, whose company before we had
lost: who declared vnto vs that the 12 day, being the same day they lost
vs, they met with fiue and forty sailes of the Indian Fleete. The same
night, vpon these newes we came to an anker betweene Flores and Coruo, and
the morow following at the breake of day, a flagge of Counsell being put
out, the Captaines and Masters came abord me: where, for the desire to
vnderstand some tidings of my Lord, as also the supplying of our want of
water, it was thought good to send our boats furnished on shore, vnder the
conduct of Captaine Brothus, and then it was also ordered after our
departure thence to range along the Southsides of the Islands to the end we
might either vnderstand of my Lord, or else light on the Indian fleete; and
in the missing of our purpose to direct our course for Cape Sant Vincente.

The boates, according to the foresayd determination, being sent on shoare,
it chaunced that the Costely ryding vttermost in the roade, did weigh to
bring her selfe more neere among vs for the succour of the boates sent off,
and in opening the land discouered two sayles, which we in the roade could
not perceiue: whereupon shee gaue vs a warning piece, which caused vs to
waue off our boates backe, and before they could recouer our shippes, the
discryed ships appeared vnto vs, towardes the which we made with all haste,
and in a very happie hour, as it pleased God. [Sidenote: A violent storm.]
In that wee had not so soone cleared the lande, and spoken with one of
them, which was a Barke of Bristoll, who had also sought my Lorde in the
heigths appointed and could not finde him, but a violent storme arose, in
such manner, as if we had remained in the roade, we had beene in daunger of
perishing: and the same extremely continued during the space of threescore
houres. In which storme I was separated from our Fleete, except the
Cherubin and the Costely, which kept company with mee. And so sayling among
the Ilands, I viewed the roade of Fayal, and finding no Roaders there, went
directly for the Isle Tercera.

The nineteenth day in the morning comming vnto the same with intent to edge
into the Road, a tempest arose and scanted the winde, that we could not
sease it: from the which being driuen we fell among certaine of the Indian
Fleete, which the sayde storme dispersed, and put them from the road:
whereupon my selfe with the other two ships in companie gaue seuerall
chases, and thereby lost the company each of other.

[Sidenote: A Portugall Prize taken.] In following our chase aboue noone we
made her to strike and yeelde, being a Portugall, laden with hides,
salsa-perilla and Anile. At this very instant we espied another, and taking
our Prise with vs followed her, and somewhat before night obtayned her,
named the Conception, Francisco Spinola being Captaine, which was laden
with hides, Cochonillio, and certaine raw silke. And for that the seas were
so growen, as neither with boate nor shippe they were to bee boorded, we
kept them till fit opportunitie. [Sidenote: A rich West-Indian Prize
taken.] The same night a litle before day there happened another into our
company, supposing vs by our two prizes to be of their Fleete, which we
vntill the morning dissembled.

The 20 day in the morning, the sayle being shot somewhat a head of vs,
hauing a speciall care for the safe keeping of the two former, we purposed
to cause our Prizes to put out more sayle thereby to keep them neere in
giuing chase to the other: vnto the which the Master would not hearken nor
be perswaded, but that they would follow vs: by the which his wilfulnesse
by such time as we had caused the other to yeelde, and sent men aboord, the
Conception, Francisco Spinola Captaine being brought a sterne, and hauing
gotten the winde of vs, stood off with all her sayles bearing, so as we
were forced to make a new chase of her: and had not the winde enlarged vpon
vs we had lost her. In the pursute before we recouered her and brought our
selues againe in company of our other Prizes, the whole day was spent, and
by this meanes we lost the oportunitie of that day, the weather fitly
seruing to boord the Portugall Prize, which was in great distresse, and
made request to take them being readie to sinke, and, as we well perceiued,
they ceased not to pumpe day and night: the which ship to all our
iudgements the same night perished in the sea.

The one and twentie day the Conception, whereof Francisco Spinola was
Captaine, being also in a leake, and the same still increasing
notwithstanding the continuall pumping, in such sort as not to be kept
along aboue water, I tooke and discharged out of her two and forty chestes
of Cochonillio and silkes, and so left her with 11 foote water in holde and
her furniture and 4700 hides, vnto the seas.

The other prize which we haue brought into the harborough is named Nostra
Sennora de los remedios, whereof Francisco Aluares is Captaine, laden with
16 chests of Cochonillio, certaine fardels of raw silke, and about 4000
hides. Vpon the discharge of the goods your worships shall be particularly
aduertised thereof.

In the boording of the prizes the disorder of the company was such, as that
they letted not presently besides the rifling of the Spaniards to breake
open the chests and to purloyne such money as was in them: notwithstanding
that it was ordered at convenient leasure to haue gone on boord my selfe,
and therein the presence of three or foure witnesses to haue taken a iust
account thereof, and the same to haue put in safe keeping, according to the
effects of articles receiued in this behalfe.

And whereas there were also certaine summes of money taken from the company
which they had thus purloyned and embeseled, and the same with some other
parcels brought aboord my ship, amounting vnto 2129 pezoes and a halfe, the
company as pillage due vnto them demanded to haue the same shared, which I
refused, and openly at the maine maste read the articles firmed by my Lord
Treasurer and my Lord Admirall, whereby we ought to be directed, and that
it was not in mee any way to dispose thereof, vntill the same were finally
determined at home. Hereupon they mutinied and at last grew into such
furie, as that they would haue it or els breake downe the cabbine, which
they were also readie to put into practise, whereby I was forced to yeeld,
least the Spaniards which we had abord being many perceiuing the same,
might haue had fit opportunitie to rise against vs, which, after their
brawles were appeased, they sought to haue put into execution.

By the last aduise from Castile the Generall of the kings Armada which is
lately come to sea hath receiued commaundement to ioyne his Fleete with
those of the Indies, and for to stay altogether at Tercera vntill the 15 of
October: for that 6 pataches with 7 or 8 millions of the kings treasure
will come by that time, or els they stay their comming from Hauana vntill
Ianuary next, or the kings further pleasure therein to be knowen. These
pataches are said to be of 300 tuns the piece, and to cary 30 pieces of
brasse, and also of saile reported to haue the aduantage of any shipping.

There perished of the Indies Fleete sunke in the sea before there comming
to Flores 11 sailes, whereof the General was one, and not one man saued.
And it is by the Spaniards themselues presupposed that the stormes which we
had at Flores and at Tercera haue deuoured many more of them, whereof in
part we were eye witnesses. And so what by the seas and our men of warre I
presume that of 75 sailes that came from Hauana, halfe of them will neuer
arriue in Spaine.

The 11 day of October at night we came to anker in the sound of Plimouth,
and the next morning with our Prize came into Cattewater: for which God be
thanked: for that a vehement storme arose, and with such fury increased, as
that the Prize was forced to cut ouer her maine maste: otherwise with the
violence of the storme, her ground tackle being bad, she had driuen on
shore: which was the most cause that moued me to put in here; intending now
here to discharge the goods without further aduenture, and haue certified
thus much vnto my Lord Admirall, and therewith also desired to vnderstande
the direction of the Lords of the Counsell together with yours, insomuch as
my Lord Thomas Howard is not returned. How the rest of our consorts which
were seperated from vs by weather haue sped, or what Prizes they haue
taken, whereof there is much hope by reason of the scattering of the West
Indian Fleete, as yet we are able to say nothing. And thus expecting your
answere, and for all other matters referring me vnto the bearer Captaine
Furtho, I end. Plymouth the 24 of October 1591.

Your worships louing friend

Robert Flicke.

* * * * *

A large testimony of Iohn Huighen van Linschoten Hollander, concerning the
worthy exploits atchieued by the right honourable the Earle of
Cumberland, By Sir Martine Frobisher, Sir Richard Greenuile, and diuers
other English Captaines, about the Isles of the Acores, and vpon the
coasts of Spaine and Portugall, in the yeeres 1589, 1590, 1591, &c.
recorded in his excellent discourse of voiages to the East and West
Indies, cap. 96. 97. and 99.

The 22 of Iuly 1589 about Euening, being by the Ilands of Flores and Coruo,
we perceiued 3 ships that made towards vs, which came from vnder the land,
which put vs in great feare: for they came close by our Admirall, and shot
diuers times at him, and at another ship of our companie, whereby we
perceiued them to be Englishmen, for they bare an English flagge vpon their
maine tops, but none of them shewed to be aboue 60 tunnes in greatnes.
About Euening they followed after vs, and all night bore lanternes with
candles burning in them at their sternes, although the Moone shined. The
same night passing hard by the Island of Fayal, the next day being betweene
the Island of S. George that lay on our right hand, and the small Island
called Graciosa on our left hand, we espied the 3 English ships still
following vs that tooke counsell together, whereof one sailed backwards,
thinking that some other ship had come after vs without company, and for a
time was out of sight, but it was not long before it came again to the
other two, wherwith they tooke counsel and came all, 3 together against our
ship, because we lay in the lee of al our ships, and had the Island of S.
George on the one side in stead of a sconce, thinking to deale so with vs,
that in the end we should be constrained to run vpon the shore, whereof we
wanted not much, and in that manner with their flagges openly displayed,
came lustily towardes vs, sounding their Trumpets, and sayled at the least
three times about vs, beating vs with Musket and Caliuer, and some great
pieces, and did vs no hurt in the body of our shippe, but spoyled all our
sayles and ropes, and to conclude, wee were so plagued by them, that no man
durst put foorth his head, and when wee shot off a peece, wee had at the
least an houres worke to lade it againe, whereby we had so great a noise
and crie in the shippe, as if we had all bene cast away, whereat the
English men themselues beganne to mocke vs, and with a thousand iesting
words called vnto vs. In the meane time the other shippes hoised all their
sayles, and did the best they could to saile to the Island of Tercera, not
looking once behinde them to helpe vs, doubting they should come too late
thither, not caring for vs, but thinking themselues to haue done
sufficiently so they saued their owne stakes, whereby it may easily be
seene what company they keepe one with the other, and what order is among
them. In the ende the English men perceiuing small aduantage against vs,
(little knowing in what case and feare we were, as also because wee were
not farre from Tercera) left vs, which made vs not a litle to reioyce, as
thinking our selues to bee risen from death to life, although wee were not
well assured, neyther yet voyde of feare till we lay in the road before
Tercera, and vnder the safetie of the Portingales fort, and that we might
get thither in good time wee made all the sailes we could: on the other
side we were in great doubt, because we knew not what they did in the
Island, nor whether they were our friends or enemies, and we doubted so
much the more, because we found no men of warre nor any Caruels of aduise
from Portingal, as wee made our accounts to doe, that might conuoy vs from
thence, or giue vs aduise, as in that countrey ordinarily they vse to do:
and because the English men had bene so victorious in those parts, it made
vs suspect that it went not well with Spaine: they of the Island of Tercera
were in no lesse fear then we, for seeing our fleete, they thought vs to
bee Englishmen, and that wee came to ouerrun the Island, because the 3.
Englishmen had bound vp their flags, and came in company with vs: for the
which cause the Iland sent out two Caruels that lay there with aduise from
the king, for the Indians ships that should come thither. Those Caruels
came to view vs, and perceiuing what we were, made after vs, whereupon the
English ships left vs, and made towardes them, because the Caruels thought
them to be friends, and shunned them not, as supposing them to bee of our
company, but we shot foure or fiue times and made signes vnto them that
they should make towards the Island, which they presently did. The
Englishmen perceiuing that, did put forwards into the sea, and so the
Caruels borded vs telling vs that the men of the Island were all in armes,
as hauing receiued aduise from Portugall, that Sir Frances Drake was in
readinesse, and would come vnto those Islands. They likewise brought vs
newes of the ouerthrow of the Spanish fleet before England, and that the
English men had bene before the gates of Lisbon; wereupon the king gaue vs
commandement that we should put into the Island of Tercera, and there lie
vnder the safety of the Castle vntill we receiued further aduise what we
should do, or whether we should saile: for that they thought it too
dangerous for vs to go to Lisbon. Those newes put our fleet in great feare,
and made vs looke vpon eche other not knowing what to say, as being
dangerous for them to put into the road, because it lieth open to the sea:
so that the Indian ships, although they had expresse commandement from the
king, yet they durst not anker there, but onely vsed to come thither, and
to lie to and fro, sending their boates on land to fetch such necessaries
as they wanted, without ankering: but being by necessitie compelled
thereunto, as also by the kings commandement, and for that we vnderstood
the Erle of Cumberland not to bee farre from those Islands with certaine
ships of warre, we made necessitie a vertue, and entring the road, ankered
close vnder the Castle, staying for aduise and order from the king, to
performe our voyage, it being then the 24. of Iuly, and S. Iames day.

The day before the Erle of Cumberland with 6. or 7. ships of war, sailed by
the Island of Tercera, and to their great good fortune passed out of sight,
so that they dispatched themselues in all haste, and for the more
securitie, tooke with them 4. hundred Spaniards of those that lay in
Garrison in the Island, and with them they sayled towards Lisbon, hauing a
good wind: so that within 11 daies after they arriued in the riuer of
Lisbon with great gladnes and triumph: for if they had stayed but one day
longer before they had entred the riuer, they had all beene taken by
Captaine Drake, who with 40 ships came before Cascais at the same time that
the Indian ships cast anker in the riuer of Lisbon, being garded thither by
diuers Gallies.

While I remained in Tercera, the Erle of Cumberland came to S. Marie, to
take in fresh water, and some other victuals: but the inhabitants would not
suffer him to haue it, but wounded both himselfe and diuers of his men,
whereby they were forced to depart without hauing any thing there.

The Erle of Cumberland while I lay in Tercera, came vnto the Isle of
Graciosa, where himselfe in person, with seuen or eight in his company went
on land, asking certaine beasts, hens, and other victuals, with wine and
fresh water, which they willingly gaue him, and therewith he departed from
thence, without doing them any hurt: for the which the inhabitants thanked
him, and commended him for his courtesie, and keeping of his promise.

