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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of The English Nation, v. 7 by Richard Hakluyt

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slenderly esteemed? For though all our hope of peace be frustrate, and our
quarels determinable by the sword: though our enemie hath by his owne
forces, and his pensionaries industry, confined the united Prouinces into a
narow roume, and almost disunited the same: if he be now in a good way to
harbor himselfe, in the principall hauens of France, from whence he may
front vs at pleasure: yea though we are to hope for nothing but a bloodie
warre, nor can trust to any helpe but Armes; yet how far the common sort
are from reuerencing or regarding any persons of condition, was too
apparant in the returne of this our iourney, wherein the base and common
souldier hath bene tollerated to speake against the Captaine, and the
souldier and Captaine against the Generals, and wherein mechanicall and men
of base condicion doe dare to censure the doings of them, of whose acts
they are not woorthy to talke.

The ancient graue degree of the Prelacie is vpheld, though Martin raile
neuer so much, and the Lawyer is after the old maner worshipped, whosoeuer
inueigh against him. But the ancient English honour is taken from our men
of war, and their profession in disgrace, though neuer so necessary. Either
we commit idolatry to Neptune, and will put him alone stil to fight for vs
as he did the last yeere, or we be inchanted with some diuelish opinions,
that trauell nothing more then to diminish the reputation of them, vpon
whose shoulders the burden of our defence against the enemie must lie when
occasion shall be offred. For whensoeuer he shall set foote vpon our land,
it is neither the preaching of the Clergie that can turne him out againe,
nor the pleading of any Lawyers that can remoue him out of possession: no,
then they will honour them whom now they thinke not on, and then must those
men stand betweene them and their perils, who are now thought vnwoorthy of
any estimation.

May the burning of one towne (which cost the king then being six times as
much as this hath done her maiestie, wherein were lost seuen times as many
men as in any one seruice of this iourney, and taried not the tenth part of
our time in the enemies Countrey) be by our elders so highly reputed and
sounded out by the historie of the Realme: and can our voyage be so meanly
esteemed, wherein we burned both townes and Countreys without the losse of
fortie men in any such attempt?

Did our kings in former times reward some with the greatest titles of
honour for ouerthrowing a number of poore Scots, who, after one battell
lost, were neuer able to reenforce themselues against him; and shall they
in this time who have ouerthrowen our mightie enemie in battell, and taken
his roiall Standerd in the field, besieged the marquesse of Saralba 15
dayes together, that should haue bene the Generall of the Armie against vs,
brought away so much of his artillerie (as I haue before declared) be
vnwoorthily esteemed of?

It is possible that some in some times should receiue their reward for
looking vpon an enemie, and ours in this time not receiue so much as thanks
for hauing beaten an enemie at handie strokes?

But is it true that no man shall bee a prophet in his Countrey: and for my
owne part I will lay aside my Armes till that profession shal haue more
reputation, and liue with my friends in the countrey, attending either some
more fortunate time to vse them, or some other good occasion to make me
forget them.

But what? shall the blind opinion of this monster, a beast of many heads,
(for so hath the generaltie of old bene termed) cause me to neglect the
profession from whence I chalenge some reputation, or diminish my loue to
my countrey, which hitherto hath nourished me? No, it was for her sake I
first tooke armes, and for her sake I will handle them so long as I shall
be able to vse them: not regarding how some men in private conuenticles do
measure mens estimations by their owne humors; nor how euery popular person
doeth giue sentence on euery mans actions by the worst accidents. But
attending the gracious aspect of our dread Soueraigne, who neuer yet left
vertue vnrewarded: and depending vpon the iustice of her most rare and
graue aduisors, who by their heedie looking into euery mans worth, do giue
encouragement to the vertuous to exceed others in vertue: and assuring you
that there shall neuer any thing happen more pleasing vnto me, then that I
may once againe bee a partie in some honorable journey against the Spaniard
in his owne countrey, I will cease my complaint: and with them that deserue
beyond me, patiently endure the vnaduised censure of our malicious

If I haue seemed in the beginning hereof troublesome vnto you, in the
discouering of those impediments, and answering the slanders which by the
vulgar malicious and mutinous sort are laid as blemishes vpon the iourney,
and reprochse vpon the Generals (hauing indeed proceeded from other heads:)
let the necessitie of conseruing the reputation of the action in generall,
and the honors of our Generals in particular, bee my sufficient excuse: the
one hauing by the vertue of the other made our countrey more dreaded and
renowmed, then any act that euer England vndertooke before. Or if you haue
thought my perswasible discourse long in the latter end; let the
affectionate desire of my countreys good be therein answerable for me. And
such as it is I pray you accept it, as only recommended to your selfe, and
not to be deliuered to the publique view of the world, lest any man take
offence thereat: which some particular men may seeme iustly to do, in that
hauing deserued very well, I should not herein giue them their due
considerations: whereas my purpose in this priuate discourse hath bene
onely to gratifie you with a touch of those principall matters that haue
passed, wherein I haue onely taken notes of those men who either commaunded
euery seruice, or were of chiefest marke: if therefore you shall impart the
same to one, and he to another, and so it passe through my hands, I know
not what constructions would be made thereof to my preiudice; for that the
Hares eares may happily be taken for hornes. Howbeit I hold it very
necessary (I must confesse) that there should be some true manifestation
made of these things: but be it far from me to be the author thereof, as
very vnfit to deliuer my censure of any matter in publique, and most
vnwilling to haue my weaknesse discouered in priuate. And so I doe leaue
you to the happy successe of your accustomed good exercises, earnestly
wishing that there may be some better acceptance made of the fruits of your
studies, then there hath bene of our hazards in the wars. From London the
30 of August 1589.

* * * * *

The escape of the Primrose a tall ship of London, from before the towne of
Bilbao in Biscay: which ship the Corrigidor of the same Prouince,
accompanied with 97 Spaniards, offered violently to arrest, and was
defeated of his purpose, and brought prisoner into England.

Whereunto is added the Kings Commission for a generall imbargment or arrest
of all English, Netherlandish, and Easterlings ships, written in
Barcelona the 19 of May 1585.

It is not vnknowen vnto the world what danger our English shippes haue
lately escaped, how sharpely they haue beene intreated, and howe hardly
they haue beene assaulted: so that the valiancie of those that mannaged
them is worthy remembrance. And therefore in respect of the couragious
attempt and valiant enterprise of the ship called the Primrose of London,
which hath obteined renowne, I haue taken in hande to publish the trueth
thereof, to the intent that it may be generally knowen to the rest of the
English ships, that by the good example of this the rest may in time of
extremitie aduenture to doe the like: to the honor of the Realme, and the
perpetuall remembrance of themselues: The maner whereof was at followeth.

Vppon Wednesday being the sixe and twentieth day of May 1585, the shippe
called the Primrose being of one hundred and fiftie tunnes, lying without
the bay of Bilbao, hauing beene there two dayes, there came a Spanish
pinnesse to them, wherein was the Corrigidor and sixe others with him:
these came aboord the Primrose, seeming to be Marchantes of Biscay, or such
like, bringing Cherries with them, and spake very friendly to the Maister
of the ship, whose name was Foster, and he in courteous wise, bad them
welcome, making them the best cheere that he could with beere, beefe, and
bisket, wherewith that ship was well furnished: and while they were thus in
banquetting with the Maister, foure of the seuen departed in the sayd
Pinnesse, and went backe againe to Bilbao: the other three stayed, and were
very pleasant for the time. But Master Foster misdoubting some danger
secretly gaue speech that he was doubtfull of these men what their intent
was; neuerthelesse he sayd nothing, nor seemed in any outward wise to
mistrust them at all. Foorthwith there came a ship-boate wherein were
seuentie persons being Marchants and such like of Biscay: and besides this
boate, there came also the Pinnesse which before had brought the other
three, in which Pinnesse there came foure and twentie, as the Spaniards
themselues since confessed. These made towards the Primrose, and being come
thither, there came aboord the Corrigidor with three or foure of his men:
but Master Foster seeing this great multitude desired that there might no
more come aboord, but that the rest should stay in their boates, which was
granted: neuerthelesse they tooke small heede of these wordes; for on a
suddaine they came foorth of the boate, entring the shippe, euery Spaniarde
taking him to his Rapier which they brought in the boate, with other
weapons, and a drumme wherewith to triumph ouer them. Thus did the
Spaniards enter the shippe, plunging in fiercely vpon them, some planting
themselues vnder the decke, some entring the Cabbens, and the multitude
attending their pray. Then the Corrigidor hauing an officer with him which
bore a white wand in his hand, sayd to the master of the ship: Yeeld your
selfe, for you are the kings prisoner: whereat the Maister sayd to his men,
We are betrayed. Then some of them set daggers to his breast, and seemed in
furious manner as though they would haue slaine him, meaning nothing lesse
then to doe any such act, for all that they sought was to bring him and his
men safe aliue to shore. Whereat the Maister was amazed, and his men
greatly discomfited to see themselues readie to be conueyed euen to the
slaughter: notwithstanding some of them respecting the daunger of the
Maister, and seeing how with themselues there was no way but present death
if they were once landed among the Spaniards, they resolued themselues
eyther to defend the Maister, and generally to shunne that daunger, or else
to die and be buried in the middest of the sea, rather then to suffer
themselues to come into the tormentors hands: and therefore in very bold
and manly sort some tooke them to their iauelings, lances, bore-speares,
and shot, which they had set in readinesse before, and hauing fiue
Calieuers readie charged, which was all the small shot they had, those that
were vnder the hatches or the grate did shoote vp at the Spaniards that
were ouer their heads, which shot so amazed the Spaniards on the suddaine,
as they could hardly tell which way to escape the daunger, fearing this
their small shot to be of greater number then it was: others in very
manlike sort dealt about among them, shewing themselues of that courage
with bore-speares and lances, that they dismayed at euery stroke two or
three Spaniards. Then some of them desired the Maister to commaund his men
to cease and holde their handes, but hee answered that such was the courage
of the English Nation in defence of their owne liues, that they would slay
them and him also: and therefore it lay not in him to doe it. Now did their
blood runne about the ship in great quantitie, some of them being shot in
betweene the legges, the bullets issuing foorth at their breasts, some cut
in the head, some thrust into the bodie, and many of them very sore
wounded, so that they came not so fast in on the one side, but now they
tumbled as fast ouer boord on both sides with their weapons in their
handes, some falling into the sea, and some getting into their boates,
making haste towardes the Citie. And this is to be noted, that although
they came very thicke thither, there returned but a small companie of them,
neither is it knowen as yet how many of them were slaine or drowned, onely
one English man was then slaine, whose name was Iohn Tristram, and sixe
other hurt. It was great pitie to behold how the Spaniards lay swimming in
the sea, and were not able to saue their liues. Foure of them taking hold
of the shippe were for pities sake taken vp againe by Maister Foster and
his men, not knowing what they were: all the Spaniards bosomes were stuft
with paper, to defend them from the shot, and these foure hauing some
wounds were dressed by the surgion of the shippe. One of them was the
Corrigidor himselfe, who is gouernour of a hundred Townes and Cities in
Spaine, his liuing by his office being better then sixe hundred pound
yerely. This skirmish happened in the euening about sixe of the clocke,
after they had laden twenty Tunne of goods and better out of the sayd ship:
which goods were deliuered by two of the same ship, whose names were Iohn
Burrell and Iohn Brodbanke, who being on shore were apprehended and stayed.

[Sidenote: The Corrigidor of Bilbao taken and brought to London.] After
this valiant enterprise of eight and twentie English men against 97
Spaniards, they saw it was in vaine for them to stay, and therefore set vp
sayles, and by Gods prouidence auoyded all daunger, brought home the rest
of their goods, and came thence with all expedition: and (God be thanked)
arriued safely in England neere London on Wednesday being the 8 day of Iune
1585. In which their returne to England the Spaniards that they brought
with them offered fiue hundred crownes to be set on shore in any place:
which, seeing the Maister would not doe, they were content to be ruled by
him and his companie, and craued mercie at their hands. And after Master
Foster demaunded why they came in such sort to betray and destroy them, the
Corrigidor answered, that it was not done onely of themselues, but by the
commandement of the king himselfe; and calling for his hose which were wet,
did plucke foorth the kings Commission, by which he was authorized to doe
all that he did: the Copie whereof followeth, being translated out of

The Spanish kings commision for the generall imbargment or arrest of the
English, &c.

