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The History of England from the Accession of James II, Vol. 3 by Thomas Babington Macaulay

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FN 426 See the Abrege de la Vie de Frederic Duc de Schomberg by
Lunancy, 1690, the Memoirs of Count Dohna, and the note of Saint
Simon on Dangeau's Journal, July 30, 1690.

FN 427 See the Commons' Journals of July 16. 1689, and of July 1.

FN 428 Journals of the Lords and Commons, Aug. 20. 1689; London
Gazette, Aug, 22.

FN 429 J'estois d'avis qu', apres que la descente seroit faite,
si on apprenoit que des Protestans se fassent soulevez en
quelques endroits du royaume, on fit main basse sur tous
generalement."-Avaux, July 31/Aug 10 1689.

FN 430 "Le Roy d'Angleterre m'avoit ecoute assez paisiblement la
première fois que je luy avois propose ce qu'il y avoit a faire
contre les Protestans."--Avaux, Aug. 4/14

FN 431 Avaux, Aug. 4/14. He says, "Je m'imagine qu'il est
persuade que, quoiqu'il ne donne point d'ordre sur cela, la
plupart des Catholiques de la campagne se jetteront sur les

FN 432 Lewis, Aug 27/Sept 6, reprimanded Avaux, though much too
gently, for proposing to butcher the whole Protestant population
of Leinster, Connaught, and Munster. "Je n'approuve pas cependant
la proposition que vous faites de faire main basse sur tous les
Protestans du royaume, du moment qu', en quelque endroit que ce
soit, ils se seront soulevez: et, outre que la punition du'ne
infinite d'innocens pour peu de coupables ne seroit pas juste,
d'ailleurs les represailles contre les Catholiques seroient
d'autant plus dangereuses, que les premiers se trouveront mieux
armez et soutenus de toutes les forces d'Angleterre."

FN 433 Ronquillo, Aug. 9/19 speaking of the siege of Londonderry,
expresses his astonishment "que una plaza sin fortification y sin
genies de guerra aya hecho una defensa tan gloriosa, y que los
sitiadores al contrario ayan sido tan poltrones."

FN 434 This account of the Irish army is compiled from numerous
letters written by Avaux to Lewis and to Lewis's ministers. I
will quote a few of the most remarkable passages. "Les plus beaux
hommes," Avaux says of the Irish, "qu'on peut voir. Il n'y en a
presque point au dessous de cinq pieds cinq a six pouces." It
will be remembered that the French foot is longer than ours. "Ils
sont tres bien faits: mais; il ne sont ny disciplinez ny armez,
et de surplus sont de grands voleurs." "La plupart de ces
regimens sont levez par des gentilshommes qui n'ont jamais este á
l'armee. Ce sont des tailleurs, des bouchers, des cordonniers,
qui ont forme les compagnies et qui en sont les Capitaines."
"Jamais troupes n'ont marche comme font celles-cy. Ils vent comme
des bandits, et pillent tout ce qu'ils trouvent en chemin."
"Quoiqu'il soit vrai que les soldats paroissent fort resolus a
bien faire, et qu'ils soient fort animez contre les rebelles,
neantmoins il ne suffit pas de cela pour combattre . . . . . Les
officiers subalternes sont mauvais, et, a la reserve d'un tres
peut nombre, il n'y en a point qui ayt soin des soldats, des
armes, et de la discipline." "On a beaucoup plus de confiance en
la cavalerie, dont la plus grande partie est assez bonne." Avaux
mentions several regiments of horse with particular praise. Of
two of these he says, "On ne peut voir de meilleur regiment." The
correctness of the opinion which he had formed both of the
infantry and of the cavalry was, after his departure from
Ireland, signally proved at the Boyne.

FN 435 I will quote a passage or two from the despatches written
at this time by Avaux. On September 7/17. he says: "De quelque
coste qu'on se tournat, on ne pouvoir rien prevoir que de
desagreable. Mais dans cette extremite chacun s'est evertue. Les
officiers ont fait leurs recrues avec beaucoup de diligence."
Three days later he says: "Il y a quinze jours que nous
n'esperions guare de pouvoir mettre les choses en si bon estat
mais my Lord Tyrconnel et tous les Irlandais ont travaille avec
tant d'empressement qu'on s'est mis en estat de deffense."

FN 436 Avaux, Aug 25/Sep 4 Aug 26/Sep 5; Life of James, ii. 373.;
Melfort's vindication of himself among the Nairne Papers. Avaux
says: "Il pourra partir ce soir a la nuit: car je vois bien qu'il
apprehende qu'il ne sera pas sur pour luy de partir en plein

FN 437 Story's Impartial History of the Wars of Ireland, 1693;
Life of James, ii. 374; Avaux, Sept. 7/17 1689; Nihell's journal,
printed in 1689, and reprinted by Macpherson.

FN 438 Story's Impartial History.

FN 439 Ibid.

FN 440 Avaux, Sep. 10/20. 1689; Story's Impartial History; Life
of James, ii. 377, 378 Orig. Mem. Story and James agree in
estimating the Irish army at about twenty thousand men. See also
Dangeau, Oct. 28. 1689.

FN 441 Life of James, ii. 377, 378. Orig. Mem.

FN 442 See Grey's Debates, Nov. 26, 27, 28. 1689, and the
Dialogue between a Lord Lieutenant and one of his deputies, 1692.

FN 443 Nihell's Journal. A French officer, in a letter to Avaux,
written soon after Schomberg's landing, says, "Les Huguenots font
plus de mal que les Anglois, et tuent force Catholiques pour
avoir fait resistance."

FN 444 Story; Narrative transmitted by Avaux to Seignelay, Nov
26/Dec 6 1689 London Gazette, Oct. 14. 1689. It is curious that,
though Dumont was in the camp before Dundalk, there is in his MS.
no mention of the conspiracy among the French.

FN 445 Story's Impartial History; Dumont MS. The profaneness and
dissoluteness of the camp during the sickness are mentioned in
many contemporary pamphlets both in verse and prose. See
particularly a Satire entitled Reformation of Manners, part ii.

FN 446 Story's Impartial History.

FN 447 Avaux, Oct. 11/21. Nov. 14/24 1689; Story's Impartial
History; Life of James, ii. 382, 383. Orig. Mem.; Nihell's

FN 448 Story's Impartial History; Schomberg's Despatches;
Nihell's Journal, and James's Life; Burnet, ii. 20.; Dangeau's
journal during this autumn; the Narrative sent by Avaux to
Seignelay, and the Dumont MS. The lying of the London Gazette is
monstrous. Through the whole autumn the troops are constantly
said to be in good condition. In the absurd drama entitled the
Royal Voyage, which was acted for the amusement of the rabble of
London in 1689, the Irish are represented as attacking some of
the sick English. The English put the assailants to the rout, and
then drop down dead.

FN 449 See his despatches in the appendix to Dalrymple's Memoirs.

FN 450 London Gazette; May 20 1689.

FN 451 Commons' Journals, Nov. 13, 23. 1689; Grey's Debates, Nov.
13. 14. 18. 23. 1689. See, among numerous pasquinades, the
Parable of the Bearbaiting, Reformation of Manners, a Satire, the
Mock Mourners, a Satire. See also Pepys's Diary kept at Tangier,
Oct. 15. 1683.

FN 452 The best account of these negotiations will be found in
Wagenaar, lxi. He had access to Witsen's papers, and has quoted
largely from them. It was Witsen who signed in violent agitation,
"zo als" he says, "myne beevende hand getuigen kan." The treaties
will be found in Dumont's Corps Diplomatique. They were signed in
August 1689.

FN 453 The treaty between the Emperor and the States General is
dated May 12. 1689. It will be found in Dumont's Corps

FN 454 See the despatch of Waldeck in the London Gazette, Aug.
26, 1689; historical Records of the First Regiment of Foot;
Dangeau, Aug. 28.; Monthly Mercury, September 1689.

FN 455 See the Dear Bargain, a Jacobite pamphlet clandestinely
printed in 1690. "I have not patience," says the writer, "after
this wretch (Marlborough) to mention any other. All are innocent
comparatively, even Kirke himself."

FN 456 See the Mercuries for September 1689, and the four
following months. See also Welwood's Mercurius Reformatus of
Sept. 18. Sept. 25. and Oct. 8. 1689. Melfort's Instructions, and
his memorials to the Pope and the Cardinal of Este, are among the
Nairne Papers; and some extracts have been printed by Macpherson.

FN 457 See the Answer of a Nonjuror to the Bishop of Sarum's
challenge in the Appendix to the Life of Kettlewell. Among the
Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian Library is a paper which, as Sancroft
thought it worth preserving, I venture to quote. The writer, a
strong nonjuror, after trying to evade, by many pitiable shifts
the argument drawn by a more compliant divine from the practice
of the primitive Church, proceeds thus: "Suppose the primitive
Christians all along, from the time of the very Apostles, had
been as regardless of their oaths by former princes as he
suggests will he therefore say that their practice is to be a
rule? Ill things have been done, and very generally abetted, by
men of otherwise very orthodox principles." The argument from the
practice of the primitive Christians is remarkably well put in a
tract entitled The Doctrine of Nonresistance or Passive Obedience
No Way concerned in the Controversies now depending between the
Williamites and the Jacobites, by a Lay Gentleman, of the
Communion of the Church of England, as by Law establish'd, 1689.