The same time that the Erle of Cumberland was in the Island of Graciosa, he
came likewise to Fayall, where at the first time that he came, they beganne
to resist him, but by reason of some controuersie among them, they let him
land, where he razed the Castle to the ground, and sunke all their
Ordinance in the sea, taking with him certaine Carauels and ships that lay
in the road, with prouision of all things that he wanted: and therewith
departed againe to sea. Whereupon the king caused the principall actors
therein to be punished, and sent a company of souldiers thither againe,
which went out of Tercera, with all kinde of warlike munition, and great
shot, making the fortresse vp againe, the better to defend the Island,
trusting no more in the Portugales.

The 99 Chapter.

The ninth of October 1589. there arriued in Tercera fourteene ships that
came from the Spanish Indies, laden with Cochinile, Hides, Golde, Siluer,
Pearles, and other rich wares. They were fiftie in companie, when they
departed out of the Hauen of Hauana, whereof, in their comming out of the
Channell, eleuen sunke in the same Channell by foule weather, the rest by a
storme were scattered and separated one from the other. The next day there
came another ship of the same companie, that sailed close vnder the Island,
so to get into the Roade: where she met with an English ship that had not
aboue three cast peeces, and the Spaniards 12. They fought a long time
together, which we being in the Island might stand and behold: wherevpon
the Gouernour of Tercera sent two boates of Musketiers to helpe the shippe:
but before they could come at her, the English ship had shot her vnder
water, and we saw her sinke into the Sea with all her sayles vp, and not
any thing seene of her aboue the water. The Englishmen with their boate
saued the Captaine and about thirtie others with him, but not one
penie-worth of the goods, and yet in the shippe there was at the least to
the value of two hundred thousand Duckats in Golde, Siluer and Pearles, the
rest of the men were drowned which might be about fiftie persons, among the
which were some Fryers and women, which the Englishmen would not saue.
Those that they had saued they set on land: and then they sayled away. The
seuen and twentieth of the same moneth, the sayd foureteene ships hauing
refreshed themselues in the Island departed from Tercera toward Siuill, and
comming vpon the coast of Spaine they were taken by the English ships that
lay there to watch for them, two onely excepted which escaped away, and the
rest were wholly caried into England.

About the same time the Erle of Cumberland with one of the Queenes ships,
and fiue or sixe more, kept about those Islands and came oftentimes so
close vnder the Island, and to the Road of Angra, that the people on land
might easily tell all his men that he had aboord, and knewe such as walked
on the Hatches: they of the Island not once shooting at them, although they
might easily haue done it, for they were within Musket shot both of the
towne and fort. In these places he continued for the space of two moneths,
and sayled round about the Islands, and landed in Graciosa and Fayal, as in
the description of those Islands I haue alreadie declared. Here he tooke
diuers ships and Carauels, which he sent into England: so that those of the
Island durst not once put foorth their heads. At the same time about three
or foure dayes after the Erle of Cumberland had beene in the Island of
Fayal, and was departed from thence, there arriued in the said Island of
Fayal sixe Indian shippes, whose General was one Iuan Doriues: and there
they discharged in the Iland 4 millions of golde and siluer. And hauing
with all speede refreshed their ships, fearing the comming of the
Englishmen they set sayle, and arriued safely in S. Lucar, not meeting with
the enemie, to the great good lucke of the Spaniards and hard fortune of
the Englishmen: for that within lesse then two dayes after the golde and
siluer was laden againe into the Spanish ships, the Erle of Cumberland
sayled againe by that Island: so that it appeared that God would not let
them haue it, for if they had once had sight thereof, without doubt it had
bene theirs, as the Spaniards themselues confessed.

In the moneth of Nouember there arriued in Tercera two great shippes, which
were the Admirall and Viceadmirall of the Fleete laden with siluer, who
with stormie weather were separated from the Fleete, and had beene in great
torment and distresse, and readie to sinke: for they were forced to vse all
their Pumps: so that they wished a thousand times to haue met with the
Englishmen to whom they would willingly haue giuen their siluer and all
that euer they brought with them onely to saue their liues. And although
the Erle of Cumberland lay still about those Islands, yet they met not with
him, so that after much paine and labour they got into the Road before
Angra, where with all speede they vnladed and discharged aboue fiue
millions of siluer, all in pieces of 8 or 10 pound great: so that the whole
Kay lay couered with plates and chests of siluer, full of Ryales of eight,
most wonderfull to behold, (each million being ten hundred thousand
duckats,) besides pearles, gold and other stones, which were not registred.
The Admirall and chiefe commander of those ships and Fleete called Aluaro
Flores de Quiniones was sicke of the Neapolitan disease, and was brought to
land, whereof not long after he died in Siuillia. He brought with him the
Kings broad seale and full authoritie to be Generall and chiefe commander
vpon the Seas, and of all Fleetes or ships, and of all places and Islands,
or lands wheresoeuer he came: wherevpon the Gouernour of Tercera did him
great honour, and betweene them it was concluded, perceiuing the weaknesse
of their ships, and the danger of the Englishmen, that they would send the
shippes, emptie with souldiers to conuey them, either to Siuill or Lisbon,
where they could first arriue, with aduise vnto his Maiestie of all that
had passed, and that he would giue order to fetch the siluer with good and
safe conuoy. Wherevpon the said Aluero Flores stayed there, vnder colour of
keeping the siluer, but specially because of his disease, and for that they
were affraide of the Englishmen. This Aluaro Flores had alone for his owne
part aboue 50000 Duckats in pearles which he shewed vnto vs, and sought to
sell them or barter them with vs for spices or bils of exchange. The said
two ships set saile with 3 or 4 hundred men, as well souldiers as others
that came with them out of India, and being at sea had a storme, wherewith
the Admirall burst and sunke in the sea, and not one man saued. The
Vice-Admirall cut downe her mast, and ranne the ship on ground hard by
Setuuel, where it burst in pieces, some of the men sauing them selues by
swimming, that brought the newes, but the rest were drowned.

In the same moneth there came two great ships out of the Spanish Indies,
and being within halfe a mile of the Road of Tercera, they met with an
English ship, which, after they had fought long together, tooke them both.
About 7 or 8 moneths before, there had beene an English shippe in Tercera,
that vnder the name of a Frenchman came to traffike in the Island, there to
lade woad, and being discouered was both ship and goods confiscated to the
kings vse, and all the men kept prisoners: yet went they vp and downe the
streetes to get their liuings, by labouring like slaues, being in deede as
safe in that Island, as if they had beene in prison. But in the ende vpon a
Sunday, all the Saylers went downe behinde the hils called Bresil: where
they found a Fisher-boat, whereinto they got and rowed into the sea to the
Erle of Cumberlands shippes, which to their great fortune chanced at that
time to come by the Island, and ankered with his ships about halfe a mile
from the Road of Angra, hard by two small Islands, which lie about a bases
shot from the Island and are full of Goats, Deere and Sheepe, belonging to
the inhabitants of the Island of Tercera. Those Saylers knew it well, and
thereupon they rowed vnto them with their boates, and lying at anker that
day, they fetched as many Goates and sheepe as they had neede of: which
those of the towne and of the Island well saw and beheld, yet durst not
once goe foorth: so there remained no more on land but the Master and the
Marchant of the said English ship. This Master had a brother in lawe
dwelling in England, who hauing newes of his brothers imprisonment in
Tercera, got licence of the Queene of England to set forth a ship,
therewith to see if he could recouer his losses of the Spaniards by taking
some of them, and so to redeeme his brother that lay prisoner in Tercera,
and he it was that tooke the two Spanish ships before the Towne, the Master
of the ship aforesaid standing on the shore by me, and looking vpon them,
for he was my great acquaintance. The ships being taken that were worth 300
thousand duckats, he sent al the men on land sauing onely two of the
principall Gentlemen, which he kept aboord thereby to ransome his brother:
and sent the Pilot of one of the Indian ships that were taken, with a
letter to the Gouernor of Tercera; wherein he wrote that he should deliuer
him his brother, and he would send the 2 Gentlemen on land: if not, he
would saile with them into England, as indeed he did, because the Gouernour
would not doe it, saying that the Gentlemen might make that suite to the
king of Spaine himselfe. This Spanish Pilot we bid to supper with vs, and
the Englishmen likewise, where he shewed vs all the manner of their fight,
much commending the order and maner of the Englishmens fighting, as also
their courteous vsing of him: but in the end the English Pilot likewise
stole away in a French ship, without paying any ransome as yet.

In the moneth of Ianuarie 1590 there arriued one ship alone in Tercera,
that came from the Spanish Indies, and brought newes that there was a
Fleete of a hundred shippes which put out from the Firme land of the
Spanish Indies, and by a storme were driuen vpon the coast called Florida,
where they were all cast away, she hauing onely escaped, wherein there were
great riches, and many men lost, as it may well be thought: so that they
made their account, that of 220 ships that for certaine were knowen to haue
put out of Noua Spagna, S. Domingo, Hauana, Capo verde, Brasilia, Guinea,
&c. in the yeere 1589. to saile for Spaine and Portugall, there were not
aboue 14 or 15 of them arriued there in safetie, all the rest being either
drowned, burst or taken.

In the same moneth of Ianuarie there arriued in Tercera 15 or 16 ships that
came from Siuil, which were most Flieboats of the Low countries, and some
Britons that were arrested in Spaine: these came full of souldiers, and
well appointed with munition, to lade the siluer that lay in Tercera, and
to fetch Aluares de Flores by the kings commandement into Spaine. And
because that time of the yeere there are alwayes stormes about those
Ilands, therefore they durst not enter into the road of Tercera, for that
as then it blew so great a storme that some of their ships that had ankred
were forced to cut downe their mastes, and were in danger to be lost: and
among the rest a ship of Biscaie ran against the land and was striken in
pieces, but all the men saued themselues. The other ships were forced to
keepe the sea and seperate themselues one from the other, where wind and
weather would driue them vntill the 15 of March for that in all that time
they could not haue one day of faire weather to anker in, whereby they
endured much miserie, cursing both the siluer and the Iland. This storme
being past, they chanced to meet with a small English ship of about 40
tunnes in bignesse, which by reason of the great wind could not beare all
her sailes: so they set vpon her and tooke her, and with the English flag
in their Admirals sterne, they came as proudly into the hauen as if they
had conquered all the realme of England: but as the Admirall that bare the
English flag vpon her sterne was entring into the road, there came by
chance two English ships by the Iland that paied her so well for her
paines, that they were forced to cry Misericordia, and without all doubt
had taken her, if she had bene but a mile further in sea: but because she
got vnder the Fortresse, which also began to shoot at the Englishmen, they
were forced to leaue her, and to put further into the sea, hauing slaine
fiue or sixe of the Spaniards. The Englishmen that were taken in the small
shippe were put vnder hatches, and coupled in bolts, and after they had
bene prisoners 3 or 4 dayes, there was a Spanish Ensigne bearer in the ship
that had a brother slaine in the Fleet that came for England, who as then
minding to reuenge his death, and withall to shew his manhood on the
English captiues that were in the English ship, which they had taken, as is
aforesayd, tooke a poiniard in his hand and went downe vnder the hatches,
where finding the poore Englishmen sitting in boltes, with the same
poiniard he stabbed sixe of them to the heart: which two others of them
perceiuing, clasped each other about the middle, because they would not be
murthered by him, and threw themselues into the sea and there were drowned.
This acte was of all the Spaniards much disliked and very ill taken, so
that they caried the Spaniard prisoner vnto Lisbon, where being arriued,
the king of Spaine willed he should be sent into England, that the Queene
of England might vse him as she thought good: which sentence his friends by
intreatie got to be reuersed, notwithstanding he commanded he should
without all fauour be beheaded: but vpon a good Friday the Cardinall going
to masse, all the captaines and Commanders made so great intreaty for him,
that in the end they got his pardon. This I thought good to note, that men
might vnderstand the bloody and dishonest minds of the Spaniards when they
haue men vnder their subiection.

The same two English ships which folowed the Spanish Admirall till he had
got the Fort of Tercera, as I sayd before, put into the sea, where they met
with another Spanish ship being of the same Fleet, that had likewise bene
scattred by the storme and was onely missing, for the rest lay in the road.
This small ship the Englishmen tooke, and sent all the men on shore, not
hurting any of them: but if they had knowen what had bene done vnto the
foresayd English captiues I belieue they would soone haue reuenged
themselues, as afterward many an innocent soule paied for it. This ship
thus taken by the Englishmen, was the same that was taken and confiscated
in the Iland of Tercera by the Englishmen that got out of the Iland in a
fisher boat (as I said before) and was sold vnto the Spaniards that as then
came from the Indies, wherewith they sayled to S. Lucar, where it was also
arrested by the duke, and appointed to go in company to fetch the siluer in
Tercera, because it was a ship that sailed well, but among the Spaniards
Fleet it was the meanest of the company. By this means it was taken from
the Spaniards and caried into England, and the owners had it againe when
they least thought of it.

The 19 of March the aforesayd ships being 19 in number, set saile, hauing
laden the kings siluer, and receiued in Aluaro Flores de Quiniones, with
his company and good prouision of necessaries, munition and souldiers that
were fully resolued (as they made shew) to fight valiantly to the last man
before they would yeeld or lose their riches: and although they set their
course for S. Lucar, the wind draue them vnto Lisbon, which (as it seemed)
was willing by his force to helpe them, and to bring them thither in
safetie, although Aluaro de Flores, both against the wind and weather would
perforce haue sailed to Saint Lucar, but being constrained by the wind and
importunitie of the sailers that protested they would require their losses
and damages of him, he was content to saile to Lisbon: from whence the
siluer was by land caried vnto Siuil. At Cape S. Vincent there lay a Fleet
of 20 English ships to watch for the Armada, so that if they had put into
S. Lucar, they had fallen right into their hands, which if the wind had
serued they had done. And therefore they may say that the wind hath lent
them a happy voiage: for if the Englishmen had met with them, they had
surely bene in great danger, and possibly but few of them had escaped, by
reason of the feare wherewith they were possessed, because fortune of
rather God was wholy against them: which is a sufficient cause to make the
Spaniards out of heart, and to the contrary to giue the Englishmen more
courage, and to make them bolder for that they are victorious, stout and
valiant: and seeing all their enterprises do take so good effect, that
thereby they are become lords and masters of the sea, and need care for no
man, as it wel appeareth by this briefe discourse.