Licentiat de Escober, my Corigidor of my Signorie of Biskay, I haue caused
a great fleete to be put in readinesse in the hauen of Lisbone, and the
riuer of Siuill. There is required for the Souldiers, armour, victuals, and
munition, that are to be imployed in the same great store of shipping of
all series against the time of seruice, and to the end there may be choise
made of the best, vpon knowledge of their burden and goodnesse; I doe
therefore require of you, that presently vpon the arriuall of this carrier,
and with as much dissimulation as may be (that the matter may not be knowen
vntill it be put into execution) you take order for the staying and
arresting (with great foresight) of all the shipping that may be found vpon
the coast, and in the portes of the sayd Signorie, excepting none of
Holand, Zeland, Easterland, Germanie, England, and other Prouinces that are
in rebellion against mee, sauing those of France which being litle, and of
small burden and weake, are thought vnfit to serue the turne. And the stay
being thus made, you shall haue a speciall care that such marchandize as
the sayd shippes or hulkes haue brought, whether they be all or part
vnladen, may bee taken out, and that the armour, munition, tackels, sayles,
and victuals may be safely bestowed, as also that it may be well foreseene,
that none of the shippes or men escape away. Which things being thus
executed, you shall aduertise me by an expresse messenger, of your
proceeding therein: And send me a plaine and distinct declaration of the
number of shippes that you shall haue so stayed in that coast and partes,
whence euery one of them is, which belong to my Rebels, what burden and
goods there are, and what number of men is in euery of them, and what
quantitie they haue of armour, ordinance, munition, victuals, tacklings and
other necessaries, to the end that vpon sight hereof, hauing made choise of
such as shall be fit for the seruice, we may further direct you what ye
shall do. In the meane time you shall presently see this my commandment put
in execution, and if there come thither any more ships, you shall also
cause them to be stayed and arrested after the same order, vsing therein
such care and diligence, as may answere the trust that I repose in you,
wherein you shall doe me great seruice. Dated at Barcelona the 29 of May,

And thus haue you heard the trueth and manner thereof, wherein is to be
noted the great courage of the maister, and the louing hearts of the
seruants to saue their master from the daunger of death: yea, and the care
which the master had to saue so much of the owners goods as hee might,
although by the same the greatest is his owne losse in that he may neuer
trauell to those parts any more without the losse of his owne life, nor yet
any of his seruantes: for if hereafter they should, being knowen they are
like to taste of the sharpe torments which are there accustomed in their
Holy-house. And as for their terming English shippes to be in rebellion
against them, it is sufficiently knowen by themselues, and their owne
consciences can not denie it, but that with loue, vnitie, and concord, our
shippes haue euer beene fauoruable vnto them, and as willing to pleasure
their King, as his subiectes any way willing to pleasure English

* * * * *

The voiage of the right honorable George Erle of Cumberland to the Azores,
&c. Written by the excellent Mathematician and Enginier master Edward

The right honorable the Erle of Cumberland hauing at his owne charges
prepared his small Fleet of foure Sailes onely, viz. The Victorie one of
the Queenes ships royall; the Meg and Margaret small ships, (one of which
also he was forced soone after to send home againe, finding her not able to
endure the Sea) and a small Carauell, and hauing assembled together about
400 men (or fewer) of gentlemen, souldiers, and saylers, embarked himself
and them, and set saile from the Sound of Plimmouth in Deuonshire, the 18
day of Iune 1589, being accompanied with these captaines and gentlemen
which hereafter folow.

Captaine Christopher Lister a man of great resolution, captaine Edward
Carelesse, _alias_ Wright, who in sir Francis Drakes West Indian voyage to
S. Domingo and Carthagena, was captaine of the Hope. Captaine Boswell, M.
Meruin, M. Henry Long, M. Partridge, M. Norton, M. William Mounson captaine
of the Meg, and his viceadmirall, now sir William Mounson, M. Pigeon
captaine of the Carauell.

About 3 dayes after our departure from Plimmouth we met with 3 French
ships, whereof one was of Newhauen, another of S. Malos, and so finding
them to be Leaguers and lawful Prises, we tooke them and sent two of them
for England with all their loding, which was fish for the most part from
New-found-land, sauing that there was part thereof distributed amongst our
small Fleet, as we could find Stowage for the same: and in the third, all
their men were sent home into France. The same day and the day folowing we
met with some other ships, whom (when after some conference had with them,
we perceiued plainly to bee of Roterodam and Emden, bound for Rochell) we

The 28 and 29 dayes we met diuers of our English ships, returning from the
Portugall voiage which my lord relieued with victuals. The 13 day of Iuly
being Sonday in the morning, we espied 11 ships without sight of the coast
of Spaine, in the height of 39 degrees, whom wee presently prepared for,
and prouided to meet them, hauing first set forth Captaine Mounson in the
Meg, before vs, to descry whence they were. The Meg approching neere, there
passed some shot betwixt them, whereby, as also by their Admiral and
Vice-admirall putting foorth their flags, we perceiued that some fight was
likely to follow. Having therefore fitted our selues for them, we made what
hast we could towards them with regard alwayes to get the wind of them, and
about 10 or 11 of the clocke, we came vp to them with the Victory. But
after some few shot and some litle fight passed betwixt vs, they yeelded
themselues, and the masters of them all came aboord vs, shewing their
seueral Pasports from the cities of Hamburg and Lubeck, from Breme,
Pomerania and Calice.

They had in them certaine bags of Pepper and Synamon, which they confessed
to be the goods of the Iew in Lisbon, which should haue bene carried by
them into their countrey to his Factor there, and so finding it by their
owne confession to be lawful Prise, the same was soone after taken and
diuided amongst our whole company, the value wherof was esteemed to be
about 4500 pounds, at two shillings the pound.

The 17 day the foresaid ships were dismissed, but 7 of their men that were
willing to go along with vs for sailers, we tooke to help vs, and so held
on our course for the Azores.

The 1 of August being Friday in the morning, we had sight of the Iland of
S. Michael, being one of the Eastermost of the Azores toward which we
sailed all that day, and at night hauing put foorth a Spanish flag in our
main-top, that so they might the lesse suspect vs, we approched neere to
the chiefe towne and road of that Iland, where we espied 3 ships riding at
anker and some other vessels: all which we determined to take in the darke
of the night, and accordingly attempted about 10 or 11 of the clocke,
sending our boats well manned to cut their cables and hausers, and let them
driue into the sea. Our men comming to them, found the one of those
greatest ships was the Falcon of London being there vnder a Scottish Pilot
who bare the name of her as his own. [Sidenote: 3 ships forcibly towed our
of harbour.] But 3 other smal ships that lay neere vnder the castle there,
our men let loose and towed them away vnto vs, most of the Spaniards that
were in them leaping ouer-boord and swimming to shore with lowd and
lamentable outcries, which they of the towne hearing were in an vprore, and
answered with the like crying. The castle discharged some great shot at our
boats, but shooting without marke by reason of the darknesse they did vs no
hurt. The Scots likewise discharged 3 great pieces into the aire to make
the Spaniards thinke they were their friends and our enemies, and shortly
after the Scottish master, and some other with him, came aboord to my lord
doing their dutie, and offering their seruice, &c. These 3 ships were
fraught with wine and Sallet-oile from Siuil.

The same day our Carauel chased a Spanish Carauel to shore at S. Michael,
which caried letters thither, by which we learned that the Caraks were
departed from Tercera 8 dayes before.

The 7 of August we had sight of a litle ship which wee chased towards
Tercera with our pinasse (the weather being calme) and towards euening we
ouertooke her, there were in her 30 tunnes of good Madera wine, certaine
woollen cloth, silke, taffata, &c. The 14 of August we came to the Iland of
Flores, where we determined to take in some fresh water and fresh victuals,
such as the Iland did affoord. So we manned our boats with some 120 men and
rowed towards the shore; whereto when we approched the inhabitants that
were assembled at the landing place, put foorth a flag of truce, whereupon
we also did the like.

When we came to them, my Lord gaue them to vnderstand by his Portugall
interpreter, that he was a friend to their king Don Antonio, and came not
any way to iniury them, but that he meant onely to haue some fresh water
and fresh victuals of them, by way of exchange for some prouision that he
had, as oile, wine, or pepper, to which they presently agreed willingly,
and sent some of their company for beeues and sheepe, and we in the meane
season marched Southward about a mile to Villa de Santa Cruz, from whence
all the inhabitants yong and old were departed, and not any thing of value
left. We demanding of them what was the cause hereof, they answered, Feare;
as their vsuall maner was when any ships came neere their coast.

We found that part of the Iland to be full of great rockie barren hils and
mountains, litle inhabited by reason that it is molested with ships of war
which might partly appeare by this towne of Santa Cruz (being one of their
chiefe townes) which was all ruinous, and (as it were) but the reliques of
the ancient towne which had bene burnt about two yeeres before by certaine
English ships of war, as the inhabitants there reported.

At euening as we were in rowing towards the Victory, an huge fish pursued
vs for the space of well nigh of two miles together, distant for the most
part from the boats sterne not a speares length, and sometimes so neere
that the boat stroke vpon him, the tips of whose finnes about the ghils
(appearing oft times aboue the water) were by estimation 4 or 5 yards
asunder, and his iawes gaping a yard and a halfe wide, which put vs in
feare of ouerturning the pinnasse, but God be thanked (rowing as hard as we
could) we escaped.

When we were about Flores a litle ship called the Drake, brought vs word
that the Caraks were at Tercera, of which newes we were very glad, and sped
vs thitherward with all the speed we could: and by the way we came to Fayal
road the seuen and twentieth day of August after sunne set, where we espied
certaine shippes ryding at anker, to whom we sent in our Skiffe with
Captaine Lister and Captaine Monson in her to discouer the roaders: and
least any daunger should happen to our boate, we sent in likewise the
Sawsie Iack and the small Carauell; but the wind being off the shoare, the
shippes were not able to fet it so nigh as the Spaniards ride, which
neuerthelesse the boate did, and clapped a shippe aboord of two hundred and
fiftie tunnes, which caried in her fourteene cast peeces, and continued
fight alone with her for the space of one houre vntill the comming vp of
other boates to the reskue of her, which were sent from the shippes, and
then a fresh boording her againe one boate in the quarter, another in the
hause, we entred her on the one side, and all the Spaniards lept ouerboord
on the other, saue Iuan de Palma the Captaine of her and two or three more,
and thus we became possessors of her. This shippe was mored to the Castle
which shot at vs all this while: the onely hurt which we receiued of all
this shot was this, that the master of our Carauell had the calfe of his
legge shot away. This shippe was laden with Sugar, Ginger, and hides lately
come from S. Iuan de Puerto Rico; after we had towed her cleare off the
castle, we rowed in againe with our boats, and fetched out fiue small ships
more, one laden with hides, another with Elephants teeth, graines,
coco-nuts, and goates skins come from Guinie, another with woad, and two
with dogge-fish, which two last we let driue into the sea making none
account of them. The other foure we sent for England the 30 of August.

At the taking of these Prizes were consorted with vs some other small men
of warre, as Maister Iohn Dauis with his shippe, Pinnesse, and Boate,
Captaine Markesburie with his ship, whose owner was Sir Walter Ralegh, the
Barke of Lime, which was also consorted with vs before.

[Sidenote: An eescape of 8 Englishmen from Tercera.] The last of August in
the morning we came in sight of Tercera, being about some nine or ten
leagues from shoare, where we espied comming toward vs, a small boat vnder
saile, which seemed somewhat strange vnto vs, being so farre from lande,
and no shippe in sight, to which they might belong; but comming neere, they
put vs out of doubt, shewing they were English men (eight in number) that
had lately bene prisoners in Tercera, and finding opportunitie to escape at
that time, with that small boat committed themselues to the sea, vnder Gods
prouidence, hauing no other yard for their maine saile, but two pipe staues
tyed together by the endes, and no more prouision of victuals, then they
could bring in their pockets and bosomes. Hauing taken them all into the
Victorie, they gaue vs certaine intelligence, that the Carackes were
departed from thence about a weeke before.

Thus beeing without any further hope of those Caraks, we resolued to
returne for Fayall, with intent to surprize the towne, but vntill the ninth
of September, we had either the winde so contrary, or the weather so calme,
that in all that time, we made scarce nine or ten leagues way, lingring vp
and downe not farre from Pico.

The tenth of September being Wednesday in the afternoone, wee came again to
Fayal roade. Whereupon immediatly my Lord sent Captaine Lister, with one of
Graciosa (whom Capatine Munson had before taken) and some others, towards
Fayal, whom certaine of the Inhabitants met in a boat, and came with
Captaine Lister to my Lord, to whom hee gaue this choice: either to suffer
him quietly to enter into the platforme there without resistance, where he
and his companie would remaine a space without offering any iniurie to
them, that they (the Inhabitants) might come vnto him and compound for the
ransome of the Towne; or else to stand to the hazard of the warre.

With these words they returned to the towne: but the keepers of the
platforme answered, that it was against their oath and allegeance to king
Philip to giue ouer without fight. Whereupon my Lord commanded the boates
of euery ship, to be presently manned, and soone after landed his men on
the sandie shoare, vnder the side of an hill, about halfe a league to the
Northwards from the platforme: vpon the toppe of which hill certaine
horsemen and footmen shewed themselues, and other two companies also
appeared, with ensignes displayed, the one before the towne vpon the shore
by the sea side, which marched towards our landing place, as though they
would encounter vs; the other in a valley to the Southwards of the
platforme, as if they would haue come to helpe the Townesmen: during which
time they in the platforme also played vpon vs with great Ordinance.
[Sidenote: The taking of the towne and platforme of Fayal.] Notwithstanding
my L. (hauing set his men in order) marched along the sea shore, vpon the
sands, betwixt the sea and the towne towards the platforme for the space of
a mile or more, and then the shore growing rockie, and permitting no
further progresse without much difficultie, he entred into the towne and
passed through the street without resistance, vnto the platforme; for those
companies before mentioned at my Lo. approching, were soone dispersed, and
suddenly vanished.

Likewise they of the platforme, being all fled at my Lordes comming
thither, left him and his company to scale the walles, to enter and take
possession without resistance.

In the meane time our shippes ceased not to batter the foresaid Towne and
Platforme with great shotte, till such time as we saw the Red-Crosse of
England flourishing vpon the Forefront thereof.

[Sidenote: A description of the towne of Faial.] This Fayal is the
principal towne in all that is land, and is situate directly ouer against
the high and mighty mountaine Pico, lying towards the West Northwest from
that mountaine, being deuided therefrom by a narrow Sea, which at that
place is by estimation about some two or three leagues in bredth betweene
the Isles of Fayal and Pico.

The towne conteyned some three hundred housholds, their houses were faire
and strongly builded of lime and stone, and double couered with hollow
tyles much like our roofe tyles, but that they are lesse at the one end
then at the other.

Euery house almost had a cisteme or well in a garden on the backe side: in
which gardens grew vines (with ripe clusters of grapes) making pleasant
shadowes, and Tabacco nowe commonly knowen and vsed in England, wherewith
their women there dye their faces reddish, to make them seeme fresh and
young: Pepper Indian and common; figge-trees bearing both white and red
figges: Peach trees not growing very tall: Orenges, Limons, Quinces,
Potato-roots, &c. Sweete wood (Cedar I thinke) is there very common, euen
for building and firing.

