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The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of The English Nation, v. 7 by Richard Hakluyt

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** Transcriber's Notes **

The printed edition from which this e-text has been produced retains the
spelling and abbreviations of Hakluyt's 16th-century original. In this
version, the spelling has been retained, but the following manuscript
abbreviations have been silently expanded:

- vowels with macrons = vowel + 'n' or 'm'
- q; = -que (in the Latin)
- y[e] = the; y[t] = that; w[t] = with

This edition contains footnotes and two types of sidenotes. Most footnotes
are added by the editor. They follow modern (19th-century) spelling
conventions. Those that don't are Hakluyt's (and are not always
systematically marked as such by the editor). The sidenotes are Hakluyt's
own. Summarizing sidenotes are labelled [Sidenote: ] and placed before the
sentence to which they apply. Sidenotes that are keyed with a symbol are
labeled [Marginal note: ] and placed at the point of the symbol, except in
poetry, where they are placed at a convenient point. Additional notes on
corrections, etc. are signed 'KTH'

** End Transcriber's Notes **


Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques,





Collected by



Edited by





A voyage to the Azores with two pinases, the one called the Serpent, and
the other the Mary Sparke of Plimouth, both of them belonging to Sir
Walter Raleigh, written by John Euesham Gentleman, wherein were taken the
gouernour, of the Isle of Sainct Michael, and Pedro Sarmiento gouernour
of the Straits of Magalanes, in the yeere 1586.

[Sidenote: The gouernour of S. Michael taken prisoner.] The 10. of June
1586. we departed from Plimouth with two Pinases, the one named the
Serpent, of the burden of 35. Tunnes and the other the Mary Sparke of
Plimouth of the burthen of 50. Tuns, both of them belonging to sir Walter
Raleigh knight; and directing our course towards the coast of Spaine, and
from thence towards the Isles of the Azores, we tooke a small barke laden
with Sumacke and other commodities, wherein was the gouernour of S.
Michaels Island, being a Portugal, having other Portugals and Spaniards
with him. And from thence we sailed to the Island of Graciosa, to the
Westward of the Island of Tercera, where we discried a saile, and bearing
with her wee found her to be a Spaniard: But at the first not greatly
respecting whom we tooke, so that we might haue enriched ourselves, which
was the cause of this our trauaile, and for that we would not bee knowen of
what nation we were, wee displayed a white silke ensigne in our maine
toppe, which they seeing, made accompt that we had bene some of the king of
Spaines Armadas, lying in wait for English men of war: but when we came
within shot of her, we tooke downe our white flagge, and spread abroad the
Crosse of S. George, which when they saw, it made them to flie as fast as
they might, but all their haste was in vaine, for our shippes were swifter
of saile then they, which they fearing, did presently cast their ordinance
and small shot with many letters, and the draft of the Straights of Magelan
into the Sea, [Sidenote: Pedro Sarmiento the governour of the Straights of
Magellan taken prisoner.] and thereupon immediately we tooke her, wherein
wee also tooke a gentleman of Spaine, named Pedro Sarmiento, gouernour of
the Straights of Magelan, which said Pedro we brought into England with us,
and presented him to our soueraigne Lady the Queene.

[Sidenote: A ship laden with fish taken and released againe.] After this,
lying off and about the Islands, wee descried another saile, and bearing
after her, we spent the maine maste of our Admirall, but yet in the night
our Viceadmirall tooke her, being laden with fish from Cape Blanke, the
which shippe wee let goe againe for want of men to bring her home. The next
day we descried two other sailes, the one a shippe and the other a Carauel,
to whom we gaue chase, which they seeing, with all speede made in vnder the
Isle of Graciosa, to a certaine Fort there for their succour, where they
came to an anker, and hauing the winde of vs, we could not hurt them with
our ships, but we hauing a small boate which we called a light horseman,
wherein my selfe was, being a Musqueter, and foure more with Caliuers, and
foure that rowed, came neere vnto the shore against the winde, which when
they saw vs come towards them they carried a great part of their
marchandize on land, whither also the men of both vessels went and landed,
[Sidenote: One of the ships taken and sent away with 2. persons.] and as
soon as we came within Musquet shot, they began to shoote at vs with great
ordinance and small shot, and we likewise at them, and in the ende we
boorded one wherein was no man left, so we cut her cables, hoysed her
sailes, and sent her away with two of our men, [Sidenote: The Caravel is
taken.] and the other 7. of vs passed more neere vnto the shoare, and
boorded the Carauel, which did ride within a stones cast from the shoare,
and so neere the land that the people did cast stones at vs, but yet in
despight of them all we tooke her, and one onely Negro therein: and cutting
her cables in the hawse, we hoysed her sailes and being becalmed vnder the
land we were constrained to rowe her out with our boate, the Fort still
shooting at vs, and the people on land with Musquets and caliuers, to the
number of 150. or thereabout: and we answered them with the small force wee
had; in the time of which our shooting, the shot of my Musquet being a
crossebarre-shot happened to strike the gunner of the fort to death, euen
as he was giuing leuell to one of his great pieces, and thus we parted from
them without any losse or hurt on our side. [Sidenote: The prises sent
home.] And now, hauing taken these fiue sailes of shippes, we did as
before, turne away the shippe with the fish, without hurting them, and from
one of the other shippes we tooke her maine Maste to serue our Admirals
turne, and so sent her away putting into her all the Spaniards and
Portugals (sauing that gentleman Pedro Sarmiento, with three other of the
principal men and two Negroes) leauing them all within sight of land, with
bread and water sufficient for 10. dayes if neede were.

Thus setting our course for England, being off the Islands in the height of
41 degrees, or there about, one of our men being in the toppe discried a
saile, then 10. saile, then 15. whereupon it was concluded to sende home
those prizes we had, and so left in both our Pinasses not aboue 60. men.
[Sidenote: Two Carracks, 10. Gallions, 12. small ships.] Thus wee returned
againe to the Fleete we had discried, where wee found 24. saile of shippes,
whereof two of them were Caracks, the one of 1200. and the other of a 1000.
tunnes, and 10. Gallions, the rest were small shippes and Carauels all
laden with Treasure, spices, and sugars with which 24. shippes we with two
small Pinasses did fight, and kept company the space of 32. houres,
continually fighting with them and they with vs, but the two Caracks kept
still betwixt the Fleete and vs, that wee could not take any one of them,
so wanting powder, wee were forced to giue them ouer against our willes,
for that wee were all wholly bent to the gaining of some of them, but
necessitie compelling vs, and that onely for want of powder, without losse
of any of our men, (which was a thing to be wondered at considering the
inequalitie of number) at length we gaue them ouer. [Sidenote: The 2.
pinasses returne for England.] Thus we againe set our course for England,
and so came to Plimouth within 6. houres after our prizes, which we sent
away 40. houres before vs, where wee were receiued with triumphant ioy, not
onely with great Ordinance then shot off, but with the willing hearts of
all the people of the Towne, and of the Countrey thereabout; and we not
sparing our Ordinance (with the powder wee had left) to requite and answere
them againe. And from thence wee brought our prizes to Southampton, where
sir Walter Ralegh being our owner, rewarded vs with our shares.

Our prizes were laden with sugars, Elephants teeth, waxe, hides, rice,
brasill, and Cuser, as by the testimonie of Iohn Euesham himselfe, Captaine
Whiddon, Thomas Rainford, Beniamin Wood, William Cooper Master, William
Cornish Master, Thomas Drake Corporall, Iohn Ladd gunner, William Warefield
gunner, Richard Moone, Iohn Drew, Richard Cooper of Harwich, William Beares
of Ratcliffe, Iohn Row of Saltash, and many others, may appeare.

* * * * *

A briefe relation of the notable seruice performed by Sir Francis Drake
vpon the Spanish Fleete prepared in the Road of Cadiz: and of his
destroying of 100. saile of barks; Passing from thence all along the
coast to Cape Sacre, where also hee tooke certaine Forts: and so to the
mouth of the Riuer of Lisbon, and thence crossing ouer to the Isle of
Sant Michael, supprized a mighty Carack called the Sant Philip comming
out of the East India, which was the first of that kinde that euer was
seene in England: Performed in the yeere 1587.

Her Maiestie being informed of a mightie preparation by Sea begunne in
Spaine for the inuasion of England, by good aduise of her graue and prudent
Counsell thought it expedient to preuent the same. Whereupon she caused a
Fleete of some 30. sailes to be rigged and furnished with all things
necessary. Ouer that Fleete she appointed Generall sir Francis Drake (of
whose manifold former good seruices she had sufficient proofe) to whom she
caused 4. ships of her Nauie royall to be deliuered, to wit, The
Bonauenture wherein himselfe went as Generall; the Lion vnder the conduct
of Master William Borough Controller of the Nauie; the Dread-nought vnder
the command of M. Thomas Venner; and the Rainebow, captaine whereof was M.
Henry Bellingham: vnto which 4 ships two of her pinasses were appointed as
hand-maids. There were also added vnto this Fleet certaine tall ships of
the Citie of London, of whose especiall good seruice the General made
particular mention in his priuate Letters directed to her Maiestie. This
Fleete set saile from the sound of Plimouth in the moneth of April towards
the coast of Spaine.

The 16. of the said moneth we mette in the latitude of 40. degrees with two
ships of Middleborough, which came from Cadiz; by which we vnderstood that
there was great store of warlike prouision at Cadiz and thereabout ready to
come for Lisbon. Vpon this information our Generall with al speed possible,
bending himselfe thither to cut off their said forces and prouisions, vpon
the 19. of April entered with his Fleet into the Harbor of Cadiz: where at
our first entring we were assailed ouer against the Towne by sixe Gallies,
which notwithstanding in short time retired vnder their fortresse.

There were in the Road 60. ships and diuers other small vessels vnder the
fortresse: there fled about 20. French ships to Port Real, and some small
Spanish vessels that might passe the sholdes. At our first comming in we
sunke with our shot a ship of Raguza of a 1000. tunnes, furnished with 40.
pieces of brasse and very richly laden. There came two Gallies more from S.
Mary port, and two from Porto Reale, which shot freely at vs, but
altogether in vaine: for they went away with the blowes well beaten for
their paines.

Before night we had taken 30. of the said ships, and became Masters of the
Road, in despight of the Gallies, which were glad to retire them vnder the
Fort: in the number of which ships there was one new ship of an
extraordinary hugenesse in burthen aboue 1200. tunnes, belonging to the
Marquesse of Santa Cruz being at that instant high Admirall of Spaine. Fiue
of them were great ships of Biskay, whereof 4. we fired, as they were
taking in the Kings prouision of victuals for the furnishing of his Fleet
at Lisbon: the fift being a ship about 1000. tunnes in burthen, laden with
Iron spikes, nailes, yron hoopes, horse-shooes, and other like necessaries
bound for the West Indies we fired in like maner. Also we tooke a ship of
250. tunnes laden with wines for the Kings prouision, which wee caried out
to the Sea with vs, and there discharged the said wines for our owne store,
and afterward set her on fire. Moreouer we tooke 3. Flyboats of 300. tunnes
a piece laden with biscuit, whereof one was halfe vnladen by vs in the
Harborow, and there fired, and the other two we tooke in our company to the
Sea. Likewise there were fired by vs ten other ships which were laden with
wine, raisins, figs, oiles, wheat, and such like. To conclude, the whole
number of ships and barkes (as we suppose) then burnt, suncke, and brought
away with vs, amounted to 30. at the least, being (in our iudgement) about
10000. tunnes of shipping.

There were in sight of vs at Porto Real about 40. ships, besides those that
fled from Cadiz.

We found little ease during our aboad there, by reason of their continuall
shooting from the Gallies, the fortresses, and from the shoare: where
continually at places conuenient they planted new ordinance to offend vs
with: besides the inconuenience which wee suffered from their ships, which,
when they could defend no longer, they set on fire to come among vs.
Whereupon when the flood came wee were not a little troubled to defend vs
from their terrible fire, which neuerthelesse was a pleasant sight for vs
to beholde, because we were thereby eased of a great labour, which lay vpon
vs day and night, in discharging the victuals, and other prouisions of the
enemie. Thus by the assistance of the almightie, and the inuincible courage
and industrie of our Generall, this strange and happy enterprize was
atchieued in one day and two nights, to the great astonishment of the King
of Spaine, which bread such a corrasiue in the heart of the Marques of
Santa Cruz high Admiral of Spaine, that he neuer enioyed good day after,
but within fewe moneths (as may iustly be supposed) died of extreame griefe
and sorrow.

Thus hauing performed this notable seruice, we came out of the Road of
Cadiz on the Friday morning the 21. of the said moneth of April, with very
small losse not worth the mentioning.

After our departure ten of the Gallies that were in the Road came out, as
it were in disdaine of vs, to make some pastime with their ordinance, at
which time the wind skanted vpon vs, whereupon we cast about againe, and
stood in with the shoare, and came to an anker within a league of the
towne: where the said Gallies, for all their former bragging, at length
suffred vs to ride quietly.