The 7 of August 1590. a nauie of English ships was seene before Tercera,
being 20 in number, and 5 of them the Queenes ships: their Generall was one
Martin Frobisher, as we after had intelligence. They came purposely to
watch for the Fleet of the Spanish Indies, and for the Indian ships, and
the ships of the countreys in the West: which put the Ilanders in great
feare, specially those of Fayal, for that the Englishmen sent a trumpet to
the Gouernour to aske certaine wine, flesh, and other victuals for their
money and good friendship. They of Fayal did not onely refuse to giue eare
vnto them, but with a shot killed their messenger or trumpeter: which the
Englishmen tooke in euil part, sending them word that they were best to
looke to themselues and stand vpon their guard, for they ment to come and
visite them whether they would or no. The Gouernour made them answere that
he was there in the behalfe of his maiestie of Spaine, and that he would
doe his best to keepe them out, as he was bound: but nothing was done,
although they of Fayal were in no little feare, sending to Tercera for
aide, from whence they had certaine barkes with ponder and munition for
warre, with some bisket and other necessary prouision.

The 30 of August we receiued very certaine newes out of Portugal, that
there were 80 ships put out of the Groine laden with victuals, munition,
money and souldiers, to goe for Britaine to aide the Catholiques and
Leaguers of France against the king of Nauarre. At the same time two
Netherland hulkes comming out of Portugall to Tercera being halfe the Seas
ouer, met with 4 of the Queenes ships, their Generall being sir Iohn
Hawkins, that staied them, but let them go againe without doing them any
harme. The Netherlanders reported, that each of the Queenes ships had 80
pieces of Ordinance, and that captaine Drake lay with 40 ships in the
English chanell watching for the armie of the Groine: and likewise that
there lay at the Cape S. Vincent ten other English ships, that if any ships
escaped from the Ilands, they might take them. These tidings put the
Ilanders in great feare, least if they failed of the Spanish fleete and got
nothing by them, that then they would fall vpon the Ilands, because they
would not returne emptie home, whereupon they held streit watch, sending
aduise vnto the king what newes they heard.

The first of September there came to the Iland of S. Michael a Portugall
ship out of the hauen of Phernambuck in Brasile, which brought newes that
the Admirall of the Portugall Fleet that came from India, hauing missed the
Iland of S. Helena, was of necessitie constrained to put into Phernambuck,
although the king had expresly vnder a great penaltie forbidden him so to
doe, because of the wormes that there doe spoile the ships. The same shippe
wherein Bernardin Ribero was Admirall the yeere before 1589. sailed out of
Lisbon into the Indies, with 5 ships in her company, whereof but 4 got into
India, the 5 was neuer heard of, so that it was thought to be cast away:
the other foure returned safe againe into Portugall, though the Admiral was
much spoiled, because he met with two English ships that fought long with
him, and slew many of his men, but yet he escaped from them.

The 5 of the same moneth there arriued in Tercera a carauel of the Iland of
Coruo, and brought with her 50 men that had bin spoiled by the Englishmen
who had set them on shore in the Iland of Coruo, being taken out of a ship
that came from the Spanish Indies, they brought tidings that the Englishmen
had taken 4 more of the Indian ships, and a carauel with the king of
Spaines letters of aduise for the ships comming out of the Portugal Indies,
and that with those which they had taken, they were at the least 40 English
ships together, so that not one bark escaped them, but fel into their
hands, and that therefore the Portugall ships comming out of India durst
not put into the Ilands, but tooke their course vnder 40 and 42 degrees,
and from thence sailed to Lisbon, shunning likewise the cape S. Vincent,
otherwise they could not haue had a prosperous iourney of it, for that as
then the sea was ful of English ships. [Sidenote: Great hauock of
Spaniards.] Whereupon the king aduised the fleete lying in Hauana in the
Spanish Indies ready to come for Spaine, that they should stay there all
that yeere till the next yeere, because of the great danger they might fal
into by the Englishmen, which was no smal charge, and hinderance to the
fleet, for that the ships that lie there do consume themselues, and in a
manner eat vp one another, by reason of the great number of people,
together with the scarcitie of al things, so that many ships chose rather
one by one to aduenture themselues alone to get home, then to stay there:
all which fell into the Englishmen hands, whereof diuers of the men were
brought into Tercera, for that a whole day we could see nothing els, but
spoiled men set on shore, some out of one ship, some out of another, that
pitie it was to see all of them cursing the Englishmen and their owne
fortunes, with those that had bene the causes to prouoke the Englishmen to
fight, and complaining of the small remedie and order taken therein by the
king of Spaines officers.

The 19 of the same moneth there came to Tercera a Carauel of Lisbon, with
one of the kings officers, to cause the goods that were saued out of the
ship which came from Malacca (for the which we staied there) to be laden
and sent to Lisbon. And at the same time there put out of the Groine one
Don Alonso de Bacan, with 40 great ships of warre to come vnto the Ilands,
there to watch for the fleet of the Spanish and Portugall Indies, and the
goods of the Malacca ship being laden, they were to convoy them all
together into the riuer of Lisbon: but being certaine daies at sea, alwaies
hauing a contrary wind, they could not get vnto the Ilands, onely two of
them that were scattred from the fleet, arriued at Tercera, and not finding
the fleet, they presently returned to seeke them: in the meane time the
king changed his mind, and caused the fleet to stay in India, as I said
before: and therefore hee sent worde vnto Don Alonso de Bassan, that hee
should returne againe to the Groine, which he presently did (without doing
any thing, nor once approching neer the Ilands, sauing onely the two
foresayd ships, for he well knew that the Englishmen lay by the Iland of
Coruo, but he would not visit them): and so he returned to the hauen the
Groine, whereby our goods that came from Malacca were yet to ship, and
trussed vp againe, and forced to stay a more fortunate time with patience

The 23 of October there arriued in Tercera a Carauel with aduise out of
Portugall, that of 5 ships which in the yere 1590 were laden in Lisbon for
the Indies, 4 of them were turned againe to Portin. After they had bene 4
moneths abroad, and that the Admirall, wherein the Viceroy called Mathias
d'Albukerk sailed, had onely gotten to India, as afterward newes thereof
was brought ouer-land, hauing bin at the least 11 moneths at sea and neuer
saw land, and came in great misery to Malacca. In this ship there died by
the way 280 men, according to a note by himselfe made, and sent to the
Cardinal at Lisbon, with the names and surnames of euery man, together with
a description of his voiage, and the misery they had endured, which was
onely done, because he would not lose the gouernment of India: and for that
cause he had sworne either to lose his life, or to arriue in India, as in,
deed he did afterwards, but to the great danger, losse and hinderance of
his companie, that were forced to buy it with their liues, and onely for
want of prouision, as it may wel be thought: for he knew full well that if
he had returned backe againe into Portugal as the other ships did, he
should haue bin cassiered from his Indian regiment, because the people
began already to murmure at him for his proud and lofty mind. And among
other things that shewed his pride the more, behind aboue the gallery of
his ship he caused Fortune to be painted, and his own picture with a staffe
standing by her, as it were threatning Fortune, with this posie, Quero que
vencas, that is, I wil haue thee to ouercome: which being read by the
Cardinal and other gentlemen (that to honor him brought him aboord his
ship) it was thought to be a point of exceeding folly: but it is no strange
matter among the Portugals: for they aboue all others must of force let the
foole peepe out of their sleeues, specially when they are in authority, for
that I knew the said Mathias d'Albukerk in India, being a souldier and a
captaine, where he was esteemed and accounted for one of the best of them,
and much honoured, and beloued of all men, as behauing himselfe curteously
to euery man, whereby they all desired that he might be Viceroy. But when
he once had receiued his patent with full power and authoritie from the
king to be Viceroy, he changed so much from his former behauiour, that by
reason of his pride, they all began to feare and curse him, and that before
hee departed out of Lisbon, as it is often seene in many men that are
aduanced vnto state and dignitie.

The 20 of Ianuarie 1591. there was newes brought out of Portugall into
Tercera, that the Englishmen had taken a ship that the king had sent into
the Portugall Indies, with aduise to the Viceroy for the returning againe
of the 4 ships that should haue gone to India, and because the ships were
come backe againe, that ship was stuffed and laded as full of goods as
possible it might be, hauing likewise in ready money 500 thousand duckets
in roials of 8, besides other wares. It departed from Lisbon in the moneth
of Nouember 1590. and met with the Englishmen, with whom for a time it
fought, but in the end it was taken and caried into England with men and
all, yet when they came there, the men were set at libertie, and returned
into Lisbon, where the captaine was committed prisoner; but he excused
himselfe and was released, with whom I spake my selfe, and he made this
report vnto me. At the same time also they tooke a ship that came from the
Mine laden with gold, and 2 ships laden with pepper and spices that were to
saile into Italy, the pepper onely that was in them, being worth 170
thousand duckets: all these ships were caried into England, and made good

In the moneth of Iuly 1591. there hapned an earthquake in the Iland of S.
Michael, which continued from the 26 of Iuly, to the 12 of August, in which
time no man durst stay within his house but fled into the fields, fasting
and praying with great sorow, for that many of their houses fel down, and a
towne called Villa Franca, was almost cleane razed to the ground, all the
cloisters and houses shaken to the earth, and therein some people slaine.
The land in some places rose vp, and the cliffs remooued from one place to
another, and some hils were defaced and made euen with the ground. The
earthquake was so strong, that the ships which lay in the road and on the
sea, shaked as if the world would haue turned round: there sprang also a
fountaine out of the earth, for whence for the space of 4 daies, there
flowed a most cleare water, and after that it ceased. At the same time they
heard such thunder and noise vnder the earth, as if all the deuils in hell
had bin assembled together in that place, wherewith many died for feare.
The Iland of Tercera shooke 4 times together, so that it seemed to turne
about, but there hapned no misfortune vnto it. Earthquakes are common in
those Ilands, for about 20 yeres past there hapned another earthquake,
wherein a high hill that lieth by the same towne of Villa Franca, fell
halfe downe, and couered all the towne with earth, and killed many men. The
25 of August the kings Armada comming out of Ferol arriued in Tercera being
in all 30 ships, Biskaines, Portugals and Spaniards, and 10 Dutch flieboats
that were arrested in Lisbon to serue the king, besides other small ships
and pataxos, that came to serue as messengers from place to place, and to
discouer the seas. This nauie came to stay for, and conuoy the ships that
should come from the Spanish Indies, and the flieboats were appointed in
their returne home, to take in the goods that were saued in the lost ship
that came from Malacca, and to conuoy them to Lisbon.

The 13 of September the said Armada arriued at the Iland of Coruo, where
the Englishmen with about 16 ships as then lay, staying for the Spanish
fleet, whereof some or the most part were come, and there the English were
in good hope to haue taken them. But when they perceiued the kings army to
be strong, the Admiral being the lord Thomas Howard, commanded his Fleet
not to fal vpon them, nor any of them once to separate their ships from
him, vnlesse he gaue commission so to do: notwithstanding the viceadmirall
sir Richard Greenuil being in the ship called the Reuenge, went into the
Spanish fleet, and shot among them doing them great hurt, and thinking the
rest of the company would haue folowed, which they did not, but left him
there, and sailed away: the cause why could not be knowen. Which the
Spaniards perceiuing, with 7 or 8 ships they boorded her, but she withstood
them all, fighting with them at the least 12 houres together and sunke two
of them, one being a new double Flieboat of 600 tunnes, and Admiral of the
Flieboats, the other a Biscain; but in the end by reason of the number that
came vpon her, she was taken, but to their great losse: for they had lost
in fighting and by drowning aboue 400 men, and of the English were slaine
about 100, Sir Richard Greenuil himselfe being wounded in his braine,
whereof afterwards he died. He was caried into the ship called S. Paul,
wherein was the Admirall of the fleet Don Alonso de Bacan: there his wounds
were drest by the Spanish surgeons, but Don Alonso himselfe would neither
see him nor speake with him: all the rest of the Captaines and gentlemen
went to visite him, and to comfort him in his hard fortune wondering at his
courage and stout heart, for that he shewed not any signe of faintnes nor
changing of colour; but feeling the houre of death to approch, he spake
these words in Spanish, and said: Here die I Richard Greenuil with a ioyful
and quiet mind, for that I haue ended my life as a true souldier ought to
do, that hath fought for his countrey, Queene, religion and honor, whereby
my soule most ioyfull departeth out of this body, and shal alwayes leaue
behind it an euerlasting fame of a valiant and true souldier that hath done
his dutie as he was bound to doe. When he had finished these or such other
like words, he gaue vp the Ghost, with great and stout courage, and no man
could perceiue any true signe of heauines in him.

