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The Life and Most Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of by Daniel Defoe

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know how to spin it: At length I remembered I had some neckcloths of
calico or muslin of the sailors, which I had brought out of the ship,
and with these I made three small sieves proper enough for the work.

I come now to consider the baking part. The want of an oven I supplied
by making some earthen pans very broad but not deep. When I had a mind
to bake, I made a great fire upon the hearth, the tiles of which I had
made myself; and when the wood was burnt into live coals, I spread them
over it, till it became very hot; then sweeping them away, I set down my
loaves, and whelming down the earthen pots upon them, drew the ashes and
coals all around the outsides of the pots to continue the heat; and in
this manner I baked my barley loaves, as well as if I had been a
complete pastry-cook, and also made of the rice several cakes
and puddings.

It is no wonder that these things took me up the best part of a year,
since what intermediate time I had was bestowed in managing my new
harvest and husbandry; for in the proper season I reaped my corn,
carried it home, and laid it up in the ear in my large baskets, til I
had time to rub, instead of thrashing it. And now, indeed, my corn
increased so much, that it produced me twenty bushels of barley, and as
much rice, that I not only began to use it freely, but was thinking how
to enlarge my barns, and resolved to sow as much at a time as would be
sufficient for me for a whole year.

All this while, the prospect of land, which I had seen from the other
side of the island, ran in my mind. I still meditated a deliverance from
this place, though the fear of greater misfortunes might have deterred
me from it.--For, allowing that I had attained that place, I run the
hazard of being killed and eaten by the devouring cannibals: and if they
were not so, yet I might be slain, as other Europeans had been, who fell
into their hands. Notwithstanding all this, my thoughts ran continually
upon that shore. I now wished for my boy Xury, and the long boat, with
the shoulder of mutton sail: I went to the ship's boat that had been
cast a great way on the shore in the late storm. She was removed but a
little; but her bottom being turned up by the impetuosity and fury of
the waves and wind, I fell to work with all the strength I had, with
levers and rollers I had cut from the wood, to turn her, and repair the
damages she had sustained. This work took me up three or four weeks,
when finding my little strength all in vain, I fell to undermining it by
digging away the sand, and so to make it fall down, setting pieces of
wood to thrust and guide it in the fall. But after this was done, I was
still unable to stir it up, or to get under it, much less to move it
forward towards the water, and so I was forced to give it over.

This disapointment, however did not frighten me. I began to think
whether it was not possible for me to make a canoe or perigua, such as
the Indians make of the trunk of a tree, But here I lay under particular
inconveniencies; want of tools to make it, and want of hands to move it
in the water when it was made. However, to work I went upon it, stopping
all the inquiries I could make, with this very simple answer I made to
myself, _Let's first make it, I'll warrant I'll find some way or other
to get it along when it is done_.

I first cut down a cedar tree, which was five feet ten inches diameter
at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter
at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it lessened for a space, and
then parted into branches. Twenty days was I a hacking and hewing this
tree at the bottom, fourteen more in cutting off the branches and limbs,
and a whole month in shaping it like the bottom of the boat. As for the
inside, I was three weeks with a mallet and chissel, clearing it in such
a manner, as that it was big enough to carry twenty-six men, much bigger
than any canoe I ever saw in my life, and confequentiy sufficient to
transport me and all my effects to that wished-for shore I so
ardently desired.

Nothing remained now, but, indeed, the greatest difficulty to get it
into the water, it lying about one hundred yards from it. To remedy the
first inconvenience, which was a rising hill between the boat and the
creek, with wonderful pains and labour I dug into the bowels of the
earth, and made a declivity. But when this was done, all the strength I
had was as insufficient to remove it, as it was when I attempted to
remove the boat. I then proceeded to measure the difference of ground,
resolving to make a canal, in order to bring the water to the canoe,
since I could not bring the canoe to the water. But as this seemed to be
impracticable to myself alone, under the space of eleven or twelve
years, it brought me into some sort of consideration: so that I
concluded this also to be impossible, and the attempt altogether vain. I
now saw, and not before, _what stupidity it is to begin a work before we
reckon its costs, or judge rightly our own abilities to go through with
its performance_.

In the height of this work my fourth year expired, from the time I was
cast on this island, At this time I did not forget my anniversary; but
kept it with rather greater devotion than before. For now my hopes being
frustrated, I looked upon this world as a thing had nothing to do with;
and very well might I say as Father Abraham said unto Dives, _Between
thee and me there is a gulph fixed._ And indeed I was separated from its
wickedness too, having neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the
eye, nor the pride of life; I had nothing to covet, being lord, king and
emperor over the whole country I had in possession, without dispute and
without control: I had loadings of corn, plenty of turtles, timber in
abundance, and grapes above measure. What was all the rest to me? the
money I had lay by me as despicable dross, which I would freely have
given for a gross of tobacco pipes, or a hard mill to grind my corn: in
a word the-nature and experience of these things dictated to me this
just reflection: _That the good things of this world are no farther
good to us, than they are for our use; and that whatever we may heap up
to give to others, we can but enjoy as much as we use, and no more._

These thoughts rendered my mind more easy than usual. Every time I sat
down to meat, I did it with thankfulness, admiring the providential hand
of God, who in this wilderness had spread a table to me. And now I
considered what I enjoyed, rather than what I wanted, compared my
present condition with what I at first expected it should be; _how I
should have done, if I had got nothing out of the ship, that I must have
perished before I had caught fish or turtles; or lived, had I found
them, like a mere savage, by eating them raw, and pulling them in pieces
with my claws, like a beast_. I next compared my station to that which I
deserved: _how undutiful I had been to my parents; how destitute of the
fear of God; bow void of every thing that was good; and how ungrateful
for those abundant mercies I had received from Heaven, being fed as it
were, by a miracle, even as great as Elijah's being fed by ravens; and
cast on a place where there is no venomous creatures to poison or devour
me_; in short making God's tender mercies matter of great consolation, I
relinquished all sadness, and gave way to contentment.

As long as my ink continued, which with water I made last as long as I
could, I used to minute down the days of the month on which any
remarkable event happened.--And,

First, I observed, _that the same day I forsook my parents and friends,
and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same day afterwards in
the next year, I was taken and made a slave by the Sallee rovers_.

_That the very day I escaped out of the wreck of the ship in Yarmouth
roads, a year after on the same day, I made my escape from Sallee in my
patron' fishing boat_.

_And on the 30th of September, being the day of the year I was born on,
on that day twenty-six years after, was I miraculously saved, and cast
ashore on this island_.

The next thing that wasted after my ink, was the biscuit which I had
brought out of the ship, and though I allowed myself but one cake a day,
for above a twelvemonth, yet I was quite out of bread for near a year,
before I got any corn of my own.

In the next place, my clothes began to decay, and my linen had been gone
long before. However, I had preserved about three dozen of the sailors
chequered shirts, which proved a great refreshment to me, when the
violent beams of the sun would not suffer me to bear any of the seamen's
heavy watch coats, which made me turn taylor, and, after a miserable
botching manner, convert them to jackets. To preserve my head, I made
me a cap of goat-skins, with the hair outwards to keep out the rain;
which indeed served me so well, that afterwards I made me a waistcoat
and opened-kneed breeches of the fame: And then I contrived a sort of an
umbrella, covering it with skins, which not only kept out the heat of
the sun, but rain also. Thus being easy, and settled in my mind, my
chief happiness was to converse with God, in most heavenly and
comfortable ejaculations.

For five years after this I cannot say any extraordinary thing occured
to me. My chief employment was to cure my raisins, and plant my barley
and rice, of both which I had a year's provision beforehand. But though
I was disapointed in my first canoe, I made it, at intermediate times,
my business to make a second, of much inferior size; and it was
two-years before I had finished it. But as I perceived it would no wife
answer my design of failing to the other shore, my thoughts were
consigned to take a tour round the island, to see what further
discoveries I could make. To this intent, after having moved her to the
water, and tried how she would sail, I fitted up a little raft to my
boat, and made a sail of the ships sail that by me. I then made lockers
or boxes at the end of it, to put in necessaries, provision, and
ammunition, which would preserve them dry, either from rain or the spray
of the sea; and in the inside of the boat, I cut me a long hollow place
to lay my gun in, and to keep it dry made a flag to hang over it. My
umbrella I fixed in a step in the stern, like a mast, to keep the heat
of the sun off me. And now resolving to see the circumference of my
little kingdom, I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two
dozen of my barley-bread loaves, an earthen pot-full of parched rice, a
little bottle of rum, half a goat, powder and shot, and two watch coats.
It was the _6th_ of November, in the _6th_ year of my reign, or
captivity, that I set out in this voyage; which was much longer than I
expected, being obliged to put further out, by reason of the rocks that
lay a great way in the sea. And indeed so much did these rocks surprise
me, that I was for putting back, fearing that if I ventured farther it
would be out of my power to return in this uncertainty I came to an
anchor just off shore, to which I waded with my gun on my shoulder, and
then climbing up a hill, which overlooked that point, I saw the full
extent of it, and so resolved to run all hazards.

In this prospect from the hill, I perceived a violent current running to
the east, coming very close to the point; which I the more carefully
observed, thinking it dangerous, and that when I came to it, I might be
drove into the sea by its force, and not able to return to the island;
and certainly it must have been so, had I not made this observation; for
on the other side was the like current, with this difference, that it
set off at a greater distance; and I perceived there was a strong eddy
under the land; so that my chief business was to work out of the first
current, and conveniently get into the eddy. Two days I staid here, the
wind blowing very briskly E.S.E. which being contrary to the current,
leaves a great breach of the sea upon the point; so it was neither fit
for me to keep too near the shore, on account of the breach; nor stand
at too great a distance, for fear of the streams. That night the wind
abating, it grew so calm, that I ventured out; & here I may be a
monument to all rash and ignorant pilots; for I was no sooner come to
the point and not above the boat's length from shore, but I was going
into a deep water, with a current like a mill, which drove my boat along
so violently, that it was impossible for me to keep near the edge of it,
but forced me more and more out from the eddy to the left of me; and all
I could do with my paddle were useless, there being no wind to help me.

Now I began to look upon myself as quite lost, since as, the current ran
on both sides of the island, I was very certain they must join again,
and then I had no hope but of perishing for want in the sea, after what
provision I had was spent, or before, if a storm should happen to arise.

Who can conceive the present anguish of my mind at this calamity? with
longing eyes did I look upon my little kingdom, and thought the island
the pleasantest place in the universe. _Happy, thrice happy desert_,
said I, _shall I never see thee more?_ _Wretched creature! wither am I
going? Why did I murmur at my lonesome condition, when now I would give
the whole world to be thither again?_ While I was thus complaining, I
found myself to be driven about two leagues into the sea; however, I
laboured till my strength was far spent, to keep my boat as far north as
possibly I could, to that side of the current where the eddy lay on.
About noon I perceived a little breeze of wind spring up from the S.S.E.
which overjoyed my heart; and was still more elated, when, in about half
an hour it blew a gentle fine gale. Had any thick weather sprung up, I
had been left another way; for having no compass onboard, I should never
have found the way to steer towards the island, if once it had
disappeared; but it proving the contrary, I set up my mast again, spread
my sail, and stood away northward, as much as I could, to get rid of the
current. And no sooner did the boat begin to stretch away, but I
perceived by the clearness of the water, a change of the current was
near; for, where it was strong, the water was foul; and where it was
clear the current abated. To the east, I soon saw about half a mile, a
breach of the sea upon, some rocks, which caused it again to separate;
and as the main force of it drove away more southwardly, leaving the
rocks to the north-east, so the other came back by the repulse of the
rocks making a sharp eddy, which returned back again to the north-west
with a very swift stream.

They who have experienced what it is to be reprieved upon the ladder, or
to be saved from thieves, just going to take away their lives, or such
as have been in the like calamities with my own, may guess my present
excess of joy, how heartily I ran my boat into the stream of this eddy,
and how joyfully I spread my sail to the refreshing wind, standing
cheerfully before it, with a smart tide under foot. By the assistance of
this eddy, I was carried above a league home again, when being in the
wake of the island, betwixt the two currents, I found the water to be in
a sort of a stand. About four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached within
a league of the island, and perceived the points of the rock, which
caused this disaster, stretching out, as I observed before, to the
southward, which throwing off the current more southwardly had
occasioned another eddy to the north. But having a fair brisk gale, I
stretched across this eddy, and in an hour came within a mile of the
shore, where I soon landed to my unspeakable comfort; and after an
humble prostration, thanking God for my deliverance, with a resolution
to lay all thoughts of escaping aside, I brought my boat safe to a
little cove, and laid me down to take a welcome repose. When I awoke I
was considering how I might get my boat home; and coasting along the
shore, I came to a good bay, which ran up to a rivulet or brook, where
finding a safe harbour, I stowed her as safe as if she had been in a
dry-dock made on purpose for her.