My Lord hauing possessed himselfe of the towne and platforme, and being
carefull of the preseruation of the towne, gaue commandement, that no
mariner or souldier should enter into any house, to make any spoyle
thereof. But especially he was carefull that the Churches and houses of
religion there should be kept inuiolate, which was accordingly performed,
through his appointment of guarders and keepers for those places: but the
rest of the towne eyther for want of the former inhibition, or for desire
of spoyle and prey, was rifled, and ransacked by the souldiers and
mariners, who scarcely left any house vnsearched, out of which they tooke
such things as liked them, as chestes of sweete wood, chaires, cloth,
couerlets, hangings, bedding, apparell: and further ranged into the
countrey, where some of them also were hurt by the inhabitants. The Friery
there conteyning and maintayning thirty Franciscan Friars (among whom we
could not finde any one able to speake true Latine) was builded by a Fryer
of Angra in Tercera of the same order, about the yeare of our Lord one
thousand fiue hundred and sixe. The tables in the hall had seates for the
one side onely, and were alwayes couered, as readie at all times for dinner
or supper.

From Wednesday in the afternoone, at which time we entred the towne, til
Saturday night, we continued there, vntill the Inhabitants had agreed and
payed for the ransome of the towne, two thousand duckats, most part whereof
was Church-plate.

We found in the platfonne eight and fiftie yron peeces of Ordinance,
whereof three and twentie (as I remember) or more were readie mounted vpon
their carriages, betweene Barricadoes, vpon a platforme towardes the
sea-side, all which Ordinance we tooke, and set the platforme on fire, and
so departed: My Lord hauing inuited to dinner in the Victorie, on the
Sunday following, so many of the Inhabitants as would willingly come (saue
onely Diego Gomes the Gouernour, who came but once onely to parle about the
ransome) onely foure came and were well entertained, and solemnely
dismissed with sound of drumme and trumpets, and a peale of Ordinance: to
whom my Lord deliuered his letter subscribed with his owne hand, importing
a request ['repuest' in source text--KTH] to all other Englishmen to
abstaine from any further molesting them, saue onely for fresh water, and
victuals necessary for their intended voyage. During our abode here (viz.
the 11 of September) two men came out of Pico which had beene prisoners
there: Also at Fayal we set at libertie a prisoner translated from S. Iago
who was cousin to a seruant of Don Anthonio king of Portugall in England:
These prisoners we deteyned with vs.

On Munday we sent our boates ashore for fresh water, which (by reason of
the raine that fell the former night) came plentifully running downe the
hilles, and would otherwise haue beene hard to be gotten there. On Tuesday
likewise hauing not yet suffiently serued our turnes, we sent againe for
fresh water, which was then not so easie to be gotten as the day before, by
reason of a great winde: which in the afternoone increased also in such
sort, that we thought it not safe to ride so neere the land; whereupon we
weyed anker and so departed Northwest and by west, alongst the coast of
Fayal Island. Some of the Inhabitants comming aboord to vs this day, tolde
vs that always about that time of the yeere such windes West Southwest blew
on that coast.

This day, as we sayled neere Saint Georges Island, a huge fish lying still
a litle vnder water, or rather euen therewith, appeared hard by a head of
vs, the sea breaking vpon his backe, which was blacke coloured, in such
sort as deeming at the first it had beene a rocke, and the ship stemming
directly with him, we were put in a sudden feare for the time: till soone
after we saw him moue out of the way.

The 16 of September in the nigh it lightened much, whereupon there followed
great winds and raine which continued the 17 18 19-20 and 21 of the same.
The 23 of September we came againe into Faial road to weigh an anker which
(for haste and feare of foule weather) wee had left there before, where we
went on shore to see the towne, the people (as we thought) hauing now
setled themselues there againe, but notwithstanding many of them through
too much distrustfulnesse, departed and prepared to depart with their
packets at the first sight of vs: vntill such time as they were assured by
my Lord, that our comming was not any way to iniury them, but especially to
haue fresh water, and some other things needeful for vs, contenting them
for the same.

So then we viewed the Towne quietly, and bought such things as we desired
for our money as if we had bene in England. And they helped to fill vs in
fresh water, receiuing for their paines such satisfaction as contented

The 25 day we were forced againe to depart from thence, before we had
sufficiently watered, by reason of a great tempest that suddenly arose in
the night, in so much, that my Lord himselfe soone after midnight raysed
our men out of itheir Cabines to wey anker, himselfe also together with
them haling at the Capsten, and after chearing them vp with wine.

The next day we sent our Carauel and the Sawsie-Iack to the road of Saint
Michael, to see what they could espie: we following after them vpon the 27
day, plying to and fro, came within sight of S. Michael, but by contrary
windes the 28 29 and 30 dayes wee were driuen to leewarde, and could not
get neere the Island.

The first of October wee sayled alongst Tercera, and euen against Brasill
(a promontorie neere to Angra the strongest Towne in that Island) wee
espied some boates comming to the Towne, and made out towardes them: but
being neere to the lande they ranne to shoare and escaped vs.

In the afternoone we came neere to Graciosa, whereupon my Lord foorthwith
sent Captain Lister to the Ilanders, to let them vnderstand that his desire
was onely to haue water and wine of them, and some fresh victuals, and not
any further to trouble them. They answered they could giue no resolute
answere to this demande, vntill the Gouernors of the Iland had consulted
therevpon, and therefore desired him to send againe to them the next day.

Vpon the second day of October eariy in the morning, we sent forth our long
boat and Pinnesse, with emptie Caske, and about some fiftie or sixty men
together with the Margaret, and Captaine Dauis his shippe: for we now
wanted all the rest of our consortes. But when our men would haue landed,
the Ilanders shot at them, and would not suffer them. And troupes of men
appeared vpon land, with ensignes displayed to resist vs: So our boates
rowed alongst the shoare, to finde some place where they might land, not
with too much disaduantage: our shippes and they still shooting at the
Ilanders: but no place could be founde where they might land without great
perill of loosing many of their liues, and so were constrayned to retire
without receiuing any answere, as was promised the day before. We had three
men hurt in this conflict, whilest our boates were together in consulting
what was best to be done: two of them were stroken with a great shot (which
the Ilanders drew from place to place with Oxen) wherewith the one lost his
hand, and the other his life within two or three dayes after: the third was
shot into his necke with a small shot, without any great hurt.

With these newes our company returned backe againe at night, whereupon
preparation was made to goe to them againe the next day: but the daye was
farre spent before we could come neere them with our ship: neither could we
finde any good ground to anker in, where we might lye to batter the Towne,
and further we could finde no landing place, without great danger to loose
many men: which might turne not only to the ouerthrow of our voiage, but
also put the Queenes ship in great perill for want of men to bring her
home. Therefore my Lord thought it best to write to them to this efiect:
That he could not a litle maruell at their inhumanitie and crueltie which
they had shewed towards his men, seeing they were sent by him vnto them in
peaceable manner to receiue their answere which they had promised to giue
the day before: and that were it not for Don Antonio their lawful king his
sake, he could not put vp so great iniury at their hands, without iust
reuengement vpon them: notwithstanding for Don Antonio his sake, whose
friend he was, he was yet content to send to them once againe for their
answere: At night Captaine Lister returned with this answere from them.
That their Gunner shot off one of their pieces, which was charged with
pouder onely, and was stopped; which our men thinking it had bin shot at
them, shot againe, and so beganne the fight: and that the next morning they
would send my Lord a resolute answere to his demaunde, for as yet they
could not knowe their Gouernours minde herein. The next morning there came
vnto vs a boate from the shoare with a flagge of truce, wherein were three
of the chiefe men of the Island, who agreed with my Lorde that hee should
haue of them sixtie buttes of wine, and fresh victuals to refresh himselfe
and his companie withall: but as for fresh water, they could not satisfie
our neede therein, hauing themselues little or none, sauing such as they
saued in vessels or cistrnes when it rayned, and that they had rather giue
vs two tunnes of wine then one of water: but they requested that our
souldiers might not come on shoare, for they themselues would bring all
they had promised to the water-side, which request was graunted, we keeping
one of them aboord with vs, untill their promise was performed, and the
other we sent to shoare with our emptie Caske, and some of our men to helpe
to fill, and bring them away with such other prouision as was promised: so
the Margaret, Captaine Dauis his shippe, and another of Weymouth stayed
ryding at anker before the Towne, to take in our prouision. This shippe of
Weymouth came to vs the day before, and had taken a rich Prize (as it was
reported) worth sixteene thousand pound, which brought vs newes that the
West-Indian Fleete was not yet come, but would come very shortly. But we
with the Victorie put off to sea, and vpon Saturday the fourth of October,
we tooke a French shippe of Saint Malo (a citie of the vnholy league) loden
with fish from Newfoundland: which had beene in so great a tempest, that
she was constrayned to cut her mayne mast ouerboord for her safetie, and
was now comming to Graciosa, to repaire her selfe. But so hardly it befell
her, that she did not onely not repaire her former losses, but lost all
that remayned vnto vs. The chiefe of our men we tooke into our ship, and
sent some of our men, mariners, and souldiers into her to bring her into

Vpon the Sunday following at night, all our promised prouision was brought
vnto vs from Gratiosa: and we friendly dismissed the Ilanders with a peale
of Ordinance.

Vpon Munday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, we plyed to and fro about those
Islandes, being very rough weather. And vpon Thursday at night, being
driuen some three or foure leagues from Tercera, we saw fifteene saile of
the West-Indian Fleete comming into the Hauen at Angra in Tercera. But the
winde was such, that for the space of foure dayes after, though wee lay as
close by the winde as was possible, yet we could not come neere them. In
this time we lost our late French Prize, not being able to lie so neere the
winde as we, and heard no more of her till we came to England where shee
safely arrriued. Vpon Munday we came very neere the Hauens month, being
minded to haue runne in amongst them, and to haue fetched out some of them
if it had beene possible: But in the end this enterprise was deemed too
daungerous, considering the strength of the place where they rode, being
haled and towed in neerer the towne, at the first sight of our approching,
and lying vnder the protection of the Castle of Brasil, on the one side
(hauing in it fiue and twentie peeces of Ordinance) and a fort on the other
side wherein were 13 or 14 great brasse pieces. Besides, when we came neere
land the winde prooued too scant for vs to attempt any such enterprise.

Vpon Tuesday the fourteenth of October we sent our boate to the roade to
sound the depth, to see if there were any ankoring place for vs, where we
might lie without shot of the Castle and Fort, and within shot of some of
those shippes, that we might either make them come out to vs, or sinke them
where they lay. Our boate returned hauing found out such a place as we
desired, but the winde would not suffer vs to come neere it, and againe if
we could haue ankered there, it was thought likely that they would rather
runne themselues a ground to saue their liues and liberties, and some of
their goods, then come foorth to loose their liberties and goods to vs
their enemies. So we shot at them to see if we could reach them, but it
fell farre short. And thus we departed, thinking it not probable that they
would come foorth so long as we watched for them before the hauens mouth,
or within sight of them. For the space of fiue dayes after we put off to
sea, and lay without sight of them, and sent a pinnesse to lie out of sight
close by the shore, to bring vs word if they should come foorth. After a
while the Pinnesse returned and told vs that those shippes in the Hauen had
taken downe their sayles, and let downe their toppe mastes: so that wee
supposed they would neuer come foorth, till they perceiued vs to bee quite

Wherefore vpon the 20 of October, hearing that there were certaine Scottish
ships at Saint Michael, we sayled thither, and found there one Scottish
roader, and two or three more at Villa Franca, the next road a league or
two from the towne of S. Michael, to the Eastwards: of whom we had for our
reliefe some small quantitie of wine (viz. some fiue or sixe buttes of them
all) and some fresh water, but nothing sufficient to serue our turne.

Vpon Tuesday the one and twentieth of October, we sent our long boate to
shore for fresh water at a brooke a little to the Westwards from Villa

But the Inhabitants espying vs came downe with two Ensignes displayed, and
about some hundred and fiftie men armed, to withstand our landing. So our
men hailing spent all their pouder vpon them in attempting to land, and not
being able to preuaile at so great oddes, returned frustrate.

From thence we departed towards Saint Maries Iland, minding to water there,
and then to goe for the coast of Spaine. For we had intelligence that it
was a place of no great force, and that we might water there very well:
therefore vpon Friday following, my Lord sent Captaine Lister, and Captaine
Amias Preston now Sir Amias Preston (who not long before came to vs out of
his owne shippe, and she loosing vs in the night, hee was forced to tarry
still with vs) with our long boate and Pinnesse, and some sixtie or
seuentie shotte in them, with a friendly letter to the Ilanders, that they
would grant vs leaue to water, and we would no further trouble them.

So we departed from the Victorie for the Iland, about nine of the clocke in
the afternoone, and rowed freshly vntill about 3 a clocke afternoone. At
which time our men being something weary with rowing, and being within a
league or two of the shore, and 4 or 5 leagues from the Victorie, they
espied (to their refreshing), two shippes ryding at anker hard vnder the
the towns, whereupon hauing shifted some 6 or 7 of our men into Captaine
Dauis his boate, being too much pestered in our owne, and retayning with vs
some 20 shot in the pinnesse, we made way towardes them with all the speede
we could.