This sir Rich. Greenuil was a great and a rich gentleman in England, and
had great yeerely reuenues of his owne inheritance, but he was a man very
vnquiet in his mind, and greatly affected to war; insomuch as of his owne
priuate motion he offred his seruice to the Queene: he had performed many
valiant acts, and was greatly feared in these Ilands, and knowen of euery
man, but of nature very seuere, so that his owne people hated him for his
fiercenesse, and spake very hardly of him: for when they first entred into
the fleet or Armada, they had their great saile in a readinesse, and might
possibly enough haue sailed away, for it was one of the best ships for
saile in England, and the master perceiuing that the other ships had left
them, and folowed not after, commanded the great saile to be cut that they
might make away: but sir Rich. Greenuil threatned both him and al the rest
that were in the ship, that if any man laid hand vpon it, he would cause
him to be hanged, and so by that occasion they were compelled to fight and
in the end were taken. He was of so hard a complexion, that as he continued
among the Spanish captains while they were at dinner or supper with him, he
would carouse 3 or 4 glasses of wine, and in a brauerie take the glasses
betweene his teeth and crash them in pieces and swalow them downe, so that
oftentimes the blood ran out of his mouth without any harme at all vnto
him: and this was told me by diuers credible persons that many times stood
and beheld him. The Englishmen that were left in the ship, as the captaine
of the souldiers, the master and others were dispersed into diuers of the
Spanish ships that had taken them, where there had almost a new fight
arisen between the Biscains and the Portugals: while each of them would
haue the honour to haue first boorded her, so that there grew a great noise
and quarel among them, one taking the chiefe ensigne, and the other the
flag, and the captaine and euery one held his owne. The ships that had
boorded her were altogether out of order, and broken, and many of their men
hurt, whereby they were compelled to come into the Island of Tercera, there
to repaire themselues: where being arriued, I and my chamberfelow, to heare
some newes, went aboord one of the ships being a great Biscain, and one of
the 12 Apostles, whose captaine was called Bartandono, that had bin General
of the Biscains in the fleet that went for England. He seeing vs called vs
up into the gallery, where with great curtesie he receiued vs, being as
then set at dinner with the English captaine that sate by him, and had on a
sute of blacke veluet, but he could not tell vs any thing, for that he
could speake no other language but English and Latine, which Bartandano
also could a litle speake. The English captaine got licence of the
gouernour that he might come on land with his weapon by his side, and was
in our lodging with the Englishman that was kept prisoner in the Iland,
being of that ship whereof the sailers got away, as I said before. The
gouernour of Tercera bade him to dinner, and shewed him great curtesie. The
master likewise with licence of Bartandono came on land and was in our
lodging, and had at the least 10 or 12 wounds, as well in his head as on
his body, whereof after that being at sea betweene Lisbon and the Ilands he
died. The captaine wrote a letter, wherein he declared all the maner of the
fight, and left it with the English marchant that lay in our lodging, to
send it to the lord Admiral of England. This English captaine comming vnto
Lisbon, was there wel receiued and not any hurt done vnto him, but with
good conuoy sent vnto Setuuel, and from thence sailed into England with all
the rest of the Englishmen that were taken prisoners.

The Spanish armie staied at the Iland of Coruo til the last of September,
to assemble the rest of the fleet together, which in the ende were to the
number of 140 sailes of ships partly comming from India, and partly of the
army, and being altogether readie to saile to Tercera in good company,
there suddenly rose so hard and cruell a storme, that those of the Ilands
did affirme, that in mans memorie there was neuer any such seen or heard
off before: for it seemed the sea would haue swalowed vp the Ilands, the
water mounting higher then the cliffs, which are so high that it amaseth a
man to behold them: but the sea reached aboue them, and liuing fishes were
throwen vpon the land. This storme continued not only a day or two with one
wind, but 7 or 8 dayes continually, the wind turning round about in al
places of the compasse, at the lest twise or thrise during that time, and
all alike, with a continuall storme and tempest most terrible to behold,
euen to vs that were on shore, much more then to such as were at sea: so
that onely on the coasts and cliffes of the Iland of Tercera, there were
aboue 12 ships cast away, and not onely vpon the one side, but round about
it in euery corner, whereby nothing els was heard but complaining, crying,
lamenting and telling, here is a ship broken in pieces against the cliffes,
and there another, and all the men drowned: so that for the space of 20
dayes after the storme, they did nothing els but fish for dead men that
continually came driuing on the shore. [Sidenote: The wracke of the
Reuenge.] Among the rest was the English ship called the Reuenge, that was
cast away vpon a cliffe neere to the Iland of Tercera, where it brake in an
hundred pieces and sunke to the ground, hauing in her 70 men Galegos,
Biscains, and others, with some of the captiue Englishmen, whereof but one
was saued that got vp vpon the cliffes aliue, and had his body and head all
wounded, and he being on shore brought vs the newes desiring to be shriuen,
and thereupon presently died. The Reuenge had in her diuers faire brasse
pieces that were all sunke in the sea, which they of the Iland were in good
hope to waigh vp againe the next Sommer after. Among these ships that were
cast away about Tercera, was likewise a Flie-boat, one of those that had
bin arrested in Portugall to serue the king, called the white Doue, the
master of her was one Cornelius Martenson of Schiedam in Holland, and there
were in her 100 souldiers, as in euery one of the rest there were. He being
ouer-ruled by the captaine that he could not be master of his owne, sayling
here and there at the mercy of God, as the storme droue him, in the end
came within the sight of the Iland of Tercera, which the Spaniards
perceiuing thought all their safety onely to consist in putting into the
road, compelling the Master and the Pilot to make towards the Iland,
although the master refused to doe it, saying, that they were most sure
there to be cast away and vtterly spoyled: but the captaine called him
drunkard and Heretique, and striking him with a staffe, commaunded him to
doe as he would haue him. The Master, seeing this and being compelled to
doe it, sayd: well then my Masters, seeing that it is the desire of you all
to bee cast away, I can but lose one life, and therewith desperately he
sayled towards the shore, and was on that side of the Iland, where there
was nothing els but hard stones and rocks, as high as mountaines, most
terrible to beholde, where some of the inhabitants stood with long ropes
and corke bound at the ende thereof, to throw them downe, vnto the men,
that they might lay holde vpon them and saue their liues: but few of them
got so neere, most of them being cast away, and smitten in pieces before
they could get to the wall. The ship sailing in this maner (as I sayd
before) towards the Iland, and approching to the shore, the master being an
olde man, and full of yeeres, called his sonne that was in the ship with
him, and hauing imbraced one another, and taken their last farewell, the
good olde father willed his sonne not to take care for him, but seeke to
saue himselfe; for (sayd he) sonne thou art yong, and mayest haue some hope
to saue thy life, but as for me it is no great matter (I am olde) what
become of me, and therewith ech of these shedding many teares, as euery
louing father and kinde childe may well consider, the ship fell vpon the
cliffes, and brake in pieces, the father on the one side, the sonne on the
other side falling into the sea, ech laying holde vpon that which came next
to hand, but to no purpose; for the sea was so high and furious, that they
were all drowned, and onely foureteene or fifteene saued themselues by
swimming, with their legs and armes halfe broken and out of ioynt, among
which was the Masters sonne, and foure other Dutch boyes: the rest of the
Spaniards and Sailers, with the Captaine and Master, were drowned. Whose
heart would not melt with teares to beholde so grieuous a sight, specially
considering with himselfe that the greatest cause thereof was the
beastliness and insolency of the Spaniards, as in this onely example may
well be seene? Whereby may be considered how the other shippes sped, as we
ourselues did in part beholde, and by the men that were saued did heare
more at large, as also some others of our countreymen that as then were in
the like danger can well witnesse.

On the other Ilands the losse was no lesse then in Tercera: for on the
Iland of Saint George there were two ships cast away: on the Iland of Pico
two ships: on the Iland of Gratiosa three ships: and besides those there
came euery where round about diuers pieces of broken ships, and other
things fleeting towards the Ilands, wherewith the sea was all couered most
pitifull to beholde. On the Iland of S. Michael there were foure ships cast
away, and betweene Tercera and S. Michael three more were sunke, which were
seene and heard to cry out; whereof not one man was saued. [Sidenote: About
100 Spanish and Portugall ships drowned.] The rest put into the sea without
masts, all torne and rent: so that of the whole fleet and armada, being 140
ships in all, there were but 32 or 33 arriued in Spaine and Portugall, yea,
and those few with so great misery, paine and labour, that not two of them
arriued there together, but this day one, and tomorrow another, next day
the third, and so one after the other to the number aforesayd. All the rest
were cast away vpon the Ilands, and ouerwhelmed in the Sea, whereby may be
considered what great losse and hindrance they receiued at that time: for
by many mens iudgments it was esteemed to be much more then was lost by
their army that came for England: and it may well be thought, and presumed,
that it was no other but a iust plague purposely sent by God vpon the
Spaniards, and that it might truely be sayd, the taking of the Reuenge was
iustly reuenged vpon them, and not by the might or force of man, but by the
power of God, as some of them openly sayd in the Ile of Tercera, that they
beleeued verily God would consume them, and that he tooke part with the
Lutherans and heretiks: saying further that so soone as they had throwen
the dead body of the Viceadmirall Sir Richard Greenfield ouerboord, they
verily thought that as he had a diuellish faith and religion, and therefore
the diuels loued him, so he presently sunke into the bottome of the sea,
and downe into hell, where he raised vp all the diuels to the reuenge of
his death: and that they brought so great stormes and torments vpon the
Spaniards, because they onely maintained the Catholike and Romish religion.
Such and the like blasphemies against God, they ceased not openly to vtter,
without being reprooued of any man therein, nor for their false opinions:
but the most part of them rather sayd and affirmed, that of trueth it must
needs be so.

As one of those Indian fleets put out of Noua Spagna, there were 35 of them
by storme and tempest cast away and drowned in the Sea, being 50 in all; so
that but 15 escaped. Of the fleet that came from Santo Domingo there were
14 cast away, comming out of the chanell of Hauana, whereof the Admirall
and Viceadmirall were two of them: and from Terra Firma in India there came
two ships laden with golde and siluer, that were taken by the Englishmen:
and before the Spanish army came to Coruo, the Englishmen at times had
taken at the least 20 ships, that came from S. Domingo, India, Brasilia,
&c. and were all sent into England.

* * * * *

The miraculous victory atchieved by the English Fleete, under the discreet
and happy conduct of the right honourable, right prudent, and valiant
lord, the L. Charles Howard, L. high Admirall of England, &c. Vpon the
Spanish huge Armada sent in the yeere 1588. for the invasion of England,
together with the wofull and miserable success of the said Armada
afterward, upon the Coasts of Norway, of the Scottish Westerne Isles, of
Ireland, Spain, France, and of England, &c. Recorded in Latine by Emanuel
van Meteran, in the 15. Booke of his history of the Low Countreys.

Hauing in part declared the strange and wonderfull euents of the yeere
eightie eight, which hath bene so long time foretold by ancient prophesies;
we will now make relation of the most notable and great enterprise of all
others which were in the foresaid yeere atchieued, in order as it was done.
Which exploit (although in very deed it was not performed in any part of
the low Countreys) was intended for their ruine and destruction. And it was
the expedition which the Spanish king, hauing a long time determined the
same in his minde, and hauing consulted thereabout with the Pope, set
foorth and vndertooke against England and the low Countreys. To the end
that he might subdue the Realme of England, and reduce it vnto his
catholique Religion, and by that meanes might be sufficiently reuenged for
the disgrace, contempt and dishonour, which hee (hauing 34. yeeres before
enforced them to the Popes obedience) had endured of the English nation,
and for diuers other iniuries which had taken deepe impression in his
thoughts. And also for that hee deemed this to bee the most readie and
direct course, whereby hee might recouer his heredetarie possession of the
lowe Countreys, hauing restrained the inhabitants from sayling vpon the
coast of England. Which verily, vpon most weighty arguments and euident
reasons, was thought would vndoubtedly haue come to passe, considering the
great aboundance and store of all things necessary wherewith those men were
furnished, which had the managing of that action committed vnto them. But
now let vs describe the matter more particularly.

[Sidenote: The preparation of the Spanish King to subdue England and the
lowe Countreys.] The Spanish King hauing with small fruite and commoditie,
for aboue twentie yeeres together, waged warre against the Netherlanders,
after deliberation with his counsellers thereabout, thought it most
conuenient to assault them once againe by Sea, which had bene attempted
sundry times heretofore, but not with forces sufficient. Vnto the which
expedition it stoode him nowe in hand to ioyne great puissance, as hauing
the English people his professed enemies; whose Island is so situate, that
it may either greatly helpe or hinder all such as saile into those parts.
For which cause hee thought good first of all to inuade England, being
perswaded by his Secretary Escouedo, and by diuers other well experienced
Spaniards and Dutchmen, and by many English fugitiues, that the conquest of
that Island was lesse difficult then the conquest of Holland and Zeland.
Moreouer the Spaniards were of opinion, that it would bee farre more
behouefull for their King to conquere England and the lowe Countreys all at
once, then to be constrained continually to maintaine a warlike Nauie to
defend his East and West Indie Fleetes, from the English Drake, and from
such like valiant enemies.

And for the same purpose the king Catholique had giuen commandement long
before in Italie and Spaine, that a great quantitie of timber should be
felled for the building of shippes; and had besides made great preparation
of things and furniture requisite for such an expedition; as namely in
founding of brasen Ordinance, in storing vp of corne and victuals, in
trayning of men to vse warlike weapons, in leauying and mustering of
souldiers: insomuch that about the beginning of the yeere 1588. he had
finished such a mightie Nauie, and brought it into Lisbon hauen, as neuer
the like had before that time sailed vpon the Ocean sea.

A very large and particular description of this Nauie was put in print and
published by the Spaniards; wherein were set downe the number, names, and
burthens of the shippes, the number of Mariners and souldiers throughout
the whole Fleete; likewise the quantitie of their Ordinance, of their
armour, of bullets, of match, of gun-poulder, of victuals, and of all their
Nauall furniture was in the saide description particularized. Vnto all
these were added the names of the Gouernours, Captaines, Noblemen and
gentlemen voluntaries, of whom there was so great a multitude, that scarce
was there any family of accompt, or any one principall man throughout all
Spaine, that had not a brother, sonne or kinseman in that Fleete: who all
of them were in good hope to purchase vnto themselues in that Nauie (as
they termed it) inuincible endlesse glory and renowne, and to possesse
themselues of great Seigniories and riches in England, and in the lowe
Countreys. But because the said description was translated and published
out of Spanish into diuers other languages, we will here onely make an
abridgment or briefe rehearsall thereof.

[Sidenote: The number and qualitie of the ships in the Spanish Fleete, with
the souldiers, Mariners, and pieces of Ordinance.] Portugal furnished and
set foorth vnder the conduct of the duke of Medina Sidonia generall of the
Fleete, ten Galeons, two Zabraes, 1300. Mariners, 3300. souldiers, 300.
great pieces, with all requisite furniture.