We now haue had experience of Gally-fight: wherein I can assure you, that
onely these 4. of her Maiesties ships will make no accompt of 20. Gallies,
if they may be alone, and not busied to guard others. There were neuer
Gallies that had better place and fitter opportunitie for their aduantage
to fight with ships: but they were still forced to retire, wee riding in a
narrow gut, the place yeelding no better, and driuen to maintaine the same,
vntill wee had discharged and fired the shippes, which could not
conueniently be done but vpon the flood, at which time they might driue
cleare off vs. Thus being victualed with bread and wine at the enemies cost
for diuers moneths (besides the prouisions that we brought from home) our
Generall dispatched Captaine Crosse into England with his letters, giuing
him further in charge to declare vnto her Maiestie all the particularities
of this our first enterprize.

After whose departure wee shaped our course toward Cape Sacre, and in the
way thither wee tooke at seuerall times of ships, barkes, and Carauels well
neere an hundred, laden with hoopes, gally-oares, pipe-staues, and other
prouisions of the king of Spaine, for the furnishing of his forces intended
against England, al which we burned, hauing dealt fauourably with the men
and sent them on shoare. We also spoiled and consumed all the fisher-boats
and nets thereabouts, to their great hinderance: and (as we suppose) to the
vtter ouerthrow of the rich fishing of their Tunies for the same yere. At
length we came to the aforesaid Cape Sacre, where we went on land; and the
better to enioy the benefite of the place, and to ride in the harborow at
our pleasure, we assailed the same castle, and three other strong holds,
which we tooke some by force and some by surrender.

Thence we came before the hauen of Lisbon ankering nere vnto Cascais, where
the Marques, of Santa Cruz was with his Gallies, who seeing vs chase his
ships a shoare, and take and cary away his barks and Carauels, was content
to suffer vs there quietly to tary, and likewise to depart, and neuer
charged vs with one canon-shot. And when our Generall sent him worde that
hee was there ready to exchange certaine bullets with him, the marques
refused his chalenge, sending him word, that he was not then ready for him,
nor had any such Commission from his King.

[Sidenote: The Carack called the Sanct Philip taken.] Our Generall thus
refused by the Marques, and seeing no more good to be done in this place,
thought it conuenient to spend no longer time vpon this coast: and
therefore with consent of the chiefe of his Company he shaped his course
toward the Isles of the Acores, and passing towards the Isle of Saint
Michael, within 20. or 30. leagues thereof, it was his good fortune to
meete with a Portugale Carak called Sant Philip, being the same shippe
which in the voyage outward had carried the 3. Princes of Iapan, that were
in Europe, into the Indies. This Carak without any great resistance he
tooke, bestowing the people thereof in certaine vessels well furnished with
victuals, and sending them courteously home into their Countrey: and this
was the first Carak that euer was then comming foorth of the East Indies;
which the Portugals tooke for an euil signe, because the ship bare the
Kings owne name.

The riches of this prize seemed so great vnto the whole Company (as in
trueth it was) that they assured themselues euery man to haue a sufficient
reward for his trauel: and thereupon they all resolued to returne home for
England: which they happily did, and arriued in Plimouth the same Sommer
with their whole Fleete and this rich booty, to their owne profite and due
commendation, and to the great admiration of the whole kingdome.

And here by the way it is to be noted, that the taking of this Carak
wrought two extraordinary effects in England: first, that it taught others,
that Caracks were no such bugs but that they might be taken (as since
indeed it hath fallen out in the taking of the Madre de Dios, and fyreing
and sinking of others) and secondly in acquainting the English Nation more
generally with the particularities of the exceeding riches and wealth of
the East Indies: whereby themselues and their neighbours of Holland haue
bene incouraged, being men as skilfull in Nauigation and of no lesse
courage then the Portugals to share with them in the East Indies: where
their strength is nothing so great as heretofore hath bene supposed.

* * * * *

A true discourse written (as is thought) by Colonel Antonie Winkfield
emploied in the voiage to Spaine and Portugall, 1589. sent to his
particular friend, and by him published for the better satisfaction of
all such as hauing bene seduced by particular report, haue entred into
conceits tending to the discredite of the enterprise and Actors of the

Although the desire of aduancing my reputation caused me to withstand the
many perswasions you vsed to hold me at home, and the pursuite of honorable
actions drew me (contrary to your expectation) to neglect that aduise,
which in loue I know you gaue me: yet in respect of the many assurances you
haue yeelded mee of your kindest friendship, I cannot suspect that you will
either loue or esteeme me the lesse, at this my returne: and therefore I
wil not omit any occasion which may make me appeare thankfull, or discharge
any part of that duetie I owe you; which now is none other then to offer
you a true discourse how these warres of Spaine and Portugall haue passed
since our going out of England the 18 of Aprill, till our returne which was
the first of Iuly. Wherein I wil (vnder your fauourable pardon) for your
further satisfaction, as well make relation of those reasons which
confirmed me in my purpose of going abroad, as of these accidents which
haue happened during our aboad there; thereby hoping to perswade you that
no light fansie did drawe me from the fruition of your dearest friendship,
but an earnest desire by following the warres to make my selfe more woorthy
of the same.

Hauing therefore determinately purposed to put on this habite of a
souldier, I grew doubtfull whether to employ my time in the wars of the low
Countries, which are in auxiliarie maner maintained by her maiestie, or to
folow the fortune of this voiage, which was an aduenture of her and many
honorable personages, in reuenge of vnsupportable wrongs offered vnto the
estate of our countrey by the Castilian king: in arguing whereof, I find
that by how much the chalenger is reputed before the defendant, by so much
is the iourney to be preferred before those defensiue wars. For had the
duke of Parma his turne bene to defend, as it was his good fortune to
inuade: from whence could haue proceeded that glorious honor which these
late warres haue laid vpon him, or what could haue bene said more of him,
then of a Respondent (though neuer so valiant) in a priuate Duell: Euen,
that he hath done no more then by his honor he was tied vnto. For the gaine
of one towne or any small defeat giueth more renoume to the Assailant, then
the defence of a countrey, or the withstanding of twentie encounters can
yeeld any man who is bound by his place to guard the same: whereof as well
the particulars of our age, especially in the Spaniard, as the reports of
former histories may assure us, which haue still laied the fame of all
warres vpon the Inuader. And do not ours in these dayes liue obscured in
Flanders, either not hauing wherewithall to manage any warre, or not
putting on armes, but to defend themselues when the enemie shall procure
them? Whereas in this short time of our aduenture, we haue won a towne by
escalade, battered and assaulted another, ouerthrowen a mightie princes
power in the field, landed our armie in 3 seueral places of his kingdom,
marched 7 dayes in the heart of his country, lien three nights in the
suburbs of his principall citie, beaten his forces into the gates thereof,
and possessed two of his frontier forts, as shall in discourse thereof more
particularly appeare: whereby I conclude, that going with an Inuader, and
in such an action as euery day giueth new experience, I haue much to vaunt
of, that my fortune did rather cary me thither then into the wars of
Flanders. Notwithstanding the vehement perswasions you vsed with me to the
contrary, the grounds whereof sithence you receiued them from others, you
must giue me leaue to acquaint you with the error you were led into by
them, who labouring to bring the world into an opinion that it stood more
with the safetie of our estate to bend all our forces against the prince of
Parma, then to folow this action by looking into the true effects of this
journey, will iudicially conuince themselues of mistaking the matter. For,
may the conquest of these countries against the prince of Parma be thought
more easie for vs alone now, then the defence of them was 11 yeeres ago,
with the men and money of the Queene of England? the power of the Monsieur
of France? the assistance of the principal states of Germanie? and the
nobilitie of their owne country? Could not an armie of more then 20000
horse, and almost 30000 foot, beat Don Iohn de Austria out of the countrey,
who was possessed of a very few frontier townes? and shall it now be laid
vpon her maiesties shoulders to remoue so mightie an enemie, who hath left
vs but 3 whole parts of 17 vnconquered? It is not a iourney of a few
moneths, nor an auxiliarie warre of fewe yeeres that can damnifie the king
of Spaine in those places where we shall meet at euery 8 or 10 miles end
with a towne, which will cost more the winning then will yeerely pay 4 or 5
thousand mens wages, where all the countrey is quartered by riuers which
haue no passage vnfortified, and where most of the best souldiers of
Christendom that be on our aduerse party be in pension. But our armie,
which hath not cost her maiestie much aboue the third part of one yeres
expenses in the Low countries, hath already spoiled a great part of the
prouision he had made at the Groine of all sortes, for a new voyage into
England; burnt 3 of his ships, whereof one was the second in the last yeres
expedition called S. Iuan de Colorado, taken from him aboue 150 pieces of
good artillerie; cut off more then 60 hulks and 20 French ships wel manned
fit and readie to serue him for men of war against vs, laden for his store
with corne, victuals, masts, cables, and other marchandizes; slaine and
taken the principal men of war he had in Galitia; made Don Pedro Enriques
de Gusman, Conde de Fuentes, Generall of his forces in Portugall,
shamefully run at Peniche; laid along of his best Commanders in Lisbon; and
by these few aduentures discouered how easily her maiestie may without any
great aduenture in short time pull the Tirant of the world vpon his knees,
as wel by the disquieting his vsurpation of Portugall as without
difficultie in keeping the commoditie of his Indies from him, by sending an
army so accomplished, as may not be subiect to those extremities which we
haue endured: except he draw, for those defences, his forces out of the Low
countries and disfurnish his garisons of Naples and Milan, which with
safetie of those places he may not do. And yet by this meane he shall
rather be enforced therevnto, then by any force that can be vsed there
against him: wherefore I directly conclude that this proceeding is the most
safe and necessary way to be held against him, and therefore more importing
then the war in the Low countries. Yet hath the iourney (I know) bene much
misliked by some, who either thinking too worthily of the Spaniards valure,
too indifferently of his purposes against vs, or too vnworthily of them
that vndertooke this iourney against him, did thinke it a thing dangerous
to encounter the Spaniard at his owne home, a thing needlesse to proceed by
inuasion against him, a thing of too great moment for two subjects of their
qualitie to vndertake: And therefore did not so aduance the beginnings as
though they hoped for any good successe therof.

The chances of wars be things most vncertaine: for what people soeuer
vndertake them, they are in deed as chastisements appointed by God for the
one side or the other. For which purpose it hath pleased him to giue some
victories to the Spaniards of late yeeres against some whom he had in
purpose to ruine. But if we consider what wars they be that haue made their
name so terrible, we shal find them to haue bin none other then against the
barbarous Moores, the naked Indians, and the vnarmed Netherlanders, whose
yeelding rather to the name then act of the Spaniards, hath put them into
such a conceit of their mightines, as they haue considerately vndertaken
the conquest of our monarchie, consisting of a people vnited and always
held sufficiently warlike: against whom what successe their inuincible army
had the last yeere, as our very children can witness, so I doubt not but
this voiage hath sufficiently made knowen what they are euen vpon their
owne dunghill, which, had it bene set out in such sort as it was agreed
vpon by their first demaund, it might haue made our nation the most
glorious people of the world. For hath not the want of 8 of the 12 pieces
of artillerie, which were promised vnto the Aduenture, lost her maiestie
the possession of the Groine and many other places, as hereafter shall
appeare, whose defensible rampires were greater then our batterie (such as
it was) cold force: and therefore were left vnattempted?

It was also resolued to haue sent 600 English horses of the Low countries,
whereof we had not one, notwithstanding the great charges expended in their
transportation hither: and that may the army assembled at Puente de Burgos
thanke God of, as well as the forces of Portugall, who foreran vs 6 daies
together: Did we not want 7 of the l3 old Companies, which we should haue
had from thence; foure of the 10 Dutch Companies; and 6 of their men of war
for the sea, from the Hollanders: which I may iustly say we wanted, in that
we might haue had so many good souldiers, so many good ships, and so many
able bodies more then we had?

Did there not vpon the first thinking of the iourney diuers gallant
Courtiers put in their names for aduenturers to the summe of 10000 li. who
seeing it went forward in good earnest, aduised themselues better, and laid
the want of so much money vpon the iourney?

Was there not moreouer a rounde summe of the aduenture spent in leuying,
furnishing, and maintaining 3 moneths 1500 men for the seruice of Berghen,
with which Companies the Mutinies of Ostend were suppressed, a seruice of
no smal moment?

What misery the detracting of the time of our setting out, which should
haue bene the 1 of February, did lay vpon vs, too many can witnes: and what
extremitie the want of that moneths victuals which we did eat, during the
moneth we lay at Plimouth for a wind, might haue driuen vs vnto, no man can
doubt of, that knoweth what men do liue by, had not God giuen vs in the
ende a more prosperous wind and shorter passage into Galitia then hath bene
often seen, where our owne force and fortune reuictualled vs largely: of
which crosse windes, that held vs two dayes after our going out, the
Generals being wearie, thrust to Sea in the same, wisely chusing rather to
attend the change thereof there, then by being in harborough to lose any
part of the better, when it should come by hauing their men on shore: in
which two dayes 25 of our companies shipped in part of the fleet were
scattered from vs, either not being able or willing to double Vshant.

These burdens layed vpon our Generals before their going out, they haue
patiently endured, and I thinke they haue thereby much enlarged their
honour: for hauing done thus much with the want of our artillery, 600
horse, 3000 foot, and 20000 li. of their aduenture, and one moneths
victuals of their proportion, what may be conjectured they would haue done
with their ful complement?