By the way as we rowed we saw boates passing betwixt the roaders and the
shore, and men in their shirtes swimming and wading to shoare, who as we
perceiued afterwardes, were labouring to set those shippes fast on ground,
and the Inhabitants as busily preparing themselues for the defence of those
roaders, their Iland, and themselues. When we came neere them, Captaine
Lister commaunded the Trumpets to be sounded, but prohibited any shot to be
discharged at them, vntill they had direction from him: But some of the
companie, either not well perceiuing or regarding what he sayd, immediately
vpon the sound of the Trumpets discharged their pieces at the Islanders;
which for the most part lay in trenches and fortefied places vnseene, to
their owne best aduantage: who immediatly shot likewise at vs, both with
small and great shot, without danger to themselues: Notwithstanding
Captaine Lister earnestly hastened forward the Saylers that rowed, who
beganne to shrinke at that shot, flying so fast about their eares, and
himselfe first entring one of the shippes that lay a litle further from
shoare then the other, we spedily followed after him into her, still plying
them with our shot And hauing cut in sunder her Cables and Hausers, towed
her away with our Pinnesse. In the meane time Captaine Dauis his boate
ouertooke vs and entred into the other shippe, which also (as the former)
was forsaken by all her men: but they were constrayned to leaue her and to
come againe into their boate (whilest shot and stones from shoare flew fast
amongst them) finding her to sticke so fast a grounde, that they could not
stire her: which the Townesmen also perceiuing, and seeing that they were
fewe in number, and vs (busied about the other ship) not comming to ayde
them, were preparing to haue come and taken them. But they returned vnto
vs, and so together we came away towards the Victory, towing after vs the
Prize that we had now taken, which was lately come from Brasil, loden with

In this fight we had two men slaine and 16 wounded: and as for them, it is
like they had little hurt, lying for the most part behind stone walles,
which were builded one aboue another hard by the sea side, vpon the end of
the hill whereupon the Towne stoode betwixt two vallies. Vpon the toppe of
the hill lay their great Ordinance (such as they had) wherewith they shot
leaden bullets, whereof one pierced through our Prizes side, and lay still
in the shippe without doing any more harme.

The next day we went againe for water to the same Iland, but not knowing
before the inconuenience and disuaduantage of the place where we attempted
to land, we returned frustrate.

The same night the 25 of October we departed for S. Georges Iland for fresh
water, whither we came on Munday following October 27, and hauing espied
where a spout of water came running downe: the pinnesse and long boate were
presently manned and sent vnder the conduct of Captaine Preston, and
Captaine Munson, by whom my Lord sent a letter to the Ilanders as before,
to grant vs leaue to water onely, and we would no further trouble them:
notwithstanding our men comming on shoare found some of the poore Ilanders,
which for feare of vs hid themselues amongst the rockes.

And on Wednesday following our boats returned with fresh water, whereof
they brought only sixe tunnes for the Victorie, alleaging they could get no
more, thinking (as it was supposed) that my Lord hauing no more prouision
of water and wine, but onely 12 tunnes, would not goe for the coast of
Spaine, but straight for the coast of England, as many of our men greatly
desired: notwithstanding my Lord was vnwilling so to doe, and was minded
the next day to haue taken in more water: but through roughnesse of the
seas and winde, and vnwillingnesse of his men it was not done. Yet his Hon.
purposed not to returne with so much prouision vnspent, and his voyage (as
he thought) not yet performed in such sort as mought giue some reasonable
contentment or satisfaction to himselfe and others.

Therefore because no more water could now conueniently be gotten, and being
vncertaine when it could be gotten, and the time of our staying aboord also
vncertaine, the matter being referred to the choyse of the whole companie,
whither they would tarrie longer, till wee might be more sufficiently
prouided of fresh water, or goe by the coast of Spaine for England, with
halfe so much allowance of drinke as before, they willingly agreed that
euery mease should bee allowed at one meale but halfe so much drinke as
they were accustomed (except them that were sicke or wounded) and so to goe
for England, taking the coast of Spaine in our way, to see if we could that
way make vp our voyage.

Vpon Saturday Octob. 31 we sent the Margaret (because she leaked much)
directly for England, together with the Prize of Brasile which we tooke at
S. Marie, and in them some of our hurt and wounded men or otherwise sicke
were sent home as they desired for England: but Captaine Monson was taken
out of the Megge into the Victorie.

So we held on our course for the coast of Spaine with a faire winde and a
large which before we seldome had. And vpon Twesday following being the 4
of Nouemb. we espied a saile right before vs, which we chased till about
three a clocke in the afternoone, at which time we ouertaking her, she
stroke sayle, and being demaunded who was her owner and from whence she
was, they answered, a Portugall, and from Pernanbucke in Brasile. She was a
ship of some 110 tuns burden, fraighted with 410 chestes of Sugar, and 50
Kintals, of Brasill-wood, euery Kintall contayning one hundred pound
weight: we tooke her in latitude nine and twentie degrees, about two
hundred leagues from Lisbone westwards: Captaine Preston was presently sent
vnto her, who brought the principall of her men aboord the Victorie, and
certaine of our men, mariners and souldiers were sent aboord her. The
Portugals of this Prize told vs that they saw another ship before them that
day about noone. Hauing therefore dispatched all things about the Prize
aforesaid and left our long boat with Captaine Dauis, taking his lesser
boat with vs, we made way after this other ship with all the sayles we
could beare, holding on our course due East, and giuing order to Captaine
Dauis his ship and the Prize that they should follow vs due East, and that
if they had sight of vs the morning following they should follow vs still:
if not they should goe for England.

The next morning we espied not the sayle which we chased,
and Captaine Dauis his ship and the Prize were behinde vs out of
sight: but the next Thursday the sixt of Nouember (being in
latitude 38 degrees 30 minutes, and about sixtie leagues from
Lisbone westwards) early in the morning Captaine Preston
descried a sayle some two or three leagues a head of vs, after
which we presently hastened our chase, and ouertooke her about
eight or nine of the clocke before noone. She came lately from
Saint Michaels roade, hauing beene before at Brasill loden with
Sugar and Brasile. Hauing sent our boat to them to bring some
of the chiefe of their men aboord the Victorie, in the meane time
whilest they were in comming to vs one out of the maine toppe
espied another saile a head some three or foure leagues from vs.
So immediately vpon the returne of our boate, hauing sent her
backe againe with some of our men aboord the prize, we pursued
speedily this new chase, with all the sayles we could packe on, and
about two a clocke in the afternoone ouertooke her: she had made
prouision to fight with vs, hauing hanged the sides of the shippe so
thicke with hides (wherewith especially she was loden) that musket
shot could not haue pearced them: but yer we had discharged
two great peeces of our Ordinance at her, she stroke sayle, and
approching neerer, we asking of whence they were, they answered
from the West-Indies, from Mexico, and Saint Iohn de Lowe
(truely called Vlhua.) This ship was of some three or foure
hundred tunnes, and had in her seuen hundred hides worth tenne
shillings a peece: sixe chests of Cochinell, euery chest houlding
one hundred pound weight, and euery pound worth sixe and
twenty shillings and eight pence, and certaine chests of Sugar
and China dishes, with some plate and siluer.

The Captaine of her was an Italian, and by his behauiour seemed to be a
graue, wise, and ciuill man: he had put an aduenture in this shippe fiue
and twentie thousand Duckats, Wee tooke him with certaine other of her
chiefest men (which were Spaniards) into the Victorie: and Captaine Lister
with so manie other of the chiefest of our Mariners, souldiers, and saylers
as were thought sufficient, to the number of 20. or thereabouts, were sent
into her. In the meane time (we staying) our other prizes which followed
after, came vp to vs. And nowe wee had our hands full and with ioy shaped
our course for England, for so it was thought meetest, hauing now so many
Portugals, Spaniards and Frenchmen amongst vs, that if we should haue taken
any more prizes afterwards, wee had not bene well able to haue manned them
without endangering our selues. So about six of the clocke in the
afternoone (when our other prize had ouertaken vs) wee set saile for
England. But our prizes not being able to beare vs company without sparing
them many of our sailes, which caused our ship to route and wallow, in such
sort that it was not onely very troublesome to vs, but, as it was thought,
would also haue put the maine Maste in danger of falling ouerboord: hauing
acquainted them with these inconueniences, we gaue them direction to keepe
their courses together, folowing vs, and so to come to Portsmouth. We tooke
this last prize in the latitude of 39. degrees, and about 46. leagues to
the Westwards from the Rocke.

She was one of those 16. ships which we saw going into the hauen at Angra
in Tercera, October 8. Some of the men that we tooke out of her tolde vs,
that whilest wee were plying vp and downe before that hauen, as before was
shewed, expecting the comming foorth of those shippes, three of the
greatest and best of them, at the appointment of the Gouernour of Tercera
were vnloden of their treasure and marchandize. And in euery of them were
put three hundred Souldiers, which were appointed to haue come to lay the
Victory aboord in the night, and take her: but when this should haue bene
done the Victory was gone out of their sight.

Now we went meerily before the winde with all the sailes we could beare,
insomuch that in the space of 24. houres, we sailed neere 47. leagues, that
is seuenscore English miles, betwixt Friday at noone and Saturday at noone
(notwithstanding the shippe was very foule, and much growne with long being
at Sea) which caused some of our company to make accompt they would see
what running at Tilt there should bee at Whitehall vpon the Queenes day.
Others were imagining what a Christmas they would keepe in England with
their shares of the prizes we had taken. But so it befell, that we kept a
colde Christmas with the Bishop and his clearks (rockes that lye to the
Westwards from Sylly, and the Westerne parts of England:) For soone after
the wind scanting came about to the Eastwards (the worst part of the
heauens for vs, from which the winde could blow) in such sort, that we
could not fetch any part of England. And hereupon also our allowance of
drinke, which was scant ynough before, was yet more scanted, because of the
scarcitie thereof in the shippe. So that now a man was allowed but halfe a
pinte at a meale, and that many times colde water, and scarce sweete.
Notwithstanding this was an happie estate in comparison of that which
followed: For from halfe a pinte we came to a quarter, and that lasted not
long either, so that by reason of this great scarsitie of drinke, and
contrarietie of winde, we thought to put into Ireland, there to relieue our
wants. But when wee came neere thither, lying at hull all night (tarrying
for the daylight of the next morning, whereby we might the safelyer bring
our ship into some conuenient harbour there) we were driuen so farre to
lee-ward, that we could fetch no part of Ireland, so as with heauie hearts
and sad cheare, wee were constreined to returne backe againe, and expect
till it should please God to send vs a faire winde either for England or
Ireland. In the meane time we were allowed euery man three or foure spoones
full of vineger to drinke at a meale: for other drinke we had none, sauing
onely at two or three meales, when we had in stead hereof as much wine,
which was wringed out of Winelees that remained. With this hard fare (for
by reason of our great want of drinke, wee durst eate but very litle) wee
continued for the space of a fortnight or thereabouts: Sauing that now and
then wee feasted for it in the meane time: And that was when there fell any
haile or raine: the haile-stones wee gathered vp and did eate them more
pleasantly then if they had bene the sweetest Comfits in the world; The
raine drops were so carefully saued, that so neere as wee coulde, not one
was lost in all our shippe. Some hanged vp sheetes tied with cordes by the
foure corners, and a weight in the midst that the water might runne downe
thither, and so be receiued into some vessel set or hanged vnderneth: Some
that wanted sheetes, hanged vp napkins, and cloutes, and watched them till
they were thorow wet, then wringing and sucking out the water. And that
water which fell downe and washed away the filth and soiling of the shippe,
trod vnder foote, as bad as running downe the kennell many times when it
raineth, was not lost. I warrant you, but watched and attended carefully
(yea sometimes with strife and contention) at euery scupper hole, and other
place where it ranne downe, with dishes, pots, cannes, and Iarres, whereof
some dranke hearty draughts, euen as it was, mud and all, without tarrying
to clense or settle it: Others. cleansed it first but not often, for it was
so thicke and went so slowly thorow, that they might ill endure to tary so
long, and were loth to loose too much of such precious stuffe: some licked
with their tongues (like dogges) the boards vnder feete, the sides, railes,
and Masts of the shippe: others that were more ingenious, fastened girdles
or ropes about the Mastes, dawbing tallow betwixt them and the Maste (that
the raine might not runne downe betweene) in such sort, that those ropes or
girdles hanging lower on the one side then of the other, a spout of leather
was fastened to the lowest part of them, that all the raine drops that came
running downe the Maste, might meete together at that place, and there be

Hee that got a canne of water by these meanes was spoken of, sued to, and
enuied as a rich man. Quam pulchrum digito monstrari et dicier hic est?
Some of the poore Spaniards that we had taken (who notwithstanding had the
same allowance that our owne men had) would come and craue of vs, for the
loue of God, but so much water as they could holde in the hollow of their
hand: and they had it, notwithstanding our great extremitie, to teach them
some humanitie instead of their accustomed barbaritie, both to vs and other
nations heretofore. They put also bullets of lead into their mouthes to
slake their thirst.

Now in euery corner of the shippe were heard the lamentable cries of sicke
and wounded men sounding wofully in our eares crying out and pitifully
complaining for want of drinke, being ready to die, yea many dying for
lacke thereof, so as by reason of this great extremite we lost many more
men, then wee had done all the voyage before: hauing before this time bene
so well and sufficiently prouided for, that we liued in maner as well and
healthfully, and died as few as if we had bene in England, whereas now
lightly euery day some were cast ouerboord.

But the second day of December 1589. was a festiuall day with vs, for then
it rained a good pace, and wee saued some pretie store of raine water
(though we were well wet for it, and that at midnight) and filled our skins
full besides: notwithstanding it were muddie and bitter with washing the
shippe, but (with some sugar which we had to sweeten it withall) it went
merrily downe, yet remembred we and wished for with all our hearts, many a
Conduit, pumpe, spring, and streame of cleare sweete running water in
England: And how miserable wee had accompted some poore soules whom we had
seene driuen for thirst to drinke thereof, and how happy we would now haue
thought our selues if we might haue had our fills of the same: yet should
we haue fared the better with this our poore feasting, if we might haue had
our meat and drinke (such and so much as it was) stand quietly before vs:
but beside all the former extremities, wee were so tossed and turmoiled
with such horrible stormie and tempestuous weather, that euery man had best
holde fast his Canne, cup, and dish in his hands, yea and himselfe too,
many times, by the ropes, railes, or sides of the ship or else he should
soone finde all vnder feet.