Biscay, vnder the conduct of Iohn Martines de Ricalde Admiral of the whole
Fletee, set forth tenne Galeons, 4. Pataches, 700. mariners, 2000.
souldiers, 250. great pieces, &c.

Guipusco, vnder the conduct of Michael de Oquendo, tenne Galeons, 4
Pataches, 700. mariners, 2000. souldiers, 310. great pieces.

Italy with the Leuant Islands, vnder Martine de Vertendona, 10. Galeons,
800. mariners, 2000. souldiers, 310. great pieces, &c.

Castile, vnder Diego Flores de Valdez, 14. Galeons, two Pataches, 1700.
mariners, 2400. souldiers, and 380. great pieces, &c.

Andaluzia, vnder the conduct of Petro de Valdez, 10. Galeons, one Patache,
800. mariners, 2400. souldiers, 280. great pieces, &c.

Item, vnder the conduct of Iohn Lopez de Medina, 23. great Flemish hulkes,
with 700. mariners, 3200. souldiers, and 400. great pieces.

Item, vnder Hugo de Moncada, foure Galliasses containing 1200.
gally-slaues, 460. mariners, 870. souldiers, 200. great pieces, &c.

Item, vnder Diego de Mandrana, foure Gallies of Portugall, with 888.
gally-slaues, 360. mariners, 20 great pieces, and other requisite

Item, vnder Anthonie de Mendoza, 22. Pataches and Zabraes, with 574.
mariners, 488. souldiers, and 193. great pieces.

Besides, the ships aforementioned there were 20 carauels rowed with oares,
being appointed to performe necessary seruices vnto the greater ships:
insomuch that all the ships appertayning to this Nauie amounted vnto the
summe of 150. eche one being sufficiently prouided of furniture and

The number of mariners in the saide Fleete were aboue 8000. of slaues 2088.
of souldiers 20000. (besides noblemen and gentlemen voluntaries) of great
cast pieces 2650. The foresaid ships were of an huge and incredible
capacitie and receipt. For the whole Fleete was large ynough to containe
the burthen of 60 thousand tunnes.

[Sidenote: A description of the Galeons.] The Galeons were 64. in number,
being of an huge bignesse, and very stately built, being of marueilous
force also, and so high that they resembled great castles, most fit to
defend themselues and to withstand any assault, but in giuing any other
ships the encounter farre inferiour vnto the English and Dutch ships, which
can with great dexteritie wield and turn themselues at all assayes. The
vpperworke of the said Galeons was of thicknesse and strength sufficient to
beare off musket-shot. The lower worke and the timbers thereof were out of
measure strong, being framed of plankes and ribs foure or fiue foote in
thicknesse, insomuch that no bullets could pierce them, but such as were
discharged hard at hand: which afterward prooued true, for a great number
of bullets were founde to sticke fast within the massie substance of those
thicke plankes. Great and well pitched Cables were twined about the masts
of their shippes, to strengthen them against the battery of shot.

[Sidenote: A description of the Galliasses.] The Galliasses were of such
bignesse, that they contained within them chambers, chapels, turrets,
pulpits, and other commodities of great houses. The Galliasses were rowed
with great oares, there being in eche one of them 300. slaues for the same
purpose, and were able to do great seruice with the force of their
Ordinance. All these together with the residue aforenamed were furnished
and beautified with trumpets, streamers, banners, warlike ensignes, and
other such like ornaments.

[Sidenote: The great Ordinance, bullets, gunpoulder, and other furniture.]
Their pieces of brasen ordinance were 1600. and of yron a 1000.

The bullets thereto belonging were 120. thousand.

Item of gun-poulder 5600. quintals. Of matche 1200. quintals.

Of muskets and kaleiuers 7000. Of haleberts and partisans 10000.

Moreouer they had great store of canons, double-canons, culuerings and
field-pieces for land seruices.

[Sidenote: Their prouision of victuals and other things necessary.]
Likewise they were prouided of all instruments necessary on land to
conueigh and transport their furniture from place to place; as namely of
carts, wheeles, wagons, &C. Also they had spades, mattocks and baskets to
set pioners on worke. They had in like sort great store of mules and
horses, and whatsoeuer else was requisite for a land-armie. They were so
well stored of biscuit, that for the space of halfe a yeere, they might
allow eche person in the whole Fleete half a quintall euery moneth; whereof
the whole summe amounteth vnto an hundred thousand quintals.

Likewise of wine they had 147. thousand pipes, sufficient also for halfe a
yeeres expedition. Of bacon 6500. quintals. Of cheese three thousand
quintals. Besides fish, rise, beanes, pease, oile, vineger, &c.

Moreouer they had 12000. pipes of fresh water, and all other necessary
prouision, as namely candles, lanternes, lampes, sailes, hempe, ox-hides
and lead to stop holes that should be made with the battery of gunshot. To
be short, they brought all things expedient either for a Fleete by sea, or
for an armie by land.

This Nauie (as Diego Pimentelli afterward confessed) was esteemed by the
King himselfe to containe 32000. persons, and to cost him euery day 30.
thousand ducates.

[Sidenote: A Spanish terza consisteth of 3200. souldiers.] There were in
the said Nauie fiue terzaes of Spaniards, (which terzaes the Frenchmen call
Regiments) vnder the commaund of fiue gouernours termed by the Spaniards,
Masters of the field, and amongst the rest there were many olde and expert
souldiers chosen out of the garisons of Sicilie, Naples, and Tercera. Their
Captaines or Colonels were Diego Pimentelli, Don Francisco de Toledo, Don
Alonco de Lucon, Don Nicolas de Isla, Don Augustin de Mexia; who had eche
of them 32. companies vnder their conduct. Besides the which companies
there were many bands also of Castilians and Portugals, euery one of which
had their peculiar gouernours, captaines, officers, colours and weapons.

It was not lawfull for any man, vnder grieuous penaltie, to cary any women
or harlots in the Fleete: for which cause the women hired certaine shippes,
wherein they sailed after the Nauie: some of the which being driuen by
tempest arriued vpon the coast of France.

The generall of this mightie Nauie, was Don Alonso Perez de Guzman duke of
Medina Sidonia, Lord of S. Lucar, and knight of the golden Fleece: by
reason that the Marques of santa Cruz appointed for the same dignitie,
deceased before the time.

Iohn Martines de Ricalde was Admirall of the Fleete.

Francis Bouadilla was chiefe Marshall: who all of them had their officers
fit and requisite for the guiding and managing of such a multitude.
Likewise Martin Alorcon was appointed Vicar generall of the Inquisition,
being accompanied with more then a hundreth Monkes, to wit, Iesuites,
Capuchines, and friers mendicant. Besides whom also there were Phisitians,
Chirurgians, Apothecaries, and whatsoever else perteined vnto the

Ouer and besides the forenamed gouernours and officers being men of chiefe
note, there were 124. very noble and worthy Gentlemen, which went
voluntarily of their owne costs and charges, to the ende they might see
fashions, learne experience, and attaine vnto glory. Amongst whom was the
prince of Ascoli, Alonzo de Leiua, the marques de Pennafiel, the marques de
Ganes, the marques de Barlango, count de Paredes, count de Yeluas, and
diuers other marqueses and earles of the honourable families of Mendoza, of
Toledo, of Pachieco, of Cordoua, of Guzman, of Manricques, and a great
number of others.

[Sidenote: The preparation of the Duke of Parma to aide the Spaniards.]
While the Spaniards were furnishing this their Nauuie, the Duke of Parma,
at the direction of king Philip, made great preparation in the low
Countreys, to giue ayd and assistance vnto the Spaniards; building ships
for the same purpose, and sending for Pilots and shipwrights out of Italy.

In Flanders hee caused certaine deepe chanels to be made, and among the
rest the chanell of Yper commonly called Yper-lee, employing some thousands
of workemen about that seruice: to the end that by the said chanel he might
transport ships from Antwerp and Ghendt to Bruges, where hee had assembled
aboue a hundreth small ships called hoyes being well stored with victuals,
which hoyes hee was determined to haue brought into the sea by the way of
Sluys, or else to haue conueyed them by the saide Yper-lee being now of
greater depth, into any port of Flanders whatsoeuer.

In the riuer of Waten he caused 70. ships with flat bottomes to be built,
euery one of which should serue to cary 30. horses, hauing eche of them
bridges likewise for the horses to come on boord, or to goe foorth on land.
Of the same fashion he had prouided 200. other vessels at Nieuport, but not
so great. And at Dunkerk hee procured 28. ships of warre, such as were
there to be had, and caused a sufficient number of Mariners to be leuied at
Hamburgh, Breme, Emden, and at other places. Hee put in the ballast of the
said ships, great store of beames of thicke plankes, being hollow and beset
with yron pikes beneath, but on eche side full of claspes and hookes, to
ioyne them together.

Hee had likewise at Greueling prouided 20. thousand of caske, which in a
short space might be compact and ioyned together with nailes and cords, and
reduced into the forme of a bridge. To be short, whatsoeuer things were
requisite for the making of bridges, and for the barring and stopping vp of
hauens mouthes with stakes, posts, and other meanes, he commanded to be
made ready. Moreouer not farre from Neiuport hauen, he had caused a great
pile of wooden fagots to be layd, and other furniture to be brought for the
rearing vp of a mount. The most part of his ships conteined two ouens a
piece to bake bread in, with a great number of sadles, bridles, and such
other like apparell for horses. They had horses likewise, which after their
landing should serue to conuey, and draw engines, field-pieces, and other
warlike prouisions.

Neere vnto Neiuport he had assembled an armie, ouer the which he had
ordained Camillo de Monte to be Camp-master. This army consisted of 30.
bands or ensignes of Italians, of tenne bands of Wallons, eight of Scots,
and eight of Burgundians, all which together amount vnto 56. bands, euery
band containing a hundreth persons. Neare vnto Dixmund there were mustered
80. bands of Dutch men, sixtie of Spaniards, sixe of high Germans, and
seuen bands of English fugitiues, vnder the conduct of sir William Stanley
an English knight.

In the suburbes of Cortreight there were 4000. horsemen together with their
horses in a readinesse: and at Waten 900. horses, with the troupe of the
Marques Del Gwasto Captaine generall of the horsemen.

Vnto this famous expedition and presupposed victorie, many potentates,
princes, and honourable personages hied themselues: out of Spaine the
prince of Melito called the duke of Pastrana and taken to be the sonne of
one Ruygomes de Silua, but in very deed accompted among the number of king
Philips base sonnes. Also the Marques of Burgraue, one of the sonnes of
Archiduke Ferdinand and Philippa Welsera. Vespasian Gonsaga of the family
of Mantua, being for chiualry a man of great renowne, and heretofore
Vice-roy in Spaine. Item Iohn Medices base sonne vnto the duke of Florence.
And Amadas of Sauoy, the duke of Sauoy his base sonne, with many others of
inferiour degrees.

[Sidenote: The Popes furtherance to the conquest of England, and of the low
countries.] Likewise Pope Sixtus quintus for the setting forth of the
foresaid expedition, as they vse to do against Turkes and infidels,
published a Cruzado, with most ample indulgences which were printed in
great numbers. These vaine buls the English and Dutchmen deriding, sayd
that the deuill at all passages lay in ambush like a thiefe, no whit
regarding such letters of safe conduct. Some there be which affirme that
the Pope had bestowed the realme of England with the title of Defensor
fidei, vpon the king of Spaine, giuing him charge to inuade it vpon this
condition, that he should enioy the conquered realm, as a vassal and
tributarie, in that regard, vnto the sea of Rome. To this purpose the said
Pope proffered a million of gold, the one halfe thereof to be paied in
readie money, and the other halfe when the realme of England or any famous
port thereof were subdued. And for the greater furtherance of the whole
businesse, he dispatched one D. Allen an English man (whom he had made
Cardinall for the same ende and purpose) into the Low countries, vnto whom
he committed the administration of all matters ecclesiasticall throughout
England. This Allen being enraged against his owne natiue countrey, caused
the Popes bull to be translated into English, meaning vpon the arriual of
the Spanish fleete to haue it so published in England. By which Bull the
excommunications of the two former Popes were confirmed, and the Queenes
most sacred Maiestie was by them most vniustly depriued of all princely
titles and dignities, her subjects being enioyned to performe obedience
vnto the duke of Parma, and vnto the Popes Legate.

But that all matters might be performed with greater secrecie, and that the
whole expedition might seeme rather to be intended against the Low
countries, then against England, and that the English people might be
perswaded that all was but bare words and threatnings, and that nought
would come to effect, there was a solemne meeting appointed at Borborch in
Flanders for a treatie of peace betweene her matestie and the Spanish king.

[Sidenote: A treatie of peace, to the end that Englad and the vnited
prouinces might be secure of inuasion.] Against which treatie the vnited
prouinces making open protestation, vsed all meanes possible to hinder it,
alleaging that it was more requisite to consult how the enemie now pressing
vpon them might be repelled from off their frontiers. Howbeit some there
were in England that greatly vrged and prosecuted this league, saying, that
it would be very commodious vnto the state of the realme, as well in regard
of traffique and nauigation, as for the auoiding of great expenses to
maintaine the warres, affirming also, that at the same time peace might
easily and vpon reasonable conditions be obtained of the Spaniard. Others
thought by this meanes to diuert some other way, or to keepe backe the nauy
now comming vpon them, and so to escape the danger of that tempest.
Howsoeuer it was, the duke of Parma by these wiles enchanted and dazeled
the eyes of many English and Dutch men that were desirous of peace:
whereupon it came to passe, that England and the vnited prouinces prepared
in deed some defence to withstand that dreadfull expedition and huge
Armada, but nothing in comparison of the great danger which was to be
feared, albeit the constant report of the whole expedition had continued
rife among them for a long time before. Howbeit they gaue eare vnto the
relation of certaine that sayd, that this nauie was prouided to conduct and
waft ouer the Indian Fleets: which seemed the more probable because the
Spaniards were deemed not to be men of so small discretion as to aduenture
those huge and monstrous ships vpon the shallow and dangerous chanel of

[Sidenote: Her maiesties warlike preparation by sea.] At length when as the
French king about the end of May signified vnto her Maiestie in plaine
termes that she should stand vpon her guard, because he was now most
certainly enformed, that there was so dangerous an inuasion imminent vpon
her realme, that he feared much least all her land and sea-forces would be
sufficient to withstand it, &c. then began the Queens Maiestie more
carefully to gather her forces together, and to furnish her own ships of
warre, and the principall ships of her subiects with souldiers, weapons,
and other necessary prouision. The greatest and strongest ships of the
whole nauy she sent vnto Plimmouth vnder the conduct of the right honorable
Lord Charles Howard, lord high Admirall of England, &c. Vnder whom the
renoumed Knight Sir Francis Drake was appointed Vice-admiral. The number of
these ships was about an hundreth. The lesser ships being 30. or 40. in
number, and vnder the conduct of the lord Henry Seimer were commanded to
lie between Douer and Caleis.