FN 458 One of the most adulatory addresses ever voted by a
Convocation was to Richard the Third. It will be found in
Wilkins's Concilia. Dryden, in his fine rifacimento of one of the
finest passages in the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales,
represents the Good Parson as choosing to resign his benefice
rather than acknowledge the Duke of Lancaster to be King of
England. For this representation no warrant can be found in
Chaucer's Poem, or any where else. Dryden wished to write
something that would gall the clergy who had taken the oaths, and
therefore attributed to a Roman Catholic priest of the fourteenth
century a superstition which originated among the Anglican
priests of the seventeenth century.

FN 459 See the defence of the profession which the Right Reverend
Father in God John Lake, Lord Bishop of Chichester, made upon his
deathbed concerning passive obedience and the new oaths. 1690.

FN 460 London Gazette, June 30. 1689; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.
"The eminentest men," says Luttrell.

FN 461 See in Kettlewell's Life, iii. 72., the retractation drawn
by him for a clergyman who had taken the oaths, and who
afterwards repented of having done so.

FN 462 See the account of Dr. Dove's conduct in Clarendon's
Diary, and the account of Dr. Marsh's conduct in the Life of

FN 463 The Anatomy of a Jacobite Tory, 1690.

FN 464 Dialogue between a Whig and a Tory.

FN 465 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary, Nov. 1697, Feb. 1692.

FN 466 Life of Kettlewell, iii. 4.

FN 467 See Turner's Letter to Sancroft, dated on Ascension Day,
1689. The original is among the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian
Library. But the letter will be found with much other curious
matter in the Life of Ken by a Layman, lately published. See also
the Life of Kettlewell, iii. 95.; and Ken's letter to Burnet,
dated Oct. 5. 1689, in Hawkins's Life of Ken. "I am sure," Lady
Russell wrote to Dr. Fitzwilliam, "the Bishop of Bath and Wells
excited others to comply, when he could not bring himself to do
so, but rejoiced when others did." Ken declared that he had
advised nobody to take the oaths, and that his practice had been
to remit those who asked his advice to their own studies and
prayers. Lady Russell's assertion and Ken's denial will be found
to come nearly to the same thing, when we make those allowances
which ought to be made for situation and feeling, even in
weighing the testimony of the most veracious witnesses. Ken,
having at last determined to cast in his lot with the nonjurors,
naturally tried to vindicate his consistency as far as he
honestly could. Lady Russell, wishing to induce her friend to
take the oaths, naturally made as munch of Ken's disposition to
compliance as she honestly could. She went too far in using the
word "excited." On the other hand it is clear that Ken, by
remitting those who consulted him to their own studies and
prayers, gave them to understand that, in his opinion, the oath
was lawful to those who, after a serious inquiry, thought it
lawful. If people had asked him whether they might lawfully
commit perjury or adultery, he would assuredly have told them,
not to consider the point maturely and to implore the divine
direction, but to abstain on peril of their souls.

FN 468 See the conversation of June 9. 1784, in Boswell's Life of
Johnson, and the note. Boswell, with his usual absurdity, is sure
that Johnson could not have recollected "that the seven bishops,
so justly celebrated for their magnanimous resistance to
arbitrary power, were yet nonjurors." Only five of the seven were
nonjurors; and anybody but Boswell would have known that a man
may resist arbitrary power, and yet not be a good reasoner. Nay,
the resistance which Sancroft and the other nonjuring bishops
offered to arbitrary power, while they continued to hold the
doctrine of nonresistance, is the most decisive proof that they
were incapable of reasoning. It must be remembered that they were
prepared to take the whole kingly power from James and to bestow
it on William, with the title of Regent. Their scruple was merely
about the word King.

I am surprised that Johnson should have pronounced William Law no
reasoner. Law did indeed fall into great errors; but they were
errors against which logic affords no security. In mere
dialectical skill he had very few superiors. That he was more
than once victorious over Hoadley no candid Whig will deny. But
Law did not belong to the generation with which I have now to do.

FN 469 Ware's History of the Writers of Ireland, continued by

FN 470 Letter to a member of the Convention, 1689

FN 471 Johnson's Notes on the Phoenix Edition of Burnet's
Pastoral Letter, 1692.

FN 472 The best notion of Hickes's character will be formed from
his numerous controversial writings, particularly his Jovian,
written in 1684, his Thebaean Legion no Fable, written in 1687,
though not published till 1714, and his discourses upon Dr.
Burnet and Dr. Tillotson, 1695. His literary fame rests on works
of a very different kind.

FN 473 Collier's Tracts on the Stage are, on the whole his best
pieces. But there is much that is striking in his political
pamphlets. His "Persuasive to Consider anon, tendered to the
Royalists, particularly those of the Church of England," seems to
me one of the best productions of the Jacobite press.

FN 474 See Brokesby's Life of Dodwell. The Discourse against
Marriages in different Communions is known to me, I ought to say,
only from Brokesby's copious abstract. That Discourse is very
rare. It was originally printed as a preface to a sermon preached
by Leslie. When Leslie collected his works he omitted the
discourse, probably because he was ashamed of it. The Treatise on
the Lawfulness of Instrumental Music I have read; and incredibly
absurd it is.

FN 475 Dodwell tells us that the title of the work in which he
first promulgated this theory was framed with great care and
precision. I will therefore transcribe the title-page. "An
Epistolary Discourse proving from Scripture and the First Fathers
that the Soul is naturally Mortal, but Immortalized actually by
the Pleasure of God to Punishment or to Reward, by its Union with
the Divine Baptismal Spirit, wherein is proved that none have the
Power of giving this Divine Immortalizing Spirit since the
Apostles but only the Bishops. By H. Dodwell." Dr. Clarke, in a
Letter to Dodwell (1706), says that this Epistolary Discourse is
"a book at which all good men are sorry, and all profane men

FN 476 See Leslie's Rehearsals, No. 286, 287.

FN 477 See his works, and the highly curious life of him which
was compiled from the papers of his friends Hickes and Nelson.

FN 478 See Fitzwilliam's correspondence with Lady Russell, and
his evidence on the trial of Ashton, in the State Trials. The
only work which Fitzwilliam, as far as I have been able to
discover, ever published was a sermon on the Rye House Plot,
preached a few weeks after Russell's execution. There are some
sentences in this sermon which I a little wonder that the widow
and the family forgave.

FN 479 Cyprian, in one of his Epistles, addresses the confessors
thus: "Quosdam audio inficere numerum vestrum, et laudem
praecipui nominis prava sua conversatione destruere. . . Cum
quanto nominis vestri pudore delinquitur quando alius aliquis
temulentus et lasciviens demoratur; alius in eam patriam unde
extorris est regreditur, ut deprehensus non eam quasi
Christianus, sed quasi nocens pereat." He uses still stronger
language in the book de Unitate Ecclesiae: "Neque enim confessio
immunem facet ab insidiis diaboli, aut contra tentationes et
pericula et incursus atque impetus saeculares adhuc in saeculo
positum perpetua securitate defendit; caeterum nunquam in
confessoribus fraudes et stupra et adulteria postmodum videremus,
quae nunc in quibusdam videntes ingemiscimus et dolemus."

FN 480 Much curious information about the nonjurors will be found
in the Biographical Memoirs of William Bowyer, printer, which
forms the first volume of Nichols's Literary Anecdotes of the
eighteenth century. A specimen of Wagstaffe's prescriptions is in
the Bodleian Library.

FN 481 Cibber's play, as Cibber wrote it, ceased to he popular
when the Jacobites ceased to be formidable, and is now known only
to the curious. In 1768 Bickerstaffe altered it into the
Hypocrite, and substituted Dr. Cantwell, the Methodist, for Dr.
Wolfe, the Nonjuror. "I do not think," said Johnson, "the
character of the Hypocrite justly applicable to the Methodists;
but it was very applicable to the nonjurors." Boswell asked him
if it were true that the nonjuring clergymen intrigued with the
wives of their patrons. "I am afraid," said Johnson, "many of
them did." This conversation took place on the 27th of March
I775. It was not merely in careless tally that Johnson expressed
an unfavourable opinion of the nonjurors. In his Life of Fenton,
who was a nonjuror, are these remarkable words: "It must be
remembered that he kept his name unsullied, and never suffered
himself to be reduced, like too many of the same sect to mean
arts and dishonourable shifts." See the Character of a Jacobite,
1690. Even in Kettlewell's Life compiled from the papers of his
friends Hickes and Nelson, will be found admissions which show
that, very soon after the schism, some of the nonjuring clergy
fell into habits of idleness, dependence, and mendicancy, which
lowered the character of the whole party. "Several undeserving
persons, who are always the most confident, by their going up and
down, did much prejudice to the truly deserving, whose modesty
would not suffer them to solicit for themselves . . . . . . Mr.
Kettlewell was also very sensible that some of his brethren spent
too much of their time in places of concourse and news, by
depending for their subsistence upon those whom they there got
acquainted with."

FN 482 Reresby's Memoirs, 344

FN 483 Birch's Life of Tillotson.

FN 484 See the Discourse concerning the Ecclesiastical
Commission, 1689.

FN 485 Birch's Life of Tillotson; Life of Prideaux; Gentleman's
Magazine for June and July, 1745.

FN 486 Diary of the Proceedings of the Commissioners, taken by
Dr. Williams afterwards Bishop of Chichester, one of the
Commissioners, every night after he went home from the several
meetings. This most curious Diary was printed by order of the
House of Commons in 1854.

FN 487 Williams's Diary.

FN 488 Williams's Diary.

FN 489 Ibid.

FN 490 See the alterations in the Book of Common Prayer prepared
by the Royal Commissioners for the revision of the Liturgy in
1689, and printed by order of the House of Commons in 1854.