For the losse of our men at sea, since we can lay it on none but the will
of God, what can be said more, then that it is his pleasure to turne all
those impediments to the honor of them against whom they were intended: and
he will still shew himselfe the Lord of hosts in doing great things by
them, whom many haue sought to obscure: who if they had let the action fall
at the height thereof in respect of those defects, which were such
especially for the seruice at land, as would haue made a mighty subiect
stoope vnder them, I do not see how any man could iustly haue layd any
reproch vpon him who commanded the same, but rather haue lamented the
iniquity of this time, wherein men whom forren countries haue for their
conduct in seruice worthily esteemed of, should not only in their owne
countrey not be seconded in their honorable endeuors, but mightily hindred,
euen to the impairing of their owne estates, which most willingly they haue
aduentured for the good of their countries: whose worth I will not value by
my report, lest I should seem guiltie of flattery (which my soule
abhorreth) and yet come short in the true measure of their praise. Onely
for your instruction against them who had almost seduced you from the true
opinion you hold of such men, you shall vnderstand that Generall Norris
from his booke was trained vp in the wars of the Admiral of France, and in
very yong yeeres had charge of men vnder the erle of Essex in Ireland:
which with what commendations he then discharged, I leaue to the report of
them who obserued those seruices. Vpon the breach betwixt Don Iohn and the
States, he was made Colonel generall of all the English forces there
present, or to come, which he continued 2 yeeres: he was then made Marshal
of the field vnder Conte Hohenlo: and after that, General of the army in
Frisland: at his comming home in the time of Monsieurs gouernment in
Flanders, he was made lord President of Munster in Ireland, which he yet
holdeth, from whence within one yere he was sent for, and sent Generall of
the English forces which her maiestie then lent to the Low countries, which
he held til the erle of Leicesters going ouer. And he was made Marshall of
the field in England, the enemy being vpon our coast, and when it was
expected the crowne of England should haue bene tried by battel. Al which
places of commandement which neuer any Englishman successiuely attained
vnto in forren wars, and the high places her maiestie had thought him
woorthy of, may suffice to perswade you, that he was not altogether
vnlikely to discharge that which he vndertooke.

What fame general Drake hath gotten by his iourney about the world, by his
aduentures to the west Indies, and the scourges he hath laid vpon the
Spanish nation, I leaue to the Southerne parts to speake of, and refer you
to The Booke extant in our own language treating of the same, and beseech
you considering the waighty matters they haue in all the course of their
liues with wonderfull reputation managed, that you wil esteeme them not wel
informed of their proceedings, that thinke them insufficient to passe
through that which they vndertooke, especially hauing gone thus far in the
view of the world, through so many incombrances, and disappointed of those
agreements which led them the rather to vndertake the seruice. But it may
be you wil thinke me herein either to much opinionated of the voiage, or
conceited of the Commanders, that labouring thus earnestly to aduance the
opinion of them both, haue not so much as touched any part of the
misorders, weaknes and wants that haue bene amongst vs, whereof they that
returned did plentifully report. True it is, I haue conceiued a great
opinion of the iourney, and do thinke honorably of the Commanders: for we
find in greatest antiquities, that many Commanders haue bene receiued home
with triumph for lesse merite, and that our owne countrey hath honored men
heretofore with admiration for aduentures vnequal to this: it might
therefore in those daies haue seemed superfluous to extend any mans
commendations by particular remembrances, for that then all men were ready
to giue enery man his due. But I hold it most necessary in these daies,
sithence euery vertue findeth her direct opposite, and actions woorthy of
all memory are in danger to be enuiously obscured, to denounce the prayses
of the action, and actors to the ful, but yet no further then with
sinceritie of trueth, and not without grieuing at the iniury of this time,
wherein is enforced a necessitie of Apologies for those men and matters,
which all former times were accustomed to entertaine with the greatest
applause that might be. But to answere the reports which haue bene giuen
out in reproach of the actors and action by such as were in the same: let
no man thinke otherwise, but that they, who fearing the casuall accidents
of war had any purpose of returning, did first aduise of some occasion that
should moue them thereunto: and hauing found any whatsoever did thinke it
sufficiently iust, in respect of the earnest desire they had to seeke out
matter that might colour their coming home.

Of these there were some, who hauing noted the late Flemish warres did
finde that many yong men haue gone ouer and safely returned souldiers
within fewe moneths, in hauing learned some wordes of Arte vsed in the
warres, and thought after that good example to spend like time amongst vs:
which being expired they beganne to quarrell at the great mortalitie that
was amongst vs.

The neglect of discipline in the Armie, for that men were suffered to be
drunke with the plentie of wines.

The scarsitie of Surgions.

The want of carriages for the hurt and sicke: and the penurie of victuals
in the Campe:

Thereupon diuining that there would be no good done: And that therefore
they could be content to lose their time, and aduenture to returne home

These men haue either conceiued well of their owne wits (who by obseruing
the passages of the warre were become sufficient souldiers in these fewe
weeks, and did long to be at home, where their discourses might be wondred
at) or missing of their Portegues and Milrayes [Footnote: Coins current in
Spain and Portugal.] which they dreamed on in Portugall, would rather
returne to their former maner of life, then attend the ende of the iourney.
For seeing that one hazard brought another; and that though one escaped the
bullet this day it might light vpon him to morow, the next day, or any day;
and that the warre was not confined to any one place, but that euery place
brought foorth new enemies, they were glad to see some of the poore
souldiers fal sicke, that fearing to be infected by them they might iustly
desire to go home.

[Sidenote: Answere to the first.] The sicknesse I confesse was great,
because any is too much. But hath it bene greater then is ordinary among
Englishmen at their first entrance into the warres, whithersoeuer they goe
to want the fulnesse of their flesh pots? Haue not ours decayed at all
times in France, with eating yong fruits and drinking newe wines? haue they
not abundantly perished in the Low countreys with cold, and rawnesse of the
aire, euen in their garrisons? Haue there not more died in London in sixe
moneths of the plague, then double our Armie being at the strongest? And
could the Spanish armie the last yeere (who had all prouisions that could
be thought on for an Armie, and tooke the fittest season, in the yeere for
our Climate) auoyd sicknes among their souldiers? May it then be thought
that ours could escape there, where they found inordinate heat of weather,
and hot wines to distemper them withall?

But can it be, that we haue lost so many as the common sort perswade
themselues wee haue? It hath bene prooued by strickt examinations of our
musters, that we were neuer in our fulnesse before our going from Plimouth
11000. souldiers, nor aboue 2500. Marriners. It is also euident that there
returned aboue 6000. of all sorts, as appeareth by the seuerall paiments
made to them since our comming home. And I haue truely shewed you that of
these numbers very neere 3000. forsooke the Armie at the Sea, whereof some
passed into France and the rest returned home. So as we neuer being 13000.
in all, and hauing brought home aboue 6000. with vs, you may see how the
world hath bene seduced, in belieuing that we haue lost 16000. men by

[Sidenote: Answere to the second.] To them that haue made question of the
gouernment of the warres (little knowing what appertained thereunto in that
there were so many drunkards amongst vs) I answere that in their gouernment
of shires and parishes, yea in their very housholdes, themselues can hardly
bridle their vassals from that vice. For we see it is a thing almost
impossible, at any your Faires or publique assemblies to finde any quarter
thereof sober, or in your Townes any Ale-poles vnfrequented: And we obserue
that though any man hauing any disordered persons in their houses, do locke
vp their drincke and set Butlers vpon it, that they will yet either by
indirect meanes steale themselues drunke from their Masters tables, or
runne abroad to seeke it. If then at home in the eyes of your Iustices,
Maiors, Preachers, and Masters, and where they pay for euery pot they take,
they cannot be kept from their liquor: doe they thinke that those base
disordered persons whom themselves sent vnto vs, as liuing at home without
rule, who hearing of wine doe long for it as a daintie that their purses
could neuer reach to in England, and having it there without mony euen in
their houses where they lie and hold their guard, can be kept from being
drunk; and once drunke, held in any order or tune, except we had for euery
drunkard an officer to attend him? But who be they that haue runne into
these disorders? Euen our newest men, our yongest men, and our idelest men,
and for the most part our slouenly prest men, whom the Justices, (who haue
alwayes thought vnwoorthily of any warre) haue sent out as the scumme and
dregs of their countrey. And those were they, who distempering themselues
with these hote wines, haue brought in that sicknesse, which hath infected
honester men then themselues. But I hope, as in other places the recouerie
of their diseases doeth acquaint their bodies with the aire of the
countries where they be, so the remainder of these which haue either
recouered, or past without sicknesse will proue most fit for Martiall

[Sidenote: Answere to the third.] If we haue wanted Surgeons, may not this
rather be laid vpon the captaines (who are to prouide for their seuerall
Companies) then vpon the Generals, whose care hath bene more generall. And
how may it be thought that euery captaine, vpon whom most of the charges of
raising their Companies was laid as an aduenture, could prouide themselues
of all things expedient for a war, which was alwaies wont to be maintained
by the purse of the prince. But admit euery Captaine had his Surgeon: yet
were the want of curing neuer the lesse: for our English Surgeons (for the
most part) be vnexperienced in hurts that come by shot; because England
hath not knowen wars but of late, from whose ignorance proceeded this
discomfort, which I hope wil warne those that hereafter go to the wars to
make preparation of such as may better preserue mens liues by their skill.

[Sidenote: Answere to the fourth.] From whence the want of cariages did
proceed, you may conjecture in that we marched through a countrey neither
plentifull of such prouisions, nor willing to part from any thing: yet this
I can assure you, that no man of worth was left either hurt or sicke in any
place vnprouided for. And that the General commanded all the mules and
asses that were laden with any baggage to be vnburdened and taken that vse:
and the earle of Essex and he for money hired men to cary men vpon pikes.
And the earle (whose true vertue and nobilitie, as it doeth in all other
his actions appeare, so did it very much in this) threw down his own
stuffe, I meane apparel and necessaries which he had there, from his owne
cariages, and let them be left by the way, to put hurt and sicke men vpon
them. Of whose honourable deseruings I shall not need here to make any
particular discourse, for that many of his actions do hereafter giue me
occasion to obserue the same.

[Sidenote: Answere to the fift.] And the great complaint that these men
make for the want of victuals may well proceed from their not knowing the
wants of the war; for if to feed vpon good bieues, muttons and goats, be to
want, they haue endured great scarcitie at land, wherunto they neuer
wanted, two daies together, wine to mixe with their water, nor bread to eat
with their meat (in some quantitie) except it were such as had vowed rather
to starue then to stir out of their places for food: of whom we had too
many, who if their time had serued for it, might haue seen in many campes
in the most plentifull countries of the world for victuals, men daily die
with want of bread and drinke in not hauing money to buy, nor the countrey
yeelding any good or healthful water in any place; whereas both Spaine and
Portugall do in euery place affoord the best water that may be, and much
more healthful then any wine for our drinking.

And although some haue most injuriously exclaimed against the smal
prouisions of victuals for the sea, rather grounding the same vpon an euill
that might haue fallen, then any that did light vpon vs: yet know you this,
that there is no man so forgetfull, that will say they wanted before they
came to the Groine, that whosoeuer made not very large prouisions for
himselfe and his company at the Groine, was very improuident, where was
plentiful store of wine, biefe, and fish, and no man of place prohibited to
lay in the same into their ships, wherewith some did so furnish themselues,
as they did not onely in the journey supplie the wants, of such as were
lesse provident then they, but in their returne home made a round
commoditie of the remainder thereof. And that at Cascais there came in such
store of prouisions into the Fleet out of England, as no man that would
haue vsed his diligence could haue wanted his due proportion thereof, as
might appeare by the remainder that was returned to Plimmouth, and the
plentifull sale thereof made out of the marchants ships after their comming
into the Thames.

But least I should seeme vnto you too studious in confuting idle opinions,
or answering friuolous questions, I wil adresse me to the true report of
those actions that haue passed therein: wherein I protest, I will neither
hide any thing that hath hapned against vs, nor attribute more to any man
or matter, then the iust occasions thereof lead me vnto: wherein it shall
appeare that there hath bene nothing left vndone by the Generals which was
before our going out vndertaken by them, but that there hath bene much more
done then was at the first required by Don Antonio, who should haue reaped
the fruit of our aduenture.

[Sidenote: Our men land within a mile of the Groine the 20 of April.] After
6 daies sailing from the coast of England, and the 5 after we had the wind
good being the 20 of April in the euening, we landed in a baie more then an
English mile from the Groine, in our long boats and pinnasses without any
impeachment: from whence we presently marched toward the towne, within one
halfe mile we were encountred by the enemie who being charged by ours,
retired into their gates. For that night our armie lay in the villages,
houses and mils next adioining, and very neere round about the towne, into
the which the Galeon named S. Iohn (which was the second of the last yeeres
Fleet agaynst England) one hulke, two smaller ships and two Gallies which
were found in the road, did beate vpon vs and vpon our Companies as they
passed too and fro that night and the next morning. Generall Norris hauing
that morning before day viewed the Towne, found the same defended on the
land side (for it standeth vpon the necke of an Iland) with a wall vpon a
dry ditch; whereupon he resolued to trie in two places what might bee done
against it by escalade, and in the meane time aduised for the landing of
some artillery to beat vpon the ships and gallies, that they might not
annoy vs: which being put in execution, vpon the planting of the first
piece the gallies abandoned the road, and betooke them to Feroll, not farre
from thence: and the Armada being beaten with the artillery and musketers
that were placed vpon the next shore, left her playing vpon vs. The rest of
the day was spent in preparing the companies, and other prouisions ready
for the surprise of the base towne which was effected in this sort.