Herewith our maine saile was torne from the yarde and blowne ouerboord
quite away into the sea without recouery, and our other sailes so rent and
torne (from side to side some of them) that hardly any of them escaped
hole. The raging waues and foming surges of the sea came rowling like
mountaines one after another, and ouerraked the waste of the shippe like a
mightie riuer running ouer it, whereas in faire weather it was neere 20.
foote aboue the water, that nowe wee might cry out with the princely
Prophet Psalme 107. vers. 26. They mount vp to heauen, and descend to the
deepe, so that their soule melteth away for trouble: they reele too and
fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and all their cunning is gone. With
this extremitie of foule weather the ship was so tossed and shaken, that by
the craking noise it made, and by the leaking which was now much more than
ordinary, wee were in great feare it would haue shaken in sunder, so that
now also we had iust cause to pray a litle otherwise than the Poet, though
marring the verse, yet mending the meaning.

Deus maris et Coeli, quid enim nisi vota supersunt,
Soluere quassatae parcito membra ratis.

Notwithstanding it pleased God of his great goodnesse to deliuer vs out of
this great danger. Then forthwith a new maine saile was made and fastened
to the yard, and the rest repaired as time and place would suffer: which we
had no sooner done, but yet againe wee were troubled with as great an
extremitie as before so that againe we were like to haue lost our new maine
saile, had not Master William Antony the Master of the ship himselfe (when
none else would or durst) ventured with danger of drowning by creeping
along vpon the maine yarde (which was let downe close to the railes) to
gather it up out of the sea, and to fasten it thereto, being in the meane
while oft-times ducked ouer head and eares into the sea.

These stormes were so terrible, that there were some in our company which
confessed they had gone to seas for the space of 20. yeeres, and had neuer
seene the like, and vowed that if euer they returned safe home, they would
neuer come to sea againe.

The last of Nouember at night we met with an English ship, out of which
(because it was too late that night) it was agreed that we should haue had
the next morning two or three Tunnes of wine, which, as they said, was al
the prouision of drink they had, saue only a But or two, which they must
needs reserue for their owne vse: but after that, we heard of them no more,
till they were set on ground vpon the coast of Ireland, where it appeared
that they might haue spared vs much more then they pretended they could, so
as they might wel haue relieued our great necessities, and haue had
sufficient for themselues besides, to bring them into England.

The first of December at night we spake with another English ship, and had
some beere out of her, but not sufficient to cary vs into England, so that
wee were constrained to put into Ireland, the winde so seruing.

The next day we came to an anker, not far from the S. Kelmes vnder the land
and winde, where we were somewhat more quiet, but (that being no safe
harbour to ride in) the next morning wee went about to weigh anker, but
hauing some of our men hurt at the Capsten, wee were faine to giue ouer and
leaue it behinde, holding on our course to Ventrie hauen, where wee safely
arriued the same day, that place being a very safe and conuenient harbor
for vs, that now wee might sing as we had iust cause, They that go downe to
the sea, &c.

So soone as we had ankered here my Lord went foorthwith to shoare, and
brought presently fresh water and fresh victuals, as Muttons, pigges,
hennes, &c. to refresh his company withall. Notwithstanding himselfe had
lately bene very weake, and tasted of the same extremitie that his Company
did: For in the time of our former want, hauing a little fresh water left
him remaining in a pot, in the night it was broken, and the water drunke
and dried vp. Soone after the sicke and wounded men were carried to the
next principall Towne, called Dingenacush, being about three miles distant
from the foresaide hauen, where our shippe roade, to the Eastwards, that
there they might be the better refreshed, and had the Chirurgians dayly to
attend vpon them. Here we wel refreshed our selues whilest the Irish harpe
sounded sweetely in our eares, and here we, who for the former extremities
were in maner halfe dead, had our liues (as it were) restored vnto vs

This Dingenacush is the chiefe Towne in al that part of Ireland, it
consisteth but of one maine streete, from whence some smaller doe proceede
on either side. It hath had gates (as it seemeth) in times past at either
ende to open and shut as a Towne of warre, and a Castle also. The houses
are very strongly built with thicke stone walles, and narrow windowes like
vnto Castles: for as they confessed, in time of trouble, by reason of the
wilde Irish or otherwise, they vsed their houses for their defence as
Castles. The castle and all the houses in the Towne, saue foure, were won,
burnt, and ruinated by the Erle of Desmond.

These foure houses fortified themselues against him, and withstood him and
all his power perforce, so as he could not winne them.

There remaineth yet a thicke stone wall that passeth ouerthwart the midst
of the streete which was a part of their fortification. Notwithstanding
whilest they thus defended themselues, as some of them yet aliue confessed,
they were driuen to as great extremities as the Iewes, besieged by Titus
the Romane Emperour, insomuch that they were constrained to eat dead mens
carcases for hunger. The towne is nowe againe somewhat repaired, but in
effect there remaine but the ruines of the former Towne. Commonly they haue
no chimnies in their houses, excepting them of the better sort, so that the
smoake was very troublsom to vs, while we continued there; Their fewell is
turfes, which they haue very good, and whinnes or furres. There groweth
little wood thereabouts, which maketh building chargeable there: as also
want of lime (as they reported) which they are faine to fetch from farre,
when they haue neede thereof. But of stones there is store ynough, so that
with them they commonly make their hedges to part ech mans ground from
other: and the ground seemeth to be nothing else within but rockes and
stones; Yet it is very fruitfull and plentifull of grasse and graine, as
may appeare by the abundance of kine and cattell there: insomuch that we
had good muttons (though somewhat lesse then ours in England) for two
shillings or fiue groates a piece, good pigges and hennes for 3 pence a

The greatest want is industrious, paineful, and husbandly inhabitants to
till and trimme the ground: for the common sort, if they can prouide
sufficient to serue from hand to mouth, take no further care.

Of money (as it seemeth) there is very store amongst them, which perhaps
was the cause that made them double and triple the prizes of many things we
bought of them, more then they were before our comming thither.

Good land was here to be had for foure pence the Acre yeerely rent.
[Sidenote: Mines in Ireland.] There are Mines of Alome, Tinne, brasse, and
yron. Stones wee sawe there as cleare as Christall, naturally squared like

That part of the Countrey is al full of great mountaines and hills, from
whence came running downe the pleasant streames of sweete fresh running
water. The natural hardnesse of the Nation appeareth in this, that their
small children runne vsually in the middest of Winter vp and downe the
streetes bare-foote and bare-legged, with no other apparell (many times)
saue onely a mantle to couer their nakednesse.

The chiefe Officer of their Towne they call their Soueraigne, who hath the
same office and authoritie among them that our Maiors haue with vs in
England, and hath his Sergeants to attend vpon him, and beare the Mace
before him as our Maiors.

We were first intertained at the Soueraignes house, which was one of those
4. that withstood the Erle of Desmond in his rebellion. They haue the same
forme of Common prayer word word in Latin, that we haue here in England.
Vpon the Sunday the Soueraigne commeth into the Church with his Sergeant
before him, and the Sheriffe and others of the Towne accompany him, and
there they kneele downe euery man by himselfe priuately to make his
prayers. After this they rise and go out of the Church againe to drinke,
which being done, they returne againe into the Church, and then the
Minister beginneth prayers.

Their maner of baptizing differeth something from ours: part of the seruice
belonging therto is repeated in Latin, and part in Irish. The minister
taketh the child in his hands, and first dippeth it backwards, and then
forwards, ouer heads and eares into the cold water in the midst of Winter,
whereby also may appeare their naturall hardnesse, (as before was
specified.) They had neither Bell, drum, nor trumpet, to call the
Parishioners together, but they expect till their Soueraigne come, and then
they that haue any deuotion follow him.

They make their bread all in cakes, and, for the tenth part, the bakers
bake for all the towne.

We had of them some 10. or 11. Tunnes of beere for the Victory, but it
proued like a present purgation to them that tooke it, so that we chose
rather to drinke water then it.

The 20 of December we loosed from hence, hauing well prouided ourselues of
fresh, water, and other things necessary, being accompanied with sir Edw.
Dennie, his Lady, and two yong sonnes.

This day in the morning my Lord going ashoare to despatch away speedily
some fresh water that remained for the Victory, the winde being very faire
for vs, brought vs newes that their were 60. Spanish prizes taken and
brought to England. For two or three dayes wee had a faire winde, but
afterwards it scanted so, that (as I said before) we were faine to keepe a
cold Christmas with The Bishop and his clearkes.

[Sidenote: Captaine Lister drowned.] After this we met with an English
ship, that brought vs ioyful newes of 91. Spanish prizes that were come to
England: and sorrowfull newes withall, that the last and best prize we
tooke, had suffered shipwracke at a place vpon the coast of Cornwal which
the Cornish men cals Als Efferne, that is, Helcliffe, and that Captaine
Lister and all the men in the ship were drowned, saue 5. or 6. the one
halfe English, the other Spanish that saued themselues with swimming; but
notwithstanding much of the goods were saued, and reserued for vs, by sir
Francis Godolphin and the worshipful gentlemen of the Countrey there. My
Lord was very sorry for Captaine Listers death, wishing that he had lost
his voyage to haue saued his life.

The 29. of December we met with another shippe, that tolde vs the same
newes, and that sir Martin Frobisher, and Captaine Reymond had taken the
Admirall and Vice-Admirall of the Fleet that we espied going to Tercera
hauen. But the Admirall was sunke with much leaking, neere to the Idy
Stone, a rocke that lieth ouer against Plimouth sound, and the men were

This ship also certified vs that Captaine Prestons ship had taken a prize
loden with siluer. My Lord entred presently into this ship, and went to
Falmouth, and we held on our course for Plimouth. At night we came neere to
the Ram-head (the next Cape Westwards from Plimouth sound) but we were
afraid to double it in the night, misdoubting the scantnesse of the winde.
So we stood off to Sea halfe the night, and towards morning had the winde
more large, and made too little spare thereof, that partly for this cause,
and partly through mistaking of the land, wee were driuen so much to
lee-wards, that we could not double that Cape: Therefore we returned backe
againe, and came into Falmouth hauen, where wee strucke on ground in 17.
foote water: but it was a low ebbe, and ready againe to flowe, and the
ground soft, so as no hurt was done. Here with gladnesse wee set foote
againe vpon the English ground (long desired) and refreshed ourselues with
keeping part of Christmas vpon our natiue soile.

* * * * *

The valiant fight performed by 10. Merchants ships of London, against 12.
Spanish gallies in the Straights of Gibraltar, the 24. of April 1590.

It is not long since sundry valiant ships appertaining to the Marchants of
London, were fraighted and rigged forth, some for Venice, some for
Constantinople, and some to sundry other places of trafique, among whom
these ensuing met within the Straights of Gibraltar, as they were taking
their course homewards, having before escaped all other danger. [Sidenote:
February 1590] The first whereof was the Salomon appertaining to M.
Alderman Barnam of London, and M. Bond, and M. Twyd of Harwich: which went
foorth the first day of February last. The second was the Margaret and Iohn
belonging to M. Wats of London: The thirde was the Minion: The fourth was
the Ascension. The fifth was the Centurion of Master Cordal: the sixt the
Violet: the seuenth the Samuel; the eight the Crescent: the ninth the
Elizabeth: and the 10. was the Richard belonging to M. Duffield. All these
ships being of notable and approued seruice comming neere to the mouth of
the Straights hard by the coast of Barbary, descried twelue tall Gallies
brauely furnished and strongly prouided with men and munition, ready to
seaze vpon these English ships: which being perceiued by the Captaines and
Masters thereof, wee made speedy preparation for the defence of our selues,
still waiting all the night long for the approching of the enemie. In the
morning early being the Tuesday in Easter weeke, and the 24 of April 1590
according to our vsual customes, we said Seruice and made our prayers vnto
Almightie God, beseeching him to saue vs from the hands of such tyrants as
the Spaniards, whom we iustly imagined to be, and whom we knew and had
found to be our most mortall enemies vpon the Sea. And hauing finished our
prayers, and set ourselues in a readinesse, we perceiued them to come
towards vs, and that they were indeede the Spanish Gallies that lay vnder
the conduct of Andre Doria, who is Vice-roy for the King of Spaine in the
Straights of Gibraltar, and a notable knowne enemie to all Englishmen. So
when they came somewhat neerer vnto vs, they waued vs a maine for the King
of Spaine, and wee waued them a maine for the Queene of England, at which
time it pleased Almightie God greatly to encourage vs all in such sort, as
that the neerer they came the lesse we feared their great multitudes and
huge number of men, which were planted in those Gallies to the number of
two or three hundred men in ech Gallie. And it was thus concluded among vs,
that the foure first and tallest ships should be placed hindmost, and the
weaker and smallest ships formost, and so it was performed, every man being
ready to take part of such successe as it should please God to send.