FN 491 It is difficult to conceive stronger or clearer language
than that used by the Council. Touton toinun anagnosthenton
orisan e agia sunodos, eteran pistin medeni ekseinai prospherein,
egoun suggraphein, e suntithenia, para ten oristheisan para ton
agion pateron ton en te Nikaeon sunegthonton sun agio pneumati
tous de tolmontas e suntithenai pistin eteran, egoun prokomizein,
e prospherein tois ethegousin epistrephein eis epignosin tes
agetheias e eks Ellinismou e eks Ioudaismon, i eks aireseos
oiasdepotoun, toutous, ei men eien episkopoi i klerikoi,
allotrious einai tous episkopon, tes episkopes, kai tous
klerikous ton kliron ei de laikoi eien, agathematizesthai--
Concil. Ephes. Actio VI.

FN 492 Williams's Diary; Alterations in the Book of Common

FN 493 It is curious to consider how those great masters of the
Latin tongue who used to sup with Maecenas and Pollio would have
been perplexed by "Tibi Cherubim et Seraphim incessabili voce
proclamant, Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth;" or
by "Ideo cum angelis et archangelis, cum thronis et

FN 494 I will give two specimens of Patrick's workmanship. "He
maketh me," says David, "to lie down in green pastures: he
leadeth me beside the still waters." Patrick's version is as
follows: "For as a good shepherd leads his sheep in the violent
heat to shady places, where they may lie down and feed (not in
parched but) in fresh and green pastures, and in the evening
leads them (not to muddy and troubled waters, but) to pure and
quiet streams; so hath he already made a fair and plentiful
provision for me, which I enjoy in peace without any

In the Song of Solomon is an exquisitely beautiful verse. "I
charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, if ye find my beloved, that
ye tell him that I am sick of love." Patrick's version runs thus:
"So I turned myself to those of my neighbours and familiar
acquaintance who were awakened by my cries to come and see what
the matter was; and conjured them, as they would answer it to
God, that, if they met with my beloved, they would let him know--
What shall I say?--What shall I desire you to tell him but that I
do not enjoy myself now that I want his company, nor can be well
till I recover his love again."

FN 495 William's dislike of the Cathedral service is
sarcastically noticed by Leslie in the Rehearsal, No. 7. See also
a Letter from a Member of the House of Commons to his Friend in
the Country, 1689, and Bisset's Modern Fanatic, 1710.

FN 496 See the Order in Council of Jan. 9. 1683.

FN 497 See Collier's Desertion discussed, 1689. Thomas Carte, who
was a disciple, and, at one time, an assistant of Collier,
inserted, so late as the year 1747, in a bulky History of
England, an exquisitely absurd note in which he assured the world
that, to his certain knowledge, the Pretender had cured the
scrofula, and very gravely inferred that the healing virtue was
transmitted by inheritance, and was quite independent of any
unction. See Carte's History of England, vol, i. page 297.

FN 498 See the Preface to a Treatise on Wounds, by Richard
Wiseman, Sergeant Chirurgeon to His Majesty, 1676. But the
fullest information on this curious subject will he found in the
Charisma Basilicon, by John Browne, Chirurgeon in ordinary to His
Majesty, 1684. See also The Ceremonies used in the Time of King
Henry VII. for the Healing of them that be Diseased with the
King's Evil, published by His Majesty's Command, 1686; Evelyn's
Diary, March 18. 1684; and Bishop Cartwright's Diary, August 28,
29, and 30. 1687. It is incredible that so large a proportion of
the population should have been really scrofulous. No doubt many
persons who had slight and transient maladies were brought to the
king, and the recovery of these persons kept up the vulgar belief
in the efficacy of his touch.

FN 499 Paris Gazette, April 23. 1689.

FN 500 See Whiston's Life of himself. Poor Whiston, who believed
in every thing but the Trinity, tells us gravely that the single
person whom William touched was cured, notwithstanding His
Majesty's want of faith. See also the Athenian Mercury of January
16. 1691.

FN 501 In several recent publications the apprehension that
differences might arise between the Convocation of York and the
Convocation of Canterbury has been contemptuously pronounced
chimerical. But it is not easy to understand why two independent
Convocations should be less likely to differ than two Houses of
the same Convocation; and it is matter of notoriety that, in the
reigns of William the Third and Anne, the two Houses of the
Convocation of Canterbury scarcely ever agreed.

FN 502 Birch's Life of Tillotson; Life of Prideaux. From
Clarendon's Diary, it appears that he and Rochester were at
Oxford on the 23rd of September.

FN 503 See the Roll in the Historical Account of the present
Convocation, appended to the second edition of Vox Cleri, 1690.
The most considerable name that I perceive in the list of
proctors chosen by the parochial clergy is that of Dr. John Mill,
the editor of the Greek Testament.

FN 504 Tillotson to Lady Russell, April 19. 1690.

FN 505 Birch's Life of Tillotson. The account there given of the
coldness between Compton and Tillotson was taken by Birch from
the MSS. of Henry Wharton, and is confirmed by many circumstances
which are known from other sources of intelligence.

FN 506 Chamberlayne's State of England, 18th edition.

FN 507 Condo ad Synodum per Gulielmum Beveregium, 1689.

FN 508 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary; Historical Account of the
Present Convocation.

FN 509 Kennet's History, iii. 552.

FN 510 Historical Account of the Present Convocation, 1689.

FN 511 Historical Account of the Present Convocation; Burnet, ii.
58.; Kennet's History of the Reign of William and Mary.

FN 512 Historical Account of the Present Convocation; Kennet's

FN 513 Historical Account of the Present Convocation; Kennet.

FN 514 Historical Account of the Present Convocation.

FN 515 That there was such a jealousy as I have described is
admitted in the pamphlet entitled Vox Cleri. "Some country
ministers now of the Convocation, do now see in what great ease
and plenty the City ministers live, who have their readers and
lecturers, and frequent supplies, and sometimes tarry in the
vestry till prayers be ended, and have great dignities in the
Church, besides their rich parishes in the City." The author of
this tract, once widely celebrated, was Thomas Long, proctor for
the clergy of the diocese of Exeter. In another pamphlet,
published at this time, the rural clergymen are said to have seen
with an evil eye their London brethren refreshing themselves with
sack after preaching. Several satirical allusions to the fable of
the Town Mouse and the Country Mouse will be found in the
pamphlets of that winter.

FN 516 Barnet, ii, 33, 34. The best narratives of what passed in
this Convocation are the Historical Account appended to the
second edition of Vox Cleri, and the passage in Kennet's History
to which I have already referred the reader. The former narrative
is by a very high churchman, the latter by a very low churchman.
Those who are desirous of obtaining fuller information must
consult the contemporary pamphlets. Among them are Vox Populi;
Vox Laici; Vox Regis et Regni; the Healing Attempt; the Letter to
a Friend, by Dean Prideaux the Letter from a Minister in the
Country to a Member of the Convocation; the Answer to the Merry
Answer to Vox Cleri; the Remarks from the Country upon two
Letters relating to the Convocation; the Vindication of the
Letters in answer to Vox Cleri; the Answer to the Country
Minister's Letter. All these tracts appeared late in 1689 or
early in 1690.

FN 517 "Halifax a eu une reprimande severe publiquement dans le
conseil par le Prince d'Orange pour avoir trop balance."--Avaux
to De Croissy, Dublin, June 1689. "his mercurial Wit," says
Burnet, ii. 4., "was not well suited with the King's phlegm."

FN 518 Clarendon's Diary, Oct. 10 1689; Lords' Journals, Oct. 19.

FN 519 Commons' Journals, Oct. 24. 1689.

FN 520 Ibid., Nov. 2. 1689.

FN 521 Commons' Journals, Nov. 7. 19., Dec. 30 1689. The rule of
the House then was that no petition could be received against the
imposition of a tax. This rule was, after a very hard fight,
rescinded in 1842. The petition of the Jews was not received, and
is not mentioned in the Journals. But something may be learned
about it from Narcissus Luttrell's Diary and from Grey's Debates,
Nov. 19. 1689,

FN 522 James, in the very treatise in which he tried to prove the
Pope to be Antichrist, says "For myself, if that were yet the
question, I would with all my heart give my consent that the
Bishop of Rome should have the first seat." There is a remarkable
letter on this subject written by James to Charles and
Buckingham, when they were in Spain. Heylyn, speaking of Laud's
negotiation with Rome, says: "So that upon the point the Pope was
to content himself among us in England with a priority instead of
a superiority over other Bishops, and with a primacy instead of a
supremacy in those parts of Christendom, which I conceive no man
of learning and sobriety would have grudged to grant him,"

FN 523 Stat. 1 W & M. sess. 2. c 2.

FN 524 Treasury Minute Book, Nov. 3. 1689.

FN 525 Commons' Journals and Grey's Debates, Nov. 13, 14. 18. 19.
23. 28. 1689.

FN 526 Commons' Journals and Grey's Debates, November 26. and 27.

FN 527 Commons' Journals, November 28., December 2. 1689.

FN 528 Commons' Journals and Grey's Debates, November 30.,
December 2 1689.

FN 529 London Gazette, Septemher 2 1689; Observations upon Mr.
Walker's Account of the Siege of Londonderry, licensed October 4.
1689; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary; Mr. J. Mackenzie's Narrative a
False Libel, a Defence of Mr. G. Walker written by his Friend in
his Absence, 1690.