I now perceived myself not far from the place where before I had
travelled on foot; so taking nothing with me except my gun and umbrella,
I began my journey, and in the evening came to my bower, where I again
laid me down to rest. I had not slept long before I was awakened in
great surprise, by a strange voice that called me several times. _Robin,
Robin, Robinson Crusoe, poor Robin! Where are you, Robinson Crusoe?
Where are you? Where have you been_?

So fast was I asleep at first, that I did not awake thoroughly: but half
asleep and half awake, I thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me.
But, as the voice repeated _Robinson Crusoe_ several times, being
terribly affrighted, I started up in utmost confusion; and, no sooner
were my eyes fully open, but I beheld my pretty Poll sitting on the top
of the hedge, and soon knew that it was he that called me; for just in
such bewailing language I used to talk and teach him; which he so
exactly learned that he would sit upon my finger and lay his bill close
to my face, and cry, _Poor Robinson Crusoe, where are you? where have
you been? how came you here_? and such like prattle I had constantly
taught him. But even though I knew it to be the parrot, it was a great
while before I could adjust myself; being amazed how the creature got
thither, and that he should fix about that place; and no where else.
But now being assured it could be no other than my honest Poll, my
wonder ceased, and reaching out my hand, and calling familiarly Poll,
the creature came to me, and perched upon my thumb as he was wont,
constantly prating to me with _Poor Robinson Crusoe, and how did I come
here, and where had I been?_ as if the bird was overjoyed to see me; and
so I took him home along with me.

I was now pretty well cured of my rambling to sea; yet I could wish my
boat, which had cost me so much trouble and pains, on this side the
island once more, but which indeed was impracticable. I therefore began
to lead a very retired life, living near a twelvemonth in a very
contented manner, wanting for nothing except conversation. As to
mechanic labours, which my necessities obliged me to, I fancied I could,
upon occasion, make a tolerable carpenter were the poor tools I had to
work withal but good. Besides, as I improved in my earthen ware, I
contrived to make them with a wheel, which I found much easier and
better, making my work shapely, which before was rude and ugly. But I
think I was never so elevated with my own performance or project, than
for being able to make a tobacco-pipe, which though it proved an awkward
clumsy thing, yet it was very sound, and carried the smoke perfectly
well, to my great satisfaction.

I also improved my wicker ware, making me abundance of necessary
baskets, which though not very handsome, were very handy and convenient
to fetch things home in, as also for holding my stores, barley, rice,
and other provisions.

My powder beginning to fail, made me examine after what manner I should
kill the goats or birds to live on after it was all gone. Upon which I
contrived many ways to ensnare the goats, and see if I could catch them
alive, particularly a she-goat with young. At last I had my desire, for
making pitfalls and traps baited with barley and rice, I found one
morning, in one of them, an old he-goat, and in the other three kids,
one male, the other two females.

So boisterous was the old one, that I could not bring him away. But I
forgot the old proverb, _That hunger will tame a lion_: For had I kept
him three or four days without provisions, and then given him some
water, with a little corn, he would have been as tame as a young kid.
The other creatures I bound with strings together; but I had great
difficulty before I could bring them to my habitation. It was some time
before they would feed; but throwing them sweet corn it so much tempted
them, that they began to be tamer. From hence I concluded, that if I
designed to furnish myself with goat's flesh, when my ammunition was
spent, the tamely breeding them up, like a flock of sheep, about my
settlement, was the only method I could take. I concluded also I must
separate the wild from the tame, or else they would always run wild as
they grew up; and the best way for this, was to have some inclosed piece
of ground, well fenced, either with a hedge or pale, to keep them so
effectually, that those within might not break out, or those without
break in. Such an undertaking was very great for one pair of hands; but
as there was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first care was to
find a convenient piece of ground where there was likely to be herbage
for them to eat, water to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.

Here again, I gave another instance of my ignorance and inexperience,
pitching upon a piece of meadow land so large, that had I inclosed it,
the hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about. Indeed had it
been ten miles, I had time enough to do it in; but then I did not
consider that my goats would be as wild in so much compass, as if they
had had the whole island, and consequently as difficult for me to catch
them. This thought came into my head, after I had carried it on, I
believe, about fifty yards; I therefore altered my scheme, and resolved
to inclose a piece of ground about one hundred and fifty yards in
length, and one hundred in breadth, sufficient enough for as many as
would maintain me, till such time as my flock increased, and then I
could add more ground. I now vigorously prosecuted my work, and it took
me about three months in hedging the first piece; in which time I
tethered the three kids in the best part of it, feeding them as near me
as possible, to make them familiar: and indeed I very often would carry
some ears of barley or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hands;
by which they grew so tame, that when my inclosure was finished, and I
had let them loose they would run after me for a handful of corn. This
indeed answered my end; and in a year and half's time I had a flock of
about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years after, they amounted
to forty-three, besides what I had taken and killed for my sustenance.
After which I inclosed five several pieces of ground to feed them in,
with pens to drive them into, that I might take them as I had occasion.

In this project I likewise found additional blessings; for I not only
had plenty of goat's flesh, but milk too, which in my beginning I did
not so much as think of. And, indeed, though I had never milked a cow,
much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese made, yet, after some essays
and miscarriages, I made the both, and never afterwards wanted.

How mercifully can the omnipotent Power comfort his creatures, even in
the midst of their greatest calamities? How can be sweeten the bitterest
providences, and give us reason to magnify him in dungeons and prisons?
what a bounteous table was here spread in a wilderness for me, where I
expected nothing thing at first but to perish for hunger.

Certainly a Stoic would have smiled to see me at dinner. There sat my
royal majesty, and absolute prince and ruler of my kingdom, attended by
my dutiful subjects, whom, if I pleased, I could either hang, draw,
quarter, give them liberty, or take it away. When I dined, I seemed a
king eating alone, none daring to presume to do so till I had done.
_Poll_, as if he had been my principal court favorite, was the only
person, permitted to talk with me. My old but faithful dog, now grown
exceedingly crazy, and who had no species to multiply his kind upon,
continually sat on my right hand; while my two cats sat on each side of
the table, expecting a bit from my hand, as a principal mark of my royal
favour. These were not the cats I had brought from the ship; they had
been dead long before, and interred near my habitation by mine own hand.
But one of them, as I suppose, generating with a wild cat, a couple of
their young I had made tame; the rest ran wild into the woods, and in
time grew so impudent as to return and plunder me of my stores, till
such time as I shot a great many, and the rest left me without troubling
me any more. In this plentiful manner did I live, wanting for nothing
but conversation. One thing indeed concerned me, the want of my boat; I
knew not which way to get her round the island. One time I resolved to
go along the shore by land to her; but had any one in England met such a
figure, it would either have affrighted them, or made them burst into
laughter; nay, I could not but smile myself at my habit, which I think
in this place will be very proper to describe.

The cap I wore on my head, was great, high, and shapeless, made of a
goat's skin, with a flap of pent-house hanging down behind, not only to
keep the sun from me, but to shoot the rain off from running into my
neck, nothing being more pernicious than the rain falling upon the flesh
in these climates. I had a short jacket of goat's skin, whose hair hung
down such a length on each side, that it reached down to the calves of
my legs. As for shoes and stockings, I had none, but made a semblance of
something, I know not what to call them; they were made like buskins,
and laced on the sides like spatterdashes, Barbarously shaped like the
rest of my habit. I had a broad belt of goat's skin dried, girt round me
with a couple of thongs, instead of buckles; on each of which, to supply
the deficiency of sword and dagger, hung my hatchet and saw. I had
another belt, not so broad, yet fastened in the same manner, which hung
over my shoulder, and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung two
pouches, made of goat's skin, to hold my powder and shot. My basket I
carried on my back, and my gun on my shoulder; and over my head a great
clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella; which, however, next to my gun, was
the most necessary thing about me. As for my face, the colour was not
so swarthy as the Mulattoes, or might have been expected from one who
took to little care of it, in a climate within nine or ten degrees of
the equinox. At one time my beard grew so long that it hung down about a
quarter of a yard; but as I had both razors scissors in store, I cut it
all off, and suffered none to grow, except a large pair of Mahometan
whiskers, the like of which I had seen wore by some Turks at Sallee, not
long enough indeed to hang a hat upon, but of such a monstrous size, as
would have amazed any in England to have seen.

But all this was of no consequence here, there being none to observe my
behavior or habit. And so, without fear and without controul, I
proceeded on my journey, the prosecution of which took me up five or six
days. I first travelled along the sea shore, directly to the place where
I first brought my boat to an anchor, to get upon the rocks; but now
having no boat to take care of, I went overland a nearer way to the same
height that I was before upon; when looking forward to the point of the
rock, which lay out, and which I was forced to double with my boat, I
was amazed to see the sea so smooth and quiet, there being no ripling
motion, nor current, any more than in other places. This made me ponder
some time to guess the reason of it, when at last I was convinced that
the ebb setting from the west, and joining with the current of water
from some great river on shore, must be the occasion of these rapid
streams; & that, consequently, as the winds blew more westwardly, or
more southwardly, so the current came he nearer, or went the farther
from the shore. To satisfy my curiosity, I waited there till evening,
when the time of ebb being made, I plainly perceived from the rock the
current again as before, with the difference that it ran farther off,
near half a league from the shore, whereas in my expedition, it set
close upon it, furiously hurrying me and my canoe along with it, which
at another time would not have done. And now I was convinced, that, by
observing the ebbing and flowing of the tide I might easily bring my
boat round the island again. But when I began to think of putting it in
practice, the remembrance of the late danger, struck me with such
horror, that I changed my resolution, and formed another, which was more
safe, though more laborious; and this was to make another canoe, and to
have one for one side of the island, and one for the other.

I had now two plantations in the island; the first my little
fortification, fort, or castle, with many large and spacious
improvements; for by this time I had enlarged the cave behind me with
several little caves, one with another, to hold my baskets, corn, and
straw. The piles with which I made my wall were grown so lofty and great
as obscured my habitation. And near this commodious and pleasant
settlement, lay my well cultivated and improved corn-fields, which
kindly yielded me their fruit in the proper season. My second plantation
was that near my country seat, or little bower, where my grapes
flourished, and where, having planted many stakes, I made inclosures for
my goats, so strongly fortified by labour and time, that it was much
stronger than a wall, and consequently impossible for them to break
through. As for my bower itself, I kept it constantly in repair, and cut
the trees in such a manner, as made them grow thick and wild, and form a
most delightful shade. In the centre of this stood my tent, thus
erected. I had driven four piles in the ground, spreading over it a
piece of the ship's sail; beneath which I made a sort of couch with the
skins of the creatures I had slain, and other things; and having laid
thereon one of the sailor's blankets, which I had saved from the wreck
of the ship, and covering myself with a great watch-coat, I took up this
place for my country retreat.

Very frequently from this settlement did I use to visit my boat, and
keep her in very good order. And sometimes I would venture in her a cast
or two from shore, but no further, lest either a strong current, a
sudden stormy wind, or some unlucky accident should hurry me from the
island as before. But now I entreat your attention, whilst I proceed to
inform you of a new, but most surprising scent of life which there
befel me.

You may easily suppose, that, after having been here so long, nothing
could be more amazing than to see a human creature. One day it happened,
that going to my boat I saw the print of a man's naked foot on the
shore, very evident on the sand, as the toes, heel, and every part of
it. Had I seen an apparition in the most frightful shape, I could not
have been more confounded. My willing ears gave the strictest attention.
I cast my eyes around, but could satisfy neither the one nor the other,
I proceeded alternately in every part of the shore, but with equal
effect; neither could I see any other mark, though the sand about it was
as susceptible to take impression, as that which was so plainly stamped.
Thus struck with confusion and horror, I returned to my habitation,
frightened at every bush and tree, taking every thing for men; and
possessed with the wildest ideas. That night my eyes never closed. I
formed nothing but the most dismal imaginations, concluding it must be
the mark of the devil's foot which I had seen. For otherwise how could
any mortal come to this island? where was the ship that transported
them? & what signs of any other footsteps? Though these seemed very
strong reasons for such a supposition, yet (thought I) why should the
devil make the print of his foot to no purpose, as I can see, when he
might have taken other ways to have terrified me? why should he leave
his mark on the other side of the island, and that too on the sand,
where the surging waves of the ocean might soon have erased the
impression. Surely this action is not consistent with the subtility of
Satan, said I to myself; but rather must be some dangerous creature,
some wild savage of the main land over against me, that venturing too
far in the ocean, has been driven here, either by the violent currents
or contrary winds; and not caring to stay on this desolate island, has
gone back to sea again.