There were appointed to be landed 1200 men vnder the conduct of Colonell
Huntley, and Captaine Fenner the Viceadmirall, on that side next fronting
vs by water in long boats and pinnesses, wherein were placed many pieces ol
artillery to beat vpon the tonne in their aproch: at the corner of the wall
which defended the other water side, were appointed Captaine Richard
Wingfield Lieutenant Colonell to Generall Norris, and Captaine Sampson
Lieutenant Colonell to Generall Drake to enter at low water with 500 men if
they found it passable, but if not, to betake them to the escalade, for
they had also ladders with them: at the other corner of the wall which
joyned to that side that was attempted by water, were appointed Colonell
Vmpton, and Colonell Bret with 300 men to enter by escalade. All the
companies which should enter by boat being imbarked before the low water,
and hauing giuen the alarme, Captaine Wingfield and Captaine Sampson
betooke them to the escalade, for they had in commandement to charge all at
one instant. The boats landed without any great difficulty: yet had they
some men hurt in the landing. Colonell Bret and Colonell Vmpton entred
their quarter without encounter, not finding any defence made against them:
for Captaine Hinder being one of them that entred by water, at his first
entry, with some of his owne company whom he trusted well, betooke himselfe
to that part of the wall, which be cleared before that they offered to
enter, and so still scoured the wall till hee came on the backe of them who
mainteined the fight against Captaine Wingfield and Captaine Sampson; who
were twise beaten from their ladders, and found very good resistance, till
the enemies perceiuing ours entred in two places at their backs, were
driuen to abandon the same. The reason why that place was longer defended
then the other, is (as Don Iuan de Luna who commanded the same affirmeth)
that the enemy that day had resolued in councell how to make their
defences, if they were approched: and therein concluded, that, if we
attempted it by water, it was not able to be held, and therefore vpon the
discouery of our boats, they of the high towne should make a signall by
fire from thence, that all the lowe towne might make their retreat thither:
but they (whether troubled with the sudden terror we brought vpon them, or
forgetting their decree) omitted the fire, which made them guard that place
til we were entred on euery side.

Then the towne being entred in three seuerall places with an huge cry, the
inhabitants betooke them to the high towne: which they might with lesse
perill doe, for that ours being strangers here, knew not the way to cut
them off. The rest that were not put to the sword in fury, fled to the
rocks in the Iland, and others hid themselues in chambers and sellers,
which were euery day found out in great numbers.

Amongst those Don Iuan de Luna, a man of very good commandement, hauing
hidden himselfe in a house, did the next morning yeeld himselfe.

There was also taken that night a commissary of victuals called Iuan de
Vera, who confessed that there were in the Groine at our entry 500
souldiours being in seuen companies which returned very weake (as appeareth
by the small numbers of them) from the iourney of England, namely:

Vnder Don Iuan de Luna.

Don Diego Barran, a bastard sonne of the Marques of Santa Cruz; his company
was that night in the Galeon.

Don Antonio de Herera then at Madrid.

Don Pedro de Manriques brother to the Earle of Paxides.

Don Ieronimo de Mourray of the Order of S. Iuan, with some of the towne
were in the fort.

Don Gomez de Caramasal then at Madrid.

Captaine Manco Caucaso de Socas.

Also there came in that day of our landing from Retanzas the companies of
Don Iohn de Mosalle, and Don Pedro Poure de Leon.

Also he saith that there was order giuen for baking of 300000 of biscuit,
some in Batansas, some in Ribadeo, and the rest there.

There were then in the towne 2000 pipes of wine, and 150 in the

That there were lately come vnto the Marques of Seralba 300000

That there were 1000 iarres of oile.

A great quantity of beanes, peaze, wheat, and fish.

That there were 3000 quintals of beefe.

And that not twenty dayes before, there came in three barks laden with
match and harquebuzes.

Some others also found fauour to be taken prisoners, but the rest falling
into the hands of the common souldiers, had their throats cut, to the
number of 500, as I coniecture, first and last, after we had entred the
towne; and in the entry thereof there was found euery celler full of wine,
whereon our men, by inordinate drinking, both grew themselues for the
present senselesse of the danger of the shot of the towne, which hurt many
of them being drunke, and tooke the first ground of their sicknesse; for of
such was our first and chiefest mortality. There was also abundant store of
victuals, salt, and all kinde of prouision for shipping and the warre:
which was confessed by the sayd Commissary of victuals there, to be the
beginning of a magasin of all sorts of prouision for a new voyage into
England: whereby you may conjecture what the spoile thereof hath aduantaged
vs, and prejudiced the king of Spaine.

The next morning about eight of the clocke the enemies abandoned their
ships. And hauing ouercharged the artillery of the gallion, left her on
fire, which burnt in terrible sort two dayes together, the fire and
ouercharging of the pieces being so great, as of fifty that were in her,
there were not aboue sixteene taken out whole; the rest with ouercharge of
the powder being broken, and molten with heat of the fire, were taken out
in broken pieces into diuers shippes. The same day was the cloister on the
South side of the towne entred by vs, which ioyned very neere to the wall
of the towne, out of the chambers and other places whereof we beat into the
same with our musquetiers.

The next day in the afternoone there came downe some 2000 men, gathered
together out of the countrey, euen to the gates of the towne, as resolutely
(ledde by what spirit I know not) as though they would haue entred the
same: but at the first defence made by ours that had the guard there,
wherein were slaine about eighteene of theirs, they tooke them to their
heeles in the same disorder they made their approch, and with greater speed
then ours were able to follow: notwithstanding we followed after them more
then a mile. The second day Colonell Huntley was sent into the countrey
with three or foure hundred men, who brought home very great store of kine
and sheepe for our reliefe.

The third day in the night the Generall had in purpose to take a long
munition-house builded vpon their wall, opening towards vs, which would
haue giuen vs great aduantage against them; but they knowing the commodity
thereof for vs, burnt it in the beginning of the euening; which put him to
a new councell: for he had likewise brought some artillery to that side of
the towne. During this time there happened a very great fire in the lower
end of the towne; which, had it not bene by the care of the Generals
heedily sene vnto, and the fury thereof preuented by pulling downe many
houses which were most in danger, as next vnto them, had burnt all the
prouisions we found there, to our woonderfull hinderance.

The fourth day were planted vnder the gard of the cloister two demy-canons,
and two coluerings against the towne, defended or gabbioned with a crosse
wall, thorow the which our battery lay; the first and second fire whereof
shooke all the wall downe, so as all the ordinance lay open to the enemy,
by reason whereof some of the Canoniers were shot and some slaine. The
Lieutenant also of the ordinance, M. Spencer, was slaine fast by Sir Edward
Norris, Master thereof: whose valour being accompanied with an honourable
care of defending that trust committed vnto him, neuer left that place,
till he receiued direction from the Generall his brother to cease the
battery, which he presently did, leauing a gard vpon the same for that day;
and in the night following made so good defence for the place of the
battery, as after there were very few or none annoyed therein. That day
Captaine Goodwin had in commandement from the Generall, that when the
assault should be giuen to the towne, he should make a proffer of an
escalade on the other side, where he held his guard: but he (mistaking the
signall that should haue bene giuen) attempted the same long before the
assault, and was shot in the mouth. The same day the Generall hauing
planted his ordinance ready to batter, caused the towne to be summoned; in
which summons they of the towne shot at our Drum; immediatly after that
there was one hanged ouer the wall, and a parle desired; wherein they gaue
vs to vnderstand, that the man hanged was he that shot at the Drum before:
wherein also they intreated to haue faire warres, with promise of the same
on their parts. The rest of the parle was spent in talking of Don Iuan de
Luna, and some other prisoners, and somewhat of the rendring of the towne,
but not much, for they listened not greatly thereunto.

Generall Norris hauing by his skilfull view of the towne (which is almost
all seated vpon a rocke) found one place thereof mineable, did presently
set workemen in hand withall; who after three dayes labour (and the seuenth
after we were entred the base towne) had bedded their powder, but indeede
not farre enough into the wall. Against which time the breach made by the
canon being thought assaultable, and companies appointed as well to enter
the same, as that which was expected should be blowen vp by the mine:
namely, to that of the canon, Captaine Richard Wingfield, and Captaine
Philpot who lead the Generals foot-companie, with whom also Captaine Yorke
went, whose principall commandment was ouer the horsemen. And to that of
the Myne, Captaine Iohn Sampson, and Captaine Anthonie Wingfield Lieutenant
Colonell to the Master of the Ordinance, with certaine selected out of
diuers Regiments. All these companies being in armes, and the assault
intended to be giuen in al places at an instant, fire was put to the traine
of the mine; but by reason the powder brake out backewards in a place where
the caue was made too high, there could be nothing done in either place for
that day. During this time Captaine Hinder was sent with some chosen out of
euery company into the countrey for prouisions, whereof he brought in good
store, and returned without losse.

The next day Captaine Anthony Sampson was sent out with some 500 to fetch
in prouisions for the army, who was encountred by them of the countrey, but
he put them to flight, and returned with good spoile. The same night the
miners were set to worke againe, who by the second day after had wrought
very well into the foundation of the wall. Against which time the companies
aforesayd being in readinesse for both places (Generall Drake on the other
side, with two or three hundred men in pinnesses, making proffer to attempt
a strong fort vpon an Iland before the towne, where he left more then
thirty men) fire was giuen to the traine of the mine, which blew vp halfe
the tower vnder which the powder was planted. The assailants hauing in
charge vpon the effecting of the mine presently to giue the assault,
performed it accordingly; but too soone: for hauing entred the top of the
breach, the other halfe of the tower, which with the first force of the
powder was onely shaken and made loose, fell vpon our men: vnder which were
buried about twenty or thirty, then being vnder that part of the tower.
This so amazed our men that stood in the breach, not knowing from whence
that terror came, as they forsooke their Commanders, and left them among
the ruines of the mine. The two Ensignes of Generall Drake and Captaine
Anthony Wingfield were shot in the breach, but their colours were rescued:
the Generals by Captaine Sampsons Lieutenant, and Captaine Wingfields by
himselfe. Amongst them that the wall fell vpon, was Captaine Sydenham
pitifully lost; who hauing three or foure great stones vpon his lower
parts, was held so fast, as neither himselfe could stirre, nor any
reasonable company recouer him. Notwithstanding the next day being found to
be aliue, there was ten or twelue lost in attempting to relieue him.

The breach made by the canon was woonderfully well assaulted by them that
had the charge thereof, who brought their men to the push of the pike at
the top of the breach. And being ready to enter, the loose earth (which was
indeed but the rubbish of the outside of the wall) with the weight of them
that were thereon slipped outwards from vnder their feet. Whereby did
appeare halfe the wall vnbattered. For let no man thinke that culuerin or
demy-canon can sufficiently batter a defensible rampire: and of those
pieces which we had; the better of the demy-canons at the second shot brake
in her carriages, so as the battery was of lesse force, being but of three

In our retreat (which was from both breaches thorow a narrow lane) were
many of our men hurt: and Captaine Dolphin, who serued very well that day,
was hurt in the very breach. The failing of this attempt, in the opinion of
all the beholders, and of such as were of best judgement, was the fall of
the mine; which had doubtlesse succeeded, the rather, because the approch
was vnlooked for by the enemy in that place, and therefore not so much
defence made there as in the other; which made the Generall grow to a new
resolution: for finding that two dayes battery had so little beaten their
wall, and that he had no better preparation to batter withall: he knew in
his experience, there was no good to be done that way; which I thinke he
first put in proofe, to trie if by that terror he could get the vpper
towne, hauing no other way to put it in hazzard so speedily, and which in
my conscience had obtained the towne, had not the defendants bene in as
great perill of their liues by the displeasure of their king in giuing it
vp, as by the bullet or sword in defending the same. For that day before
the assault, in the view of our army, they burnt a cloister within the
towne, and many other houses adioyning to the castle, to make it more
defensible: whereby it appeared how little opinion themselues had of
holding it against vs, had not God (who would not haue vs suddenly made
proud) layed that misfortune vpon vs.

Hereby it may appeare, that the foure canons, and other pieces of battery
promised to the iourney, and not performed, might haue made her Maiesty
mistresse of the Groine: for though the mine were infortunate, yet if the
other breach had bene such as the earth would haue held our men thereon, I
doe not thinke but they had entred it thorowly at the first assault giuen:
which had bene more then I haue heard of in our age. And being as it was,
is no more then the Prince of Parma hath in winning of all his townes
endured, who neuer entred any place at the first assault, nor aboue three
by assault.