FN 530 Walker's True Account, 1689; An Apology for the Failures
charged on the True Account, 1689; Reflections on the Apology,
1689; A Vindication of the True Account by Walker, 1689;
Mackenzie's Narrative, 1690; Mr. Mackenzie's Narrative a False
Libel, 1690; Dr. Walker's Invisible Champion foyled by Mackenzie,
1690; Weiwood's Mercurius Reformatus, Dec. 4. and 11 1689. The
Oxford editor of Burnet's History expresses his surprise at the
silence which the Bishop observes about Walker. In the Burnet MS.
Harl. 6584. there is an animated panegyric on Walker. Why that
panegyric does not appear in the History, I am at a loss to

FN 531 Commons' Journals, November 18 and 19. 1689; and Grey's

FN 532 Wade's Confession, Harl. MS. 6845.

FN 533 See the Preface to the First Edition of his Memoirs,
Vevay, 1698.

FN 534 "Colonel Ludlow, an old Oliverian, and one of King Charles
the First his Judges, is arrived lately in this kingdom from
Switzerland."-Narcissus Luttrell's Diary, September 1689.

FN 535 Third Caveat against the Whigs, 1712.

FN 536 Commons' Journals, November 6. and 8. 1689; Grey's
Debates; London Gazette, November 18.

FN 537 "Omme solum forti patria, quia patris." See Addison's
Travels. It is a remarkable circumstance that Addison, though a
Whig, speaks of Ludlow in language which would better have become
a Tory, and sneers at the inscription as cant.

FN 538 Commons' Journals, Nov. 1. 7. 1689.

FN 539 Roger North's Life of Dudley North.

FN 540 Commons' Journals, Oct. 26. 1689.

FN 541 Lords' Journals, October 26. and 27. 1689.

FN 542 Commons' Journals, Oct. 26. 1689.

FN 543 Commons' Journals, Oct. 26. 1689; Wood's Athenae
Oxonienses; Dod's Church History, VIII. ii. 3.

FN 544 Commons' Journals, October 28. 5689. The proceedings will
be found in the collection of State Trials.

FN 545 Lords' Journals, Nov. 2. and 6. 1689.

FN 546 Lords' Journals, Dec. 20. 1689; Life of Dudley North.

FN 547 The report is in the Lords' Journals, Dec. 20. 1689.
Hampden's examination was on the 18th of November.

FN 548 This, I think, is clear from a letter of Lady Montague to
Lady Russell, dated Dec. 23. 1689, three days after the Committee
of Murder had reported.

FN 549 Commons' Journals, Dec. 14. 1689; Grey's Debates; Boyer's
Life of William.

FN 550 Commons' Journals, Dec. 21.; Grey's Debates; Oldmixon.

FN 551 Commons' Journals, Jan. 2. 1689/90

FN 552 Thus, I think, must be understood some remarkable words in
a letter written by William to Portland, on the day after
Sacheverell's bold and unexpected move. William calculates the
amount of the supplies, and then says: "S'ils n'y mettent des
conditions que vous savez, c'est une bonne affaire: mais les
Wigges sont si glorieux d'avoir vaincu qu'ils entreprendront

FN 553 "The authority of the chair, the awe and reverence to
order, and the due method of debates being irrecoverably lost by
the disorder and tumultuousness of the House."--Sir J. Trevor to
the King, Appendix to Dalrymple's Memoirs, Part ii. Book 4.

FN 554 Commons' Journals, Jan. 10. 1689/90 I have done my best to
frame an account of this contest out of very defective materials.
Burnet's narrative contains more blunders than lines. He
evidently trusted to his memory, and was completely deceived by
it. My chief authorities are the Journals; Grey's Debates;
William's Letters to Portland; the Despatches of Van Citters; a
Letter concerning the Disabling Clauses, lately offered to the
House of Commons, for regulating Corporations, 1690; The True
Friends to Corporations vindicated, in an answer to a letter
concerning the Disabling Clauses, 1690; and Some Queries
concerning the Election of Members for the ensuing Parliament,
1690. To this last pamphlet is appended a list of those who voted
for the Sacheverell Clause. See also Clarendon's Diary, Jan. 10.
1689/90, and the Third Part of the Caveat against the Whigs,
1712. William's Letter of the 10th of January ends thus. The news
of the first division only had reached Kensington. "Il est a
present onze eures de nuit, et dix eures la Chambre Basse estoit
encore ensemble. Ainsi je ne vous puis escrire par cette
ordinaire l'issue de l'affaire. Les previos questions les Tories
l'ont emporte de cinq vois. Ainsi vous pouvez voir que la chose
est bien disputee. J'ay si grand somiel, et mon toux m'incomode
que je ne vous en saurez dire davantage. Josques a mourir a

On the same night Van Citters wrote to the States General. The
debate he said, had been very sharp. The design of the Whigs,
whom he calls the Presbyterians, had been nothing less than to
exclude their opponents from all offices, and to obtain for
themselves the exclusive possession of power.

FN 555 Commons' Journals, Jan. 11 1689/90.

FN 556 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary, Jan. 16. 1690; Van Citters to
the States General, Jan. 21/31

FN 557 Commons' Journals, Jan. 16. 1689/90

FN 558 Roger North's Life of Guildford.

FN 559 See the account of the proceedings in the collection of
State Trials.

FN 560 Commons' Journals, Jan. 20. 1689/90; Grey's Debates, Jan.
18. and 20.

FN 561 Commons' Journals, Jan. 21. 1689/90 On the same day
William wrote thus from Kensington to Portland: "C'est
aujourd'hui le grand jour l'eguard du Bill of Indemnite. Selon
tout ce que is puis aprendre, il y aura beaucoup de chaleur, et
rien determiner; et de la maniere que la chose est entourre, il
n'y a point d'aparence que cette affaire viene a aucune
conclusion. Et ainsi il se pouroit que la cession fust fort
courts; n'ayant plus dargent a esperer; et les esprits
s'aigrissent ton contre l'autre de plus en plus." Three days
later Van Citters informed the States General that the excitement
about the Bill of Indemnity was extreme.

FN 562 Burnet, ii. 39.; MS. Memoir written by the first Lord
Lonsdale in the Mackintosh Papers.

FN 563 Burnet, ii. 40.

FN 564 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary, January and February.

FN 565 William to Portland, Jan. 10/20 1690. "Les Wiges ont peur
de me perdre trop tost, avant qu'ils n'ayent fait avec moy ce
qu'ils veulent: car, pour leur amitie, vous savez ce qu'il y a a
compter ladessus en ce pays icy." Jan. 14/24 "Me voila le plus
embarasse du monde, ne sachant quel parti prendre, estant
toujours persuade que, sans que j'aille en Irlande, l'on n'y
faira rien qui vaille. Pour avoir du conseil en cette affaire, je
n'en ay point a attendre, personne n'ausant dire ses sentimens.
Et l'on commence deja a dire ouvertement que ce sont des traitres
qui m'ont conseille de preudre cette resolution." Jan. 21/31 "Je
nay encore rien dit,"--he means to the Parliament,--"de mon
voyage pour l'Irlande. Et je ne suis point encore determine si
j'en parlerez: mais je crains que nonobstant j'aurez une adresse
pour n'y point aller ce qui m'embarassera beaucoup, puis que
c'est une necssite absolue que j'y aille."

FN 566 William to Portland, Jan 28/Feb 7 1690; Van Citters to the
States General, same date; Evelyn's Diary; Lords' Journals, Jan.
27. I will quote William's own words. "Vous voirez mon harangue
imprimee: ainsi je ne vous en direz rien. Et pour les raisone qui
m'y ont oblige, je les reserverez a vous les dire jusques a
vostre retour. Il semble que les Toris en sont bien aise, male
point les Wiggs. Ils estoient tous fort surpris quand je leur
parlois, n'ayant communique mon dessin qu'a une seule personne.
Je vie des visages long comme un aune, change de couleur vingt
fois pendant que je parlois. Tous ces particularites jusques a
vostre heureux retour."

FN 567 Evelyn's Diary; Clarendon's Diary, Feb. 9. 1690; Van
Citters to the States General, Jan 31/Feb 10.; Lonsdale MS.
quoted by Dalrymple.

FN 568 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary

FN 569 Clarendon's Diary, Feb. 11. 1690.

FN 570 Van Citters to the States General, February 14/24. 1690;
Evelyn's Diary.

FN 571 William to Portland, Feb 28/March 10 29. 1690; Van
Citters to the States General, March 4/14; Narcissus Luttrell's

FN 572 Van Citters, March 11/21 1689/90; Narcissus Luttrell's

FN 573 Van Citters to the States General, March 11/21 1690.

FN 574 The votes were for Sawyer 165, for Finch 141, for Bennet,
whom I suppose to have been a Whig, 87. At the University every
voter delivers his vote in writing. One of the votes given on
this occasion is in the following words, "Henricus Jenkes, ex
amore justitiae, eligit virum consultissimum Robertum Sawyer."

FN 575 Van Citters to the States General, March 18/28 1690.

FN 576 It is amusing to see how absurdly foreign pamphleteers,
ignorant of the real state of things in England, exaggerated the
importance of John Hampden, whose name they could not spell. In a
French Dialogue between William and the Ghost of Monmouth,
William says, "Entre ces membres de la Chambre Basse etoit un
certain homme hardy, opiniatre, et zele a l'exces pour sa
creance; on l'appelle Embden, egalement dangereux par son esprit
et par son credit. . . . je ne trouvay point de chemin plus court
pour me delivrer de cette traverse que de casser le parlement, en
convoquer un autre, et empescher que cet homme, qui me faisoit
tant d'ombrages, ne fust nomme pour un des deputez au nouvel
parlement." "Ainsi," says the Ghost, "cette cassation de
parlement qui a fait tant de bruit, et a produit tant de
raisonnemens et de speculations, n'estoit que pour exclure
Embden. Mais s'il estoit si adroit et si zele, comment as-tu pu
trouver le moyen de le faire exclure du nombre des deputez?" To
this very sensible question the King answers, "Il m'a fallu faire
d'etranges manoeuvres pour en venir a bout."--L'Ombre de
Monmouth, 1690.