[Illustration: Robinson Crusoe struck with confusion and horror, at
seeing the print of a man's foot upon the sand _Dr. & Eng. by A.
Carse, Edin._]

Happy, indeed, said I to myself, that none of the savages had seen me in
that place: yet I was not altogether without fear, lest, having found my
boar, they should return in numbers and devour me; or at least carry
away all my corn, and destroy my flock of tame goats. In a word, all my
religious hopes vanished, as though I thought God would not now protect
me by his power, who had so wonderfully preserved me so long.

What various chains of Providence are there in the life of man! How
changeable are our affections, according to different circumstances! We
love to-day, what we hate to-morrow; we shun one hour, what we seek the
next. This was evident in me in the most conspicous manner: For I, who
before had so much lamented my condition, in being banished from all
human kind, was now even ready to expire, when I considered that a man
had set his foot on this desolate island. But when I considered my
station of life decreed by the infinitely wise and good providence of
God, that I ought not to dispute my Creator's sovereignty, who has an
unbounded right to govern and dispose of his creatures as he thinks
convenient; and that his justice and mercy could either punish or
deliver me: I say when I considered all this, I comfortably found it my
duty to trust sincerely in him, pray ardently to him, and humbly resign
myself to his divine will.

One morning, lying on my bed, these words of the sacred writings came
into my mind, _Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver
thee, and thou shalt glorify me._ Upon this sentence, rising more
cheerfully from my bed, I offered up my prayers in the most heavenly
manner; and when I had done, taking up my Bible to read, these words
appeared first in my sight:--_Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer,
and he shall strengthen thy heart: Wait, I say, on the Lord._ Such
divine comfort did this give me, as to remove all cause of sadness upon
that occasion.

Thus, after a world of apprehensions and fears, for three days and
nights, I at last ventured out of my castle, and milked my goats, one of
which was almost spoiled for want of it. I next (though in great fear)
visited my bower, and milked my flocks there also; when, growing bolder,
I went down to the shore again, and measuring the print of the foot to
mine, to see, perhaps, whether I myself had not occasioned that mark, I
found it much superior in largeness; and so returned home, now
absolutely convinced that either some men had been ashore, or that the
island must be inhabited, and therefore that I might be surprised before
I was aware.

I now began to think of providing for my security, and resolved in my
mind many different schemes for that purpose. I first proposed to cut
down my inclosures; and turn my tame cattle wild into the woods that the
enemy might not find them, and frequent the island in hopes of killing
the same. Secondly, I was for digging up my corn fields for the very
same reason. An, lastly, I concluded to demolish my bower, lest, seeing
a place of human contrivance, they might come farther and find out and
attack me in my little castle.

Such notions did the fear of danger suggest to me; and I looked I
thought like the unfortunate king Saul, when not only oppressed by the
Philistines, but also forsaken by God himself. And, it is strange, that
a little before, having entirely resigned myself to the will of God, I
should now have little confidence in him, fearing those more who could
kill this fading body, than him who could destroy my immortal soul.

Sleep was an utter stranger to my eyes that night: yet nature, spent and
tired, submitted to a silent repose the next morning, and then joining
reason with fear, I considered that this delightful and pleasant island
might not be to entirely forsaken as I might think; but that the
inhabitants from the other shore might fail, either with design or from
necessity, by cross winds; and if the latter circumstance. I had reason
to believe they would depart the first opportunity. However, my fear
made me think of a place for retreat upon an attack. I now repented that
I had made my door to come out beyond my fortification; to remedy which,
I resolved to make me a second one: I fell to work, therefore, and drove
betwixt that double row of trees, which I planted above twelve years
before, several strong piles, thickening it with pieces of timber and
old cables, and strengthening the foot of it with earth which I dug out
of my cave; I also made me seven holes, wherein I planted my muskets
like cannon, fitting them into frames resembling carriages. This being
finished with indefatigable industry, for a great way every where, I
planted sticks of osier like a wood, about twenty thousand of them,
leaving a large space between them and my wall, that I might have room
to see an enemy, and that they might not be sheltered among the young
trees, if they offered to approach the outer wall. And, indeed, scarce
two years had passed over my head, when there appeared a lovely shady
grove, and in six years it became a thick wood perfectly impassable. For
my safety, I left no avenue to go in or out: instead of which I set two
ladders, one to a part of a rock which was low, and then broke in,
leaving room to place another ladder upon that; so that when I took
these down, it was impossible for any man to descend without hurting
himself; and if they had, they would still be at the outside of my outer
wall. But while I took all these measures of human prudence for my own
preservation I was not altogether unmindful of other affairs. To
preserve my stock of tame goats, that the enemy should not take all at
once, I looked out for the most retired part of the island, which was
the place where I had lost myself before-mentioned; and there finding a
clear piece of land, containing three acres, surrounded with thick
woods, I wrought so hard, that in less than a month's time, I fenced it
so well round, that my flocks were very well secured in it, and I put
therein two he-goats and ten she ones.

All this labour was occasioned purely by fearful apprehensions, on
account of seeing the print of a man's foot. And not contented yet with
what I had done, I searched for another place towards the west point of
the island, where I might also retain another flock. Then wandering on
this errand more to the west of the island than ever I had yet done, and
casting my eyes towards the sea, methought I perceived a boat at a great
distance; but could not possibly tell what it was for want of my
perspective glass. I considered then it was no strange thing to see the
print of a man's foot; and concluding them cannibals, blessed God for
being cast on the other side of the island, where none of the savages,
as I thought, ever came. But when I came down the hill to the shore,
which was the S.W. point of the island, I was soon confirmed in my
opinion; nor can any one describe my horror and amazement, when I saw
the ground spread with sculls, hands, feet, and bones of human bodies;
and particularly, I perceived a space like a circle, in the midst of
which had been a fire, about which I conjectured these wretches sat, and
unnaturally sacrificed and devoured their fellow creatures.

The horror and loathsomeness of this dreadful spectacle, both confounded
my senses, and made me discharge from my stomach in an excessive manner.
I then returned towards my habitation; and, in my way thither, shedding
floods of tears, and falling down on my bended knees, gave God thanks
for making my nature contrary to these wretches, and delivering me so
long out of their hands.

Though reason and my long residence here had assured me, that these
savages never came up to the thick woody parts of the country, and that
I had no reason to be apprehensive of a discovery; yet such an abhorence
did I still retain, that, for two years after, I confined myself only to
my three plantation: I mean my castle, country-seat, and inclosure in
the woods. And though in process of time, my dreadful apprehensions
began to wear away, yet my eyes were more vigilant for fear of being
heard by those creatures, they should proceed to attack me. I resolved,
however, manfully to lose my life if they did, and went armed with three
pistols stuck in my girdle, which added to the description I have given
of myself before, made me look with a very formidable appearance.

Thus my circumstances for some time remained very calm and undisturbed;
and when I compared my condition to others, I found it far from being
miserable. And, indeed, would all persons compare their circumstances,
not with those above them, but with those innumerable unhappy objects
beneath them, I am sure we should not hear these daily murmurings and
complainings that are in the world. For my part, I wanted but few
things. Indeed, the terror which the savages had put me in, spoiled some
inventions for my own conveniences. One of my projects was to brew me
some beer; a very whimsical one indeed, when it is considered that I had
neither casks sufficient; nor could I make any to preserve it in;
neither had I hops to make it keep, yest to make it work, nor a copper
or kettle to make it boil. Perhaps, indeed, after some years, I might
bring this to bear, as I had done other things. But now my inventions
were placed another way; and day and night I could think of nothing but
how I might destroy some of these cannibals, when proceeding to their
bloody entertainments; and so saving a victim from being sacrificed,
that he might after become my servant. Many were my contrivances after
this purpose, and as many more objections occurred after I hatched them.
I once contrived to dig a hole under the place where they made their
fire, and put therein five or six pounds of gunpowder, which would
consequently blow up all those that were near it: but then I was loth to
spend so much upon them, lest it should not do that certain execution I
could desire, & but only affright & not kill them. Having laid this
design aside, I again proposed to myself to lie privately in ambush, in
some convenient place, with my three guns double loaded, and let fly at
them in the midst of their dreadful ceremony: and having killed two or
three of them at every shot, fall upon the rest suddenly with my three
pistols, & not let one mother's son escape. Thus imagination pleased my
fancy so much that I used to dream of it in the night time. To put my
design in execution, I was not long in seeking for a place convenient
for my purpose, where unseen I might behold every action of the savages.
Here I placed my two muskets, each of which was loaded with a brace of
slugs, and four or five smaller bullets about the size of pistol
bullets; the fowling-piece was charged with near a handful of the
largest swan-shot, and in every pistol were about four bullets. And thus
all things being prepared, no sooner would the welcome light spread over
the element, but, _like a giant refreshed with wine_, as the Scripture
has it, would I issue forth from my castle, and from a lofty hill, three
miles distant, view if I could see any invaders approach unlawfully to
my kingdom. But having waited in vain two or three months, it not only
grew very tiresome to me, but brought me to some consideration, and
made me examine myself, what right I had to kill these creatures in
this manner.

If (argued I to myself) this unnatural custom of theirs be a sin
offensive to Heaven, it belongs to the Divine Being, who alone has the
vindictive power in his hands, to shower down his vengeance upon them.
And perhaps he does so, in making them become one another's
executioners. Or, if not, if God thinks these doings just, according to
the knowledge they conceive, what authority have I to pretend to thwart
the decrees of Providence, which has permitted these actions for so many
ages, perhaps from almost the beginning of the creation? They never
offended me, what right have I then to concern myself in their shedding
one another's blood: And, indeed, I have since known, they value no more
to kill and devour a captive taken in war, than we do to kill an ox or
eat mutton. I then concluded it necessarily followed, that these people
were no more murderers than Christians, who many times put whole troops
to the sword, after throwing down their arms.--Again I considered, that
if I fell upon them, I should be as much in the wrong as the Spaniards,
who had committed the greatest barbarities upon these people who had
never offended them in their whole lives; as if the kingdom of Spain was
eminent for a race of men without common compassion to the miserable, a
principal sign of the most generous temper: these considerations made me
pause, and made me think I had taken wrong measures in my resolution: I
now argued with myself, it was better for me never to attack, but to
remain undiscovered as long as I possibly could; that an opposite
conduct would certainly prove destructive; for as it was scarcely to be
supposed I could kill them all, I might either be overpowered by the
remaining, or that some escaping, might bring thousands to my certain
destruction. And, indeed, religion took their part so much as to
convince me how contrary it was to my duty to be guilty of shedding
human blood, innocent as to my particular, whatever they are to one
another: that I had nothing to do with it, but leave it to the God of
all power and dominion, as I said before, to do therein what seemed
convenient to his heavenly wisdom. And, therefore, on my knees I thanked
the Almighty for delivering me from blood guiltiness, and begged his
protection that I might never fall into their hands.

Thus giving over an attempt which I had rashly begun, I never ascended
the hill on that occasion afterwards: I only re-removed my boat, which
lay on the other side of the island, and every thing that belonged to
her, towards the east, into a little cove; that there might not be the
least shadow of any boat near, or habitation upon the island.--My castle
then became my cell, keeping always retired in it, except when I went
out to milk my she-goats, and order my little flock in the wood, which
was quite out of danger: for sure I was that these savages never came
here with expectations to find any thing, consequently never wandered
from the coast; however, as they might have several times been on shore,
as well before as after my dreadful apprehensions, I looked back with
horror to think in what state I might have been, had I suddenly met them
slenderly armed; with one gun only loaded with small shot; and how great
would have been my amazement, if, instead of seeing the print of one
man's foot, I had perceived fifteen, or twenty savages, who having once
set their eyes upon me, by the swiftness of their feet would have left
me no possibility of escaping? These thoughts would sink my very soul,
so that I would fall into a deep melancholy, till such time as the
consideration of my gratitude to the Divine Being moved it from my
heart. I then fell into a contemplation of the secret springs of
Providence, and how wonderfully we are delivered, when insensible of it;
and when intricated in uncertain mazes or labyrinths of doubt or
hesitation, what secret hint directs us in the right way, when we
intended to go out of it, nay, perhaps contrary to our business, sense
or inclination. Upon which, I fixed within me this as a certain rule,
never to disobey those secret impressions of the mind, to the acting or
not acting any thing that offered, for which I yet could assign no
reason. But let it be how it will, the advantage of this conduct very
eminently appeared in the latter part of my abode on this island; I am,
a stranger in determining whence these secret intimations of Providence
derive; yet methinks they are not only some proof of the converse of
spirits, but also of the secret communications they are supposed to have
with those that have not passed through the gloomy vale of death.