The next day the Generall hearing by a prisoner that was brought in, that
the Conde de Andrada had assembled an armie of eight thousand at Puente de
Burgos, sixe miles from thence in the way to Petance, which was but the
beginning of an armie: in that there was a greater leauie readie to come
thither vnder the Conde de Altemira, either in purpose to relieue the
Groine, or to encampe themselues neere the place of our embarking, there to
hinder the same; for to that purpose had the marquesse of Seralba written
to them both the first night of our landing, as the Commissarie taken then
confessed, or at the least to stop our further entrance into the countrey,
(for during this time, there were many incursions made of three or foure
hundred at a time, who burnt, spoyled, and brought in victuals plentifully)
the General, I say, hearing of this armie, had in purpose the next day
following to visite them, agaynst whom hee caried but nine Regiments: in
the vantgard were the Regiment of Sir Roger Williams, Sir Edward Norris,
and Colonell Sidney: in the Battaile, that of the Generall, of Colonell
Lane, and Colonel Medkerk: and in the Rereward, Sir Henrie Norris, Colonell
Huntley, and Colonell Brets Regiments; leauing the other fiue Regiments
with Generall Drake, for the guard of the Cloister and Artillerie. About
ten of the clocke the next day, being the sixt of May, halfe a mile from
the campe, we discouering the enemy, Sir Edward Norris, who commanded the
vantgard in chiefe, appointed his Lieutenant Colonell Captaine Anthonie
Wingfield to command the shot of the same, who diuided them into three
troups; the one he appointed to Captaine Middleton to be conducted in a way
on the left hand: another to Captaine Erington to take the way on the right
hand, and the body of them (which were Musquetiers) Captaine Wingfield
tooke himselfe, keeping the direct way of the march. But the way taken by
Captaine Middleton met a little before with the way held by Captaine
Wingfield, so as be giuing the first charge vpon the enemy, was in the
instant seconded by Captaine Wingfield, who beat them from place to place
(they hauing very good places of defence, and crosse walles which they
might haue held long) till they betooke them to their bridge, which is ouer
a creeke comming out of the Sea, builded of stone vpon arches. On the foot
of the further side whereof, lay the Campe of the enemy very strongly
entrenched, who with our shot beaten to the further end of the bridge, Sir
Edward Norris marching in the point, of the pikes, without stay passed to
the bridge, accompanied with Colonell Sidney, Captaine Hinder, Captaine
Fulford, and diuers others, who found the way cleare ouer the same, but
through an incredible volley of shot; for that the shot of their army
flanked vpon both sides of the bridge, the further end whereof was
barricaded with barrels: but they who should haue guarded the same, seeing
the proud approch we made, forsooke the defence of the barricade, where Sir
Edward entred, and charging the first defendant with his pike, with very
earnestnesse in ouerthrusting, fell, and was grieuously hurt at the sword
in the head, but was most honourably rescued by the Generall his brother,
accompanied with Colonell Sidney, and some other gentlemen: Captaine Hinder
also hauing his Caske shot off, had fiue wounds in the head and face at the
sword: and Captaine Fulford was shot into the left arme at the same
encounter: yet were they so thorowly seconded by the Generall, who thrust
himselfe so neere to giue encouragement to the attempt (which was of
woonderfull difficulty) as their brauest men that defended that place being
ouerthrowen, their whole army fell presently into rout, of whom our men had
the chase three miles in foure sundry wayes, which they betooke themselues
vnto. [Sidenote: The notable ouerthrow giuen to the Spaniards at Puente de
Burgos.] There was taken the Standard with the Kings armes, and borne
before the Generall. How many two thousand men (for of so many consisted
our vantgard) might kill in pursuit of foure sundry parties, so many you
may imagine fell before vs that day. And to make the number more great, our
men hauing giuen ouer the execution, and returning to their standes, found
many hidden in the Vineyards and hedges, which they dispatched. Also
Colonell Medkerk was sent with his regiment three miles further to a
Cloister, which he burnt and spoiled, wherein he found two hundred more,
and put them to the sword. There were slaine in this fight on our side
onely Captaine Cooper and one priuate souldier; Captaine Barton was also
hurt vpon the bridge in the eye. But had you seene the strong baricades
they had made on either side of the bridge, and how strongly they lay
encamped thereabouts, you would haue thought it a rare resolution of ours
to giue so braue a charge vpon an army so strongly lodged. After the furie
of the execution, the Generall sent the vantgard one way, and the battell
another, to burne and spoile; so as you might haue seene the countrey more
then three miles compasse on fire. There was found very good store of
munition and victuals in the Campe, some plate and rich apparell, which the
better sort left behinde, they were so hotly pursued. Our sailers also
landed in an Iland next adioyning to our ships, where they burnt and
spoiled all they found. Thus we returned to the Groine, bringing small
comfort to the enemy within the same, who shot many times at vs as we
marched out; but not once in our comming backe againe.

The next day was spent in shipping our artillery landed for the battery,
and of the rest taken at the Groine, which had it bene such as might haue
giuen vs any assurance of a better battery, or had there bene no other
purpose of our iourney but that, I thinke the Generall would haue spent
some more time in the siege of the place.

The last two nights, there were that vndertooke to fire the higher towne in
one place, where the houses were builded vpon the wall by the water side:
but they within suspecting as much, made so good defence against vs, as
they preuented the same. In our departure there was fire put into euery
house of the low towne, insomuch as I may iustly say, there was not one
house left standing in the base towne, or the cloister.

The next day being the eight of May, we embarked our army without losse of
a man, which (had we not beaten the enemy at Puente de Burgos) had bene
impossible to haue done; for that without doubt they would haue attempted
something against vs in our imbarking: as appeared by the report of the
Commissary aforesayd, who confessed, that the first night of our landing
the Marques of Seralba writ to the Conde de Altemira, the Conde de Andrada,
and to Terneis de Santisso, to bring all the forces against vs that they
could possible raise, thinking no way so good to assure that place, as to
bring an army thither, where withall they might either besiege vs in their
base towne, if we should get it, or to lie betweene vs and our place of
imbarking, to fight with us vpon the aduantage; for they had aboue 15000
souldiers vnder their commandements.

After we had put from thence, we had the winde so contrary, as we could not
vnder nine dayes recouer the Burlings: in which passage on the thirteenth
day the Earle of Essex, and with him M. Walter Deuereux his brother (a
Gentleman of woonderfull great hope) Sir Roger Williams Colonell generall
of the footmen, Sir Philip Butler, who hath alwayes bene most inward with
him, and Sir Edward Wingfield, came into the fleet. The Earle hauing put
himselfe into the iourney against the opinion of the world, and as it
seemed to the hazzard of his great fortune, though to the great aduancement
of his reputation, (for as the honourable cariage of himselfe towards all
men doth make him highly esteemed at home; so did his exceeding
forwardnesse in all seruices make him to bee woondered at amongst vs) who,
I say, put off in the same winde from Falmouth, that we left Plimmouth in,
where he lay, because he would auoid the importunity of messengers that
were dayly sent for his returne, and some other causes more secret to
himselfe, not knowing (as it seemed) what place the Generals purposed to
land in, had bene as farre as Cadiz in Andaluzia, and lay vp and downe
about the South Cape, where he tooke some ships laden with corne, and
brought them vnto the fleet. Also in his returne from thence to meet with
our fleet, he fell with the Ilands of Bayon; and on that side of the riuer
which Cannas standeth vpon, he, with Sir Roger Williams, and those
Gentlemen that were with him went on shore, with some men out of the ship
he was in, whom the enemy, that held guard vpon that coast, would not
abide, but fled vp into the countrey.

The 16 day we landed at Peniche in Portugall, vnder the shot of the castle,
and aboue the waste in water, more then a mile from the towne, wherein many
were in perill of drowning, by reason the winde was great, and the sea went
high, which ouerthrew one boat, wherein fiue and twenty of Captaine
Dolphins men perished. The enemy being fiue companies of Spaniards vnder
the commandement of the Conde de Fuentes, sallied out of the towne against
vs, and in our landing made their approch close by the water side. But the
Earle of Essex with Sir Roger Williams, and his brother, hauing landed
sufficient number to make two troups, left one to holde the way by the
water side, and led the other ouer the Sandhils; which the enemy seeing,
drew theirs likewise further into the land; not, as we coniectured, to
encounter vs, but indeed to make their speedy passage away:
notwithstanding, they did it in such sort, as being charged by ours which
were sent out by the Colonell generall vnder Captaine Iackson, they stood
the same euen to the push of the pike: in which charge and at the push,
Captaine Robert Piew was slaine. The enemy being fled further then we had
reason to follow them, all our companies were drawen to the towne; which
being vnfortified in any place, we found vndefended by any man against vs.
And therefore the Generall caused the castle to be summoned that night;
which being abandoned by him that commanded it, a Portugall named Antonio
de Aurid, being possessed thereof, desired but to be assured that Don
Antonio was landed, whereupon he would deliuer the same; which he honestly
performed. [Sidenote: Peniche taken.] There was taken out of the castle
some hundred shot and pikes, which Don Emanuel furnished his Portugals
withall, and twenty barrels of powder: so as possessing both the towne and
the castle, we rested there one day: wherein some Friers and other poore
men came vnto their new king, promising in the name of their countrey next
adioyning, that within two dayes he should haue a good supply of horse and
foote for his assistance. That day we remained there, the Generals company
of horses were vnshipped.

The Generals there fully resolued, that the armie should march ouer land to
Lisbone vnder the conduct of Generall Norris; and that Generall Drake
should meete him in the riuer therof with the Fleete; and there should be
one Company of foote left in the garde of the Castle, and sixe in the
ships: also that the sicke and hurt should remaine there with prouisions
for their cures. The Generall, to trie the euent of the matter by
expedition, the next day beganne to march in this sort: his owne Regiment,
and the Regiment of Sir Roger Williams, Sir Henrie Norris, Colonell Lane,
and Colonell Medkerk, in the vantgard: Generall Drake, Colonell Deuereux,
Sir Edward Norris, and Colonell Sidneis in the battel: Sir Iames Hales, Sir
Edward Wingfield, Colonell Vmptons, Colonell Huntlies, and Colonell Brets
in the arrereward. By that time our army was thus marshalled, Generall
Drake, although hee were to passe by Sea, yet to make knowen the honourable
desire he bad of taking equall part of all fortunes with vs, stood vpon the
ascent of an hill, by the which our battalions must of necessity march and
with a pleasing kindnesse tooke his leaue seuerally of the Commanders of
euery regiment, wishing vs all most happy successe in our iourney ouer the
land, with a constant promise that he would, if the injury of the weather
did not hinder him, meet vs in the riuer of Lisbon with our fleet. The want
of cariages the first day was such, as they were enforced to cary their
munition vpon mens backs, which was the next day remedied.

In this march captaine Crispe the Prouost Marshall caused one who (contrary
to the Proclamation published at our arriuall in Portugall) had broken vp
an house for pillage, to be hanged, with the cause of his death vpon his
brest, in the place where the act was committed: which good example
prouidently giuen in the beginning of our march, caused the commandement to
be more respectiuely regarded all the iourney after, by them whom feare of
punishment doeth onely holde within compasse. The campe lodged that night
at Lorinha: the next day we had intelligence all the way, that the enemy
had made head of horse and foot against vs at Torres Vedras, which we
thought they would haue held: but comming thither the second day of our
march, not two houres before our vantgard came in, they left the towne and
the castle to the possession of Don Antonio.

There began the greatest want we had of victuals, especially of bread, vpon
a commandement giuen from the Generall, that no man should spoile the
countrey, or take any thing from any Portugall: which was more respectiuely
obserued, then I thinke would haue bene in our owne countrey, amongst our
owne friends and kindred: but the countrey (contrary to promise) wholly
neglected the prouision of victuals for vs, whereby we were driuen for that
time into a great scarsity. Which mooued the Colonell generall to call all
the Colonels together, and with them to aduise for some better course for
our people: who thought it best, first to aduertise the king what necessity
we were in, before we should of our selues alter the first institution of
abstinence. The Colonell generall hauing acquainted the Generall herewith,
with his very good allowance thereof, went to the king: who after some
expostulations vsed, tooke the more carefull order for our men, and after
that our army was more plentifully relieued.

The third day we lodged our army in three sundry villages, the one
battalion lying in Exarama de los Caualleros, another in Exarama do Obispo,
and the third in San Sebastian.

Captaine Yorke who commanded the Generals horse company, in this march made
triall of the valour of the horsemen of the enemy; who by one of his
Corporals charged with eight horses thorow 40 of them, and himselfe thorow
more than 200 with forty horses: who would abide him no longer then they
could make way from him.

The next day we marched to Lores, and had diuers intelligences that the
enemy would tary vs there: for the Cardinall had made publique promise to
them of Lisbon, that he would fight with vs in that place, which he might
haue done aduantageously; for we had a bridge to passe ouer in the same
place: but before our comming he dislodged, notwithstanding it appeared
vnto vs that he had in purpose to encampe there; for we found the ground
staked out where their trenches should haue bene made: and their horsemen
with some few shot shewed themselues vpon an hill at our comming into that
village; whom Sir Henry Norris (whose regiment had the point of the
vantgard) thought to draw vnto some fight, and therefore marched without
sound of drumme, and somewhat faster then ordinary, thereby to get neere
them, before he were discouered, for he was shadowed from them by an hil
that was betweene him and them: but before he could draw his companies any
thing neere, they retired.

General Drakes regiment that night, for the commodity of good lodging, drew
themselues into a village, more than one English mile from thence, and
neere the enemy: who not daring to do any thing against vs in foure dayes
before, tooke that occasion, and in the next morning fell downe vpon that
regiment, crying, Viua el Rey Don Antonio, which was a generall salutation
thorow all the Countrey, as they came: whom our yoong shouldiers (though it
were vpon their guard, and before the watch was discharged) began to
entertaine kindly, but hauing got within their guard, they fell to cut
their throats: but the alarme being taken inwards, the officers of the two
next Companies, whose Captaines (Captaine Sydnam and Captaine Young) were
lately dead at the Groine, brought downe their colours and pikes vpon them
in so resolute manner, as they presently draue them to retire with losse:
they killed of ours at their first entrance foarteene, and hurt sixe or

The next day we lodged at Aluelana within three miles of Lisbon, where many
of our souldiers drinking in two places of standing waters by the way were
poisoned, and thereon presently; died. Some do think it came rather by
eating hony, which they found in the houses plentifully. But whether it
were by water or by hony, the poor men were poisoned.