[Sidenote: Her Maiesties land-forces.] On land likewise throughout the
whole realme, souldiers were mustered and trained in all places, and were
committed vnto the most resolute and faithfull captaines. And whereas it
was commonly giuen out that the Spaniard hauing once vnited himselfe vnto
the duke of Parma, meant to inuade by the riuer of Thames, there was at
Tilburie in Essex ouer-against Grauesend, a mightie army encamped, and on
both sides of the riuer fortifications were erected, according to the
prescription of Frederike Genebelli, an Italian enginier. Likewise there
were certaine ships brought to make a bridge, though it were very late
first. Vnto the sayd army came in proper person the Queens most roiall
Maiestie, representing Tomyris that Scythian warlike princesse, or rather
diuine Pallas her selfe. Also there were other such armies leuied in

The principall catholique Recussants (least they should stirre vp any
tumult in the time of the Spanish inuasion) were sent to remaine at
certaine conuenient places, as namely in the Isle of Ely and at Wisbich.
And some of them were sent vnto other places, to wit, vnto sundry bishops
and noblemen, where they were kept from endangering the state of the common
wealth, and of her sacred Maiestie, who of her most gracious clemencie gaue
expresse commandement that they should be intreated with all humanity and

[Sidenote: The preparation of the united prouinces.] The Prouinces of
Holland and Zeland, &c. giuing credite vnto their intelligence out of
Spain, made preparation to defend themselues: but because the Spanish ships
were described vnto them to be so huge, they relied partly vpon the shallow
and dangerous seas all along their costs. Wherfore they stood most in doubt
of the duke of Parma his small and flat-bottomed ships. Howbeit they had
all their ships of warre to the number of 90. and aboue, in a readinesse
for all assayes: the greater part whereof were of a small burthen, as being
more meete to saile vpon their riuers and shallow seas: and with these
ships they besieged all the hauens in Flanders, beginning at the mouth of
Scheld, or from the towne of Lillo, and holding on to Greueling and almost
vnto Caleis, and fortified all their sea-townes with strong garrisons.

Against the Spanish fleets arriual, they had provided 25. or 30. good
ships, committing the gouernment of them vnto Admirall Lonck, whom they
commanded to ioine himselfe vnto the lord Henry Seymer, lying betweene
Douer and Cales. And when as the foresaid ships (whereof the greater part
besieged the hauen of Dunkerke) were driuen by tempest into Zeland, Iustin,
of Nassau the Admiral of Zeland supplied that squadron with 35. ships being
of no great burthen, but excellently furnished with gunnes, mariners and
souldiers in great abundance, and especially with 1200. braue Musquetiers,
hauing bene accustomed vnto seafights, and being chosen out of all their
companies for the same purpose: and so the said Iustin of Nassau kept such
diligent ward in that Station that the duke of Parma could not issue foorth
with his nauy into the sea but of any part of Flanders.

[Sidenote: The Spanish fleete set saile vpon the 19. of May.] In the meaane
while the Spanish Armada set saile out of the hauen of Lisbon vpon the 19.
of May, An. Dom. 1588 vnder the conduct of the duke of Medina Sidonia,
directing their course for the Baie of Corunna, alias the Groine in
Gallicia, where they tooke in souldiers and warlike prouision, this port
being in Spaine the neerest vnto England. As they were sailing along, there
arose such a mightie tempest, that the whole Fleete was dispersed, so that
when the duke was returned vnto his company, he could not escry aboue 80.
ships in all, whereunto the residue by litle and litle ioyned themselues,
except eight which had their mastes blowen ouer-boord. One of the foure
gallies of Portingal escaped very hardly, retiring her selfe, into the
hauen. The other three were vpon the coast of Baion in France, by the
assistance and courage of one Dauid Gwin an English captiue (whom the
French and Turkish slaues aided in the same enterprise) vtterly disabled
and vanquished: one of the three being first ouercome, which conquered the
two other, with the slaughter of their gouernours and souldiers, and among
the rest of Don Diego de Mandrana with sundry others: and so these slaues
arriuing in France with the three Gallies, set themselues at liberty.

[Sidenote: They set saile from the Groine vpon the 11. of Iuly. The
Spaniards come within kenning of England. Captain Fleming.] The nauy hauing
refreshed themselues at the Groine, and receiuing daily commandement from
the king to hasten their iourney, hoised vp sailes the 11. day of July, and
so holding on their course, till the 19. of the same moneth, they came then
vnto the mouth of the narow seas or English chanel. From whence (striking
their sailes in the meane season) they dispatched certaine of their smal
ships vnto the duke of Parma. At the same time the Spanish Fleete was
escried by an English pinasse, captaine whereof was M. Thomas Fleming,
after they had bene aduertised of the Spaniards expedition by their scoutes
and espials, which hauing ranged along the coast of Spaine, were lately
returned home into Plimmouth for a new supply of victuals and other
necessaries, who considering the foresayd tempest, were of opinion that the
nauy being of late dispersed and tossed vp and downe the maine Ocean, was
by no means able to performe their intended voiage.

Moreouer, the L. Charles Howard L. high admiral of England had receiued
letters from the court, signifying vnto him that her Maiestie was
aduertised that the Spanish Fleete would not come foorth, nor was to be any
longer expected for, and therefore, that vpon her Maiesties commandement he
must send backe foure of her tallest and strongest ships vnto Chatham.

[Sidenote: The L. Admirals short warning upon the 19. of Iuly.] The lord
high Admiral of England being thus on the sudden, namely vpon the 19. of
July about foure of the clocke in the afternoone, enformed by the pinasse
of captaine Fleming aforesaid, of the Spaniards approch, with all speed and
diligence possible he warped his ships, and caused his mariners and
souldiers (the greater part of whom was absent for the cause aforesayd) to
come on boord, and that with great trouble and drfficultie, insomuch that
the lord Admiral himselfe was faine to lie without in the road with sixe
ships onely all that night, after the which many others came foorth of the
hauen. [Sidenote: The 20. of Iuly.] The very next day being the 20. of Iuly
about high noone, was the Spanish Fleete escried by the English, which with
a Southwest wind came sailing along, and passed by Plimmouth: in which
regard (according to the iudgement of many skilful nauigators) they greatly
ouershot themselues, whereas it had bene more commodious for them to haue
staied themselues there, considering that the Englishmen being as yet
vnprouided, greatly relied vpon their owne forces, and knew not the estate
of the Spanish nauy. Moreouer, this was the most conuenient port of all
others, where they might with greater securitie haue bene aduertised of the
English forces, and how the commons of the land stood affected, and might
haue stirred vp some mutinie, so that hither they should haue bent all
their puissance, and from hence the duke of Parma might more easily haue
conueied his ships.

But this they were prohibited to doe by the king and his counsell, and were
expressely commanded to vnite themselues vnto the souldiers and ships of
the said duke of Parma, and so to bring their purpose to effect. Which was
thought to be the most easie and direct course, for that they imagined that
the English and Dutch men would be vtterly daunted and dismaied thereat,
and would each man of them retire vnto his owne Prouince and Porte for the
defence thereof, and transporting the armie of the duke vnder the
protection of their huge nauy, they might inuade England.

It is reported that the chiefe commanders in the nauy, and those which were
more skilfull in nauigation, to wit, Iohn Martines de Ricalde, Diego Flores
de Valdez, and diuers others found fault that they were bound vnto so
strict directions and instructions, because that in such a case many
particular accidents ought to concurre and to be respected at one and the
same instant, that is to say, the opportunitie of the wind, weather, time,
tide, and ebbe, wherein they might saile from Flanders to England.
Oftentimes also the darkenesse and light, the situation of places, the
depths and shoulds were to be considered: all which especially depended
vpon the conuenience of the windes, and were by so much the more dangerous.

But it seemeth that they were enioined by their commission to ancre neere
vnto, or about Caleis, whither the duke of Parma with his ships and all his
warrelike prouision was to resort, and while the English and Spanish great
ships were in the midst of their conflict, to passe by, and to land his
souldiers vpon the Downes.

The Spanish captiues reported that they were determined first to haue
entred the riuer of Thames, and thereupon to haue passed with small ships
vp to London, supposing that they might easily winne that rich and
flourishing Citie being but meanely fortified and inhabited with Citizens
not accustomed to the warres, who durst not withstand their first
encounter, hoping moreouer to finde many rebels against her Maiestie and
popish catholiques, or some fauourers of the Scottish queene (which was not
long before most iustly beheaded) who might be instruments of sedition.

Thus often aduertising the duke of Parrna of their approch, the 20. of Iuly
they passed by Plimmouth, which the English ships pursuing and getting the
wind of them, gaue them the chase and the encounter, and so both Fleets
frankly exchanged their bullets.

[Sidenote: The 21. of Iuly.] The day following which was the 21. of Iuly,
the English ships approched within musquet shot of the Spanish: at what
time the lorde Charles Howard most hotly and valiantly discharged his
Ordinance vpon the Spanish Vice-admirall. The Spaniards then well
perceiuing the nimblenesse of the English ships in discharging vpon the
enimie on all sides, gathered themselues close into the forme of an halfe
moone, and slackened their sailes, least they should outgoe any of their
companie. And while they were proceeding on in this maner, one of their
great Galliasses was so furiously battered with shot, that the whole nauy
was faine to come vp rounder together for the safegard thereof: whereby it
came to passe that the principall Galleon of Siuill (wherein Don Pedro de
Valdez, Vasques de Silua, Alonzo de Sayas, and other noble men were
embarqued) falling foule of another shippe, had her fore-mast broken, and
by that meanes was not able to keepe way with the Spanish Fleete, neither
would the sayde Fleete stay to succour it, but left the distressed Galeon
behind. The lord Admirall of England when he saw this ship of Valdez, and
thought she had bene voyd of Mariners and Souldiers, taking with him as
many shippes as he could, passed by it, that he might not loose sight of
the Spanish Fleet that night. For sir Francis Drake (who was
notwithstanding appointed to beare out his lanterne that night) was giuing
of chase vnto fiue great Hulkes which had separated themselues from the
Spanish Fleete: but finding them to be Easterlings, he dismissed them. The
lord Admirall all that night following the Spanish lanterne in stead of the
English, found himselfe in the morning to be in the midst of his enimies
Fleete, but when he perceiued it, he cleanly conueyed himselfe out of that
great danger.

[Sidenote: The 22. of Iuly.] The day folowing, which was the two and
twentie of Iuly, Sir Francis Drake espied Valdez his shippe, whereunto hee
sent foorth his pinasse, and being aduertised that Valdez himselfe was
there, and 450. persons with him, he sent him word that he should yeeld
himselfe. Valdez for his honors sake caused certaine conditions to be
propounded vnto Drake: who answered Valdez that he was not now at laisure
to make any long parle, but if he would yeeld himselfe, he should find him
friendly and tractable: howbeit if he had resolued to die in fight, he
should prooue Drake to be no dastard.

[Sidenote: Don Pedro de Valdez with his ship and company taken.] Vpon which
answere Valdez and his company vnderstanding that they were fallen into the
hands of fortunate Drake, being mooued with the renoume and celebritie of
his name, with one consent yeelded themselues, and found him very
fauourable vnto them. Then Valdez with 40. or 50. noblemen and gentlemen
pertaining vnto him, came on boord sir Francis Drakes ship. The residue of
his ship were caried vnto Plimmouth, where they were detained a yere and an
halfe for their ransome.

Valdez comming vnto Drake and humbly kissing his hand protested vnto him,
that he and they had resolued to die in battell, had they not by good
fortune fallen into his power, whom they knew to be right curteous and
gentle, and whom they had heard by generall report to bee most favourable
vnto his vanquished foe: insomuch that he sayd it was to bee doubted
whether his enimies had more cause to admire and loue him for his great,
valiant, and prosperous exploites, or to dread him for his singular
felicitie and wisedom, which euer attended vpon him in the warres, and by
the which hee had attained vnto so great honour. With that Drake embraced
him and gaue him very honourable entertainement, feeding him at his owne
table, and lodging him in his cabbin.

Here Valdez began to recount vnto Drake the forces of all the Spanish
Fleet, and how foure mightie Gallies were separated by tempest from them,
and also how they were determined first to haue put into Plimmouth hauen,
not expecting to bee repelled thence by the English ships which they
thought could by no meanes withstand their impregnable forces, perswading
themselues that by means of their huge Fleete, they were become lords and
commaunders of the maine Ocean. For which cause they marueled much how the
English men in their small ships durst approch within musket shot of the
Spaniards mightie wooden castles, gathering the wind of them with many
other such like attempts.

Immediately after, Valdez and his company, being a man of principal
authoritie in the Spanish Fleete, and being descended of one and the same
familie with that Valdez, which in the yeere 1574 besieged Leiden in
Holland, were sent captiues into England. There were in the sayd ship 55.
thousand duckates in ready money of the Spanish kings gold, which the
souldiers merily shared among themselues.