FN 577 "A present tout dependra d'un bon succes en Irlande; et a
quoy il faut que je m'aplique entierement pour regler le mieux
que je puis toutte chose. . . . je vous asseure que je n'ay pas
peu sur les bras, estant aussi mal assiste que je suis."-William
to Portland, Jan 28/Feb 7 1690.

FN 578 Van Citters, Feb. 14/24 1689/90; Memoir of the Earl of
Chesterfield by himself; Halifax to Chesterfield, Feb. 6.;
Chesterfield to Halifax, Feb 8. The editor of the letters of the
second Earl of Chesterfield, not allowing for the change of
style, has misplaced this correspondence by a year.

FN 579 Van Citters to the States General, Feb. 11/21 1690.

FN 580 A strange peculiarity of his constitution is mentioned in
an account of him which was published a few months after his
death. See the volume entitled "Lives and Characters of the most
Illustrious Persons, British and Foreign, who died in the year

FN 581 Monmouth's pension and the good understanding between him
and the Court are mentioned in a letter from a Jacobite agent in
England, which is in the Archives of the French War Office. The
date is April 8/18 1690.

FN 582 The grants of land obtained by Delamere are mentioned by
Narcissus Luttrell. It appears from the Treasury Letter Book of
1690 that Delamere continued to dim the government for money
after his retirement. As to his general character it would not be
safe to trust the representations of satirists. But his own
writings, and the admissions of the divine who preached his
funeral sermon, show that his temper was not the most gentle.
Clarendon remarks (Dec. 17. 1688) that a little thing sufficed to
put Lord Delamere into a passion. In the poem entitled the King
of Hearts, Delamere is described as--

"A restless malecontent even when preferred."

His countenance furnished a subject for satire:

"His boding looks a mind distracted show;
And envy sits engraved upon his brow."

FN 583 My notion of Lowther's character has been chiefly formed
from two papers written by himself, one of which has been
printed, though I believe not published. A copy of the other is
among the Mackintosh MSS. Something I have taken from
contemporary satires. That Lowther was too ready to expose his
life in private encounters is sufficiently proved by the fact
that, when he was First Lord of the Treasury, he accepted a
challenge from a custom house officer whom he had dismissed.
There was a duel; and Lowther was severely wounded. This event is
mentioned in Luttrell's Diary, April 1690.

FN 584 Burnet, ii. 76

FN 585 Roger North's Life of Guildford.

FN 586 Till some years after this time the First Lord of the
Treasury was always the man of highest rank at the Board. Thus
Monmouth, Delamere and Godolphin took their places according to
the order of precedence in which they stood as peers.

FN 587 The dedication, however, was thought too laudatory. "The
only thing," Mr. Pope used to say, "he could never forgive his
philosophic master was the dedication to the Essay."--Ruffhead's
Life of Pope.

FN 588 Van Citters to the States General April 25/May 5, 1690.
Narcissus Luttrell's Diary; Treasury Letter Book, Feb. 4. 1689/90

FN 589 The Dialogue between a Lord Lieutenant and one of his
Deputies will not be found in the collection of Warrington's
writings which was published in 1694, under the sanction, as it
should seem, of his family.

FN 590 Van Citters, to the States General, March 18/28 April 4/14
1690; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary; Burnet, ii. 72.; The Triennial
Mayor, or the Rapparees, a Poem, 1691. The poet says of one of
the new civic functionaries:

"Soon his pretence to conscience we can rout,
And in a bloody jury find him out,
Where noble Publius worried was with rogues."

FN 591 Treasury Minute Book, Feb. 5. 1689/90

FN 592 Van Citters, Feb. 11/21 Mar. 14/24 Mar. 18/28 1690.

FN 593 Van Citters, March 14/24 1690. The sermon is extant. It
was preached at Bow Church before the Court of Aldermen.

FN 594 Welwood's Mercurius Reformatus, Feb. 12. 1690.

FN 595 Commons' Journals, March 20, 21, 22. 1689/89

FN 596 Commons Journals, March 28. 1690, and March 1. and March
20. 1688/9

FN 597 Grey's Debates, March 27. and 28 1690.

FN 598 Commons' Journals, Mar. 28. 1690. A very clear and exact
account of the way in which the revenue was settled was sent by
Van Citters to the States General, April 7/17 1690.

FN 599 Burnet, ii. 43.

FN 600 In a contemporary lampoon are these lines:

"Oh, happy couple! In their life
There does appear no sign of strife.
They do agree so in the main,
To sacrifice their souls for gain."

The Female Nine, 1690.

FN 601 Swift mentions the deficiency of hospitality and
magnificence in her household. Journal to Stella, August 8. 1711.

FN 602 Duchess of Marlborough's Vindication. But the Duchess was
so abandoned a liar, that it is impossible to believe a word that
she says, except when she accuses herself.

FN 603 See the Female Nine.

FN 604 The Duchess of Marlborough's Vindication. With that
habitual inaccuracy, which, even when she has no motive for
lying, makes it necessary to read every word written by her with
suspicion, she creates Shrewsbury a Duke, and represents herself
as calling him "Your Grace." He was not made a Duke till 1694.

FN 605 Commons' Journals, December 17 and 18 1689.

FN 606 Vindication of the Duchess of Marlborough.

FN 607 Van Citters, April 8/18 1690.

FN 608 Van Citters, April 8/18 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.

FN 609 Lords' Journals, April 8. and 10 1690; Burnet, ii. 41.

FN 610 Van Citters, April 25/May 5 1690.

FN 611 Commons' Journals, April 8. and 9. 1690; Grey's Debates;
Burnet, ii. 42. Van Citters, writing on the 8th, mentions that a
great struggle in the Lower House was expected.

FN 612 Commons' Journals, April 24. 1690; Grey's Debates.

FN 613 Commons' Journals, April 24, 25, and 26; Grey's Debates;
Narcissus Luttrell's Diary. Narcissus is unusually angry. He
calls the bill "a perfect trick of the fanatics to turn out the
Bishops and most of the Church of England Clergy." In a Whig
pasquinade entitled "A speech intended to have been spoken on the
Triennial Bill, on Jan. 28. 1692/3 the King is said to have
"browbeaten the Abjuration Bill."

FN 614 Lords' Journals, May 1. 1690. This bill is among the
Archives of the House of Lords. Burnet confounds it with the bill
which the Commons had rejected in the preceding week. Ralph, who
saw that Burnet had committed a blunder, but did not see what the
blunder was, has, in trying to correct it, added several blunders
of his own; and the Oxford editor of Burnet has been misled by

FN 615 Lords' Journals, May 2. and 3. 1690; Van Citters, May 2.;
Narcissus Luttrell's Diary; Burnet, ii. 44.; and Lord Dartmouth's
note. The changes made by the Committee may be seen on the bill
in the Archives of the House of Lords.

FN 616 These distinctions were much discussed at the time. Van
Citters, May 20/30 1690.

FN 617 Stat. 2 W.&M. sess. 1. C. 10.

FN 618 Roger North was one of the many malecontents who were
never tired of harping on this string.

FN 619 Stat. 2 W.&M. sess. 1. c. 6.; Grey's Debates, April 29.,
May 1. 5, 6, 7. 1690.

FN 620 Story's Impartial History; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.

FN 621 Avaux, Jan. 15/25 1690.

FN 622 Macariae Excidium. This most curious work has been
recently edited with great care and diligence by Mr. O'Callaghan.
I owe so much to his learning and industry that I most readily
excuse the national partiality which sometimes, I cannot but
think, perverts his judgment. When I quote the Macariae Excidium,
I always quote the Latin text. The English version is, I am
convinced, merely a translation from the Latin, and a very
careless and imperfect translation.

FN 623 Avaux, Nov. 14/24 1689.

FN 624 Louvois writes to Avaux, Dec 26/Jan 5 1689/90. "Comme le
Roy a veu par vos lettres que le Roy d'Angleterre craignoit de
manquer de cuivre pour faire de la monnoye, Sa Majeste a donne
ordre, que l'on mist sur le bastiment qui portera cette lettre
une piece de canon du calibre de deux qui est eventee, de
laquelle ceux qui travaillent a la monnoye du Roy d'Angleterre
pourront se servir pour continuer a faire de la monnoye."

FN 625 Louvois to Avaux, Nov. 1/11. 1689. The force sent by Lewis
to Ireland appears by the lists at the French War Office to have
amounted to seven thousand two hundred and ninety-one men of all
ranks. At the French War Office is a letter from Marshal
d'Estrees who saw the four Irish regiments soon after they had
landed at Brest. He describes them as "mal chausses, mal vetus,
et n'ayant point d'uniforme dans leurs habits, si ce n'est qu'ils
sont tous fort mauvais." A very exact account of Macarthy's
breach of parole will be found in Mr. O'Callaghan's History of
the Irish Brigades. I am sorry that a writer to whom I owe so
much should try to vindicate conduct which, as described by
himself, was in the highest degree dishonourable.

FN 626 Lauzun to Louvois. May 28/June 7 and June 1 1690, at the
French War Office.

FN 627 See the later letters of Avaux.

FN 628 Avaux to Louvois, March 14/24 1690; Lauzun to Louvois
March 23/April 3

FN 629 Story's Impartial History; Lauzun to Louvois, May 20/30.