These anxieties of mind, and the care of my preservation, put a period
to all future inventions and contrivances, either for accommodation or
convenience. I now cared not to drive a nail, chop a stick, fire a gun
or make a fire, lest either the noise should be heard, or the smoke
discover me. And on this account I used to burn my earthen ware
privately in a cave which I found in the wood, and which I made
convenient for that purpose; the principal cause that brought me here
was to make charcoal, so that I might bake and dress my bread and meat
without any danger. At that time a curious accident happened me, which I
shall now relate.

While I was cutting down some wood for making my charcoal, I perceived a
cavity behind a very thick branch of underwood. Curious to look into it,
I attained its month, and perceived it sufficient for me to stand
upright in. But when I had entered, and took a further view, two rolling
shining eyes like flaming stars seemed to dart themselves at me; so that
I made all the haste out that I could, as not knowing whither it was the
devil or a monster that had taken his residence in that place. When I
recovered a little from my surprise, I called myself a thousand fools,
for being afraid to see the devil one moment, who had now lived almost
twenty years in the most retired solitude. And therefore resuming all
the courage I had, I took a flaming firebrand, and in I rushed again. I
had not proceeded above three steps, when I was more affrighted than
before; for then I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a human creature
in the greatest agony, succeeded with a broken noise, resembling words
half expressed, and then a broken sigh again. Stepping back, _Lord!_
(thought I to myself) _where am I got, into what enchanted place have I
plunged myself, such as are reported to contain miserable captives, till
death puts an end to their sorrow_? And, indeed, in such great amazement
was I, that it struck me into a cold sweat; and had my hat been on my
head, I believe my hair would have moved it off. But again encouraging
myself with the hopes of God's protection, I proceeded forward, and, by
the light of my firebrand, perceived it to be a monstrous he-goat, lying
on the ground, gasping for life, and dying of mere old age. At first, I
stirred him, thinking to drive him out, but the poor ancient creature
strove to get upon his feet, but was not able; so I e'en let him lie
still to affright the savages, should they venture into this cave. I now
looked round me and found the place but small and shapeless. At the
farther side of it, I perceived a sort of an entrance, yet so low, as
must oblige me to creep upon my hands and knees to it; so, having no
candle, I suspended my enterprise till the next day, and then I came
provided with two large ones of my own making.

Having crept upon my hands and feet, through this strait, I found the
roof higher up, I think about twenty feet. But surely mortal never saw
such a glorious sight before! The roof and walls of this cave reflected
a hundred thousand lights to me from my two candles, as though they were
indented with mining gold, precious stones, or sparkling diamonds. And
indeed it was the most delightful cavity or grotto of its kind that
could be desired, though entirely dark. The floor was dry and level, and
had a kind of gravel upon it: no nauseous venomous creatures to be seen
there, neither any damp or wet about it. I could find no fault but in
the entrance, and I began to think that even this might be very
necessary for my defence, and therefore resolved to make it my most
principal magazine. I brought hither two fowling-pieces, and three
muskets, leaving only five pieces at my castle, planted in the nature of
cannon. Of the barrel of gunpowder, which I took up out of the sea, I
brought away about sixty pounds powder, which was not damaged, and this
with a great quantity of lead for bullets, I removed for my castle to
this retreat, now fortified both by art and nature.

I fancied myself now like one of the giants of old, who were said to
live in caves and holes among the rocks, inaccessible to any but
themselves, or, at lest, a most dangerous to attempt. And now I despised
both the cunning and strength of the savages, either to find me out or
to hurt me.

But I must not forget the old goat, which caused my late dreadful
amazement. The poor creature gave up the ghost the day after my
discovery; & it being difficult to drag him out, I dug his gave, and
honourably entombed him in the same place where is departed, with as
much ceremony as any Welch goat that has been interred about the high
mountain Penmanmawn.

I think I was now in the twenty-third year of my reign, and my thoughts
much easier than formerly, having contrived several pretty amusements
and diversions to pass away the time in a pleasant manner. By this time
my pretty Poll had learned to speak English, and pronounce his words
very articulately and plain; so that for many hours we used to chat
together after a familiar manner, and he lived with me no less than
twenty-six years. My dog which was nineteen years old, sixteen of which
he lived with me, died some time ago of mere old age. As for my cats,
they multiplied so fast, that I was forced to kill or drive them into
the woods, except two or three which became my particular favourites.
Besides these, I continually kept two or three household kids about me,
which I learned to feed out of my hand, and two more parrots which could
talk indifferently, and call _Robinson Crusoe_, but not so excellently
as the first, as not taking that pains with them. I had also several
sea-owls which I had wounded and cut their wings; and growing tame, they
used to breed among the low trees about my castle walls, all which made
my abode very agreeable.

But what unforeseen events suddenly destroy the enjoyment, of this
uncertain state of life, when we least expect them! it was now the month
of December, in the southern solstice, and particular time of my
harvest, which required my attendance in the fields; when going out
pretty early one morning, before it was day-light, there appeared to me,
from the sea shore, a flaming light, about two miles from me at the east
end of the island, where I had observed some savages had been before,
not on the other side, but to my great affliction, it was on my side
the island.

Struck with a terrible surprise, and my usual apprehensions, that the
savages would perceive my improvements, I returned directly to my
castle, pulled the ladder after me, making all things look as wild and
natural as I possibly could. In the next place, I put myself into a
posture of defence, loading my mussels and pistols, and committing
myself to God's protection, I resolved to defend myself till my last
breath. Two hours after, impatient for intelligence, I set my ladder up
to the side of the hill, where there was a flat place, and then pulling
the ladder after me ascended to the top, where laying myself on my
belly, with my perspective glass, I perceived no less than nine naked
savages, sitting round a small fire, eating, as I supposed human flesh,
with their two canoes haled on shore, waiting for the flood to carry
them off again. You cannot easily express the consternation I was in at
this sight, especially seeing them near me; but when I perceived their
coming must be always with the current of the ebb, I became more easy in
my thoughts, being fully convinced that I might go abroad with security
all the time of flood, if they were not before landed. And, indeed, this
proved just as I imagined; for no sooner did they all take boat and
paddle away, but the tide made N.W. Before they went off they danced,
making ridiculous postures and gestures for above an hour, all stark
naked; but whether men or women, or both, I could not perceive. When I
saw them gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders, and placing a couple
of pistols in my belt, with my great sword hanging by my side, I went to
the hill, where at first I made a discovery of these cannibals, and then
saw there had been three canoes more of the savages on shore at that
place, which with the rest were making over to the main land.

But nothing could be more horrid to me, when going to the place of
sacrifice, the blood, the bones, and other mangled parts of human bodies
appeared in my sight; and so fired was I with indignation, that I was
fully resolved to be revenged on the first that came there, though I
lost my life in the execution. It then appeared to me, that the visits
which they make to this island are not very frequent, it being fifteen
months before they came again; but still I was very uneasy, by reason of
the dismal apprehensions of their surprising me unawares; nor dared I
offer to fire a gun on that side of the island where they used to
appear, lest, taking the alarm, the savages might return with many
hundred canoes, and then God knows in what manner I should have made my
end. Thus was I a year or more before I saw any of these devouring
cannibals again.

But to wave this, the following accident, which demands attention, for a
while eluded the force of my thoughts in revenging myself on
those Heathens.

On the 16th of May (according to my wooden calendar) the wind blew
exceedingly hard, accompanied with abundance of lightning and thunder
all day, and succeeded by a very stormy night. The seeming anger of the
Heavens made me have recourse to my Bible. While I was seriously
pondering upon it, I was suddenly alarmed with the noise of a gun, which
I conjectured was fired upon the ocean. Such an unusual surprise made me
start up in a minute, when, with my ladder, ascending the mountain as
before, that very moment a flash of fire presaged the report of another
gun which I presently heard, and found it was from that part of the sea
where the current drove me away. I could not but then think, that this
must be a ship in distress, and that there were the melancholy signals
for a speedy deliverance. Great, indeed, was my sorrow upon this
occasion; but my labours to assist them must have proved altogether vain
& fruitless. However, I brought together all the dry wood that was at
hand, and making a pretty large pile, set it on fire on the hill. I was
certain they plainly perceived it, by their firing another gun as soon
as it began to blaze, and after that several more from the same quarter.
All night long I kept up my fire: and when the air cleared up, I
perceived something a great way at sea, directly E. but could not
distinguish what it was, even with my glass, by reason that the weather
was so very foggy out at sea. However, keeping my eyes directly fixed
upon it, and perceiving it did not stir, I presently concluded it must
be a ship at anchor, and so very hasty I was to be satisfied, that
taking the gun, I went to the S.E. part of the island, to the same rocks
where I had been formerly drove away by the current, in which time the
weather being perfectly cleared up, to my great sorrow, I perceived the
wreck of a ship cast away upon those hidden rocks I found when I was out
with my boat; and which, by making a kind of an eddy, were the occasion
of my preservation.

Thus, _what is one man's safety is another's ruin_; for undoubtedly this
ship had been driven on them in the night, the wind blowing strong at
E.N.E. Had they perceived the island, as I now guessed they had not,
certainly, instead of firing there guns for help, they would rather have
ventured in their boat and saved themselves that way. I then thought,
that perhaps they had done so, upon seeing my fire, and were cast away
in the attempt: for I perceived no boat in the ship. But then I again
imagined, that, perhaps, they had another vessel in company, which, upon
signal, saved their lives, and took the boat up: or that the boat might
be driven into the main ocean, where these poor creatures might be in
the most miserable condition. But as all these conjectures were very
uncertain, I could do no more than commiserate there distress, and thank
God for delivering me, in particular, when so many perished in the
raging ocean.

When I considered seriously every thing concerning this wreck, and could
perceive no room to suppose any of them saved, I cannot explain, by any
possible force of words, what longings my soul felt on this occasion,
often breaking out in this manner: _O that there had been but two or
three, nay even one person saved, that we might have lived together,
conversed with, and comforted one another!_ and so much were my desires
moved, that when I repeated these words, _Oh! that there had been but
one!_ my hands would clench together, and my fingers press the palms of
my hands to close, that, had any soft thing been between, it would have
crushed it involuntarily, while my teeth would strike together, and set
against each other so strong that it required some time for me to
part them.

Till the last year of my being on this island, I never knew whether or
not any had been saved out of this ship. I had the affliction, some time
after, to see the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore, at the end of
the island which was next the shipwreck; there was nothing on him but a
seaman's waistcoat, a pair of opened kneed linen drawers, and a blue
linen shirt, but no particular mark to guess what nation he was of. In
his pocket were two pieces of eight, and a tobacco-pipe, the last of
which I preferred much more than I did the first. And now the calmness
of the sea tempted me to venture out in my boat to this wreck, not only
to get something necessary out of the ship, but perhaps, some living
creature might be on board, whose life I might preserve. This had such
an influence upon my mind, that immediately I went home, and prepared
every thing necessary for the voyage, carrying on board my boat
provisions of all sorts, with a good quantity of rum, fresh water, and a
compass: so putting off, I paddled the canoe along the shore, till I
came at last to the north-east part of the island, from whence I was to
launch into the ocean; but here the currents ran so violently, and
appeared so terrible, that my heart began to fail me; foreseeing that if
I was driven into any of these currents, I might be carried not only out
of reach or sight of the island, but even inevitably lost in the boiling
surges of the ocean.

So oppressed was I at these troubles, that I gave over my enterprize,
sailing to a little creek on the shore, where stepping out, I set me
down on a rising hill, very pensive and thoughtful. I then perceived
that the tide was turned; and the flood came on, which made it
impracticable for me to go out for so many hours. To be more certain how
the sets of the tides or currents lay when the flood came in, I ascended
a higher piece of ground, which overlooked the sea both ways; and here I
found that as the current of the ebb set out close by the south point of
the island, so the current of the flood set in close by the shore of the
north side; and all that I had to do was to keep to the north of the
island in my return.