And the first encounter the Gallies came vpon vs very fiercely, yet God so
strengthened vs, that if they had bene ten times more, we had not feared
them at all. Whereupon the Salomon being a hot shippe, and hauing sundry
cast pieces in her, gaue the first shotte in such a sowre sort, as that it
shared away so many men as sate on the one side of a Gallie, and pierced
her through in such maner, as that she was readie to sinke, which made them
to assault vs the more fiercely. [Sidenote: A fight of sixe houres long.]
Whereupon the rest of our shippes, especially the foure chiefest, namely,
the Margaret and Iohn, the Minion, and the Ascension followed, and gaue a
hot charge vpon them, and they at vs, where began a hot and fierce battaile
with great valiancie the one against the other, and so continued for the
space of sixe houres. [Sidenote: A faint hearted Fleming.] About the
beginning of this our fight there came two Flemings to our Fleet, who
seeing the force of the Gallies to be so great, the one of them presently
yeelded, strooke his sailes, and was taken by the Gallies, whereas if they
would haue offered themselues to haue fought in our behalfe and their owne
defence, they needed not to haue bene taken so cowardly as they were to
their cost. The other Fleming being also ready to performe the like piece
of seruice began to vaile his sailes, and intended to haue yeelded
immediatly. But the Trumpetter in that shippe plucked foorth his faulchion
and stepped to the Pilote at the helme, and vowed that if he did not
speedily put off to the English Fleete, and so take part with them, he
would presently kill him: which the Pilote for feare of death did, and so
by that meanes they were defended from present death, and from the tyrannie
of those Spaniards, which doubtlesse they should haue found at their

Thus we continued in fight sixe houres and somewhat more, wherein God gaue
vs the vpper hand, and we escaped the hands of so many enemies, who were
constrained to flie into harbour and shroude themselues from vs, and with
speed to seeke for their owne safetie. This was the handie worke of God,
who defended vs all from danger in such sort, as that there was not one man
of vs slaine. And in all this fierce assault made vpon vs by the Spanish
power, wee sustained no hurt or damage at all more then this, that the
shrouds and backe-stay of the Salomon, who gaue the first and last shot,
and galled the enemie shrewdly all the time of the battell, were cleane
stricken off.

The battel being ceased, we were constrained for want of wind to stay and
waft vp and downe, and then went backe againe to Tition in Barbary, which
is sixe leagues off from Gibraltar, and when we came thither we found the
people wonderous fauourable to vs, who being but Moores and heathen people
shewed vs where to haue fresh water and al other necessaries for vs. And
there we had such good intertainment, as if we had bene in any place of

The gouernour was one that fauoured vs greatly, whom wee in respect of his
great friendship presented with giftes and such commodities as we had in
our custodie, which he wonderfully wel accepted of: and here we stayed
foure dayes.

After the battell was ceased, which was on Easter Tuesday, we
stayed for want of winde before Gibraltar, vntill the next morning,
where we were becalmed, and therefore looked euery houre when
they would haue sent foorth some fresh supply against vs, but
they were farre vnable to doe it, for all their Gallies were so sore
battered, that they durst not come foorth of the harbour, by reason
of our hot resistance which they so lately before had receiued.
Yet were they greatly vrged thereunto by the Gouernour of the
said Towne of Gibraltar.

At our being at Tition in Barbary, there we heard report of the hurt that
wee had done to the Gallies, for at our comming from them wee could not
well discerne any thing at all by reason of the smoake which the powder had
made: there we heard that we had almost spoiled those twelue Gallies by
shooting them cleane through, that two of them were ready to sinke, and
that wee had slaine of their men such great abundance, as that they were
not able to furnish forth any more Gallies at all for that yeere.

Thus after we came from Tition, we assayed to depart the Straight three
seuerall times, but could not passe, yet, God be thanked, the fourth time
wee came safely away, and so sailed with a pleasant winde vntil wee came
vpon the coast of England, which was in the beginning of the moneth of Iuly

* * * * *

The valiant fight performed in the Straight of Gibraltar, by the Centurion
of London, against the fiue Spanish Gallies, in the moneth of April 1591.

In the moneth of Nouember 1590, there were sundry shippes appertaining to
seuerall Marchants of London, which were rigged and fraught foorth with
marchandize, for sundry places within the Straight of Gibraltar: who,
together hauing winde and weather, which ofttime fell out very vncertaine,
arriued safely in short space, at such places as they desired. Among whom
was the Centurion of London, a very tall shippe of burden, yet but weakely
manned, as appeareth by this discourse following.

This aforesaid shippe called The Centurion safely arriued at Marseils,
where after they had deliuered their goods, they stayed about the space of
fiue weekes, and better, and then tooke in lading, intending to returne to

Now when the Centurion was ready to come away from Marseils, there were
sundry other shippes of smaller burden which entreated the Master thereof,
(whose name is Robert Bradshaw, dwelling at Lime-house) to stay a day or
two for them, vntill they were in a readinesse to depart with them, thereby
perswading them, that it would be farre better for them to stay and goe
together in respect of their assistance, then to depart of themselues
without company, and so happily for want of aide fall into the hands of
their enemies in the Spanish Gallies. Vpon which reasonable perswasion,
notwithstanding that this shippe was of such sufficiencie as they might
hazard her in the danger of the Sea, yet they stayed for those litle
shippes; according to their request, who together did put to Sea from
Marseils, and vowed in generall not to flie one from another, if they
should happen to meete with any Spanish Gallies.

These small shippes, accompanied with the Centurion, sayling along the
coast of Spaine, were ypon Easter day in the Straight of Gibraltar suddenly
becalmed, where immediatly they saw sundry Gallies make towards them, in
very valiant and couragious sort: the chiefe Leaders and souldiers in those
Gallies brauely apparelled in silke coates, with their siluer whistles
about their neckes, and great plumes of feathers in their hattes, who with
their Caliuers shot at the Centurion so fast as they might: so that by 10.
of the clocke and somewhat before, they had boorded the Centurion, who
before their comming had prepared for them, and intended to giue them so
soure a welcome as they might. And thereupon hauing prepared their close
fights, and all things in a readinesse, they called vpon God, on whom onely
they trusted: and hauing made their prayers, and cheered vp one another to
fight so long as life endured, they beganne to discharge their great
Ordinance vpon the Gallies, but the little shippes durst not come forward,
but lay aloofe, while fiue Gallies had boorded them, yea and with their
grapling irons made their Gallies fast to the said shippe called the

The Gallies were grapled to the Centurion in this maner, two lay on one
side and two on another, and the Admirall lay full in the stern, which
galled and battered the Centurion so sore, that her maine Maste was greatly
weakened, her sailes filled with many holes, and the Mizzen and sterne made
almost vnseruiceable.

During which time there was a sore and deadly fight on both sides, in which
the Trumpet of the Centurion sounded foorth the deadly points of warre, and
encouraged them to fight manfully against their aduersaries: on the
contrary part, there was no warlike Musicke in the Spanish Gallies, but
onely their whistles of siluer, which they sounded foorth to their owne
contentment: in which fight many a Spaniard was turned into the Sea, and
they in multitudes came crauling and hung vpon the side of the shippe,
intending to haue entred into the same, but such was the courage of the
Englishmen, that so fast as the Spaniards did come to enter, they gaue them
such entertainment, that some of them were glad to tumble aliue into the
Sea, being remedilesse for euer to get vp aliue. In the Centurion there
were in all, of men and boyes, fourtie and eight, who together fought most
valiantly, and so galled the enemie, that many a braue and lustie Spaniard
lost his life in that place.

The Centurion was fired seuerall times, with wilde fire and other
prouision, which the Spaniards, threw in for that purpose: yet, God be
thanked, by the great and diligent foresight of the Master it did no harme
at all.

In euery of the Gallies there were about 200. souldiers: who together with
the shot, spoiled, rent, and battered the Centurion very sore, shot through
her maine Maste, and slew 4. of the men in the said shippe, the one of them
being the Masters mate.

Ten other persons were hurt, by meanes of splinters which the Spaniards
shotte: yea, in the ende when their prouision was almost spent, they were
constrained to shoote at them hammers, and the chaines from their slaues,
and yet God bee thanked, they receiued no more domage: but by spoyling and
ouer-wearying of the Spaniards, the Englishmen constrained them to
vngrapple themselues, and get them going: and sure if there had bene any
other fresh shippe or succour to haue relieued and assisted the Centurion,
they had slaine, suncke, or taken all those Gallies and their Souldiers.

The Dolphin lay a loofe off and durst not come neere, while the other two
small shippes fledde away, so that one of the Gallies went from the
Centurion and set vpon the Dolphin, which shippe immediatly was set on fire
with their owne powder, whereby both men and shippe perished: but whether
it was with their good wills or no, that was not knowen vnto the Centurion,
but sure, if it had come forward, and bene an aide vnto the Centurion, it
is to bee supposed that it had not perished.

Fiue houres and a halfe this fight continued, in which time both were glad
to depart onely to breath themselues, but when the Spaniards were gone,
they neuer durst returne to fight, yet the next day sixe other Gallies came
and looked at them, but durst not at any hand meddle with them.

Thus God deliuered them from the handes of their enemies, and gaue them the
victorie: For which they heartily praised him, and not long after safely
arriued in London.

[Symbol: fist] There were present at this fight Master Iohn Hawes Marchaht,
and sundry other of good accompt.

* * * * *

A report of the trueth of the fight about the Iles of Acores, the last of
August 1591, betwixt the Reuenge one of her Maiesties shippes, and an
Armada of the king of Spaine; penned by the honourable Sir Walter Ralegh

Because the rumours are diuersely spred, as well in England as in the Lowe
countries and elsewhere, of this late encounter betweene her Maiesties
ships and the Armada of Spaine; and that the Spaniards according to their
vsuall maner fill the world with their vaine-glorious vaunts, making great
apparance of victories, when on the contrary, themselues are most commonly
and shamefully beaten and dishonoured; thereby hoping to possesse the
ignorant multitude by anticipating and forerunning false reports: It is
agreeable with all good reason, for manifestation of the truth, to ouercome
falshood and vntrueth; that the beginning, continuance and successe of this
late honourable encounter of Sir Richard Greenuil, and other her Maiesties
Captaines, with the Armada of Spaine; should be truely set downe and
published without partialitie or false imaginations. And it is no marueile
that the Spaniard should seeke by false and slanderous pamphlets, aduisoes
and Letters, to couer their owne losse, and to derogate from others their
due honors, especially in this fight being performed far off: seeing they
were not ashamed in the yeere 1588. when they purposed the inuasion of this
land, to publish in sundry languages in print, great victories in wordes,
which they pleaded to haue obteined against this Realme; and spred the same
in a most false sort ouer all parts of France, Italy, and elsewhere. When
shortly after it was happily manifested in very deed to al Nations, how
their Nauy which they termed inuincible, consisting of 140. saile of
shippes, not onely of their owne kingdome, but strengthened with the
greatest Argosies, Portugal Caracks, Florentines, and huge hulks of other
Countreis, were by 30. of her Majesties owne ships of war, and a few of our
owne Marchants, by the wise, valiant, and aduantagious conduct of the L.
Charles Howard high Admirall of England, beaten and shuffled together; euen
from the Lizard in Cornwall first to Portland, where they shamefully left
Don Pedro de Valdes, with his mighty ship; from Portland to Cales, where
they lost Hugo de Moncado, with the Gallies of which he was Captaine, and
from Cales, driuen with squibs from their anchors, were chased out of the
sight of England, round about Scotland and Ireland. Where for the sympathie
of their barbarous religion, hoping to finde succour and assistance, a
great part of them were crusht against the rocks, and those other that
landed, being very many in number, were notwithstanding broken, slaine, and
taken, and so sent from village to village coupled in halters, to be
shipped into England. Where her Maiestie of her Princely and inuincible
disposition, disdaining to put them to death, and scorning either to
retaine or entertaine them: they were all sent backe againe to their
countreys, to witnes and recount the worthy achieuements of their
inuincible and dreadfull Nauy: Of which the number of Souldiers, the
fearefull burthen of their shippes, the commanders names of euery squadron,
with all other their magasines of prouisions, were put in print, as an Army
and Nauy vnresistable, and disdaining preuention. With all which so great
and terrible an ostentation, they did not in all their sailing round about
England, so much as sinke or take one shippe, Barke, Pinnesse, or Cockbote
of ours: or euer burnt so much as one sheepecote of this land. When as on
the contrarie, Sir Francis Drake, with onely 800. souldiers not long
before, landed in their Indies, and forced Sant-Iago, Santo Domingo,
Cartagena, and the forts of Florida.