FN 630 Lauzun to Louvois, May 28/June 7 1690.

FN 631 Lauzun to Louvois, April 2/12 May 10/20. 1690. La
Hoguette, who held the rank of Marechal de Camp, wrote to Louvois
to the same effect about the same time.

FN 632 "La Politique des Anglois a ete de tenir ces peuples cy
comme des esclaves, et si bas qu'il ne leur estoit pas permis
d'apprendre a lire et a écrire. Cela les a rendu si bestes qu'ils
n'ont presque point d'humanite. Rien de les esmeut. Ils sont peu
sensibles a l'honneur; et les menaces ne les estonnent point.
L'interest meme ne les peut engager au travail. Ce sont pourtant
les gens du monde les mieux faits,"--Desgrigny to Louvois, May
27/June 6 1690.

FN 633 See Melfort's Letters to James, written in October 1689.
They are among the Nairne Papers, and were printed by Macpherson.

FN 634 Life of James, ii. 443. 450.;and Trials of Ashton and

FN 635 Avaux wrote thus to Lewis on the 5th of June 1689: "Il
nous est venu des nouvelles assez considerables d'Angleterre et
d'Escosse. Je me donne l'honneur d'en envoyer des memoires a
vostre Majeste, tels que je les ay receus du Roy de la Grande
Bretagne. Le commencement des nouvelles dattees d'Angleterre est
la copie d'une lettre de M. Pen, que j'ay veue en original." The
Memoire des Nouvelles d'Angleterre et d'Escosse, which was sent
with this despatch, begins with the following sentences, which
must have been part of Penn's letter: "Le Prince d'Orange
commence d'estre fort dégoutte de l'humeur des Anglois et la face
des choses change bien viste, selon la nature des insulaires et
sa sante est fort mauvaise. Il y a un nuage qui commence a se
former au nord des deux royaumes, ou le Roy a beaucoup d'amis, ce
qui donne beaucoup d'inquietude aux principaux amis du Prince
d'Orange, qui, estant riches, commencent a estre persuadez que ce
sera l'espée qui decidera de leur sort, ce qu'ils ont tant taché
d'eviter. Ils apprehendent une invasion d'Irlande et de France;
et en ce cas le Roy aura plus d'amis que jamais."

FN 636 "Le bon effet, Sire, que ces lettres d'Escosse et
d'Angleterre ont produit, est qu'elles ont enfin persuade le Roy
d'Angleterre qu'il ne recouvrera ses estats que les armes a la
main; et ce n'est pas peu de l'en avoir convaincu."

FN 637 Van Citters to the States General, March 1/11 1689. Van
Citters calls Penn "den bekenden Archquaker."

FN 638 See his trial in the Collection of State Trials, and the
Lords' Journals of Nov. 11, 12. and 27. 1689.

FN 639 One remittance of two thousand pistoles is mentioned in a
letter of Croissy to Avaux, Feb. 16/26 1689. James, in a letter
dated Jan. 26. 1689, directs Preston to consider himself as still
Secretary, notwithstanding Melfort's appointment.

FN 640 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary; Commons' Journals, May 14. 15.
20. 1690; Kingston's True History, 1697.

FN 641 The Whole Life of Mr. William Fuller, being an Impartial
Account of his Birth, Education, Relations and Introduction into
the Service of the late King James and his Queen, together with a
True Discovery of the Intrigues for which he lies now confined;
as also of the Persons that employed and assisted him therein,
with his Hearty Repentance for the Misdemeanours he did in the
late Reign, and all others whom he hath injured; impartially writ
by Himself during his Confinement in the Queen's Bench, 1703. Of
course I shall use this narrative with caution.

FN 642 Fuller's Life of himself,

FN 643 Clarendon's Diary, March 6. 1690; Narcissus Luttrell's

FN 644 Clarendon's Diary, May 10. 1690.

FN 645 He wrote to Portland, "Je plains la povre reine, qui est
en des terribles afflictions."

FN 646 See the Letters of Shrewsbury in Coxe's Correspondence,
Part I, chap. i,

FN 647 That Lady Shrewsbury was a Jacobite, and did her best to
make her son so, is certain from Lloyd's Paper of May 1694, which
is among the Nairne MSS., and was printed by Macpherson.

FN 648 This is proved by a few words in a paper which James, in
November 1692, laid before the French government. "Il y a" says
he, "le Comte de Shrusbery, qui, etant Secretaire d'Etat du
Prince d'Orange, s'est defait de sa charge par mon ordre." One
copy of this most valuable paper is in the Archives of the French
Foreign Office. Another is among the Nairne MSS. in the Bodleian
Library. A translation into English will be found in Macpherson's

FN 649 Burnet, ii. 45.

FN 650 Shrewsbury to Somers, Sept. 22. 1697.

FN 651 Among the State Poems (vol. ii. p. 211.) will be found a
piece which some ignorant editor has entitled, "A Satyr written
when the K- went to Flanders and left nine Lords justices." I
have a manuscript copy of this satire, evidently contemporary,
and bearing the date 1690. It is indeed evident at a glance that
the nine persons satirised are the nine members of the interior
council which William appointed to assist Mary when he went to
Ireland. Some of them never were Lords Justices.

FN 652 From a narrative written by Lowther, which is among the
Mackintosh MSS,

FN 653 See Mary's Letters to William, published by Dalrymple.

FN 654 Clarendon's Diary, May 30. 1690.

FN 655 Gerard Croese.

FN 656 Burnet, ii. 46.

FN 657 The Duchess of Marlborough's Vindication.

FN 658 London Gazettes, June 5. 12. 16. 1690; Hop to the States
General from Chester, June 9/19. Hop attended William to Ireland
as envoy from the States.

FN 659 Clarendon's Diary, June 7. and 12. 1690; Narcissus
Luttrell's Diary; Baden, the Dutch Secretary of Legation, to Van
Citters, June 10/20; Fuller's Life of himself; Welwood's
Mercurius Reformatus, June 11 1690.

FN 660 Clarendon's Diary, June 8. 1690.

FN 661 Ibid., June 10.

FN 662 Baden to Van Citters, June 20/30 1690.; Clarendon's Diary,
June 19. Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.

FN 663 Clarendon's Diary, June 25.

FN 664 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.

FN 665 Memoirs of Saint Simon.

FN 666 London Gazette, June 26. 1690; Baden to Van Citters, June
24/July 4.

FN 667 Mary to William, June 26. 1690; Clarendon's Diary of the
same date; Narcissus Luttrell's. Diary.

FN 668 Mary to William, June 28. and July 2. 1690.

FN 669 Report of the Commissioners of the Admiralty to the Queen,
dated Sheerness, July 18. 1690; Evidence of Captains Cornwall,
Jones, Martin and Hubbard, and of Vice Admiral Delaval; Burnet,
ii. 52., and Speaker Onslow's Note; Memoires du Marechal de
Tourville; Memoirs of Transactions at Sea by Josiah Burchett,
Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, 1703; London Gazette, July 3.;
Historical and Political Mercury for July 1690; Mary to William,
July 2.; Torrington to Caermarthen, July I. The account of the
battle in the Paris Gazette of July 15. 1690 is not to be read
without shame: "On a sceu que les Hollandois s'estoient tres bien
battus, et qu'ils s'estoient comportez en cette occasion en
braves gens, mais que les Anglois n'en avoient pas agi de meme."
In the French official relation of le battle off Cape Bevezier,--
an odd corruption of Pevensey,--are some passages to the same
effect: "Les Hollandois combattirent avec beaucoup de courage et
de fermete; mais ils ne furent pas bien secondez par les
Anglois." "Les Anglois se distinguerent des vaisseax de Hollande
par le peu de valeur qu'ils montrerent dans le combat."

FN 670 Life of James, ii. 409.; Burnet, ii. 5.

FN 671 London Gazette, June 30. 1690; Historical and Political
Mercury for July 1690.

FN 672 Nottingham to William, July 15. 1690.

FN 673 Burnet, ii. 53, 54.; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary, July 7.
11. 1690 London Gazette, July 14. 1690.

FN 674 Mary to William, July 3. 10. 1690; Shrewsbury to
Caermarthen, July 15.

FN 675 Mary to the States General, July 12.; Burchett's Memoirs;
An important Account of some remarkable Passages in the Life of
Arthur, Earl of Torrington, 1691.

FN 676 London Gazette, June 19 1690; History of the Wars in
Ireland by an Officer in the Royal Army, 1690,; Villare
Hibernicum, 1690;. Story's Impartial History, 1691; Historical
Collections relating to the town of Belfast, 1817. This work
contains curious extracts from MSS. of the seventeenth century.
In the British Museum is a map of Belfast made in 1685 so exact
that the houses may be counted.

FN 677 Lauzun to Louvois, June 16/26. The messenger who brought
the news to Lauzun had heard the guns and seen the bonfires.
History of the Wars in Ireland by an Officer of the Royal Army,
1690; Lire of James, ii. 392., Orig. Mem.; Burnet, ii. 47. Burnet
is strangely mistaken when he says that William had been six days
in Ireland before his arrival was known to James.

FN 678 A True and Perfect Journal of the Affairs of Ireland by a
Person of Quality, 1690; King, iii. 18. Luttrell's proclamation
will be found in King's Appendix.

FN 679 Villare Hibernicum, 1690.

FN 680 The order addressed to the Collector of Customs will be
found in Dr. Reid's History of the Presbyterian Church in

FN 681 "La gayete peinte sur son visage," says Dumont, who saw
him at Belfast, "nous fit tout esperer pour les heureux succes de
la campagne."