[Sidenote: A great Biscaine ship taken by the English.] The same day was
set on fire one of their greatest shippes, being Admirall of the squadron
of Guipusco, and being the shippe of Michael de Oquendo Vice-admirall of
the whole Fleete, which contained great store of gunnepowder and other
warrelike prouision. The vpper part onely of this shippe was burnt, and an
the persons therein contained (except a very few) were consumed with fire.
And thereupon it was taken by the English, and brought into England with a
number of miserable burnt and skorched Spaniards. Howbeit the gunpowder (to
the great admiration of all men) remained whole and vnconsumed.

In the meane season the lord Admirall of England in his ship called the
Arke-royall, all that night pursued the Spaniards so neere, that in the
morning hee was almost left alone in the enimies Fleete, and it was foure
of the clocke at afternoone before the residue of the English Fleet could
ouertake him.

At the same time Hugo de Moncada gouernour of the foure Galliasses, made
humble sute vnto the Duke of Medina that he might be licenced to encounter
the Admirall of England: which libertie the duke thought not good to permit
vnto him, because hee was loth to exceed the limites of his commission and

[Sidenote: The 23. of Iuly.] Vpon Tuesday which was the three and twentie
of Iuly, the nauie being come ouer against Portland, the wind began to
turne Northerly, insomuch that the Spaniards had a fortunate and fit gale
to inuade the English. But the Englishmen hauing lesser and nimbler Ships,
recouered againe the vantage of the winde from the Spaniards, whereat the
Spaniards seemed to bee more incensed to fight then before. But when the
English Fleete had continually and without intermission from morning to
night, beaten and battered them with all their shot both great and small:
the Spaniardes vniting themselves, gathered their whole Fleete close
together into a roundell, so that it was apparant that they ment not as yet
to inuade others, but onely to defend themselues and to make hast vnto the
place prescribed vnto them, which was neere vnto Dunkerk, that they might
ioine forces with the Duke of Parma, who was determined to haue proceeded
secretly with his small shippes vnder the shadow and protection of the
great ones, and so had intended circumspectly to performe the whole

This was the most furious and bloodie skirmish of all, in which the lord
Admirall of England continued fighting amidst his enimies Fleete, and
seeing one of his Captaines afarre off, hee spake vnto him in these wordes:
Oh George what doest thou? Wilt thou nowe frustrate my hope and opinion
conceiued of thee? Wilt thou forsake me nowe? With which wordes hee being
enflamed, approched foorthwith, encountered the enemie, and did the part of
a most valiant Captaine. His name was George Fenner, a man that had bene
conuersant in many Sea-fights.

[Sidenote: A great Venetian ship and other small ships taken by the
English.] In this conflict there was a certaine great Venetian ship with
other small ships surprised and taken by the English.

The English nauie in the meane while increased, whereunto out of all Hauens
of the Realme resorted ships and men: for they all with one accord came
flocking thither as vnto a set field, where immortall fame and glory was to
be attained, and faithfult seruice to bee performed vnto their prince and

In which number there were many great and honourable personages, as namely,
the Erles of Oxford, of Northumberland, of Cumberland, &c. with many
Knights and Gentlemen: to wit, Sir Thomas Cecill, Sir Robert Cecill, Sir
Walter Raleigh, Sir William Hatton, Sir Horatio Palauacini, Sir Henry
Brooke, Sir Robert Carew, Sir Charles Blunt, Master Ambrose Willoughbie,
Master Henry Nowell, Master Thomas Gerard, Master Henry Dudley, Master
Edward Darcie, Master Arthur Gorge, Master Thomas Woodhouse, Master William
Haruie, &c. And so it came to passe that the number of the English shippes
amounted vnto an hundreth: which when they were come before Douer, were
increased to an hundred and thirtie, being notwithstanding of no
proportionable bignesse to encounter with the Spaniards, except two or
three and twentie of the Queehes greater shippes, which onely, by reason of
their presence, bred an opinion in the Spaniardes mindes concerning the
power of the English Fleet: the mariners and souldiers whereof were
esteemed to be twelue thousand.

[Sidenote: The 24 of Iuly.] The foure and twentie of Iuly when as the sea
was calme, and no winde stirring, the fight was onely betweene the foure
great Galleasses and the English shippes, which being rowed with Oares, had
great vauntage of the sayd English shippes, which notwithstanding for all
that would not bee forced to yeeld, but discharged their chaine-shot to cut
assunder the Cables and Cordage of the Galliasses, with many other such
Stratagemes. They were nowe constrained to send their men on land for a
newe supplie of Gunne-powder, whereof they were in great skarcitie, by
reason they had so frankely spent the greater part in the former conflicts.

The same day, a Counsell being assembled, it was decreed that the English
Fleete should be diuided into foure squadrons: the principall whereof was
committed vnto the lord Admirall: the second to Sir Francis Drake: the
third, to Captaine Hawkins: the fourth, to Captaine Frobisher.

The Spaniards in their sailing obserued very diligent and good order,
sayling three and foure, and sometimes more ships in a ranke, and folowing
close vp one after another, and the stronger and greater ships protecting
the lesser.

[Sidenote: The 25. of Iuly.] The fiue and twenty of Iuly when the
Spaniardes were come ouer-gainst the Isle of Wight, the lord Admirall of
England being accompanied with his best ships, (namely the Lion, Captaine
whereof was the lord Thomas Howard: The Elizabeth Ionas vnder the
commandement of Sir Robert Southwel sonne in lawe vnto the lord Admirall:
the Beare vnder the lord Sheffield nephew vnto the lord Admirall: the
Victorie vnder Captaine Barker: and the Galeon Leicester vnder the
forenamed Captaine George Fenner) with great valour and dreadfull
thundering of shot, encountered the Spanish Admirall being in the very
midst of all his Fleet. Which when the Spaniard perceiued, being assisted
with his strongest ships, he came foorth and entered a terrible combate
with the English: for they bestowed each on other the broad sides, and
mutually discharged all their Ordinance, being within one hundred, or an
hundred and twentie yards one of another.

At length the Spaniardes hoised vp their sayles, and againe gathered
themselues vp close into the forme of a roundel. In the meane while
Captaine Frobisher had engaged himselfe into a most dangerous conflict.
Whereupon the lord Admirall comming to succour him, found that hee had
valiantly and discreetly behaued himselfe, and that hee had wisely and in
good time giuen ouer the fight, because that after so great a batterie he
had sustained no damage.

[Sidenote: The 26. of Iuly.] For which cause the day following, being the
sixe and twentie of Iuly, the lord Admirall rewarded him with the order of
knighthood, together with the lord Thomas Howard, the lord Sheffield, M.
Iohn Hawkins and others.

The same day the lord Admirall receiued intelligence from Newhauen in
France, by certaine of his Pinasses, that all things were quiet in France,
and that there was no preparation of sending aide vnto the Spaniards, which
was greatly feared from the Guisian faction, and from the Leaguers: but
there was a false rumour spread all about, that the Spaniards had conquered

[Sidenote: The 27. of Iuly. The Spaniards ancre before Caleis.] The seven
and twentie of Iuly, the Spaniards about the sunne-setting were come
ouer-against Douer, and rode at ancre within the sight of Caleis, intending
to hold on for Dunkerk, expecting there to ioyne with the Duke of Parma
his, forces, without which they were able to doe litle or nothing.

Likewise the English Fleete following vp hard vpon them, ancred just by
them within culuering-shot. And here the lord Henry Seymer vnited himselfe
vnto the lord Admiral with his fleete of 30. ships which road before the
mouth of Thames.

As the Spanish nauie therefore lay at ancre, the Duke of Medina sent
certaine messengers vnto the duke of Parma, with whom vpon that occasion
many Noblemen and Gentleman went to refresh themselues on land: and amongst
the rest the prince of Ascoli, being accounted the kings base sonne, and a
very proper and towardly yong gentleman, to his great good, went on shore,
who was by so much the more fortunate, in that hee had not opportunitie to
returne on boord the same ship, out of which he was departed, because that
in returning home it was cast away vpon the Irish coast, with all the
persons contained therein.

The duke of Parma being aduertised of the Spanish Fleetes arriual vpon the
coast of England, made all the haste hee could to bee present himselfe in
this expedition for the performance of his charge: vainely perswading
himselfe that nowe by the meanes of Cardinall Allen, hee should be crowned
king of England, and for that cause hee had resigned the government of the
Lowe countries vnto Count Mansfeld the elder. [Sidenote: The 28. of Iuly.]
And having made his vowes vnto S. Mary of Hall in Henault (whom he went to
visite for his blind deuotions sake) he returned toward Bruges the 28. of

[Sidenote: The 29. of Iuly.] The next day trauelling to Dunkerk hee heard
the thundering Ordinance of either Fleet: and the same euening being come
to Dixmud, hee was giuen to vnderstand the hard successe of the Spanish

[Sidenote: The 30. of Iuly.] Vpon Tuesday which was the thirtieth of Iuly,
about high noone, hee came to Dunkerk, when as all the Spanish Fleete was
now passed by: neither durst any of his ships in the meane space come
foorth to assist the sayd Spanish Fleete for feare of fiue and thirtie
warrelike ships of Holland and Zeland, which there kept watch and warde
vnder the conduct of the Admirall Iustin of Nassau.

The foresayd fiue and thirtie shippes were furnished with most cunning
mariners and olde expert souldiers, amongst the which were twelue hundred
Musketiers, whom the States had chosen out of all their garisons, and whom
they knew to haue bene heretofore experienced in sea-fights.

This nauie was giuen especially in charge not to suffer any shippe to come
out of the Hauen, not to permit any Zabraes, Pataches, or other small
vessels of the Spanish Fleete (which were more likely to aide the
Dunkerkers) to enter thereinto, for the greater ships were not to be feared
by reason of the shallow sea in that place. Howbeit the prince of Parma his
forces being as yet vnreadie, were not come on boord his shippes, onely the
English Fugitiues being seuen hundred in number vnder the conduct of Sir
William Stanley, came in fit time to haue bene embarked, because they hoped
to giue the first assault against England. The residue shewed themselues
vnwilling and loath to depart, because they sawe but a few mariners, who
were by constraint drawne into this expedition, and also because they had
very bare prouision of bread, drinke, and other necessary victuals.

Moreouer, the shippes of Holland and Zeland stood continually in their
sight, threatening shot and powder, and many inconueniences vnto them: for
feare of which shippes the Mariners and Sea-men secretly withdrew
themselues both day and night, lest that the duke of Parma his souldiers
should compell them, by maine force to goe on boord, and to breake through
the Hollanders Fleete, which all of them iudged to bee impossible by reason
of the straightnesse of the Hauen.

[Sidenote: The Spaniards vaine opinion concerning their own fleet.] But it
seemeth that the Duke of Parma and the Spaniards grounded vpon a vaine and
presumptuous expectation, that all the ships of England and of the Low
countreys would at the first sight of the Spanish and Dunkerk Nauie haue
betaken themselues to flight, yeelding them sea roome, and endeuouring only
to defend themselues, their hauens, and sea coasts from inuasion. Wherefore
their intent and purpose was, that the Duke of Parma in his small and
flat-bottomed shippes, should as it were vnder the shadow and wings of the
Spanish fleet, conuey ouer all his troupes, armour, and warlike prouision,
and with their forces so vnited, should inuade England; or while the
English fleet were busied in fight against the Spanish, should enter vpon
any part of the coast, which he thought to be most conuenient. Which
inuasion (as the captiues afterward confessed) the Duke of Parma thought
first to haue attempted by the riuer of Thames; vpon the bankes whereof
hauing at his first arriuall landed twenty or thirty thousand of his
principall souldiers, he supposed that he might easily haue woonne the
Citie of London; both because his small shippes should haue followed and
assisted his land-forces, and also for that the Citie it-selfe was but
meanely fortified and easie to ouercome, by reason of the Citizens
delicacie and discontinuance from the warres, who with continuall and
constant labour might be vanquished, if they yeelded not at the first
assault. They were in good hope also to haue mette with some rebels against
her Maiestie, and such as were discontented with the present state, as
Papists and others. Likewise they looked for ayde from the fauorers of the
Scottish Queene, who was not long before put to death; all which they
thought would haue stirred vp seditions and factions.

Whenas therefore the Spanish fleet rode at anker before Caleis, to the end
they might consult with the Duke of Parma what was best to be done
according to the Kings commandement, and the present estate of their
affairs, and had now (as we will afterward declare) purposed vpon the
second of August being Friday, with one power and consent to haue put their
intended businesse in practise; the L. Admirall of England being admonished
by her Maiesties letters from the Court, thought it most expedient either
to driue the Spanish fleet from that place, or at leastwise to giue them
the encounter: [Sidenote: The 28 of Iuly.] and for that cause (according to
her Maiesties prescription) he tooke forthwith eight of his woorst and
basest ships which came next to hand, and disburthening them of all things
which seemed to be of any value, filled them with gun-powder, pitch,
brimstone, and with other combustible and firy matter; and charging all
their ordinance with powder, bullets, and stones, he sent the sayd ships
vpon the 28 of Iuly being Sunday, about two of the clocke after midnight,
with the winde and tide against the Spanish fleet: which when they had
proceeded a good space, being forsaken of the Pilots, and set on fire,
were, directly carried vpon the King of Spaines Nauie: which fire in the
dead of the night put the Spaniards into such a perplexity and horrour (for
they feared lest they were like vnto those terrible ships, which Frederick
Ienebelli three yeeres before, at the siege of Antwerpe, had furnished with
gun-powder, stones, and dreadfull engines, for the dissolution of the Duke
of Parma his bridge, built vpon the riuer of Scheld) that cutting their
cables whereon their ankers were fastened, and hoising vp their sailes,
they betooke themselues very confusedly vnto the maine sea.

[Sidenote: The galliasse of Hugo de Moncado cast vpon the showlds before
Caleis.] In this sudden confusion, the principall and greatest of the foure
galliasses falling fowle of another ship, lost her rudder: for which cause
when she conld not be guided any longer, she was by the force of the tide
cast into a certaine showld vpon the shore of Caleis, where she was
immediately assaulted by diuers English pinasses, hoyes, and drumblers.