And after that, Sir Iohn Norris marched from Peniche in Portugall, with a
handfull of souldiers, to the gates of Lisbone, being aboue 40 English
miles. Where the Earle of Essex himselfe and other valiant Gentlemen braued
the Citie of Lisbone, encamped at the very gates; from whence, after many
dayes abode, finding neither promised partie, nor provision to batter; they
made retrait by land, in despight of all their Garrisons, both of horse and
foote. In this sort I haue a little digressed from my first purpose, onely
by the necessarie comparison of theirs and our actions: the one couetous of
honour without vaunt of ostentation; the other so greedy to purchase the
opinion of their owne affaires, and by false rumors to resist the blasts of
their owne dishonours, as they, will not onely not blush to spread all
manner of vntruthes: but euen for the least aduantage, be it but for the
taking of one poore aduenturer of the English, will celebrate the victory
with bonefires in euery towne, alwayes spending more in faggots, then the
purchass was worth they obtained. When as we neuer thought it worth the
consumption of two billets, when we haue taken eight or ten of their Indian
shippes at one time, and twentie of the Brasill fleete. Such is the
difference betweene true valure, and ostentation: and betweene honorable
actions, and friuolous vaineglorious vaunts. But now to returne to my

The L. Thomas Howard with sixe of her Maiesties shippes, sixe victuallers
of London, the Barke Ralegh, and two or three other Pinnases riding at
anker neere vnto Flores, one of the Westerly Ilands of the Azores, the last
of August in the afternoone, had intelligence by one Captaine Middleton of
the approch of the Spanish Armada. Which Middteton being in a very good
sailer had kept them company three dayes before, of good purpose, both to
discouer their forces the more, as also to giue aduise to my L. Thomas of
their approch. Hee had no sooner deliuered the newes but the fleete was in
sight: many of our shippes companies were on shore in the Ilande; some
providing ballast for their ships; others filling of water and refreshing
themselues from the land with such things as they could either for money,
or by force recouer. By reason whereof our ships being all pestered and
romaging euery thing out of order, very light for want of balast, and that
which was most to our disadvantage, the one halfe part of the men of euery
shippe sicke, and vtterly vnseruiceable: for in the Reuenge there were
ninety diseased: in the Bonauenture not so many in health as could handle
her maine saile. For had not twenty men beene taken out of a Barque of sir
George Careys, his being commaunded to be sunke, and those appointed to
her, she had hardly euer recouered England. The rest, for the most parte,
were in little better state. The names of her Maiesties shippes were these
as followeth, the Defiance, which was Admiral, the Reuenge Vice-admirall,
the Bonauenture commaunded by Captaine Crosse, the Lion by George Fenner,
the Foresight by M. Thomas Vauasour, and the Crane by Duffild. The
Foresight and the Crane being but smal ships; only the other were of the
middle size; the rest, besides the Barke Ralegh, commanded by Captaine
Thin, were victuallers, and of small force or none. The Spanish Fleet
hauing shrouded their approch by reason of the Island; were now so soone at
hand, as our shippes had scarce time to way their anchors, but some of them
were driuen to let slippe their Cables and set saile. Sir Richard Grinuile
was the last that wayed, to recouer the men that were vpon the Island,
which otherwise had bene lost. The L. Thomas with the rest very hardly
recouered the winde, which Sir Richard Grinuile not being able to doe, was
perswaded by the Master and others to cut his maine sayle, and cast about,
and to trust to the sayling of the ship; for the squadron of Siuil were on
his weather bow. But Sir Richard vtterly refused to turne from the enemie,
alleaging that hee would rather choose to die, then to dishonour himselfe,
his countrey, and her Maiesties shippe, perswading his companie that hee
would passe through the two squadrons, in despight of them, and enforce
those of Siuil to giue him way. Which hee performed vpon divers of the
formost, who, as the Mariners terme it, sprang their luffe, and fell vnder
the lee of the Reuenge. But the other course had beene the better, and
might right well haue bene answered in so great an impossibility of
preuailing. Notwithstanding out of the greatnesse of his minde, he could
not be perswaded. In the meane while as hee attended those which were
nearest him, the great San Philip being in the winde of him, and comming
towards him, becalmed his sailes in such sort, as the shippe could neither
make way, nor feele the helme: so huge and high carged [Footnote: From the
French, _carguer_ to furl.] was the Spanish ship, being of a thousand and
fiue hundreth tuns. Who after layd the Reuenge aboord. When he was thus
bereft of his sailes, the ships that were vnder his lee luffing vp, also
layd him aboord: of which the next was the Admiral of the Biscaines, a very
mighty and puissant shippe commanded by Brittandona. The sayd Philip
carried three tire of ordinance on a side, and eleuen pieces in euery tire.
She shot eight forth right out of her chase, besides those of her sterne

After the Reuenge was entangled with this Philip, foure other boorded her:
two on her larbood, and two on her starboord. The fight thus beginning at
three of the clock in the afternoone, continued very terrible all that
euening. But the great San Philip hauing receiued the lower tire of the
Reuenge, discharged with crosse bar-shot, shifted her selfe with all
diligence from her sides, vtterly misliking her first entertainement. Some
say that the shippe foundred, but we cannot report it for truth, vnlesse we
were assured. The Spanish ships were filled with companies of souldiers, in
some two hundred besides the mariners; in some fiue, in others eight
hundreth. In ours there were none at all besides the mariners; but the
seruants of the commanders and some few voluntary gentlemen onely. After
many interchanged volies of great ordinance and small shot, the Spaniards
deliberated to enter the Reuenge, and made diuers attempts, hoping to force
her by the multitudes of her armed souldiers and Musketters, but were still
repulsed againe and againe, and at all times beaten backe into their owne
ships, or into the seas. In the beginning of the fight, the George Noble of
London hauing receiued some shot thorow her by the Armadas, fell vnder the
lee of the Reuenge, and asked Sir Richard what he would command him, being
but one of the victuallers, and of small force: Sir Richard bid him saue
himselfe, and leaue him to his fortune. After the fight had thus, without
intermission, continued while the day lasted and some houres of the night,
many of our men slaine and hurte, and one of the great Gallions of the
Armada, and the Admirall of the Hulkes both sunke, and in many other of the
Spanish shippes great slaughter was made. Some write that Sir Richard was
very dangerously hurt almost in the beginning of the fight, and lay
speechlesse for a time ere hee recovered. But two of the Reuenges owne
company, brought home in a ship of Lime from the Ilandes, examined by some
of the Lordes, and others, affirmed that hee was neuer so wounded as that
hee forsooke the vpper decke, till an houre before midnight; and then being
shot into the bodie with a Musket as hee was a dressing, was againe shot
into the head, and withall his Chirurgion wounded to death. This agreeth
also with an examination taken by sir Francis Godolphin, of foure other
mariners of the same shippe being returned, which examination, the said sir
Francis sent vnto master William Killegrue, of her Maiesties priuy Chamber.

But to returne to the fight, the Spanish ships which attempted to bord the
Reuenge, as they were wounded and beaten off, so alwayes others came in
their places, she hauing neuer lesse then two mighty Gallions by her sides,
and aboard her: So that ere the morning, from three of the clocke the day
before, there had fifteene seuerall Armadas assayled her; and all so ill
approued their entertainment, as they were by the breake of day, far more
willing to harken to a composition, then hastily to make any more assaults
or entries. But as the day encreased, so our men decreased: and as the
light grew more and more, by so much more grewe our discomforts. For none
appeared in sight but enemies, sauing one small ship called the Pilgrim,
commaunded by Iacob Whiddon, who houered all night to see the successe: but
in the morning bearing with the Reuenge, was hunted like a hare amongst
many rauenous houndes, but escaped.

All the powder of the Reuenge to the last barrell was now spent, all her
pikes broken, fortie of her best men slaine, and the most part of the rest
hurt. In the beginning of the fight shee had but one hundreth free from
sicknes, and fourescore and ten sicke, laid in hold vpon the Ballast. A
small troup to man such a ship, and a weake garrison to resist so mighty an
army. By those hundred al was susteined, the voleis, boordings, and
entrings of fifteen ships of warre, besides those which beat her at large.
On the contrary, the Spanish were always supplied with souldiers brought
from euery squadron: all maner of Armes and powder at will. Vnto ours there
remained no comfort at all, no hope, no supply either of ships, men, or
weapons; the Mastes all beaten ouer board, all her tackle cut asunder, her
vpper worke altogether rased, and in effect euened shee was with the water,
but the very foundation or bottome of a ship, nothing being left ouer head
either for flight or defence. [Sidenote: The Spanish 53 saile.] Sir Richard
finding himselfe in this distress, and vnable any longer to make
resistance, hauing endured in this fifteene houres fight, the assault of
fifteene seuerall Armadas, all by turnes aboord him, and by estimation
eight hundred shotte of great Artillerie, besides many assaults and
entries; and that himselfe and the shippe must needes be possessed by the
enemy, who were now all cast in a ring round about him (The Reuenge not
able to moue one way or the other, but as she was moued with the waues and
billow of the sea) commanded the Master gunner, whom hee knew to be a most
resolute man, to split and sinke the shippe; that thereby nothing might
remaine of glory or victory to the Spaniards: seeing in so many houres
fight, and with so great a Nauie they were not able to take her, hauing had
fifteene houres time, aboue ten thousand men, and fiftie and three saile of
men of warre to performe it withall: and perswaded the company, or as many
as hee could induce, to yeelde themselues vnto God, and to the mercie of
none else; but as they had, like valiant resolute men, repulsed so many
enemies, they should not nowe shorten the honour of their Nation, by
prolonging their owne liues for a few houres, or a fewe dayes. The Master
gunner readily condescended and diuers others; but the Captaine and the
Master were of another opinion, and besought Sir Richard to haue care of
them: alleaging that the Spaniard would be as ready to entertaine a
composition, as they were willing to offer the same: and that there being
diuers sufficient and valiant men yet liuing, and whose wounds were not
mortal, they might do their Countrey and prince acceptable seruice
hereafter. And whereas Sir Richard had alleaged that the Spaniards should
neuer glory to haue taken one shippe of her Maiestie, seeing they had so
long and so notably defended themselues; they answered, that the shippe had
sixe foote water in holde, three shot vnder water, which were so weakely
stopped, as with the working of the sea, she must needs sinke, and was
besides so crusht and brused, as shee could neuer be remoued out of the

And as the matter was thus in dispute, and Sir Richard refusing to hearken
to any of those reasons: the Master of the Reuenge (while the Captaine
wanne vnto him the greater party) was conuoyd aboord the Generall Don
Alfonso Bacan: Who (finding none ouer hastie to enter the Reuenge againe,
doubting least Sir Richard would haue blowne them vp and himselfe, and
perceiuing by report of the Master of the Reuenge his dangerous
disposition) yeelded that all their liues should be saued, the company sent
for England, and the better sort to pay such reasonable ransome as their
estate would beare, and in the meane season to be free from Gally or
imprisonment. To this he so much the rather condescended as wel, as I haue
said, for feare of further losse and mischiefe to themselues, as also for
the desire he had to recouer Sir Richard Greenuil; whom for his notable
valure he seemed greatly to honour and admire.

When this answere was returned, and that safetie of life was promised, the
common sort being now at the ende of their perill, the most drew backe from
Sir Richard and the Master gunner, being no hard matter to disswade men
from death to life. The Master gunner finding himselfe and Sir Richard thus
preuented and mastered by the greater number, would haue slaine himselfe
with a sword, had he not bene by force with-held and locked into his
Cabben. Then the Generall sent many boates aboord the Reuenge, and diuers
of our men fearing Sir Richards disposition, stole away aboord the Generall
and other shippes. Sir Richard thus ouermatched, was sent vnto by Alfonso
Bacan to remooue out of the Reuenge, the shippe being marueilous vnsauorie,
filled with blood and bodies of dead, and wounded men like a slaughter
house. Sir Richard answered that hee might doe with his body what he list,
for hee esteemed it not, and as he was carried out of the shippe hee
swounded, and reuiuing againe desired the company to pray for him. The
Generall vsed Sir Richard with all humanitie, and left nothing vnattempted
that tended to his recouery, highly commending his valour and worthinesse,
and greatly bewailing the danger wherein he was, being vnto them a rare
spectacle, and a resolution seldome approoued, to see one shippe turne
toward so many enemies, to endure the charge and boording of so many huge
Armadas, and to resist and repell the assaults and entries of so many
souldiers. All which and more is confirmed by a Spanish Captaine of the
same Armada, and a present actor in the fight, who being seuered from the
rest in a storme, was by the Lion of London a small ship taken, and is now
prisoner in London.

The generall commander of the Armada, was Don Alphonso Bacan, brother to
the Marques of Santa Cruz. The admiral of the Biscaine squadron, was
Britandona. Of the squadron of Siuil, the Marques of Arumburch. The Hulkes
and Flybotes were commanded by Luis Coutinho. There were slaine and drowned
in this fight, well neere one thousand of the enemies, and two speciall
commanders Don Luis de sant Iohn, and Don George de Prunaria de Mallaga, as
the Spanish captaine confesseth, besides diuers others of speciall account,
whereof as yet report is not made.

The Admirall of the Hulkes and the Ascension of Siuil were both sunke by
the side of the Reuenge; one other recouered the rode of Saint Michael, and
sunke also there; a fourth ranne her self with the shore to saue her men.
Sir Richard died as it is sayd, the second or third day aboord the
Generall, and was by them greatly bewailed. What became of his body,
whether it were buried in the sea or on the land we know not: the comfort
that remayneth to his friends is, that hee hath ended his life honourably
in respect of the reputation wonne to his nation and countrey, and of the
same to his posteritie, and that being dead, he hath not outliued his owne

For the rest of her Maiesties ships that entred not so farre into the fight
as the Reuenge, the reasons and causes were these. There were of them but
sixe in all, whereof two but small ships; the Reuenge ingaged past
recouery: The Iland of Flores was on the one side, 53 saile of the Spanish,
diuided into squadrons on the other, all as full filled with souldiers as
they could containe: Almost the one halfe of our men sicke and not able to
serue: the ships growne foule, vnroomaged, and scarcely able to beare any
saile for want of ballast, hauing bene sixe moneths at the sea before. If
all the rest had entred, all had bene lost: for the very hugenes of the
Spanish fleete, if no other violence had beene offered, would haue crusht
them betweene them into shiuers. Of which the dishonour and losse to the
Queene had bene farre greater then the spoyle or harme that the enemie
could any way haue receiued. Notwithstanding it is very true, that the Lord
Thomas would haue entred betweene the squadrons, but the rest would not
condescend; and the master of his owne ship offred to leape into the sea,
rather then to conduct that her Maiesties ship and the rest to bee a pray
to the enemie, where there was no hope nor possibilitie either of defence
or victory. Which also in my opinion had ill sorted or answered the
discretion and trust of a Generall, to commit himselfe and his charge to an
assured destruction, without hope or any likelyhood of preuailing: thereby
to diminish the strength of her Maiesties Nauy, and to enrich the pride and
glory of the enemie. The Foresight of the Queenes commaunded by M. Thomas
Vauisor performed a very great fight, and stayed two houres as neere the
Reuenge as the weather would permit him, not forsaking the fight, till he
was like to be encompassed by the squadrons, and with great difficultie
cleared himselfe. The rest gaue diuers voleis of shot, and entred as farre
as the place permitted, and their owne necessities, to keepe the weather
gage of the enemie, vntill they were parted by night. A fewe dayes after
the fight was ended, and the English prisoners dispersed into the Spanish
and Indie ships, there arose so great a storme from the West and Northwest;
that all the fleete was dispersed, as well the Indian fleete which were
then come vnto them, as the rest of the Armada that attended their arriual,
of which 14. saile together with the Reuenge, and in her 200. Spaniards,
were cast away vpon the Isle of S. Michael. So it pleased them to honor the
buriall of that renowmed ship the Reuenge, not suffering her to perish
alone, for the great honour she atchieued in her life time. On the rest of
the Ilandes there were cast away in this storme, 15 or 16 more of the ships
of warre: and of an hundred and odde saile of the Indie fleete, expected
this yeere in Spaine, what in this tempest, and what before in the bay of
Mexico, and about the Bermudas, there were 70 and odde consumed and lost,
with those taken by our shippes of London, besides one very rich Indian
ship, which set herselfe on fire, beeing boarded by the Pilgrim, and fiue
other taken by master Wats his ships of London, between the Hauana and Cape
S. Antonio. The fourth of this moneth of Nouember we receiued letters from
the Tercera, affirming that there are 3000 bodies of men remaining in that
Iland, saued out of the perished ships: and that by the Spaniards owne
confession, there are 10000 cast away in this storme, besides those that
are perished betweene the Ilands and the maine. Thus it hath pleased God to
fight for vs and to defend the iustice of our cause, against the ambicious
and bloody pretenses of the Spaniard, who seeking to deuoure all nations,
are themselues deuoured. A manifest testimony how iniust and displeasing,
their attempts are in the sight of God, who hath pleased to witnes by the
successe of their affaires, his mislike of their bloody and iniurious
designes, purposed and practised against all Christian princes, ouer whom
they seeke vnlawfull and vngodly rule and Empery.