That night I reposed myself in my canoe, covered with my watch coat,
instead of a blanket, the heavens being my tester. I set out with the
first of the tide full north, till I felt the benefit of the current,
which carried me at a great rate eastward, yet not with such impetuosity
as before, as to take from me all government of my canoe; so that in two
hours time I came up to the wreck, which appeared to me a most
melancholy sight. It seemed to be a Spanish vessel by its building,
stuck fast between two rocks; her stern and quarter beaten to pieces by
the sea; her mainmast and foremast were brought off by the board, that
is broken off short. As I approached near, I perceived a dog on board,
who seeing me coming, yelped and cried, and no sooner did I call him,
but the poor creature jumped into the sea, out of which I took him up,
almost famished with hunger and thirst; so that when I gave him a cake
of bread, no ravenous wolf could devour it more greedily; and he drank
to that degree of fresh water, that he would have burst himself, had I
suffered him.

The first sight I met with in the ship, were two men drowned in the
cook-room or forecastle, inclosed in one another's arms: hence I very
probably supposed, that _when the vessel struck in the storm, so high
and incessantly did the waters break in and over her, that the men not
being able to bear it, were strangled by the constant rushing in of the
waves_. There were several casks of liquor, whether wine of brandy, I
could not be positive, which lay in the lower hold, as were plainly
perceptible by the ebbing out of the water, yet were too large for me to
pretend to meddle with; likewise I perceived several chests, which I
supposed to belong to the seamen, two of which I got into my boat,
without examining what was in them. Had the stern of the ship been
fixed, and the forepart broken off, I should have made a very prosperous
voyage; since by what I after found in these two chests, I could not
otherwise conclude, but that the ship must have abundance of wealth on
board; nay, if I must guess by the course she steered, she must have
been bound from the Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the
southern parts of America, beyond the Brazils, to the Havannah, in the
gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. What became of the rest of the
sailors, I could not certainly tell; and all her riches signified
nothing at that time to any body.

Searching farther, I found a cask containing about twenty gallons, full
of liquor, which, with some labour, I got into my boat; in her cabin
were several muskets, which I let remain there; but took away with me a
great powder horn, with about four pounds of powder in it. I took also a
fire-shovel and tongs, two brass kettles, a copper pot to make
chocolate, and a gridiron; all which were extremely necessary to me,
especially the fire-shovel and tongs. And so with this cargo,
accompanied with my dog, I came away, the tide serving for that purpose;
and the same evening, about an hour within night, I attained the island,
after the greatest toil and fatigue imaginable.

That night I reposed my wearied limbs in the boat, resolving the next
morning to harbour what I had gotten in my new-found subterraneous
grotto; & not to carry my cargo home to my ancient castle. Having
refreshed myself, and got all my effects on shore I next proceeded to
examine the particulars; and so tapping the cask, I found the liquor to
be a kind of rum, but not like what we had at the Brazils, non indeed
near so good. At the opening of the chest, several things appeared very
useful to me; for instance, I found in one a very fine case of bottles,
containing the finest and best sorts of cordial waters; each bottle held
about three pints, curiously tip with silver. I found also two pots full
of the choicest sweetmeats, and two more which the water had utterly
spoiled. There were likewise several good shirts exceedingly welcome to
me, and about one dozen and a half white linen handkerchiefs and
coloured neckcloths, the former of which was absolutely necessary for
wiping my face in a hot day; and, in the till, I found three bags of
pieces of eight, about eleven hundred in all, in one of which, decently
wrapped up in a piece of paper, were six doubloons of gold, and some
small bars and wedges of the same metal, which I believe might weigh
near a pound. In the other chest, which I guessed to belong to the
gunner's mate, by the mean circumstances which attended it, I found only
some clothes of very little value, except about two pounds of fine
glazed powder, in three flasks, kept, as I believe, for charging their
fowling pieces on any occasion; so that, on the whole, I had no great
advantage by this voyage. The money was indeed as mere dirt to me,
useless and unprofitable, all which I would freely have parted with for
two or three pair of English shoes and stockings; things that for many
years I had not worn, except lately those which I had taken of the feet
of those unfortunate men I found drowned in the wreck, yet not so good
as English shoes either for ease or service. I also found in the
seaman's chest about fifty pieces of eight in royals, but no gold; so
concluded that what I took from the first belonged to an officer, the
latter appearing to have a much inferior person for its owner. However,
as despicable as the money seemed, I likewise lugged it to my cave,
laying it up securely, as I did the rest of my cargo; and after I had
done all this, I returned back to my boat, rowing and paddling her along
till I came to my old harbour, where I carefully laid her up, and so
made the best of my way to my castle. When I arrived there, every thing
seemed safe and quiet: so that now my only business was to repose myself
after my wonted manner, and take care of my domestic affairs. But though
I might have lived very easy, as wanting nothing absolutely needful, yet
still I was more vigilant than usual upon account of the savages, never
going much abroad; or, if I did, it was to the east part of the island,
where I was well assured that the savages never came, and where I might
not be troubled to carry that heavy load of weapons for my defence, as I
was obliged to do if I went the other way.

Two years did I live in this anxious condition, in all which time,
contrary to my former resolutions, my head was filled with nothing but
projects and deligns, how I might escape from this island; and so much
were my wandering thoughts bent upon a rambling disposition that had I
had the same boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured
once more to the uncertainty of the raging ocean.

I cannot, however, but consider myself as one of the unhappy persons,
who make themselves wretched by there dissatisfaction with the stations
which God has placed them in; for, not to take a review of my primitive
condition, and my father's excellent advice, the going contrary to which
was, as I may say, my original sin, the following mistakes of the same
nature certainly had been the means of my present unhappy station. What
business had I to leave a settled fortune, and well stocked plantation,
improving and increasing, where, by this time, I might have been worth a
hundred thousand moidores, to turn supercargo to Guinea, to fetch
Negroes, when time and patience would so much enlarge my stock at home,
as to be able to employ those whose more immediate business it was to
fetch them home even to my door?

But as this is commonly the fate of young heads, so a serious reflection
upon the folly of it ordinarily attends the exercise of future years,
when the dear bought experience of time teaches us repentance. Thus was
it with me; but not withstanding the thoughts of my deliverance ran so
strongly in my mind, that is seemed to check all the dictates of reason
and philosophy. And now to usher in my kind reader with greater pleasure
to the remaining part of my relation, I flatter myself it will not be
taken amiss, to give him an account of my first conceptions of the
manner of escaping, and upon what foundation I laid my foolish schemes.

Having retired to my castle, after my late voyage to the ship, my
frigate laid up and secured, as usual, and my condition the same as
before, except being richer, though I had as little occasion for riches
as the Indians of Peru had for gold, before the cruel Spaniards came
among them: One night in March, being the rainy season in the four and
twentieth year of my solitude, I lay down to sleep, very well in health,
without distemper pain, or uncommon uneasiness, either of body or mind;
yet notwithstanding, I could not compose myself to sleep all the night
long. All this tedious while, it is impossible to express what
innumerable thoughts came into my head. _I traced quite over the whole
history of my life in miniature, from my utmost remembrance of things
till I came to this island, and then proceeded to examine every action
and passage that had occurred since I had taken possession of my
kingdom._ In my reflections upon the latter, I was _comparing the happy
posture of my affairs from the beginning of my reign, to this life of
anxiety, fear, and concern, since I had discovered a print of a foot in
the sand; that while I continued without apprehension, I was incapable
of feeling the dread and terror I now suffered._ How thankful rather
ought I to have been for the knowledge of my danger, since the greatest
happiness one can be possessed of is to have sufficient time to provide
against it? How stupendous is the goodness of Providence, which sets
such narrow bounds to the sight and knowledge of human nature, that
while men walk in the midst of so many dangers they are kept serene and
calm, by having the events of things hid from their eyes and knowing
nothing of those many dangers that surround them, till perhaps they are
dissipated and vanish away.

When I came more particularly to considerer of _the real danger I had
for so many years escaped; how I had walked about in the greatest
security and tranquility, at a time, perhaps, when even nothing but the
brow of a hill, a great tree, or the common approach of night, had
interposed between me and the destructive hands of the cannibals, who
would devour me with as good an appetite, as I would a pigeon or
curlew;_ surely all this, I say, could not but make me sincerely
thankful to my great Preserver, whose singular protection I acknowledge
with the greatest humility, and without which I must inevitably have
fallen into the cruel hands of those devourers.

Having thus discussed my thoughts in the clearest manner, according to
my weak understanding, I next proceeded to consider _the wretched nature
of those destroying savages, by seeming, though with great reverence,_
to enquire _why God should give up any of his creatures to such
inhumanity, even to brutality itself, to devour its own kind?_ but as
this was rather matter of obstruse speculation, and as my miserable
situation made me think this of mine the most uncomfortable situation in
the world, I then began rather to inquire _what part of the world these
wretches lived in; how far off the coast was from whence they came; why
they ventured over so far from home; what kind of boats conveyed them
hither; and why I could not order myself and my business so, that I
might be able to attack their country, as they were to come to
my kingdom.

But then_ thought I, _how shall I manage myself when I come thither?
what will become of me if I fall into the hands of the savages? or how
shall I escape from them if they make an attempt upon me? and supposing
I should not fall into their power, what shall I do for provisions, or
which way shall I bend my course?_ These counter thoughts threw me into
the greatest horror and confusion imaginable; but then I still looked
upon my present condition to be the most miserable that possibly could
be, and that nothing could be worse, except death _For_ (thought I)
_could I but attain the shore of the main, I might perhaps meet with
some reliefs, or coast it along, as I did with my boy Xury, on the
African shore, till I came to some inhabited country, where I might meet
with some relief, or fall in with some Christian ship that might take me
in; and if I failed, why then I could but meet with death, which would
put an end to all my miseries._ These thoughts, I must confess, were the
fruit of a distempered mind and impatient temper made desperate, as it
were, by long continuance of the troubles and disappointments I had met
with in the wreck; where I hoped to have found some living person to
speak to, by whom I might have known in what place I was, and of the
probable means of my deliverance. Thus, while my thoughts were agitated,
my resignation to the will of heaven was entirely suspended; to that I
had no power to fix my mind to any thing, but to the project of a voyage
to the main land. And indeed so much was I inflamed upon this account,
that it set my blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat high, as though I
had been in a fever; till nature being, as it were, fatigued and
exhausted with the thoughts of it, made me submit myself to a
silent repose.

In such a situation, it is very strange, that I did not dream of what I
was so intent upon; but, instead of it, my mind roved on a quite
different thing, altogether foreign. I dreamed, that as I was issuing
from my castle one morning, as customary, when I perceived upon the
shore two canoes, and eleven savages coming to land, who had brought
with them another Indian, whom they designed to make a sacrifice of, in
order to devour; but just as they were going to give the fatal blow,
methought the poor designed victim jumped away, and ran directly into my
little thick grove before my fortification, to abscond from his enemies,
when perceiving that the others did not follow him that way, I appeared
to him; that he humbly kneeled down before me, seeming to pray for my
assistance; upon which I showed him my ladder, made him ascend, carried
him to my cave, and he became my servant; and when I had gotten this
man, I said to myself, _now surely I may have some hopes to attain the
main land; for this fellow will serve me as a pilot, tell me what to do,
and where I must go for provisions, what places to shun, what to venture
to, and what to escape._ But when I awaked, and found all these
inexpressible impressions of joy entirely vanished, I fell into the
greatest dejection of spirit imaginable.

Yet this dream brought me to reflect, that one sure way of escaping was
to get a savage; that after I had ventured my life to deliver him from
the bloody jaws of his devourers, the natural sense he might have of
such a preservation, might inspire him with a lasting gratitude and most
sincere affection. But then this objection reasonably interposed: _how
can I effect this,_ thought I, _without I attack a whole company of
them, and kill them all? why should I proceed on such a desperate
attempt, which my scruples before had suggested to be unlawful?_ and
indeed my heart trembled at the thoughts of so much blood, though it
were a means to procure my deliverance. 'Tis true, I might reasonably
enough suppose these men to be real enemies to my life, men who would
devour me, was it in their power, so that it was self preservation in
the highest degree to free myself, by attacking them in my own defence,
as lawfully as if they were actually assaulting me: though all these
things, I say, seemed to me to be of the greatest weight, yet, as I just
said before, the dreadful thoughts of shedding human blood, struck such
a terror to my soul, that it was a long time before I could reconcile
myself to it.

But how far will the ardency of desire prompt us on? For notwithstanding
the many disputes and perplexities I had with myself, I at length
resolved, right or wrong, to get one of these savages into my hands,
cost what it would, or even though I should lose my life in the attempt.
Inspired with this firm resolution, I set all my wits at work, to find
out what methods I should take to answer my design: this, indeed, was so
difficult a task, that I could not pitch upon any probable means to
execute it: I, therefore, resolved continually to be in a vigilant
posture, to perceive when the savages came on shore and to leave the
rest to the event, let the opportunities offer as they would.