That night the Earle of Essex, and Sir Rodger Williams went out about
eleuen of the clock with 1000 men to lie in ambuscade neere the town, and
hauing layed the same very neere, sent some to giue the alarme vnto the
enemy: which was well performed by them that had the charge thereof, but
the enemy refused to issue after them, so as the Earle returned assone as
it was light without doing any thing, though he had in purpose, and was
ready to haue giuen an honourable charge on them.

The 25 of May in the evening we came to the suburbs of Lisbon at the very
entrance whereof Sir Rodger Williams calling Captaine Anthony Wingfield
with him, tooke thirty shot or thereabouts, and first scowred all the
streets till they came very neere the town; where they found none but old
folks and beggars, crying, Viua el Rey Don Antonio, and the houses shut vp:
for they had caried much of their wealth into the towne, and had fired some
houses by the water side, full of corne and other prouisions of victuals,
least we should be benefited thereby, but yet left behinde them great
riches in many houses.

The foure regiments that had the vantgard that day, which were Colonell
Deuereux, Sir Edward Norris, Colonell Sidneys, and Generall Drakes (whom I
name as they marched) the Colonell generall caused to hold guard in the
neerest street of the Suburbs: the battell and arreward stood in armes all
the night in the field neere to Alcantara. Before morning Captaine
Wingfield, by direction from the Colonell generall Sir Roger Williams, held
guard with Sir Edward Norris his regiment in three places very neere the
town wall, and so held the same till the other regiments came in the
morning. About midnight they within the towne burnt all their houses that
stood upon their wall either within or without, least we possessing them,
might thereby greatly haue annoyed the towne.

The next morning Sir Roger Williams attempted (but not without peril) to
take a church called S. Antonio, which ioyned to the wall of the towne, and
would haue bene a very euill neighbor to the towne: but the enemy hauing
more easie entry into it then we gained it before vs. The rest of that
morning was spent in quartering the battell and arrereward in the Suburbs
called Bona Vista, and in placing Musquetiers in houses, to front their
shot vpon the wall, who from the same scowred the great streets very

By this time our men being thorowly weary with our six days march, and the
last nights watch, were desirous of rest; whereof the enemy being
aduertised, about one or two of the clocke sallied out of the towne, and
made their approach in three seuerall streets vpon vs, but chiefly in
Colonell Brets quarter: who (as most of the army was) being at rest, with
as much speed as he could, drew his men to armes, and made head against
them so thorowly, as himselfe was slaine in the place, Captaine Carsey shot
thorow the thigh, of which hurt he died within foure dayes after, Captaine
Carre slaine presently, and Captaine Caue hurt (but not mortally) who were
all of his regiment.

This resistance made aswell here, as in other quarters where Colonell Lane
and Colonell Medkerk commanded, put them to a sudden foule retreat;
insomuch, as the Earle of Essex had the chase of them euen to the gates of
the towne, wherein they left behinde them many of their best Commanders:
their troupe of horsemen also came out, but being charged by Captaine
Yorke, withdrew themselues again. Many of them also left the streets, and
betooke them to houses which they found open: for the Sergeant maior
Captaine Wilson slew with his owne hands three or foure, and caused them
that were with him to kill many others. Their losse I can assure you did
triple ours, as well in quality as in quantity.

During our march to this place, Generall Drake with the whole fleet was
come into Cascais, and possessed the towne without any resistance: many of
the inhabitants at their discouery of our nauy, fledde with their baggage
into the mountaines, and left the towne for any man that would possesse it,
till Generall Drake sent vnto them by a Portugall Pilot which he had on
boord, to offer them all peaceable kindnesse, so farre foorth as they would
accept of their King, and minister necessaries to all the army he had
brought; which offer they ioyfully imbraced, and presently sent two chiefe
men of their towne, to signifie their loyalty to Don Antonio, and their
honest affections to our people. Whereupon the Generall landed his
companies not farre from the Cloister called San Domingo, but not without
perill of the shot of the castle, which being guarded by 65 Spaniards, held
still against him.

As our fleet were casting ancre when the camne first into that road, there
was a small ship of Brasil that came from thence, which bare with them, and
seemed by striking her sailes, as though she would also haue ancred: but
taking her fittest occasion hoised againe, and would haue passed vp the
riuer, but the Generall presently discerning her purpose, sent out a
pinnesse or two after her, which forced her in such sort, as she ran
herselfe upon the Rocks: all the men escaped out of her, and the lading
(being many chests of sugar) was made nothing woorth, by the salt water. In
his going thither also, he tooke ships of the port of Portugall, which were
sent from thence, with fifteene other from Pedro Vermendes Xantes Sergeant
maior of the same place, laden with men and victuals to Lisbon: the rest
that escaped put into Setuuel.

The next day it pleased Generall Norris to call all the Colonels together,
and to aduise with them, whether it were more expedient to tary there to
attend the forces of the Portugall horse and foot, whereof the King had
made promise, and to march some conueuient number to Cascais to fetch our
artillery and munition, which was all at our ships, sauing that which for
the necessity of the seruice was brought along with vs: whereunto, some
caried away with the vaine hope of Don Antonio, that most part of the towne
stood for vs, held it best to make our abode there, and to send some 3000
for our artillery; promising to themselues, that the enemy being wel beaten
the day before, would make no more sallies: some others (whose vnbeliefe
was very strong of any hope from the Portugall) perswaded rather to march
wholly away, then to be any longer carried away with the opinion of things,
whereof there was so little appearance. The Generall not willing to leaue
any occasion of blotte to be layed vpon him for his speedy going from
thence, nor to lose any more time by attending the hopes of Don Antonio;
tolde them that though the expedition of Portugall were not the onely
purpose of their iourney, but an aduenture therein (which if it succeeded
prosperously, might make them sufficiently rich, and woonderfull
honourable) and that they had done so much already in triall thereof, as
what end soeuer happened, could nothing impaire their credits: yet in
regard of the Kings last promise, that he should haue that night 3000 men
armed of his owne Countrey, he would not for that night dislodge. And if
they came thereby to make him so strong, that he might send the like number
for his munition, he would resolue to trie his fortune for the towne. But
if they came not, he found it not conuenient to diuide his forces, by
sending any to Cascais, and keeping a remainder behinde, sithence he saw
them the day before so boldly sally vpon his whole army, and knew that they
were stronger of Souldiours armed within the towne, then he was without:
and that before our returne could be from Cascais, they expected more
supplies from all places, of Souldiours: for the Duke of Braganca, and Don
Francisco de Toledo were looked for with great reliefe. Whereupon his
conclusion was, that if the 3000 promised came not that night, to march
wholly away the next morning.

It may be here demanded, why a matter of so great moment should be so
slenderly regarded, as that the Generall should march with such an army
against such an enemy, before he knew either the fulnesse of his owne
strength, or certaine meanes how he should abide the place when he should
come to it. Wherein I pray you remember the Decrees made in the Councell at
Peniche, and confirmed by publique protestation the first day of our march,
that our nauy should meet vs in the riuer of Lisbon, in the which was the
store of all our prouisions, and so the meane of our tariance in that
place, which came not, though we continued till we had no munition left to
entertaine a very small fight. We are also to consider, that the King of
Portugall (whether carried away with imagination by the aduertisements he
receiued from the Portugals, or willing by any promise to bring such an
army into his Countrey, thereby to put his fortune once more in triall)
assured the Generall, that vpon his first landing, there would be a reuolt
of his subiects: whereof there was some hope giuen at our first entry to
Peniche, by the maner of the yeelding of that towne and fort, which made
the Generall thinke it most conuenient speedily to march to the principall
place, thereby to giue courage to the rest of the Countrey. The Friers also
and the poore people that came vnto him, promised, that within two dayes
the gentlemen and others of the Countrey would come plentifully in: within
which two dayes came many more Priests, and some very few gentlemen on
horsebacke; but not til we came to Torres Vedras: where they that noted the
course of things how they passed, might somewhat discouer the weaknesse of
that people. There they tooke two dayes more: and at the end thereof
referred him till our comming to Lisbon, with assurance, that so soone as
our army should be seene there, all the inhabitants would be for the King
and fall vpon the Spaniards.

After two nights tariance at Lisbon, the King, as you haue heard, promised
a supply of 3000 foot, and some horse: but all his appointments being
expired, euen to the last of a night, all his horse could not make a cornet
of 40, nor his foot furnish two ensignes fully, although they caried three,
or foure colours: and these were altogether such as thought to inrich
themselues by the ruine of their neighbours: for they committed more
disorders in euery place where we came by spoile, then any of our owne.

The Generall, as you see, hauing done more then before his comming out of
England was required by the King, and giuen credit to his many promises,
euen to the breach of the last, he desisted not to perswade him to stay yet
nine dayes longer: in which time he might haue engaged himselfe further,
then with any honour he could come out of againe, by attempting a towne
fortified, wherein were more men armed against vs, then we had to oppugne
them withall, our artillery and munition being fifteene miles from vs, and
our men then declining; for there was the first shew of any great
sickenesse amongst them. Whereby it seemeth, that either his prelacy did
much abuse him in perswading him to hopes, whereof after two or three dayes
he saw no semblance: or he like a silly louer, who promiseth himselfe fauor
by importuning a coy mistresse, thought by our long being before his towne,
that in the end taking pity on him, they would let him in.

What end the Friers had by following him with such deuotion, I know not,
but sure I am, the Laity did respite their homage till they might see which
way the victory would sway; fearing to shew themselues apparently vnto him,
least the Spaniard should after our departure (if we preuailed not) call
them to account: yet sent they vnder hand messages to him of obedience,
thereby to saue their owne, if he became King; but indeed very well
contented to see the Spaniards and vs try by blowes, who should carry away
the crowne. For they be of so base a mould, as they can very wel subiect
themselues to any gouernment, where they may liue free from blowes, and
haue liberty to become rich, being loth to endure hazzard either of life or
goods. For durst they haue put on any minds thorowly to reuolt, they had
three woonderfull good occasions offered them during our being there.

Themselues did in generall confesse, that there were not aboue 5000
Spaniards in that part of the Countrey, of which number the halfe were out
of the towne till the last day of our march: during which time, how easily
they might haue preuailed against the rest, any man may conceiue. But vpon
our approch they tooke them all in, and combined themselues in generall to
the Cardinall.

The next day after our comming thither, when the sally was made vpon vs by
their most resolute Spaniards, how easily might they haue kept them out, or
haue giuen vs the gate which was held for their retreat, if they had had
any thought thereof?

And two dayes after our comming to Cascais, when 6000 Spaniards and
Portugals came against vs as farre as S. Iulians by land, as you shal
presently heare (all which time I thinke there were not many Spaniards left
in the towne) they had a more fit occasion to shew their deuotion to the
King, then any could be offered by our tarying there. And they could not
doubt, that if they had shut them out, but that we would haue fought with
them vpon that aduantage, hauing sought them in Galitia vpon disaduantage
to beat them: and hauing taken so much paines to seeke them at their owne
houses, whereof we gaue sufficient testimony in the same accident. But I
thinke the feare of the Spaniard had taken so deepe impression within them,
as they durst not attempt any thing against them vpon any hazzard.

For, what ciuill countrey hath euer suffered themselues to be conquered so
few men as they were; to be depriued of their naturall King, and to be
tyrannized ouer thus long, but they? And what countrey, liuing in slauery
vnder a stranger whom they naturally hate, hauing an army in the field to
fight for them and their liberty, would lie still with the yoke vpon their
necks, attending if any strangers would vnburthen them, without so much as
rousing themselues vnder it, but they? They will promise much in speeches,
for they be great talkers, whom the Generall had no reason to distrust
without triall, and therefore marched on into their countrey: but they
performed little in action, whereof we could haue had no proofe without
this thorow triall. Wherein he hath discouered their weaknesse, and
honorably performed more then could be in reason expected of him: which had
he not done, would not these maligners, who seeke occasions of slander,
haue reported him to be suspicious of a people, of whose infidelity he had
no testimony: and to be fearefull without cause, if he had refused to giue
credit to their promises without any aduenture? Let no friuolous
questionist therefore further enquire why he marched so many dayes to
Lisbon, and taried there so small a while.

The next morning, seeing no performance of promise kept, he gaue order for
our marching away; himselfe, the Earle of Essex, and Sir Roger Williams
remaining with the stand that was made in the high street, till the whole
army was drawen into the field, and marched out of the towne, appointing
Captaine Richard wingfield, and Captaine Anthony Wingfield in the
arrereward of them with the shot; thinking that the enemy (as it was most
likely) would haue issued out vpon our rising; but they were otherwise
aduised. When we were come into the field, euery battalion fell into that
order which by course appertained vnto them, and so marched that night vnto
Cascais. Had we marched thorow this Countrey as enemies, our Souldiours had
beene well supplied in all their wants: but had we made enemies of the
Suburbs of Lisbon, we had beene the richest army that euer went out of
England: for besides the particular wealth of euery house, there were many
Warehouses by the water side full of all sorts of rich marchandizes.