FN 682 Story's Impartial Account; MS. Journal of Colonel
Bellingham; The Royal Diary.

FN 683 Story's Impartial Account.

FN 684 Lauzun to Louvois, June 23/July 3 1690; Life of James, ii.
393, Orig. Mem.

FN 685 Story's Impartial Account; Dumont MS.

FN 686 Much interesting information respecting the field of
battle and the surrounding country will be found in Mr. Wilde's
pleasing volume entitled "The Beauties of the Boyne and

FN 687 Memorandum in the handwriting of Alexander, Earl of
Marchmont. He derived his information from Lord Selkirk, who was
in William's army.

FN 688 James says (Life, ii 393. Orig. Mem.) that the country
afforded no better position. King, in a thanksgiving sermon which
he preached at Dublin after the close of the campaign, told his
hearers that "the advantage of the post of the Irish was, by all
intelligent men, reckoned above three to one." See King's
Thanksgiving Sermon, preached on Nov 16. 1690, before Lords
Justices. This is, no doubt, an absurd exaggeration. But M. de la
Hoguette, one of the principal French officers who was present at
the battle of the Boyne, informed Louvois that the Irish army
occupied a good defensive position, Letter of La Hoguette from
Limerick, July 31/Aug 1690.

FN 689 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary, March, 1690.

FN 690 See the Historical records of the Regiments of the British
army, and Story's list of the army of William as it passed in
review at Finglass, a week after the battle.

FN 691 See his Funeral Sermon preached at the church of Saint
Mary Aldermary on the 24th of June 1690.

FN 692 Story's Impartial History; History of the Wars in Ireland
by an Officer of the Royal Army; Hop to the States General, June
30/July 10. 1690.

FN 693 London Gazette, July 7. 1690; Story's Impartial History;
History of the Wars in Ireland by an Officer of the Royal Army;
Narcissus Luttrell's Diary; Lord Marchmont's Memorandum; Burnet,
ii. 50. and Thanksgiving Sermon; Dumont MS.

FN 694 La Hoguette to Louvois, July 31/Aug 10 1690.

FN 695 That I have done no injustice to the Irish infantry will
appear from the accounts which the French officers who were at
the Boyne sent to their government and their families. La
Hoguette, writing hastily to Louvois on the 4/14th of July, says:
"je vous diray seulement, Monseigneur, que nous n'avons pas este
battus, mais que les ennemys ont chasses devant eux les trouppes
Irlandoises comme des moutons, sans avoir essaye un seul coup de

Writing some weeks later more fully from Limerick, he says, "J'en
meurs de honte." He admits that it would have been no easy matter
to win the battle, at best. "Mais il est vray aussi," he adds,
"que les Irlandois ne firent pas la moindre resistance, et
plierent sans tirer un seul coup." Zurlauben, Colonel of one of
the finest regiments in the French service, wrote to the same
effect, but did justice to the courage of the Irish horse, whom
La Hoguette does not mention.

There is at the French War Office a letter hastily scrawled by
Boisseleau, Lauzun's second in command, to his wife after the
battle. He wrote thus: "Je me porte bien, ma chere feme. Ne
t'inquieste pas de moy. Nos Irlandois n'ont rien fait qui vaille.
Ils ont tous lache le pie."

Desgrigny writing on the 10/20th of July, assigns several reasons
for the defeat. "La première et la plus forte est la fuite des
Irlandois qui sont en verite des gens sur lesquels il ne faut pas
compter du tout." In the same letter he says: "Il n'est pas
naturel de croire qu'une armee de vingt cinq mille hommes qui
paroissoit de la meilleure volonte du monde, et qui a la veue des
ennemis faisoit des cris de joye, dut etre entierement defaite
sans avoir tire l'epee et un seul coup de mousquet. Il y a en tel
regiment tout entier qui a laisse ses habits, ses armes, et ses
drapeaux sur le champ de bataille, et a gagne les montagnes avec
ses officiers."

I looked in vain for the despatch in which Lauzun must have given
Louvois a detailed account of the battle.

FN 696 Lauzun wrote to Seignelay, July 16/26 1690, "Richard
Amilton a ete fait prisonnier, faisant fort bien son devoir."

FN 697 My chief materials for the history of this battle are
Story's Impartial Account and Continuation; the History of the
War in Ireland by an Officer of the Royal Army; the despatches in
the French War Office; The Life of James, Orig. Mem. Burnet, ii.
50. 60; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary; the London Gazette of July
10. 1690; the Despatches of Hop and Baden; a narrative probably
drawn up by Portland, which William sent to the States General;
Portland's private letter to Melville; Captain Richardson's
Narrative and map of the battle; the Dumont MS., and the
Bellingham MS. I have also seen an account of the battle in a
Diary kept in bad Latin and in an almost undecipherable hand by
one of the beaten army who seems to have been a hedge
schoolmaster turned Captain. This Diary was kindly lent to me by
Mr. Walker, to whom it belongs. The writer relates the
misfortunes of his country in a style of which a short specimen
may suffice: "1 July, 1690. O diem illum infandum, cum inimici
potiti sunt pass apud Oldbridge et nos circumdederunt et
fregerunt prope Plottin. Hinc omnes fugimus Dublin versus. Ego
mecum tuli Cap Moore et Georgium Ogle, et venimus hac nocte Dub."

FN 698 See Pepys's Diary, June 4. 1664. "He tells me above all of
the Duke of York, that he is more himself, and more of judgment
is at hand in him, in the middle of a desperate service than at
other times." Clarendon repeatedly says the same. Swift wrote on
the margin of his copy of Clarendon, in one place, "How old was
he (James) when he turned Papist and a coward?"--in another, "He
proved a cowardly Popish king."

FN 699 Pere Orleans mentions that Sarsfield accompanied James.
The battle of the Boyne had scarcely been fought when it was made
the subject of a drama, the Royal Flight, or the Conquest of
Ireland, a Farce, 1690. Nothing more execrable was ever written.
But it deserves to be remarked that, in this wretched piece,
though the Irish generally are represented as poltroons, an
exception is made in favour of Sarsfield. "This fellow," says
James, aside, "I will make me valiant, I think, in spite of my
teeth." "Curse of my stars!" says Sarsfield, after the battle.
"That I must be detached! I would have wrested victory out of
heretic Fortune's hands."

FN 700 Both La Hoguette and Zurlauben informed their government
that it had been necessary to fire on the Irish fugitives, who
would otherwise have thrown the French ranks into confusion.

FN 701 Baden to Van Citters, July 8. 1690.

FN 702 New and Perfect Journal, 1690; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.

FN 703 Story; London Gazette, July 10. 1690.

FN 704 True and Perfect journal; Villare Hibernicum; Story's
Impartial History.

FN 705 Story; True and Perfect journal; London Gazette, July 10
1690 Burnet, ii. 51.; Leslie's Answer to King.

FN 706 Life of James, ii. 404., Orig. Mem.; Monthly Mercury for
August, 1690.

FN 707 True and Perfect journal. London Gazette, July 10 and 14.
1690; Narcissus Luttrell's Diary. In the Life of James Bonnell,
Accountant General of Ireland, (1703) is a remarkable religious
meditation, from which I will quote a short passage. "How did we
see the Protestants on the great day of our Revolution, Thursday
the third of July, a day ever to be remembered by us with the
greatest thankfulness, congratulate and embrace one another as
they met, like persons alive from the dead, like brothers and
sisters meeting after a long absence, and going about from house
to house to give each other joy of God's great mercy, enquiring
of one another how they past the late days of distress and
terror, what apprehensions they had, what fears or dangers they
were under; those that were prisoners, how they got their
liberty, how they were treated, and what, from time to time, they
thought of things."

FN 708 London Gazette, July 14. 1690; Story; True and Perfect
Journal; Dumont MS. Dumont is the only person who mentions the
crown. As he was present, he could not be mistaken. It was
probably the crown which James had been in the habit of wearing
when he appeared on the throne at the King's Inns.

FN 709 Monthly Mercury for August 1690; Burnet, ii. 50; Dangeau,
Aug. 2. 1690, and Saint Simon's note; The Follies of France, or a
true Relation of the extravagant Rejoicings, &c., dated Paris,
Aug. 8. 1690.

FN 710 "Me tiene," the Marquis of Cogolludo, Spanish minister at
Rome, says of this report, "en sumo cuidado y desconsuelo, pues
esta seria la ultima ruina de la causa comun."--Cogolludo to
Ronquillo, Rome, Aug. 2. 1690,

FN 711 Original Letters, published by Sir Henry Ellis.

FN 712 "Del sucesso de Irlanda doy a v. Exca la enorabuena, y le
aseguro no ha bastado casi la gente que tengo en la Secretaria
para repartir copias dello, pues le he enbiado a todo el lugar, y
la primera al Papa."--Cogolludo to Ronquillo, postscript to the
letter of Aug. 2. Cogolludo, of course, uses the new style. The
tidings of the battle, therefore, had been three weeks in getting
to Rome.

FN 713 Evelyn (Feb. 25. 1689/90) calls it "a sweet villa."

FN 714 Mary to William, July 5. 1690.

FN 715 Mary to William, July 6. and 7. 1690; Burnet, ii. 55.

FN 716 Baden to Van Citters, July 8/18 1690.