Such was my fixed resolutions; and accordingly I set myself upon the
scout, as often as I could, till such time as I was heartily tired of
it. I waited for above a year and a half, the greatest part of which I
went out to the west, and south-west corner of the island, almost every
day, to look for canoes, but none appeared. This was a very great
discouragement; yet, though I was very much concerned, the edge of my
design was as keen as ever, and the longer it seemed to be delayed, the
more eager was I for it: in a word, I never before was so careful to
shun the loathing sight of these savages, as I was now eager to be with
them; and I thought myself sufficiently able to manage one, two, or
three savages if I had them, so as to make them my entire slaves, to do
whatsoever I should direct them, and prevent their being able at any
time to do me any mischief. Many times did I used to please myself with
these thoughts, with long and ardent expectations; but nothing
presenting, all my deep projected schemes and numerous fancies vanished
away, as though, while I retained such thoughts, the decrees of
Providence was such, that no savages were to come near me.

About a year and a half after, when I was seriously musing of sundry
other ways how I should attain my end, one morning early I was very much
surprised by seeing no less than five canoes all on shore together, on
my side the island, and the savages that belonged to them all landed,
and out of my sight. Such a number of them disconcerted all my measures;
for, seeing so many boats, each of which would contain six, and
sometimes more, I could not tell what to think of it, or how to order my
measures, to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed; upon which, much
dispirited and perplexed, I lay still in my castle; which, however, I
put in a proper posture for an attack: and, having formerly provided all
that was necessary, was soon ready to enter upon an engagement, should
they attempt. Having waited for some time, my impatient temper would let
me bear it no longer; I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and, as
usual, ascended up to the top of the hill at two stages, standing,
however, in such a manner, that my head did not appear above the hill,
so that they could easily perceive me; and here, by the assistance of my
perspective glass, I observed no less than thirty in number around a
fire, feasting upon what meat they had dressed: how they cooked it, or
what it was, I could not then perfectly tell; but they were all dancing
and capering about the flames, using many frightful and
barbarous gestures.

But while, with a curious eye, I was beholding these wretches, my
spirits sunk within me, when I perceived them drag two miserable
creatures from the boats, to act afresh the dreadful tragedy, as I
supposed they had done before. It was not long before one of them fell
upon the ground, knocked down, as I suppose, with a club or wooden
sword, for that was their manner; while two or three others went
immediately to work, cutting him open for their cookery, and then fell
to devour him as they had done the former, while the last unhappy
captive was left by himself, till such time as they were ready for him.
The poor creature looked round him with a wishful eye, trembling at the
thoughts of death; yet, seeing himself a little at liberty, nature, that
very moment, as it were, inspired him with hopes of life: He started
away from them, and ran, with incredible swiftness along the sands,
directly to that part of the coast where my ancient and venerable
castle stood.

You may well imagine, I was dreadfully affrighted upon this occasion,
when, as I thought, they pursued him in a whole body, all running
towards my palace. And now, indeed, I expected that part of my dream was
going to be fulfilled, and that he would certainly fly to my grove for
protection; but, for the rest of my dream, I could depend nothing on it;
that the savages would pursue him thither, and find him there. However
my spirits, beginning to recover, I still kept upon my guard; and I now
plainly perceived, there were but three men out of the number that
pursued him. I was infinitely pleased with what swiftness the poor
creature ran from his pursuers, gaining so much ground upon them, that I
plainly perceived, could he thus hold out for half an hour, there was
not the least doubt but he would save his life from the power of
his enemies.

Between them and my castle there was a creek, that very same which I
sailed into with all my effects from the wreck of the ship on the steep
banks of which I very much feared the poor victim would be taken, if he
could not swim for his escape: but soon was I out of pain for him, when
I perceived he made nothing of it, though at full tide, but with an
intrepid courage, spurred on by the sense of danger, he plunged into the
flood, swimming over in about thirty strokes, and then landing, ran with
the same incredible strength and swiftness as before. When the three
pursuers came to the creek, one of them, who I perceived could not swim,
happily for his part, returned to his company, while the others, with
equal courage, but much less swiftness attained the other side, as
though they were resolved never to give over the pursuit. And now or or
never I thought was the time for me to procure me a servant, companion,
or assistant; and that I was decreed by Providence to be the instrument
to save this poor creature's life. I immediately descended my two
ladders with the greatest expedition: I took up my two guns, which, I
said before, were at the bottom of them, and getting up again with the
same haste towards the hill, I made nearer the sea. In a word, taking a
short cut down the hill, I interposed between the pursuers and pursued,
hallooing aloud to the latter, who, venturing to look back, was, no
doubt, as much terrified at me as I at them. I beckoned to him with my
hand, to return back, in the mean time advancing towards the pursuers,
and rushing on the foremost, I knocked him down with the stock of my
piece, and laid him flat on the ground. I was very unwilling to fire
lest the rest should hear, though at a distance, I question whether they
could or no; and being out of sight of the smoke, they could not easily
have known what to make of it. The other savage seeing his fellow fall,
stopped as if he had been amazed; when advancing towards him, I could
perceive him take his bow from his back, and, fixing and arrow to it,
was preparing to shoot at me, and, without dispute, might have lodged
the arrow in my breast; but, in this absolutely necessary case of self
preservation, I immediately fired at him, and shot him dead, just as his
hand was going to draw the fatal string. All this while, the savage who
had fled before stood still, and had the satisfaction to see his enemies
killed, as he thought, who designed to take away his life; so affrighted
was he with the fire and noise of my piece, _that he stood as it were
like Lot's wife, fixed and immoveable, without either sense or motion_.
This obliged me to halloo to him again, making the plainest signs I
could to him to draw nearer. I perceived he understood those tokens by
his approaching to me a little way, when, as is afraid I should kill him
too, he stopped again. Several times did he advance, as often stop in
this manner, till coming more, to my view, I perceived him trembling, as
if he was to undergo the same fate. Upon which I looked upon him with a
smiling countenance, and still beckoning to him, at length he came close
to me and kneeled down, kissed my hand, laid his head upon it, and
taking me by the foot, placed it upon his head; and this, as I
understood afterwards, was in token of swearing to be my slave for ever.
I took him up, and, making much of him, encouraged him in the best
manner I could. But my work was not yet finished; for I perceived the
savage whom I knocked down, was not killed, but stunned with the blow,
and began to come to himself, Upon which I pointed to my new servant,
and shewed him that his enemy was not yet expired, he spoke some words
to me, but which I could not understand; yet being the first sound of a
man's voice I had heard for above twenty-five years, they were very
pleasing to me. But there was no time for reflection now, the wounded
savage recovering himself so far as to sit upon the ground, which made
my poor prisoner as much afraid as before; to put him out of which fear,
I presented my other gun at the man, with an intent to shoot him; but my
savage, for so I must now call him, prevented my firing, by making a
motion to me, to lend him my sword, which hung naked in my belt by my
side. No sooner did I grant his request, but away he runs to his enemy,
and at one blow cut off his head as dextrously as the most accomplished
executioner in Germany could have done; for, it seems, these creatures
make use of wooden swords made of hard wood which will bear edge enough
to cut off heads and arms at one blow. When this valorous exploit was
done, he comes to me laughing, as a token of triumph, delivered me my
sword again, with abundance of suprising gestures, laying it, along with
the bleeding and ghastly head of the Indian, at my feet.

[Illustration: ROBINSON CRUSOE rescuing FRIDAY from his pursuers.]

The greatest astonishment that my new servant conceived was the manner
of killing the savage at such a distance, without a bow and arrow; and
such was his longing desire to know it, that he first pointed to the
dead carcase, and then made signs to me to grant him leave to go up to
him. Upon which I bid him go, and, as well as I could, made him sensible
I granted his request. But when he came there, how wonderfully was he
struck with amazement! First, he turned him on one side, then on
another, wondering he could perceive no quantity of blood, he bleeding
inwardly; and after sufficiently admiring the wound the bullet had made
in his breast, he took up his bow and arrows, and came back again; upon
which I turned to go away, making signs to him to follow, left the rest
missing their companions, might come in pursuit of them, and this I
found he understood very well, by his making me understand that his
design was to bury them, that they might not be seen if it happened; and
which by signs again I made him sensible I very much approved of.
Immediately he fell to work, and never was a grave-digger more dextrous
in the world than he was; for in an instant, as I might say, he scraped
a large hole in the sand with his hands, sufficient to bury the first
in; there he dragged him; and without any ceremony he covered him over;
in like manner he saved the other; so that I am sure no undertaker could
be more expert in his business, for all this was done in less than a
quarter of an hour. I then called him away, and instead of carrying him
directly to my castle at first, I conveyed him to my cave on the farther
part of the island; and so my dream was now fulfilled in that
particular, that my grove should prove an asylum or sanctuary to him.

Weary and faint, hungry and thirsty, undoubtedly must this poor creature
be, supported chiefly by the vivacity of spirit, and, uncommon
transports of joy that his deliverance occasioned. Here I gave him bread
and a bunch of raisins to eat, and water to drink, on which he fed very
cheerfully, to his exceeding refreshment. I then made him a convenient
bed with a parcel of rice straw, and a blanket upon it, (a bed which I
used myself sometimes) and then pointing to it, made signs for him to
lie down to sleep, upon which the poor creature went to take a
welcome repose.

Indeed he was a very comely, handsome, young fellow, extremely well
made, with straight long limbs, not two large, but tall and well shaped,
and, as near as I could reckon, about twenty-six years of age. His
countenance had nothing in it fierce or surly, but rather a sort of
majesty in his face; and yet, especially when he smiled, he had all the
sweetness and softness of an European. His hair was not curled like
wool, as many of the blacks are, but long and black, with the most
beautiful, yet careless tresses spreading over his shoulders. He had a
very high and large forehead, with a great vivacity and sparkling
sharpness in his eyes. His skin was not so tawney, as the Virginians,
Brazilians, or other Americans; but rather of a bright dun, olive
colour, that had something agreeable in it, though not very easy to give
a description of. His face was round and plump, with a small nose, very
different from the flatness of the negroes, a pretty small mouth, thin
lips, fine teeth, very well set, and white as the driven snow. In a
word, such handsome features, and exact symmetry in every part, made me
consider that I had saved the life of an Indian prince, no less graceful
and accomplished than the great _Oroonoko_ whose memorable behavior and
unhappy contingencies of life have charmed the world, both to admiration
of his person, and compassion to his sufferings.

But let him be either prince or peasant, all my happiness centered in
this, that I had now got a good servant or companion, to whom, as he
deserved, I was resolved to prove a kind master and a lasting friend. He
had not, I think, slept above an hour when he awakened again, and while
I was milking my goats hard by, out he runs from the cave towards me in
my inclosure, and laying himself down on the ground, in the lowest
prostration, made all the antic gestures imaginable, to express his
thankfulness to me for being his deliverer. I confess though the manner
of his behaviour seemed to be ludicrous enough to occasion, laughter,
yet I was very much moved at his affection, so that my heart melted
within me, fearing he might die away in excess of joy, like reprieved
malefactors, especially as I was incapable either to let him blood, or
administer physic. It were to be wished, that Christians would take
example by this Heathen, to have received by the kind mediation and
powerful interposition of their benefactors and deliverers; and it would
be likewise happy for mankind, were there no occasion to blame many,
who, instead of thankfully acknowledging favours and benefits, rather
abuse and condemn those who have been the instruments to save them from

But, leaving these just reflections, I return to the object that
occasioned them; for my man, to conclude the last ceremony of obedience,
laid down his head again on the ground, close to my foot, and set my
other foot upon is head, as he had done before, making all the signs of
subjection, servitude, and submission imaginable, and let me understand
he would serve me as long as his life endured. As I understood him in
many things, I made him sensible I was very well pleased with him; and,
in a little time, I began to speak to him, and learn him to talk to me
again. In the first place, I made him understand his name was to be
_Friday_, because it was upon that day I saved his life; then I taught
him to say _Master_, which I made him sensible was to be my name. I
likewise taught him to say _Yes_ and _No_, and to know what they meant.
I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, making him view me while I drank
it before him, and soaked my bread in it; I gave him a cake of bread,
and caused him to soak it likewise, to which he readily consented,
making signs of the greatest satisfaction imaginable.