In our march that day the gallies which had somewhat, but not much, annoyed
vs at Lisbon, (for that our way lay along the riuer) attended vs till we
were past S. Iulians, bestowing many shot amongst vs, but did no harme at
all, sauing that they strooke off a gentlemans legend, and killed the
Sergeant majors moile vnder him. The horsemen also followed vs afarre off,
and cut off as many sicke men as were not able to holde in marche, nor we
had cariage for.

After we had bene two dayes at Cascais, we had intelligence by a Frier,
that the enemy was marching strongly towards vs, and then came as farre as
S. Iulian: which newes was so welcome to the Earle of Essex and the
Generals, as they offered euery one of them to giue the messenger an
hundred crownes if they found them in the place; for the Generall desiring
nothing more then to fight with them in field roome, dispatched that night
a messenger with a trumpet, by whom he writ a cartell to the Generall of
their army, wherein he gaue them the lie, in that it was by them reported
that we dislodged from Lisbon in disorder and feare of them (which indeed
was most false) for that it was fiue of the clocke in the morning before we
fell into armes, and then went in such sort, as they had no courage to
follow out vpon vs. Also he challenged him therein, to meet him the next
morning with his whole army, if he durst attend his comming, and there to
try out the iustnesse of their quarrel by battell: by whom also the Earle
of Essex (who preferring the honor of the cause, which was his countreys,
before his owne safety) sent a particular cartel, offering himselfe against
any of theirs, if they had any of his quality; or if they would not admit
of that; sixe, eight, or tenne, or as many as they would appoint, should
meet so many of theirs in the head of our battell to trie their fortunes
with them; and that they should haue assurance of their returne and
honourable intreaty.

The Generall accordingly made all his army ready by three of the clocke in
the morning and marched euen to the place where they had encamped, but they
were dislodged in the night in great disorder, being taken with a sudden
feare that we had bene come vpon them, as the Generall was the next day
certainely informed: so as the Trumpet followed them to Lisbon, but could
not get other answere to either of his letters, but threatening to be
hanged, for daring to bring such a message. Howbeit the Generall had caused
to be written vpon the backside of their passport, that if they did offer
any violence vnto the messengers, he would hang the best prisoners he had
of theirs: which made them to aduise better of the matter, and to returne
them home; but without answere.

After our army came to Cascais, and the castle summoned, the Castellan
thereof granted, that vpon fiue or sixe shot of the canon he would deliuer
the same, but not without sight thereof. The Generall thinking that his
distresse within had bene such for want of men or victuals as he could not
holde it many dayes, because he saw it otherwise defensible enough,
determined rather to make him yeeld to that necessity then to bring the
cannon, and therefore onely set a gard vpon the same, lest any supply of
those things which he wanted should be brought vnto them. But he still
standing vpon those conditions, the Generall about two dayes before he
determined to goe to Sea, brought three or foure pieces of battery against
it: vpon the first fire whereof he surrendered, and compounded to go away
with his baggage and armies; he had one canon, two culuerings, one
basiliske, and three or foure other field pieces, threescore and fiue
Souldiours, very good store of munition and victualles enough in the
Castle: insomuch as he might haue held the same longer then the Generall
had in purpose to tarry there. One company of footmen was put into the
guard thereof, till the artillery was taken out, and our army embarked;
which without hauing that fort, we could not without great peril haue done.
When we were ready to set saile (one halfe of the fort being by order from
the Generall blowen vp by mine) the company was drawne away.

During the time we lay in the road, our fleet began the second of Iune, and
so continued sixe dayes after to fetch in some hulks to the number of
threescore, of Dansik, Stetin, Rostock, Lubeck and Hamburgh, laden with
Spanish goods, and as it seemed for the kings prouision, and going for
Lisbon: their principall lading was Corne, Masts, Cables, Copper, and waxe:
amongst which were some of great burthen woonderful well builded for
sailing, which had no great lading in them, and therefore it was thought
that they were brought for the kings prouision, to reinforce his decayed
nauy: whereof there was the greater likelyhood, in that the owner of the
greatest of them which caried two misnes, was knowen to be very inward with
the Cardinall, who rather then he would be taken with his ships, committed
himself vnto his small boat, wherein he recouered S. Sebastians: into the
which our men, that before were in flieboats, were shipped, and the
flieboats sent home with an offer of corne, to the value of their hire. But
the winde being good for them for Rochel, they chuse rather to lose their
corne then the winde, and so departed. The Generall also sent his horses
with them, and from thence shipped them into England.

The third of Iune, Colonell Deuereux and Colonell Sidney, being both very
sicke, departed for England, who in the whole iourney had shewed themselues
very forward to all seruices, and in their departure very vnwilling to
leave vs: that day we imbarked all our army, but lay in the road vntill the
eight thereof.

The sixt day the Earle of Essex, vpon receit of letters from her Maiesty,
by them that brought in the victuals, presently departed towards England,
with whom Sir Roger Williams was very desirous to go, but found the
Generalls very vnwilling he should do so, in that he bare the next place
vnto them, and if they should miscarry, was to command the army. And the
same day there came vnto vs two small barks that brought tidings of some
other shippes come out of England with victuals, which were passed vpwards
to the Cape: for meeting with whom, the second day after we set saile for
that place, in purpose after our meeting with them to go with the Iles of
Acores, the second day, which was the ninth, we met with them comming backe
againe towards vs, whose prouision little answered our expectation.
Notwithstanding we resolued to continue our course for the Ilands.

About this time was the Marchant Royall, with three or foure other ships,
sent to Peniche, to fetch away the companies that were left there; but
Captaine Barton hauing receiued letters from the Generals that were sent
ouerland, was departed before not being able by reason of the enemies
speedy marching thither either to bring away the artillery, or all his men,
according to the direction those letters gaue him; for he was no sooner
gone than the enemy possessed both town and castle, and shot at our ships
as they came into the road.

At this time also was the Ambassador from the Emperor of Marocco, called
Reys Hamet Bencasamp, returned, and with him M. Ciprian, a gentleman of
good place and desert, was sent from Don Antonio, and Captaine Ousley from
the Generals to the Emperor.

The next morning the nine gallies which were sent not fiue dayes before out
of Andaluzia for the strengthening of the riuer of Lisbon (which being
ioyned with the other twelue that were there before, though we lay hard by
them at S. Iulians, durst neuer make any attempt against vs) vpon our
departure from thence returning home, and in the morning being a very dead
calme, in the dawning thereof, fell in the winde of our fleet, in the
vttermost part whereof they assailed one stragling barke of Plimmouth, of
the which Captaine Cauerly being Captaine of the land company, with his
Lieutenant, the Master and some of the Mariners abandoned the ship, and
betooke them to ship-boats, whereof one, in which the Master and Captaine
were, was ouerrunne with the gallies, and they drowned. There were also two
hulks stragled farre from the strength of the other ships, which were so
calmed, as neither they could get to vs, or we to them, though all the
great shippes towed with their boats to haue releiued them, but could not
be recouered; in one of which was Captaine Minshaw with his company, who
fought with them to the last, yea after his ship was on fire, which whether
it was fired by himselfe or by them we could not well discerne, but might
easily iudge by his long and good fight, that the enemy could not but
sustaine much loose: who setting also vpon one other hulke wherein was but
a Lieutenant, were by the valour of the Lieutenant put off although they
had first beaten her with their artillery, and attempted to boord her. And
seeing also another hulke a league off, a sterne off vs, they made towards
her; but finding that she made ready to fight with them, they durst not
further attempt her: whereby it seemed, their losse being great in other
fights, they were loth to proceed any further.

From that day till the 19 of Iune, our direction from the Generall was,
that if the wind were Northerly, we should plie for the Acores; but if
Southerly, for the Iles of Bayon. We lay with contrary windes, about that
place and the Rocke, till the Southerly winde preuailing carried vs to
Bayon: part of our ships to the number of 25, in a great winde which was
two dayes before, hauing lost the Admirals and the fleet, according to
their direction, fell in the morning of that day with Bayon, among whom was
Sir Henry Norris in the Ayde; who had in purpose (if the Admirals had not
come in) with some 500 men out of them all to haue landed, and attempted
the taking of Vigo. The rest of the fleet held with Generall Drake, who
though he were two dayes before put vpon those Ilands, cast off againe to
sea for the Acores: but remembering how vnprouided he was for iourney and
seeing that he had lost company of his great ships, returned for Bayon, and
came in there that night in the euening where he passed vp the riuer more
than a mile aboue Vigo.

[Sidenote: Vigo taken.] The next morning we landed as many as were able to
fight, which were not in the whole aboue 2000 men (for in the 17 dayes we
continued on boord we had cast many of our men ouerboord) with which number
the Colonell generall marched to the towne of Vigo, neere the which when he
approched, he sent Captaine Anthony Wingfield with a troupe of shot to
enter one side of the same, who found vpon euery streets end a strong
barricade, but altogether abandoned; for hauing entered the towne, he found
but one man therein, but might see them making way before him to Bayon. On
the other side of the towne entred Generall Drake with Captaine Richard
Wingfield, whose approch on that side (I thinke) made them leaue the places
they had so artificially made for defence: there were also certaine shippes
sent with the Vice-admirall to lie close before the towne to beat vpon the
same with their artillery.

In the afternoone were sent 300 vnder the conduct of Captaine Petuin and
Captaine Henry Poure, to burne another village betwixt that and Bayon,
called Borsis, and as much of the country as the day would giue them leaue
to do; which was a very pleasant rich valley: but they burnt it all, houses
and corne, as did others on the other side of the towne, both that and the
next day, so as the countrey was spoiled seuen or eight miles in length.
There was found great store of wine in the towne, but not any thing els:
for the other dayes warning of the shippes that came first in, gaue them a
respit to cary all away.

[Sidenote: Vigo burned.] The next morning by breake of the day the Colonell
generall (who in the absence of the Generalls that were on boord their
ships, commanded that night on shore) caused all our companies to be drawen
out of the towne, and sent in two troups to put fire in euery house of the
same: which done, we imbarked againe.

This day there were certaine Mariners which (without any direction) put
themselues on shore, on the contrary side of the riuer from vs for pillage;
who were beaten by the enemy from their boats, and punished by the Generals
for their offer, in going without allowance.

The reasons why we attempted nothing against Bayon were before shewed to be
want of artillery, and may now be alledged to be the small number of our
men: who should haue gone against so strong a plade, manned with very good
souldiers, as was shewed by Iuan de Vera taken at the Groine, who confessed
that there were sixe hundred olde Souldiers in garrison there of Flanders,
and the Tercios of Naples, lately also returned out of the iourney of

Vnder the leading of

Capitan Puebla,
Christofero Vasques de Viralta a souldier of Flanders.
Don Pedro Camascho, del tercio de Napoles.
Don Francisco de Cespedes.
Cap. Iuan de Solo, del tercio de Naples.
Don Diego de Cassaua.
Cap. Sauban.

Also he sayth there be 18 pieces of brasse, and foure of yron, lately layed
vpon the walles of the towne, besides them that were there before.

The same day the Generals seeing what weake estate our army was drawn into
by sicknesse, determined to man and victuall twenty of the best ships for
the Ilands of Acores with Generall Drake, to see if he could meet with the
Indian fleet, and Generall Norris to returne home with the rest: And for
the shifting of men and victualles accordingly, purposed the next morning
to fall downe to the Ilands of Bayon againe, and to remaine there that day.
But Generall Drake, according to their apointment, being vnder saile neuer
strooke at the Ilands, but put straight to sea; whom all the fleet followed
sauing three and thirty, which being in the riuer further then he, and at
the entrance out of the same, finding the winde and tide too hard against
them, were inforced to cast ancre there for that night; amongst whom, by
good fortune, was the Foresight, and in her Sir Edward Norris. And the
night folowing, Generall Norris being driuen from the rest of the Fleet by
a great storme, (for all that day was the greatest storme we had all the
time we were out) came againe into the Ilands, but not without great
perill, he being forced to trust to a Spanish Fisherman (who was taken two
dayes before at sea) to bring him in.

The next morning he called a council of as many as he found there, holding
the purpose he had concluded with sir Francis Drake the day before, and
directed all their courses for England, tarrying there all that day to
water and helpe such with victuall, as were left in wonderfull distresse by
hauing the victuals that came last, caried away the day before to sea.

[Sidenote: Their returne to Plimmouth.] The next day he set saile, and the
l0 day after, which was the 2 of Iuly came into Plimmouth, where he found
sir Francis Drake and all the Queens ships, with many of the others but not
all; for the Fleet was dispersed into other harbors, some led by a desire
of returning from whence they came, and some being possessed of the hulks
sought other Ports from their Generals eie, where they might make their
priuate commoditie of them, as they haue done to their great aduantage.

Presently vpon their arriual there, the Generals dissolued all the armie
sauing 8 companies which are yet held together, giuing euery souldier fiue
shillings in money, and the armies hee bare to make money of, which was
more then could by any means be due vnto them: for they were not in seruice
three moneths, in which time they had their victuals, which no man would
value at lesse then halfe their pay, for such is the allowance in her
maiesties ships to her mariners, so as there remained but 10 shillings a
moneth more to be paid, for which there was not any priuate man but had
apparel and furniture to his owne vse, so as euery common souldier
discharged, receiued more in money, victuals, apparel and furniture, then
his pay did amount vnto.