One day or two before this wracke happened to the Spanish fleete, when as
some of our prisoners desired to be set on shore vpon the Ilandes, hoping
to be from thence transported into England, which libertie was formerly by
the Generall promised: One Morice Fitz Iohn, sonne of olde Iohn of Desmond,
a notable traytour, cousin german to the late Earle of Desmond, was sent to
the English from shippe to shippe, to perswade them to serue the King of
Spaine. The arguments hee vsed to induce them were these. The increase of
pay which he promised to be trebled: aduancement to the better sort: and
the exercise of the true Catholique Religion, and safetie of their soules
to all. For the first, euen the beggerly and vnnaturall behauiour of those
English and Irish rebels, that serued the King in that present action, was
sufficient to answere that first argument of rich pay. For so poore and
beggerly they were, as for want of apparell they stripped their poore
Countrey men prisoners out of their ragged garments, worne to nothing by
sixe months seruice, and spared not to despoyle them euen of their bloody
shirtes, from their wounded bodies, and the very shooes from their feete; A
notable testimonie of their rich entertainment and great wages. The second
reason was hope of aduancement if they serued well, and would continue
faithfull to the King. But what man can be so blockishly ignorant euer to
expect place or honour from a forraine King, hauing no other argument or
perswasion then his owne disloyaltie; to be vnnatural to his owne Countrey
that bred him; to his parents that begat him, and rebellious to his true
Prince, to whose obedience he is bound by oath, by nature, and by Religion?
No, they are onely assured to be employed in all desperate enterprises, to
bee helde in scorne and disdaine euer among those whom they serue. And that
euer traitour was either trusted or aduanced I could neuer yet reade,
neither can I at this time remember any example. And no man coulde haue
lesse becommed the place of an Orator for such a purpose, then this Morice
of Desmond. For the Erle his cosen being one of the greatest subiects in
that kingdom of Ireland, hauing almost whole Countreis in his possession;
so many goodly Manners, castles, and lordships; the Count Palatine of
Kerry, fiue hundred gentlemen of his owne name and family to follow him,
besides others (all which he possessed in peace for three or foure hundred
yeeres) was in lesse then three yeeres after his adhering to the Spaniards
and rebellion, beaten from all his holdes, not so many as ten gentlemen of
his name left liuing, himselfe taken and beheaded by a souldier of his owne
nation, and his land giuen by a Parliament to her Maiestie, and possessed
by the English: His other cosen Sir Iohn of Desmond taken by Master Iohn
Zouch, and his body hanged ouer the gates of his natiue Citie to be
deuoured by rauens: the thirde brother Sir Iames hanged, drawne, and
quartered in the same place. If hee had withall vaunted of his successe of
his owne house, no doubt the argument would haue mooued much, and wrought
great effect: which because, hee for that present forgot, I thought it good
to remember in his behalfe. For matter of Religion it would require a
particular volume, if I should set downe how irreligiously they couer their
greedy and ambicious pretenses, with that veile of pietie. But sure I am,
that there is no kingdome or commonwealth in all Europe, but if they be
reformed, they then inuade it for religion sake: if it bee, as they terme
Catholique, they pretend title; as if the Kings of Castile were the
naturall heires of all the world: and so betweene both, no kingdome is
vnsought. Where they dare not with their owne forces to inuade, they basely
entertaine the traitours and vagabonds of all Nations: seeking by those and
by their runnagate Iesuits to winne parts, and haue by that meane ruined
many Noble houses and others in this lande, and haue extinguished both
their liues and families. What good, honour, or fortune euer man yet by
them atchieued, is yet vnheard of, or vnwritten. And if our English Papists
doe but looke into Portugall, against which they haue no pretense of
Religion, how the Nobilitie are put to death, imprisoned, their rich men
made a praye, and all sorts of people captiued; they shall finde that the
obedience euen of the Turke is easie and a libertie, in respect of the
slauerie and tyrannie of Spaine. What haue they done in Sicill, in Naples,
Millaine, and in the Low countreis; who hath there bene spared for Religion
at all: And it commeth to my remembrance of a certaine Burger of Antwerpe,
whose house being entred by a company of Spanish souldiers, when they first
sacked the Citie, hee besought them to spare him and his goods, being a
good Catholique, and one of their owne partie and faction. The Spaniards
answered, that they knew him to be of a good conscience for himselfe, but
his money, plate, iewels, and goods were all hereticall, and therefore good
prize. So they abused and tormented the foolish Fleming, who hoped that an
Agnus Dei had bene a sufficient target against all force of that holy and
charitable nation. Neither haue they at any time as they protest inuaded
the kingdomes of the Indies and Peru, and elsewhere, but onely led
thereunto, rather to reduce the people to Christianitie, then for either
gold or Emperie. When as in one onely Island called Hispaniola, they haue
wasted thirtie hundred thousand of the naturall people, besides many
millions else in other places of the Indies: a poore and harmelesse people
created of God, and might haue bene wonne to his knowledge, as many of them
were, and almost as many as euer were perswaded thereunto. The storie
whereof is at large written by a Bishop of their owne nation called
Bartholomew de las Casas, and translated into English and many other
languages, intituled The Spanish cruelties. Who would therefore repose
trust in such a nation of ravenous strangers, and especially in those
Spaniards which more greedily thirst after English blood, then after the
liues of any other people of Europe, for the many ouerthrowes and
dishonours they haue receiued at our hands, whose weakeness wee haue
discouered to the world, and whose forces at home, abroad, in Europe, in
India, by sea and land, wee haue euen with handfulles of men and shippes,
ouerthrowen and dishonoured. Let not therefore any English man, of what
religion soeuer, haue other opinion of the Spaniards, but that those whom
hee seeketh to winne of our Nation, he esteemeth base and trayterous,
vnworthy persons, or vnconstant fooles: and that he vseth his pretense of
religion, for no other purpose but to bewitch vs from the obedience of our
naturall Prince, thereby hoping in time to bring vs to slauery and
subiection, and then none shall be vnto them so odious, and disdayned as
the traitours themselues, who haue solde their Countrey to a stranger, and
forsaken their faith and obedience contrarie to nature and religion; and
contrarie to that humane and generall honour, not onely of Christians, but
of heathen and irreligious nations, who haue alwayes sustayned what labour
soeuer, and embraced euen death it selfe, for their countrey, Prince, or
common wealth. To conclude, it hath euer to this day pleased God to prosper
and defend her Maiestie, to breake the purposes of malicious enemies, of
forsworne traytors, and of iniust practises and inuasions. She hath euer
beene honoured of the worthiest kings, serued by faithfull subiects, and
shall by the fauour of God, resist, repell, and confound all whatsoeuer
attempts against her sacred person or kingdome. In the meane time let the
Spaniard and traytour vaunt of their successe, and wee her true and
obedient vassals guided by the shining light of her virtues, shall alwayes
loue her, serue her, and obey her to the end of our liues. [Footnote: The
most complete collection of contemporary documents relating to this
interesting episode, is to be found in "_The Last Fight of the Revenge_",
privately printed, Edinburgh, 1886 (GOLDSMID'S BIBLIOTHECA CURIOSA.)]

* * * * *

A particular note of the Indian fleet, expected to haue come into Spaine
this present yeere of 1591. with the number of shippes that are perished
of the same: according to the examination of certaine Spaniards lately
taken and brought into England by the ships of London.

The fleete of Noua Hispania, at their first gathering together and setting
foorth, were two and fiftie sailes. The Admirall was of sixe hundred
tunnes, and the Vice Admirall of the same burthen. Foure or fiue of the
shippes were of nine hundred and 1000 tunnes a piece, some fiue hundred,
and some foure hundred and the least of two hundred tuns. Of this fleet 19
were cast away, and in them 2600 men by estimation, which was done along
the coast of Noua Hispania, so that of the same fleet there came to the
Hauana but 33 sailes.

The fleete of Terra Firma were, at their first departure from Spaine,
fiftie sailes, which were bound for Nombre de Dios, where they did
discharge their lading, and thence returned to Cartagena, for their healths
sake, vntill the time the treasure was readie they should take in, at the
said Nombre de Dios. But before this fleete departed, some were gone by one
or two at a time, so that onely 23 sayles of this fieete arriued in the

At the Hauana there met

33 sailes of Noua Hispania.
23 sailes of Terra Firma.
12 sailes of San Domingo.
9 sailes of the Hunduras.

The whole 77 shippes, ioyned and set sailes all together at the Hauana, the
17 of Iuly, according to our account, and kept together vntill they came
into the height of thirtie fiue degrees, which was about the tenth of
August, where they found the winde at Southwest chaunged suddenly to the
North, so that the sea comming out of the Southwest, and the wind very
violent at North, they were put all into great extremitie, and then first
lost the Generall of their fleete, with 500 men in her; and within three or
foure dayes after, an other storme rising, there were fiue or sixe other of
the biggest shippes cast away with all their men, together with their

And in the height of 38. degrees, about the end of August, grew another
great storme, in which all the fleet sauing 48. sailes were cast away:
which 48. sailes kept together, vntill they came in sight of the Ilands of
Coruo and Flores, about the fift or sixt of September, at which time a
great storme separated them: of which number fifteene or sixteene were
after seene by these Spanyards to ride at anchor vnder the Tercera; and
twelue or foureteene more to beare with the Island of S. Michael; what
became of them after that these Spaniards were taken cannot yet be
certified; their opinion as, that very few of thee fleet are escaped, but
are either drowned or taken. And it is other waies of late certified, that
of this whole fleete that should haue come into Spaine this yeere, being
one hundred twentie and three sayle, there are arriued as yet but fiue and
twentie. This note was taken out of the examination of certaine Spaniardes,
that were brought into England by sixe of the ships of London, which tooke
seuen of the aboue named Indian Fleete, neere the Islands of the Acores.

* * * * *

A report of Master Robert Flicke directed to Master Thomas Bromley, Master
Richard Staper, and Master Cordall concerning the successe of a part of
the London supplies sent to my Lord Thomas Howard to the Isles of the
Azores, 1591.

Worshipfull, my heartie commendations vnto you premised: By my last of the
twelfth of August from this place I aduertised you particularly of the
accidents of our Fleete vntill then. It remayneth now to relate our
endeuours in accomplishing the order receiued for the ioyning with my Lorde
Thomas Howard, together with the successe wee haue had. Our departure from
hence was the seuenteenth of August, the winde not seruing before. The next
day following I caused a Flagge of Counsell to be put foorth, whereupon the
Captaines and Masters of euery shippe came aboord, and I acquainted them
with my Commission, firmed by the Right honourable the Lordes of her
Maiesties Counsell, and with all the aduertisements of Sir Edward Denny, of
my Lordes determination to remaine threescore leagues to the West of Fayal,
spreading North and South betwixt thirtie seuen and a halfe or thirty eight
and a halfe degrees. And not finding him in this heighth to repaire to the
Isles of Flores and Coruo, where a Pinnesse of purpose should stay our
comming vntill the last of August, with intent after that day to repaire to
the coast of Spaine, about the heigth of The Rocke, some twentte or thirtie
leagues off the shoare. The which being aduisedly considered of hauing
regard vnto the shortnesse of time, by reason of our long abode in this
place, and the vncertainety of the weather to fauour vs, it was generally
holden for the best and securest way to meete with my Lorde, to beare with
the heigth of The Rocke, without making any stay vpon the coast, and so
directly for the Islands which was accordingly fully agreed and performed.
The 28 day wee had sight of the Burlings, and the 29 being thwart of
Peniche, the winde seruing vs, without any stay we directed our course West
for the Islands. The 30 day we met with Captaine Royden in the Red-Rose,
sometime called the Golden Dragon, separated from my Lorde of Cumberland in
a storme: who certified vs of 50 sayles of the Spanish kings Armadas to be
gone for the Ilands, but could not informe vs any newes of my Lord Thomas
Howard, otherwise then vpon presumption to remaine about the Islandes, and
so wee continued our course the winde standing with vs.

The 4 of September we recouered Tercera, and ranged along all the Islands,
both on the South and North sides the space of foure dayes: during which
time it was not our hap to meete with any shipping, whereby either to
vnderstand of my Lord, or of the Indian Fleete: hereupon we directed our
course to the West from Fayal, according to the instructions of Sir Edward

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