All that night did I keep him there; but no sooner did the morning light
appear, when I ordered him to arise, and come along with me, with
certain tokens that I would give him some clothes like mine, at which he
seemed very glad, being stark naked, without the least covering
whatever. As we passed by the place where the two men had been interred,
my man pointed directly to their graves, showing me the marks that he
had made to find them again, giving me to understand, by signs, that we
should dig them up, and devour them. At this I appeared extremely
displeased, expressed my utmost abhorrence, as if I would vomit at the
apprehensions of it, beckoning with my hand to come away, which he did
with the greatest reverence and submission. After this I conducted him
to the top of the hill, to view if the rest of the savages were yet
remaining there; but when I looked through my perspective glass, I could
see no appearance of them, nor of their canoes; so that it was evident
they never minded their deceased companions whom we had slain: which if
they had, they would surely have searched for, or left one boat behind
for them to follow, after they returned from their pursuit.

Curiosity, and a desire of satisfaction, animating me with courage to
see this scene of barbarity, I took my man Friday with me, putting a
sword into his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I
perceived he could use very dexterously, causing him to carry one gun
for me, and I two for myself; and thus equipped against all attacks,
away we marched directly to the place of their bloody entertainment. But
when I came there, I was struck with the utmost horror at so dreadful a
spectacle, whilst Friday was no way concerned about it, being no doubt
in his turn one of these devourers. Here lay several human bones, there
several pieces of mangled flesh, half eaten, mangled, and scorched,
whilst streams of blood ran promiscuously as waters from a fountain. As
I was musing on this dreadful sight, Friday took all the pains he could,
by particular signs, to make me understand, that they had brought over
four prisoners to feast upon, three of whom they had eaten up, and that
he was the fourth, pointing to himself; that there having been a bloody
battle between them and his great king, in the just defence of whom he
was taken prisoner, with many others; all of these were carried off to
different places to be devoured by their conquerors; and that it was his
misfortune to be brought hither by these wretches for the same purpose.

After I was made sensible of these things, I caused Friday to gather
those horrid remains, and lay them together upon a heap, which I ordered
to be set on fire, and burnt them to ashes: My man, however, still
retained the nature of a cannibal, having a hankering stomach after some
of the flesh; but such an extreme abhorrence did I express at the least
appearance of it, that he durst not but conceal it; for I made him very
sensible, that if he offered any such thing, I would certainly
shoot him.

This being done, I carried my man with me to my castle, and gave him a
pair of linen drawers, which I had taken out of the poor gunner's chest
before mentioned; and which, with a little alteration, fitted him very
well; in the next place I made him a jerkin of goat's skin, such as my
skill was able to manage, and indeed I thought myself then a tolerable
good tailor. I gave him also a cap which I made of a hare's skin, very
convenient and fashionable. Thus being clothed tolerably well, my man
was no less proud of his habit, than I was at seeing him in it. Indeed
he went very aukwardly at first, the drawers being too heavy on his
thighs not used to bear any weight, and the sleeves of the waistcoat
galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms; but by a little easing
where he complained they hurt him, and by using himself to them, at
length he took to them very well.

My next concern was, where I should lodge him; and that I might do well
by him, and yet be perfectly easy myself, I erected a tent for him in
the vacant place between my two fortifications, in the inside of the
last, and the outside of the first; and, as there was an entrance or
door into my cave, I made a formal framed door-case, and a door to open
on the inside; I barred it up in the night time, taking in my ladders
too, so that, was my man to prove treacherous, there could be no way to
come at me in the inside of my innermost wall, without making so much
noise in getting over, that it must needs waken me; for my first wall
had now a complete roof over it of long poles, spreading over my tent,
and leaning up to the side of the mountain, which was again laid cross
with smaller sticks instead of laths, and thatched over a great
thickness with the rice straw, which was as strong as reeds; and at the
hole of the place, left on purpose to go in or out by the ladder, had
placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on the
outside, would not have opened at all, but have fallen down, and made a
great noise; and as to my weapons, every night I took them all to my
bed side.

But there was no occasion for this precaution; for surely never master
had a more sincere, faithful, and loving servant, than Friday proved to
me. Without passion, sullenness, or design, perfectly obliging and
engaging, his affections were as much tied to me, as those of a child to
its parents; & I might venture to say, he would have sacrificed his life
for the saving mine, upon any occasion whatsoever. And indeed the many
testimonies he gave me of this, sufficiently convinced me that I had no
occasion to use these precautions. And here I could not but reflect with
great wonder, that however it hath pleased the Almighty in his
providence, and in the government of the creation, to take from so great
a part of the world of his creatures, the noblest uses to which their
faculties, and the powers of their souls are adapted; yet that he has
bestowed upon them the same reason, affections, sentiments of kindness
and obligation, passions of resentment, sincerity, fidelity, and all the
capacities of doing and receiving good that he has given us; and that
when he is graciously pleased to offer them occasions of exerting these,
they are as ready, nay, more ready, to apply them to the proper uses for
which they were bestowed, than we often are. These thoughts would make
me melancholy, especially when I considered how mean a use we make of
all these, even though we have these powers enlightened by the Holy
Spirit of God, and by the knowledge of this world, as an addition to our
understanding; and why it has pleased the heavenly Wisdom to conceal the
life saving knowledge from so many millions of souls who would certainly
make a much better use of it than generally mankind do at this time.
These reflections would sometimes lead me so far, as to invade the
sovereignty of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice of such
an arbitrary disposition of things, that should obscure that light from
some, and reveal it to others, and yet expect a like duty from all. But
I closed it up, checking my thoughts with this conclusion; first, That
we were ignorant of that right and law by which those should be
condemned; but as the Almighty was necessarily, and by the nature of his
essence, infinitely just and holy; so it could not be otherwise, but
that if these creatures were all destined to absence from himself, it
was on account of sinning against that light, _which_, as the Scripture
says, _was a law to themselves_ and by such rules as their consciences
would acknowledge to be just, though the first foundation was not
discovered to us. And, secondly, That still as we were the clay in the
hand of the potter, no vessel could thus say to him, _Why hast thou
fashioned me after this manner_?

I had not been above two or three days returned to my castle, but my
chief design was, how I should bring Friday off from this horrid way of
feeding; and to take from him that inhuman relish he by nature had been
accustomed to, I thought it my duty to let him taste other flesh, which
might the rather tempt him to the same abhorrence I so often expressed
against their accursed way of living. Upon which, one morning I took him
out with me, with an intention to kill a kid out of the flock, and bring
it home and dress it. As I was going, I perceived a she-goat lying down
in the shade, and two young kids sitting by her. Immediately I catched
hold of my man Friday, and bidding him stand still, and not stir, I
presented my piece, and shot one of the kids. My poor servant, who had
at a distance perceived me kill his adversary, and yet did not know by
what means, or how it was done, stood trembling and surprised, and
looked so amazed, that I thought he would have sunk into the earth. He
did not see the kid I aimed at, or behold I had killed it, but ripped up
his waistcoat to see if he was not wounded, thinking my resolution was
to kill him; for coming to me, he fell on his knees, earnestly
pronouncing many things which I did not understand the meaning of; which
at length I perceived was, that I would not take away his life.

Indeed I was much concerned to see him in that condition, where nature
is upon the severest trial, when the immediate hand of death is ready to
put for ever a period to this mortal life; and indeed so much compassion
had I to this creature, that it was with difficulty I restrained from
tears. But, however, as another sort of countenance was necessary, and
to convince him that I would do no harm, I took him smiling by the hand,
then laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I had slain, made
signs to him to fetch it, which accordingly he did. No less curious was
he in viewing how the creature was killed, than he had been before in
beholding the Indian; which, while he was admiring at, I charged my gun
again, and presently perceived a great fowl like a hawk, perching upon a
tree within shot; and therefore, to let Friday understand what I was
going to do, I called him to me again, pointing at the fowl, which I
found to be a parrot. I made him understand that I would shoot and kill
that bird; accordingly I fired, and bade him look, when immediately he
saw the parrot fall down. Again he stood like one amazed,
notwithstanding all I had said to him: and the more confounded he was,
because he did not perceive me put any thing into my gun. Undoubtedly a
thing so utterly strange, carrying death along with it, far or near,
either to man or beast, must certainly create the greatest astonishment
to one who never had heard such a thing in his whole life; and really
his amazement continued so long, that had I allowed it, he would have
prostrated himself before me and my gun, with the greatest worship and
adoration. As for the gun in particular, he would not so much as touch
it for several days after, but would come & communicate his thoughts to
it, & talk to it, as if the senseless piece had understood and answered
him; all this I could perceive him do, when he thought my back was
turned, the chief intent of which was, to desire it not to kill him, as
I afterwards came to understand.

I never strove to prevent his admiration, nor hinder him from those
comical gestures he used on such occasions; but when his astonishment
was a little over, I make tokens to him to run and fetch the parrot that
I had shot; which accordingly he did, staying some time longer than
usual, by reason the bird not being quite dead, had fluttered some way
further from the place where she fell. In the mean time, as he was
looking for her, I took the advantage of charging my gun again, that so
I might be ready for any other mark that offered; but nothing more
occurred at that time. So I brought home the kid, and the same evening
took off the skin and divided the carcase as well as I could. Part of
the flesh I stewed and boiled in a pot I had for this purpose. And then
spreading my table, I sat down, giving my man some of it to eat, who was
wonderfully pleased and seemed to like it very well: but what was the
most surprising to him was to see me eat salt with it: upon which he
made me understand, that the salt was very bad for me; when putting a
little into his mouth, he seemed to nauseate it in such a manner as to
spit and sputter at it, and then washed his mouth with fresh water: but
to shew him how contrary his opinion was to mine, I put some meat into
my mouth without salt and feigned to spit and sputter as much for the
want of it, as he had done at it; yet all this proved of no
signification to Friday; and it was a long while before he could endure
salt in his meat or broth, and even then but a small quantity.

Thus having fed him sufficiently with boiled meat and broth at that
time, the next day I was resolved to feast him with a roasted piece of
the kid. And having no spit to fasten it, nor jack to turn it, I made
use of that common artifice which many of the common people of England
have, that is to let two poles upon each side of the fire, and one cross
on top, hanging the meat thereon with a string, and so turning round
continually, roast it, in the same manner as we read bloody tyrants of
old cruelly roasted the holy martyrs. This practice caused great
admiration in my man Friday, being quite another way than that to which
the savages were accustomed. But when he came to taste the sweetness and
tenderness of the flesh, he expressed his entire satisfaction above a
thousand different ways. And as I could not but understand his meaning,
you may be sure I was as wonderfully pleased, especially when he made it
also very plain to me, that he would never, while he lived eat man's
flesh more.

It was now high time I should set my servant to work; so next day I set
him to beat out some corn, and sat it in the same manner as I had done
before. And really the fellow was very quick and handy in the execution
of any thing I ordered him to go about. I made him understand that it
was to make bread for us to eat, and afterwards let him see me make it.
In short, he did every thing as I ordered him, and in a little time as
well as I could perform it myself.

But now considering that I had two mouths to feed instead of one, it was
necessary that I must provide more ground for my harvest, and plant a
larger quantity of corn than I commonly used to do; upon which I marked
out a larger piece of land, fencing it in, in the same manner as I had
done before; in the execution of which I must give Friday this good
word; that no man could work, more hardy or with better will than he
did: and when I made him sensible that it was for bread to serve him as
well as me, he then very passionately made me understand that he thought
I had much more labour on his account, than I had for myself; and that
no pains or diligence should be wanting in him, if I would but direct
him in those works wherein he might proceed.

I must certainly own, that this was the most pleasant year I ever had on
the island; for after some time Friday began to talk pretty well, and
understood the names of those things which I was wont to call for, and
the places where I used to send him. So that my long silent tongue,
which had been useless so many years, except in an exclamatory manner,
either for deliverance or blessings, now began to be occupied in
teaching, and talking to my man Friday for indeed I had such a singular
satisfaction in the fellow himself, so innocent did his simple and
unfeigned honesty appear more and more to me every day, that I really
began entirely to love him; and for his part, I believe there was no
love lost, and that his nature had been more charmed by his exceeding
kindness, and his affections more placed upon me, than any other object
whatsoever among his own countrymen. I once had a great mind to try if
he had any hankering inclination to his own country again; and by this
time, having learned the English so well; that he could give me
tolerable answer to any question which I demanded. I asked him whether
that nation to which he belonged, ever conquered in battle? This
question made Friday to smile, and to which he answered, _Yes, yes, we
always fight the better;_ as much as to say, they always got the better
in fight. Upon which we proceeded on the following discourse: _You say_,
said I, _that you always fight the better; why, then, Friday, how came
you to be taken prisoner_?

Friday. _But for all that my nation beat much_.

Master. _How say you, beat? if your nation beat them, how came you to be

Friday. _They more many mans than my nation in the place where me was;
they take one, two, three, and me: my nation much over beat them in the
yonder place where me no was, there my nation mans beat one, two, three,
great tousand_.