[Sidenote: M. Amias Preston valiantly boordeth the galliasse.] And as they
lay battering of her with their ordinance, and durst not boord her, the L.
Admirall sent thither his long boat with an hundreth choise souldiers vnder
the command of Captaine Amias Preston. Vpon whose approch their fellowes
being more emboldened, did offer to boord the galliasse: against whom the
gouernour thereof and Captaine of all the foure galliasses, Hugo de
Moncada, stoutly opposed himselfe, fighting by so much the more valiantly,
in that he hoped presently to be succoured by the Duke of Parma. In the
meane season, Moncada, after he had endured the conflict a good while,
being hitte on the head with a bullet, fell downe starke dead, and a great
number of Spaniards also were slaine in his company. The greater part of
the residue leaping ouer-boord into the sea, to saue themselues by
swimming, were most of them drowned. Howbeit there escaped among others Don
Anthonio de Manriques, a principall officer in the Spanish fleet (called by
them their Veador generall) together with a few Spaniards besides: which
Anthonio was the first man that carried certaine newes of the successe of
their fleet into Spaine.

This huge and monstrous galliasse, wherein were contained three hundred
slaues to lug at the oares, and foure hundred souldiers, was in the space
of three houres rifled in the same place; and there were found amongst
diuers other commodities 50000 ducats of the Spanish kings treasure. At
length when the slaues were released out of the fetters, the English men
would haue set the sayd ship on fire, which Monsieur Gourdon the gouernor
of Caleis, for feare of the damage which might thereupon ensue to the Towne
and Hauen, would not permit them to do, but draue them from thence with his
great ordinance.

[Sidenote: The great fight before Greueling the 29 of Iuly.] Vpon the 29 of
Iuly in the morning, the Spanish Fleet after the foresayd tumult, hauing
arranged themselues againe into order, were, within sight of Greueling,
most brauely and furiously encountered by the English; where they once
againe got the winde of the Spaniards: who suffered themselues to be
depriued of the commodity of the place in Calais rode, and of the aduantage
of the winde neere vnto Dunkerk, rather then they would change their array
or separate their forces now conioyned and vnited together, standing onely
vpon their defence.

And albeit there were many excellent and warlike ships in the English
fleet, yet scarse were there 22 or 23 among them all which matched 90 of
the Spanish ships in bignesse, or could conueniently assault them.
Wherefore the English shippes vsing their prerogatiue of nimble stirrage,
whereby they could turne and wield themselues with the winde which way they
listed, came often times very neere vpon the Spaniards, and charged them so
sore, that now and then they were but a pikes length asunder: and so
continually giuing them one broad side after another, they discharged all
their shot both great and small vpon them, spending one whole day from
morning till night in that violent kinde of conflict, vntill such time as
powder and bullets failed them. In regard of which want they thought it
conuenient not to pursue the Spaniards any longer, because they had many
great vantages of the English, namely for the extraordinary bignesse of
their ships, and also for that they were so neerely conioyned, and kept in
so good array, that they could by no meanes be fought withall one to one.
The English thought therefore, that they had right well acquited
themselues, in chasing the Spaniards first from Caleis, and then from
Dunkerk, and by that meanes to haue hindered them from ioyning with the
Duke of Parma his forces, and getting the winde of them, to haue driuen
them from their owne coasts.

The Spaniards that day sustained great losse and damage hauing many of
their shippes shot thorow and thorow, and they discharged likewise great
store of ordinance against the English; who indeed sustained some
hinderance, but not comparable to the Spaniards losse: for they lost not
any one shippe or person of account. For very diligent inquisition being
made, the English men all that time wherein the Spanish Nauie sayled vpon
their seas, are not found to haue wanted aboue one hundreth of their
people: albeit Sir Francis Drakes shippe was pierced with shot aboue forty
times, and his very cabben was twise shot thorow, and about the conclusion
of the fight, the bedde of a certaine gentleman lying weary thereupon, was
taken quite from vnder him with the force of a bullet. Likewise, as the
Earle of Northumberland and Sir Charles Blunt were at dinner vpon a time,
the bullet of a demi-culuering brake thorow the middest of their cabbin,
touched their feet, and strooke downe two of the standers by, with many
such accidents befalling the English shippes, which it were tedious to
rehearse. Whereupon it is most apparant, that God miraculously preserued
the English nation. For the L. Admirall wrote vnto her Maiestie that in all
humane reason, and according to the iudgement of all men (euery
circumstance being duly considered) the English men were not of any such
force, whereby they might, without a miracle, dare once to approch within
sight of the Spanish Fleet: insomuch that they freely ascribed all the
honour of their victory vnto God, who had confounded the enemy, and had
brought his counsels to none effect.

[Sidenote: Three Spanish shippes suncke in the fight.] The same day the
Spanish ships were so battered with English shot, that that very night and
the day following, two or three of them suncke right downe: and among the
rest a certaine great ship of Biscay, which Captaine Crosse assaulted,
which perished euen in the time of the conflict, so that very few therein
escaped drowning; who reported that the gouernours of the same shippe slew
one another vpon the occasion following: one of them which would haue
yeelded the shippe was suddenly slaine; the brother of the slaine party in
reuenge of his death slew the murtherer, and in the meane while the ship

[Sidenote: Two galeons taken and caried into Zealand.] The same night two
Portugall galeons of the burthen of seuen or eight hundreth tunnes a piece,
to wit the Saint Philip and the Saint Matthew, were forsaken of the Spanish
Fleet, for they were so torne with shotte that the water entered into them
on all sides. In the galeon of Saint Philip was Francis de Toledo, brother
vnto the Count de Orgas, being Colonell ouer two and thirty bands: besides
other gentlemen; who seeing their mast broken with shotte, they shaped
their course, as well as they could, for the coast of Flanders: whither
when they could not attaine, the principall men in the ship committing
themseluds to their skiffe, arriued at the next towne, which was Ostend;
and the ship it selfe being left behinde with the residue of their company,
was taken by the Vlishingers.

In the other galeon, called the S. Matthew, was embarked Don Diego
Pimentelli another camp-master and colonell of 32 bands, being brother vnto
the marques of Tamnares, with many other gentlemen and captaines. Their
ship was not very great, but exceeding strong, for of a great number of
bullets which had batterd her, there were scarse 20 wherewith she was
pierced or hurt: her vpper worke was of force sufficient to beare off a
musket shot: this shippe was shot thorow and pierced in the fight before
Greueling; insomuch that the leakage of the water could not be stopped:
whereupon the duke of Medina sent his great skiffe vnto the gouernour
thereof, that he might saue himselfe and the principal persons that were in
his ship: which he, vpon a hault courage, refused to do: wherefore the Duke
charged him to saile next vnto himselfe: which the night following he could
not performe, by reason of the great abundance of water which entered his
ship on all sides; for the auoiding wherof, and to saue his ship from
sincking, he caused 50 men continually to labor at the pumpe, though it
were to small purpose. And seeing himselfe thus forsaken and separated from
his admirall, he endeuored what he could to attaine vnto the coast of
Flanders: where, being espied by 4 or 5 men of warre, which had their
station assigned them vpon the same coast, he was admonished to yeeld
himselfe vnto them. Which he refusing to do, was strongly assaulted by them
altogether, and his ship being pierced with many bullets, was brought into
farre worse case then before, and 40 of his souldiers were slaine. By which
extremity he was enforced at length to yeeld himselfe vnto Peter
Banderduess and other captaines, which brought him and his ship into
Zeland; and that other ship also last before mentioned: which both of them,
immediatly after the greater and better part of their goods were vnladen,
suncke right downe.

For the memory of this exploit, the fbresayd captaine Banderduess caused
the banner of one of these shippes to be set vp in the great Church of
Leiden in Holland, which is of so great a length, that being fastened to
the very roofe, it reached downe to the ground.

[Sidenote: A small shippe cast away about Blankenberg.] About the same time
another small ship being by necessity dtiuen vpon the coast of Flanders,
about Blankenberg, was cast away vpon the sands, the people therein being
saued. Thus almighty God would haue the Spaniards huge ships to be
presented, not onely to the view of the English, but also of the Zelanders;
that at the sight of them they might acknowledge of what small ability they
had beene to resist such impregnable forces, had not God endued them with
courage, prouidence, and fortitude, yea, and fought for them in many places
with his owne arme.

The 29. of Iuly the Spanish fleet being encountered by the English (as is
aforesayd) and lying close together vnder their fighting sailes, with a
Southwest winde sailed past Dunkerk, the English ships still following the
chase. [Sidenote: The dishonourable flight of the Spanish nauy; and the
prudent aduice of the L. Admirall.] Of whom the day following when the
Spaniards had got sea roome, they cut their maine sailes; whereby they
sufficiently declared that they meant no longer to fight but to flie. For
which cause the L. Admirall of England dispatched the L. Henrie Seymer with
his squadron of small ships vnto the coast of Flanders where, with the
helpe of the Dutch ships, he might stop the prince of Parma his passage, if
perhaps he should attempt to issue forth with his army. And he himselfe in
the meane space pursued the Spanish fleet vntil the second of August,
because he thought they had set saile for Scotland. And albeit he followed
them very neere, yet did he not assault them any more, for want of powder
and bullets. But vpon the fourth of August, the winde arising, when as the
Spaniards had spread all their sailes, betaking themselues wholly to
flight, and leauing Scotland on the left hand, trended toward Norway,
(whereby they sufficiently declared that their whole intent was to saue
themselnes by flight, attempting for that purpose, with their battered and
crazed ships, the most dangerous nauigation of the Northren seas) the
English seeing that they were now proceeded vnto the latitude of 57
degrees, and being vnwilling to participate that danger whereinto the
Spaniards plunged themselues, and because they wanted things necessary, and
especially powder and shot, returned backe for England; leauing behinde
them certaine pinasses onely, which they enioyned to follow the Spaniards
aloofe, and to obserue their course. [Sidenote: The English returne home
from the pursute of the Spaniards the 4 of August.] And so it came to passe
that the fourth of August with great danger and industry, the English
arriued at Harwich: for they had bene tossed vp and downe with a mighty
tempest for the space of two or three dayes together, which it is likely
did great hurt vnto the Spanish fleet, being (as I sayd before) so maimed
and battered. The English now going on shore, prouided themselues
foorthwith of victuals, gunnepowder, and other things expedient, that they
might be ready at all assayes to entertaine the Spanish fleet, if it
chanced any more to returne. But being afterward more certainely informed
of the Spaniards course, they thought it best to leaue them vnto those
boisterous and vncouth Northren seas, and not there to hunt after them.

[Sidenote: The Spaniards consult to saile round about Scotland and Ireland,
and so to returne home.] The Spaniards seeing now that they wanted foure or
fiue thousand of their people and hauing diuers maimed and sicke persons,
and likewise hauing lost 10 or 12 of their principall ships, they consulted
among themselues, what they were best to doe, being now escaped out of the
hands of the English, because their victuals failed them in like sort, that
they began also to want cables, cordage, ankers, masts, sailes, and other
naual furniture, and vtterly despaired of the Duke of Parma his assistance
(who verily hoping and vndoubtedly expecting the returne of the Spanish
Fleet, was continually occupied about his great preparation, commanding
abundance of ankers to be made, and other necessary furniture for a Nauy to
be prouided) they thought it good at length, so soone as the winde should
serue them, to fetch a compasse about Scotland and Ireland, and so to
returne for Spaine.

For they well vnderstood, that commandement was giuen thorowout all
Scotland, that they should not haue any succour or assistance there.
Neither yet could they in Norway supply their wants. Wherefore, hauing
taken certaine Scotish and other fisherboats, they brought the men on boord
their ships, to the end they might be their guides and Pilots. Fearing also
least their fresh water should faile them, they cast all their horses and
mules ouerboord: and so touching no where vpon the coast of Scotland, but
being carried with a fresh gale betweene the Orcades and Faar-Isles, they
proceeded farre North, euen vnto 61 degrees of latitude, being distant from
any land at the least 40. leagues. Heere the Duke of Medina generall of the
Fleet commanded all his followers to shape their course for Biscay: and he
himselfe with twenty or fiue and twenty of his ships which were best
prouided of fresh water and other necessaries, holding on his course ouer
the maine Ocean, returned safely home. The residue of his ships being about
forty in number, and committed vnto his Vice-admirall, fell neerer with the
coast of Ireland, intending their course for Cape Clare, because they hoped
there to get fresh water, and to refresh themseiues on land. [Sidenote: The
shippe-wracke of the Spaniardes vpon the Irish coast.] But after they were
driuen with many contrary windes, at length, vpon the second of September,
they were cast by a tempest arising from the Southwest vpon diuers parts of
Ireland, where many of their ships perished. And amongst others, the shippe
of Michael de Oquendo, which was one of the great Galliasses: and two great
ships of Venice also, namely, la Raita and Belahzara, with other 36 or 38
ships more, which perished in sundry tempests, together with most of the
persons contained in them.

Likewise some of the Spanish ships were the second time carried with a
strong West winde into the channell of England, whereof some were taken by
the English vpon their coast, and others by the men of Rochel vpon the
coast of France.

Moreouer, there arriued at Neuhauen, in Normandy, being by tempest inforced
so to doe, one of the foure great Galliasses, where they found the ships
with the Spanish women which followed the Fleet at their setting forth.
[Sidenote: Of 134 ships of the Spanish fleet, there returned home but 53.]
Two ships also, were cast away vpon the coast of Norway, one of them being
of a great burthen; howbeit all the persons in the sayd great ship were
saued: insomuch that of 134 ships, which set saile out of Portugall, there
returned home 53 onely small and great: namely of the foure galliasses but
one, and but one of the foure gallies. Of the 91 great galleons and hulks
there were missing 58. and 33 returned: of the pataches and zabraes 17 were
missing, and 18 returned home. In briefe, there were missing 81 ships, in
which number were galliasses, gallies, galeons, and other vessels, both
great and small. And amongst the 53 ships remaining, those also are
reckoned which returned home before they came into the English chanell. Two
galeons of those which were returned, were by misfortune burnt as they rode
in the hauen; and such like mishaps did many others vndergo. Of 30000
persons which went in this expedition, there perished (according to the

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