Notwithstanding, there be euen in the same place where those things haue
passed, that either do not or will not conceiue the souldiers estate, by
comparing their pouertie and the shortness of the time together, but lay
some iniuries vpon the Generals and the action. Where, and by the way, but
especially here in London, I find there haue bene some false prophets gone
before vs, telling strange tales. For as our countrey doeth bring foorth
many gallant men, who desirous of honour doe put themselues into the
actions thereof, so doeth it many more dull spirited, who though their
thoughts reach not so high as others, yet doe they listen how other mens
acts doe passe, and either beleeuing what any man will report vnto them,
are willingly caried away into errors, or tied to some greater mans faith,
become secretaries against a noted trueth. The one sort of these doe take
their opinions from the high way side, or at the furthest go no further
then Pauls to enquire what hath bene done in this voiage; where if they
meet with any, whose capacitie before their going out could not make them
liue, nor their valour maintaine their reputation, and who went onely for
spoile, complaining on the hardnesse and misery thereof, they thinke they
are bound to giue credite to these honest men who were parties therein, and
in very charitie become of their opinions. The others to make good the
faction they had entred into, if they see any of those malecontents (as
euery iourney yeeldeth some) doe runne vnto them like tempting spirits to
confirme them in their humour, with assurance that they foresaw before our
going out what would become thereof.

Be ye not therefore too credulous in beleeuing euery report: for you see
there haue bene many more beholders of these things that haue passed, then
actors in the same; who by their experience, not hauing the knowledge of
the ordinary wants of the warre, haue thought, that to lie hard, not to
haue their meat well dressed, to drinke sometimes water, to watch much, or
to see men die and be slaine, was a miserable thing; and not hauing so
giuen their mindes to the seruice, as they are any thing instructed
thereby, doe for want of better matter discourse ordinarily of these
things: whereas the iourney (if they had with that iudgement seene into it,
which their places required) hath giuen them far more honorable purpose and
argument of discourse.

[Sidenote: A worthy question dilated.] These mens discontentments and
mislikings before our comming home haue made mee labour thus much to
instruct you in the certaintie of euery thing, because I would not
willingly haue you miscaried in the indgements of them, wherein you shall
giue me leaue somewhat to dilate vpon a question, which I onely touched in
the beginning of my letter, namely, whether it bee more expedient for our
estate to maintain an offensiue war against the king of Spaine in the Low
countries, or as in this iourney, to offend him in his neerer territories,
seeing the grounds of arguing thereof are taken from the experience which
the actions of this iourney haue giuen vs.

There is no good subiect that will make question, whether it be behoofeful
for vs to hold friendship with these neighbours of ours or no, as well in
respect of the infinite proportion of their shipping, which must stand
either with vs or against vs; as of the commoditie of their harbors,
especially that of Vlishing, by the fauour whereof our Nauie may
continually keepe the Narrow seas, and which would harbour a greater Fleete
agaynst vs, then the Spaniard shall need to annoy vs withall, who being now
distressed by our common enemie, I thinke it most expedient for our safetie
to defend them, and if it may be, to giue them a reentrie into that they
haue of late yeeres lost vnto him. The one without doubt her maiestie may
do without difficultie, and in so honorable sort as he shal neuer be able
to dispossesse her or them of any the townes they now hold. But if any man
thinke that the Spaniard may be expelled from thence more speedily or
conueniently by keeping an armie there, then by sending one against him
into his owne countrey: let him foresee of how many men and continuall
supplies that armie must consist, and what intollerable expenses it
requireth. And let him thinke by the example of the duke of Alua, when the
prince of Orenge had his great armie agaynst him; and of Don Iuan, when the
States had their mightie assembly against him; how this wise enemie, with
whom we are to deale, may but by prolonging to fight with vs, leaue vs
occasions enough for our armie within few moneths to mutine and breake; or
by keeping him in his townes leaue vs a spoyled field: where though our
prouision may bee such of our owne as we starue ['staure' in source
text--KTH] not, yet is our weaknesse in any strange country such, as with
sicknes and miserie we shal be dissolued. And let him not forget what a
continual burthen we hereby lay vpon vs, in that to repossesse those
countreys which have been lately lost, wil be a warre of longer continuance
then we shall be able to endure.

In the very action whereof, what should hinder the king of Spaine to bring
his forces home vnto vs? For it is certaine he hath long since set downe in
councell, that there is no way for him wholy to recouer those Low
countries, but by bringing the warre vpon England it selfe, which hath
alwayes assisted them against him: and that being determined, and whereunto
he hath bene vehemently urged by the last yeeres losse he sustained vpon
our coasts, and the great dishonor this iourney hath laid vpon him; no
doubt if we shall giue him respite to doe it, but he will mightily advance
his purpose, for he is richly able thereunto, and wonderfull desirous of

To encounter wherewith, I wish euen in true and honest zeale to my
Countrey, that we were all perswaded that there is no such assured meanes
for the safetie of our estate, as to busy him with a well furnished armie
in Spaine, which hath so many goodly Bayes open, as we may land without
impeachment as many men as shall be needfull for such an inuasion. And
hauing an armie of 20000 roially furnished there, we shall not need to take
much care for their payment: for shal not Lisbon be thought able to make so
few men rich, when the Suburbs thereof were found so abounding in riches,
as had we made enemie of them, they had largely enriched vs all? Which with
what small losse it may be won, is not here to shew; but why it was not won
by vs, I haue herein shewed you. Or is not the spoyle of Siuil sufficient
to pay more then shall bee needful to bee sent against it, whose defence
(as that of Lisbone) is onely force of men, of whom how many may for the
present be raised, is not to be esteemed, because wee haue discouered what
kind of men they be, euen such as will neuer abide ours in field, nor dare
withstand any resolute attempt of ours agaynst them: for during the time we
were in many places of their countrey, they cannot say that euer they made
20 of our men turne their faces from them. And be there not many other
places of lesse difficultie to spoyle, able to satisfie our forces?

But admit, that if vpon this alarme that we haue giuen him, he tendering
his naturall and neerest soile before his further remooued off gouernments,
do draw his forces of old souldiers out of the Low countreys for his owne
defence, is not the victory then won by drawing and holding them from
thence, for the which we should haue kept an armie there at a charge by
many partes greater then this, and not stirred them?

Admit further our armie be impeached from landing there, yet by keeping the
Sea and possessing his principall roades, are we not in possibilitie to
meet with his Indian merchants, and very like to preuent him of his
prouisions comming out of the East countreys; without the which, neither
the subiect of Lisbon is long able to liue, nor the king able to maintaine
his Nauie? For though the countrey of Portugall doe some yeeres find
themselues corne, yet are they neuer able to victuall the least part of
that Citie. And albeit the king of Spaine be the richest prince in
Christendome, yet can he neither draw cables, hewe masts, nor make pouder
out of his mettals, but is to be supplied of them all from thence. Of whom
(some will hold opinion) it is no reason to make prize, because they bee
not our enemies: and that our disagreeance with them will impeach the trade
of our marchants, and so impouerish our countrey, of whose mind I can
hardly be drawen to be: For if my enemie fighting with me doe breake his
sword, so as I thereby haue the aduantage against him; what shall I thinke
of him that putteth a new sword into his hand to kill me withall? And may
it not bee thought more fitting for vs in these times to loose our trades
of Cloth, then by suffering these mischiefes, to put in hazard whether we
shall haue a countrey left to make cloth in or no? And yet though neither
Hamburgh, Embden, nor Stode doe receiue our cloth, the necessary vse
thereof in all places is such, as they will find means to take it from vs
with our sufficient commoditie.

And admit (which were impossible) that we damnifie him neither at sea nor
land (for vnlesse it be with a much more mightie armie then ours, he shall
neuer be able to withstand vs) yet shall we by holding him at his home,
free our selues from the warre at our owne wals; the benefit whereof let
them consider that best can iudge, and haue obserued the difference of
inuading, and being inuaded; the one giuing courage to the souldier, in
that it doeth set before him commoditie and reputation; the other a
fearefull terror to the countrey-man, who if by chance he play the man yet
is he neuer the richer: and who knowing many holes to hide himselfe in,
will trie them all before he put his life in perill by fighting: whereas
the Inuader casteth vp his account before hee goeth out, and being abroad
must fight to make himselfe way, as not knowing what place or strength to
trust vnto. I will not say what I obserued in our countrey-men when the
enemy offred to assaile vs here: but I wish that all England knew what
terror we gaue to the same people that frighted vs, by visiting them at
their owne houses.

Were not Alexanders fortunes great against the mightie Darius, onely in
that his Macedonians thirsted after the wealth of Persia, and were bound to
fight it out to the last man, because the last man knew no safer way to
saue himselfe then by fighting? Whereas the Persians either trusting to
continue stil masters of their wealth by yeelding to the Inuader, began to
practise against their owne king: or hauing more inward hopes, did hide
themselues euen to the last, to see what course the Conquerour would take
in his Conquest. And did not the aduise of Scipio, though mightily impugned
at the first, prooue very sound and honourable to his countrey? Who seeing
the Romans wonderfully amazed at the neerenesse of their enemies Forces,
and the losses they daily sustained by them, gaue counsell rather by way of
diuersion to cary an army into Afrike, and there to assaile, then by a
defensiue warre at home to remaine subiect to the common spoiles of an
assailing enemie. Which being put in execution drew the enemie from the
gates of Rome, and Scipio returned home with triumph: albeit his beginnings
at the first were not so fortunate against them, as ours haue bene in this
smal time against the Spaniard. The good successe whereof may encourage vs
to take armes resolutely against him. And I beseech God it may stirre vp
all men that are particularly interested therein, to bethinke themselues
how small a matter will assure them of their safetie, by holding the
Spaniard at a Baie, so farre off: whereas, if we giue him leaue quietly to
hatch and bring foorth his preparations, it will be with danger to vs all.

He taketh not armes against vs by any pretense of title to the crowne of
this realme, nor led altogether with an ambicious desire to command our
countrey, but with hatred towrrds our whole Nation and religion. Her
maiesties Scepter is already giuen by Bull to another, the honours of our
Nobilitie are bestowed for rewards vpon his attendants, our Clergie, our
Gentlemen, our Lawyers, yea all the men of what conditon soeuer are offered
for spoyle vnto the common souldier. Let euery man therefore, in defence of
the liberty and plentie he hath of long enjoyed, offer a voluntarie
contribution of the smallest part of their store for the assurance of the
rest. It were not much for euery Iustice of peace, who by his blew coat
proteceth the properest and most seuiceable men at euery muster from the
warres, to contribute the charge that one of these idle men doe put him to
for one yeere: nor for the Lawyer, who riseth by the dissensions of his
neighbours, to take but one yeeres gifts (which they call fees) out of his
coffers. What would it hinder euery officer of the Exchequer, and other of
her Maiesties courts, who without checks doe suddenly grow to great wealth,
honestly to bring foorth the mysticall commoditie of one yeeres profits? Or
the Clergie, who looke precisely for the Tenths of euery mans increase,
simply to bring forth the Tenth of one yeeres gathering, and in
thankfulnesse to her Maiestie (who hath continued for all our safeties a
most chargeable warre both at land & sea) bestow the same for her honor &
their own assurance, vpon an army which may make this bloody enemy so to
know himselfe and her Maiesties power, as he shall bethinke him what it is
to mooue a stirring people? Who, though they haue receiued some small
checke by the sicknesse of this last iourney, yet doubt I not, but if it
were knowen, that the like voyage were to bee supported by a generalitie,
(that might and would beare the charge of a more ample prouision) but there
would of all sortes most willingly put themselues into the same: some
caried with an honourable desire to be in action, and some in loue of such
would affectionately folow their fortunes; some in thirsting to reuenge the
death and hurts of their brethren, kinred, and friends: and some in hope of
the plentifull spoyles to be found in those countreys, hauing bene there
already and returned poore, would desire to goe againe, with an expectation
to make amends for the last: and all, in hatred of that cowardly proud
Nation, and in contemplation of the true honour of our owne, would with
courage take armes to hazard their liues agaynst them, whom euery good
Englishman is in nature bound to hate as an implacable enemie to England,
thirsting after our blood, and labouring to ruine our land, with hope to
bring vs vnder the yoke of perpetuall slauerie.

Against them is true honour to be gotten, for that we shall no sooner set
foot in their land, but that euery step we tread will yeeld vs new occasion
of action, which I wish the gallantrie of our Countrey rather to regard
then to folow those soft vnprofitable pleasures wherein they now consume
their time and patrimonie. And in two or three townes of Spaine is the
wealth of all Europe gathered together, which are the Magasins of the
fruits and profits of the East and West Indies, whereunto I wish our yong
able men, who (against the libertie they are borne vnto) terme themselues
seruing men, rather to bend their desires and affections, then to attend
their double liuerie and 40 shillings by the yeere wages, and the reuersion
of the old Copy-hold, for carying a dish to their masters table. But let me
here reprehend my selfe and craue pardon for entring into a matter of such
state and consequence, the care whereof is already laid vpon a most graue
and honorable counsell, who will in their wisdoms foresee the dangers that
may be threatned agaynst vs. And why do I labour to disquiet the securitie
of these happy gentlemen, and the trade of those honest seruing men, by
perswading them to the warres when I see the profession thereof so

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