Master. _Then why did not your men recover you from the hands of your

Friday. _They run one, two, or three, and me: they make all go in the
canoe; my nation have no canoe that time_--

Master. _'Tis very well, Friday; but what does your nation do with the
prisoners they take? Do they carry them away and eat them as these
have done_?

Friday. _Yes, yes, my nation eat mans too, eat up all_.

Master. _To what place do they carry them to be devoured_?

Friday. _Go to other nations where they think_.

Master. _Do they bring them hither_?

Friday. _Yes, come over hither, came over other place_.

Master. _And have you been with them here, Friday_?

Friday. _Yes, me been here_, (pointing to the north-west of the island,
being the side where they used to land.)

Thus having gotten what account I could from my man, I plainly
understood that he had been as bad as any of the rest of the cannibals,
having been formerly among the savages who used to come on shore on the
farthest part of the island, upon the same bloody occasion as he was
brought hither for; and some time after I carried him to that place
where he pointed; and no sooner did he come there, but he presently knew
the ground, signifying to me that he was once there when they ate up
twenty men, two women and a young child; but as he could not explain the
number in English, he did it by so many stones in a row, making a sign
to me to count them.

This passage I have the rather mentioned, because it led to things more
important and useful for me to know; for after I had this satisfactory
discourse with him, my next question was, how far it was from the island
to the shore, and whether the canoes were not often lost in the ocean?
to which he answered, _there was no danger, that no canoes were ever
lost; but that after a little way out to the sea, there was a strong
current and a wind always one way in the afternoon_. This I thought at
first to be no more than the sets of the tide, of going out or coming
in; but I afterwards understood it was occasioned by the great-draught
and reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth or gulf of which I
imagined my kingdom lay: and that the land which I perceived to the W.
and N.W. must be the great island Trinidad, on the north of the river. A
thousand questions (if that would satisfy me) did I ask Friday about the
nature of the country, the sea, the coasts, the inhabitants, and what
nations were nearest them: To which questions the poor fellow declared
all he knew with the greatest openness & utmost sincerity. When I
demanded of him the particular names of the various nations of his sort
of people, he could only answer me in general that they were called
_Carrabee_. Hence it was I considered that these must be the Carribees,
so much taken notice of by our maps to be on that part of America, which
reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko to Guiana, and so on to St.
Martha. Then Friday proceeded to tell me, _that up a great way beyond
the moon_, as much as to say, beyond the setting of the moon, which must
be W. from their country, _there dwelt white-bearded men, such as I
was_, pointing to my whiskers, _and that they kill much mans_. I was not
ignorant with what barbarity the Spaniards treated these creatures; so
that I presently concluded it must be them, whose cruelties had spread
throughout America, to be remembered even to succeeding generations.

Well, you may be sure, this knowledge, which the imperfect knowledge of
my man had led me to, was very comfortable to me, and made me so curious
as to ask him how I might depart from this island, & get amongst those
white men? He told me, _Yes, yes, I might go in two canoes_. In two
canoes, thought I, what does my man mean? surely he means one for
himself, and another for me; and if not, how must two canoes hold me
without being joined, or one part of my body being put in one, and
another in another? And indeed it was a long time before I understood
his meaning; which was, that it must be a large boat, as big as two
canoes, able to bear with the waves, and not so liable to be overwhelmed
as a small one must be.

I believe there is not a state of life but what may be happy, if people
would but endeavour for their part to make it so. He is not the
happiest man that has the most riches; but he that is content with what
he hath. Before I had my servant, I thought myself miserable till I had
him; and now that I had enjoyed the happy benefits of him, I still
complained, and begged a deliverance from a place of retirement, ease,
and plenty, where Providence had sufficiently blessed me. In a word,
from this time I entertained some hopes, that one time or other I might
find an opportunity to make my escape from this island, and that this
poor savage might be a great furtherance thereto.

All the time since my man became so intelligent as to understand and
speak to me, I spared no pain nor diligence to instruct him, according
to my poor share of knowledge in the principles of religion, and the
adoration that he ought to pay to the TRUE GOD. One time, as I very well
remember, I asked him who made him? At first the innocent creature did
not understand what I meant, but rather thought I asked him who was his
father? upon which I took another way to make him sensible, by demanding
from him an answer to this question. "Friday," I said, "who is it that
made the sea, this ground whereon we walk, and all the hills and woods
which we behold?" And here, indeed, I did not miss my intention; for he
told me _it was Old Benamuckee_ (the God whom I supposed these savages
adored) _who lived a great way beyond all_. But as to his attributes,
poor Friday was an utter stranger. He could describe nothing of this
great person; and all that he could say was, _that he was very old, much
older than the sea and land, the moon, or the stars_. "Friday," said I
again, "if this great and old person has made all things in the world,
how comes it to pass, that all things, as you in particular, do not
adore and worship him? upon this looking very grave, with a perfect
sweet look of innocence, he replied: _Master all things say O to him_,"
by which it may reasonably be supposed he meant adoration. "And where,"
said I, "do the people of your country go when they die?" He answered
_to Benamuckee_. "What, and those people that are eaten up, do they go
there?" _Benamuckee_, said he, _love 'em dearly; me pray to Benamuckee
in the canoe, and Benamuckee would love me when dey eat me all up_.

Such discourses as these had I with my man, and such made me sensible,
that the true God is worshipped, tho' under imperfect similitudes; and
that the false adoration which the Heathens give to their imaginary
Deity, is as great an argument of the divine essence, as the most
learned Atheists _(falsely so called)_ can bring against it; for God
will be glorified in his works, let their denominations be what it will;
and I cannot be of that opinion which some conceive, that God should
decree men to be damned for want of a right notion of faith, in a place
where the wisdom of the Almighty has not permitted it to be preached;
and therefore cannot but conclude, that since obedience is the best
sacrifice, these poor creatures are acting by that light and knowledge
which they are possessed of, may undoubtedly obtain a happy salvation,
though not that enjoyment with Christ, as his saints, confessors, and
martyrs must enjoy.

But laying these determinations aside, more fit for divines than me to
discuss, I began to instruct my servant in the saving knowledge of the
true Deity, in which the direction of God's Holy Spirit assisted me. I
lifted up my hands to Heaven, and pointing thereto, told him "that the
great Maker of Heaven and Earth lived there; that as his infinite power
fashioned this world out of a confused chaos, and made it in that
beautiful frame which we behold; so he governs and preserves it by his
unbounded knowledge, sovereign greatness and peculiar providence; that
he was omnipotent, could do every thing for us, give every thing to us,
and take every thing away from us; that he was a rewarder and punisher
of good, and evil actions; that there was nothing but what he knew, no
thoughts so secret, but what he could bring to light;" and thus, by
degrees, I opened his eyes, and described to him "the manner of the
creation of the world, the situation of paradise, the transgression of
our first parents, the wickedness of God's peculiar people, and the
universal sins and abominations of the whole earth." When these things
were implanted in his mind, I told him "that as God's justice was equal
to his mercy, he resolved to destroy this world, till his Son Jesus
Christ interposed in our behalf; and to procure our redemption, obtained
leave of his heavenly Father to come down from Heaven into the world,
Where he took human nature upon him, instructed us in our way to eternal
life, and died as a sacrifice for our sins; that he was now ascended
into Heaven, mediating for our pardon, delivering our petitions, and
obtaining all those good benefits which we ask in his name, by humble
and hearty prayers, all which were heard at the throne of Heaven." As
frequently I used to inculcate things into his mind. Friday one day told
me, _that if our great God could hear us beyond the sun, he must surely
be a greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but a little way off,
yet could not hear them till they ascended the great mountains, where he
dwelt to speak to him._ 'What' said I, 'Friday, did you go thither to
speak to him too?' He answered, _No, they never went that were young
men, none but old men, called their Oowakakee_, meaning the Indian
priests, _who went to say O,_ (so he called saying their prayers) _and
they returned back, and told them what Benamuckee said._ From hence, I
could not but observe how happy we Christians are, who have God's
immediate revelation for our certain guide; and that our faith is
neither misled, nor our reason imposed upon, by any set of men, such as
these Indian impostures.

[Transcriber's note: Page 90 was missing from the source document.]

tempts Adam's wife, Eve, to taste of the tree of knowledge of good and
evil, which God had forbidden. He appears to her in the shape of a
serpent, then a most beautiful creature, and tells her that it was no
better than an imposition, which God had put upon her and her husband
not to eat of that fair fruit which he had created; that the taste
thereof would make them immortal like God himself; and consequently as
great and powerful as he. Upon which she not only eat thereof herself,
but made her husband eat also, which brought them both under the
heavenly displeasure.'

Here Friday expressed a great concern: _Ah, poor mans!_ cried he,
_naughty wonians! naughty devil! make God not love de mans, made mans
like devil himself._

'Friday,' said I, 'God still loved mankind, and though the devil tempted
human nature so far, he would not suffer him to have an absolute power
over them. I have told you before of his tender love to his people, till
they, like Lucifer, disobeyed his commands and rebelled against him; and
even then, how Jesus Christ, his only Son, came to save sinners. But
still every man that lives in the world is under temptation and trial.
The devil has yet a power, as prince of the air, to suggest evil
cogitations in our minds, and prompt us on to wicked actions, that he
might glory in our destruction. Whatever evil thoughts we have, proceed
from him; so that God in this our distress, expects we should apply
ourselves to him by fervent prayer for speedy redress. He is not like
_Benamuckee,_ to let none come near him but _Oowakakee_, but suffers the
people as well as priests to offer themselves at his feet, thereby to be
delivered from the power and temptation of the devil.

But though at first my man Friday expressed some concern at the
wickedness of Lucifer, I found it not so easy to imprint the right
notions of him in his mind, as it was about the divine essence of God;
for there nature assisted me in all my arguments, to show him plainly
the necessity of a great first cause, and over-ruling, governing power,
of a secret directing Providence, and of the equity and reasonableness
of paying adoration to our Creator: whereas there appeared nothing of
all this in the notion of an evil spirit, of his first beginning, his
nature, and, above all, of his inclination to evil actions, and his
power to tempt us to the like. And indeed this unlearned _Indian_, by
the mere force of nature, puzzled me with one particular question, more
than ever I could have expected.

I had, it seems, one day, been talking to him of the omnipotent power of
God, and his infinite abhorrence of sin, insomuch that the Scriptures
styled him _a consuming fire_ to all the workers of iniquity; and that
it was in his power, whenever he pleased, to destroy all the world in a
moment, the greater part of which are continually offending him.

When, with a serious attention, he had listened a great while to what
I said, after I had been telling him how the devil was God's enemy in
the hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to defeat the good
designs of Providence, and destroy the kingdom of Christ in the world,
and so forth: _Very well, Master_, said Friday, _you say God is so
strong, so great, is he not much strong, much mightier than the naughty
devil?_ "To be sure, Friday," said I, "God is more wise and stronger
than the serpent: he is above the devil, which makes us pray to him,
that he would tread down Satan under his feet, enable us to resist the
violent temptations; and quench his fiery darts." _Why then_, answered
Friday quickly, _if God, as you say, has much strong, much might as the
devil, why God no kill devil, make no more tempt, no more do wicked._

You may be certain, I was strangely surprised at this question of my
man's: and, though an old man, I was but a young doctor, and
consequently very ill qualified for a causuist, or a resolver of
intricate doubts in religion, and as it required some time for me to
study for an answer, I pretended not to hear him, nor to ask him what he
said; but, to so earnest was he for an answer, as not to forget his
question which he repeated in the very same broken words as above. When
I had recovered myself a little, "Friday," said I, "God will at last
punish him severely, being reserved for judgment, and is to be cast into
the bottomless pit, to remain in fire everlasting." But all this did not
satisfy Friday, for, returning upon me, he repeated my words "RESERVE AT
LAST, _me no understand; but, why not kill devil now, not kill devil,
great, great while ago_?" "Friday" said I "you may as well ask me why
God does not kill you and me, when, by our wicked actions, we so much
offend his divine Majesty? He gives us time to repent of our sins, that
thereby we may obtain pardon." At these words _obtain pardon_, Friday
mused a great while; and, at last, looking me stedfastly in the face,
_Well, well_, said he, _that's very well; so you, I, devil, all wicked
mans, all preserve, repent, God pardon all._

Indeed, here I was ran down to the last extremity, when it became very
evident to me; how mere natural notions will guide reasonable creatures
to the knowledge of a Deity, and to the homage due to the Supreme Being
of God; but, however, nothing but divine revelation can form the

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