FN 717 See two letters annexed to the Memoirs of the Intendant
Foucault, and printed in the work of M. de Sirtema des Grovestins
in the archives of the War Office at Paris is a letter written
from Brest by the Count of Bouridal on July 11/21 1690. The Count
says: "Par la relation du combat que j'ay entendu faire au Roy
d'Angleterre et a plusieurs de sa suite en particulier, il ne me
paroit pas qu'il soit bien informe de tout ce qui s'est passe
dans cette action, et qu'il ne scait que la deroute de ses

FN 718 It was not only on this occasion that James held this
language. From one of the letters quoted in the last note it
appears that on his road front Brest to Paris he told every body
that the English were impatiently expecting him. "Ce pauvre
prince croit que ses sujets l'aiment encore."

FN 719 Life of James, ii. 411, 412.; Burnet, ii. 57; and
Dartmouth's note.

FN 720 See the articles Galere and Galerien, in the Encyclopedie,
with the plates; A True Relation of the Cruelties and Barbarities
of the French upon the English Prisoners of War, by R. Hutton,
licensed June 27. 1690.

FN 721 See the Collection of Medals of Lewis the Fourteenth.

FN 722 This anecdote, true or false, was current at the time, or
soon after. In 1745 it was mentioned as a story which old people
had heard in their youth. It is quoted in the Gentleman's
Magazine of that year from another periodical work.

FN 723 London Gazette, July 7. 1690.

FN 724 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.

FN 725 I give this interesting passage in Van Citters's own
words. "Door geheel het ryk alles te voet en te paarde in de
wapenen op was; en' t gene een seer groote gerustheyt gaf was dat
alle en een yder even seer tegen de Franse door de laatste
voorgevallen bataille verbittert en geanimeert waren. Gelyk door
de troupes, dewelke ik op de weg alomme gepasseert ben, niet
anders heb konnen hooren als een eenpaarig en gener al geluydt
van God bless King William en Queen Mary." July 25/Aug 4 1690.

FN 726 As to this expedition I have consulted the London Gazettes
of July 24. 28. 31. Aug. 4. 1690 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary;
Welwood's Mercurius Reformatus, Sept. 5. the Gazette de Paris; a
letter from My. Duke, a Deputy Lieutenant of Devonshire, to
Hampden, dated July 25. a letter from Mr. Fulford of Fulford to
Lord Nottingham, dated July 26. a letter of the same date from
the Deputy Lieutenants of Devonshire to the Earl of Bath; a
letter of the same date from Lord Lansdowne to the Earl of Bath.
These four letters are among the MSS. of the Royal Irish Academy.
Extracts from the brief are given in Lyson's Britannia. Dangeau
inserted in his journal, August 16., a series of extravagant
lies. Tourville had routed the militia, taken their cannon and
colours burned men of war, captured richly laden merchantships,
and was going to destroy Plymouth. This is a fair specimen of
Dangeau's English news. Indeed he complains that it was hardly
possible to get at true information about England.

FN 727 Dedication of Arthur.

FN 728 See the accounts of Anderton's Trial, 1693; the Postman of
March 12. 1695/6; the Flying Post of March 7. 1700; Some
Discourses upon Dr. Burnet and Dr. Tillotson, by Hickes, 1695.
The appendix to these Discourses contains a curious account of
the inquisition into printing offices tinder the Licensing Act.

FN 729 This was the ordinary cant of the Jacobites. A Whig writer
had justly said in the preceding year, "They scurrilously call
our David a man of blood, though, to this day, he has not
suffered a drop to be spilt."--Alephibosheth and Ziba, licensed
Aug. 30. 1689.

FN 730 "Restore unto us again the publick worship of thy name,
the reverent administration of thy sacraments. Raise up the
former government both in church and state, that we may be no
longer without King, without priest, without God in the world."

FN 731 A Form of Prayer and Humiliation for God's Blessing upon
His Majesty and his Dominions, and for Removing and Averting of
God's judgments from this Church and State, 1690.

FN 732 Letter of Lloyd, Bishop of Norwich, to Sancroft, in the
Tanner MSS.

FN 733 Narcissus Luttrell's Diary.

FN 734 A Modest Inquiry into the Causes of the present Disasters
in England, and who they are that brought the French into the
English Channel described, 1690; Reflections upon a Form of
Prayer lately set out for the Jacobites, 1690; A Midnight Touch
at an Unlicensed Pamphlet, 1690. The paper signed by the
nonjuring Bishops has often been reprinted.

FN 735 William to Heinsius, July 4/14. 1690.

FN 736 Story; London Gazette, Aug 4. 1690; Dumont MS.

FN 737 Story; William to Heinsius, July 31/Aug 10 1690; Lond.
Gaz., Aug, 11.

FN 738 Mary to William, Aug. 7/15 Aug 22/Sept, Aug. 26/Sept 5

FN 739 Macariae Excidium; Mac Geoghegan; Life of James, ii. 420.;
London Gazette, Aug. 14. 1690.

FN 740 The impatience of Lauzun and his countrymen to get away
from Ireland is mentioned in a letter of Oct. 21. 1690, quoted in
the Memoirs of James, ii. 421. "Asimo," says Colonel Kelly, the
author of the Macariae Excidium, "diuturnam absentiam tam aegre
molesteque ferebat ut bellum in Cypro protrahi continuarique ipso
ei auditu acerbissimum esset. Nec incredibile est ducum in illius
exercitu nonnullos, potissimum qui patrii coeli dulcedinem
impatientius suspirabant, sibi persuasisse desperatas Cypri res
nulla humana ope defendi sustentarique posse." Asimo is Lauzun,
and Cyprus Ireland.

FN 741 "Pauci illi ex Cilicibus aulicis, qui cum regina in Syria
commorante remanserant, . . . . non cessabant universam nationem
foede traducere, et ingestis insuper convitiis lacerare, pavidos
et malefidos proditores ac Ortalium consceleratissimos publice
appellando."--Macariae Excidium. The Cilicians are the English.
Syria is France.

FN 742 "Tanta infamia tam operoso artificio et subtili commento
in vulgus sparsa, tam constantibus de Cypriorum perfidia atque
opprobrio rumoribus, totam, qua lata est, Syriam ita pervasit, ut
mercatores Cyprii, . . . . propter inustum genti dedecus, intra
domorum septa clausi nunquam prodire auderent; tanto eorum odio
populus in universum exarserat."--Macariae Excidium.

FN 743 I have seen this assertion in a contemporary pamphlet of
which I cannot recollect the title.

FN 744 Story; Dumont MS,

FN 745 Macariae Excidium. Boisseleau remarked the ebb and flow of
courage among the Irish. I have quoted one of his letters to his
wife. It is but just to quote another. "Nos Irlandois n'avoient
jamais vu le feu; et cela les a surpris. Presentement, ils sont
si faches de n'avoir pas fait leur devoir que je suis bien
persuadé qu'ils feront mieux pour l'avenir."

FN 746 La Hoguette, writing to Louvois from Limerick, July 31/Aug
10 1690, says of Tyrconnel: "Il a d'ailleurs trop peu de
connoissance e des choses de notre metier. Il a perdu absolument
la confiance des officiers du pays, surtout depuis le jour de
notre deroute; et, en effet, Monseigneur, je me crois oblige de
vous dire que des le moment ou les ennemis parurent sur le bord
de la riviere le premier jour, et dans toute la journee du
lendemain, il parut a tout le monde dans une si grande lethargie
qu'il etoit incapable de prendre aucun parti, quelque chose qu'on
lui proposat."

FN 747 Desgrigny says of the Irish: "Ils sont toujours prets de
nous egorger par l'antipathie qu'ils ont pour nous. C'est la
nation du monde la plus brutale, et qui a le moins d'humanite."
Aug. 1690.

FN 748 Story; Account of the Cities in Ireland that are still
possessed by the Forces of King James, 1690. There are some
curious old maps of Limerick in the British Museum.

FN 749 Story; Dumont MS.

FN 750 Story; James, ii. 416.; Burnet, ii. 58.; Dumont MS.

FN 751 Story; Dumont MS.

FN 752 See the account of the O'Donnels in Sir William Betham's
Irish Antiquarian Researches. It is strange that he makes no
mention of Baldearg, whose appearance in Ireland is the most
extraordinary event in the whole history of the race. See also
Story's impartial History; Macariae Excidium, and Mr.
O'Callaghan's note; Life of James, ii. 434.; the Letter of
O'Donnel to Avaux, and the Memorial entitled, "Memoire donnee par
un homme du Comte O'Donnel a M. D'Avaux."

FN 753 The reader will remember Corporal Trim's explanation of
radical heat and radical moisture. Sterne is an authority not to
be despised on these subjects. His boyhood was passed in
barracks; he was constantly listening to the talk of old soldiers
who had served under King William used their stories like a man
of true genius.

FN 754 Story; William to Waldeck, Sept. 22. 1690; London Gazette,
Sept. 4, Berwick asserts that when the siege was raised not a
drop of rain had fallen during a month, that none fell during the
following three weeks, and that William pretended that the
weather was wet merely to hide the shame of his defeat. Story,
who was on the spot say, "It was cloudy all about, and rained
very fast, so that every body began to dread the consequences of
it;" and again "The rain which had already falled had soften the
ways... This was one reason for raising the siege; for, if we had
not, granting the weather to continue bad, we must either have
taken the town, or of necessity have lost our cannon." Dumont,
another eyewitness, says that before the siege was raised the
rains had been most violent; that the Shannon was swollen; that
the earth was soaked; that the horses could not keep their feet.

FN 755 London Gazette, September 11 1690; Narcissus Luttrell's
Diary. I have seen a contemporary engraving of Covent Garden as
it appeared on this night.

FN 756 Van Citters to the States General, March 19/29. 1689.

FN 757 As to Marlborough's expedition, see Story's Impartial
History; the Life of James, ii. 419, 420.; London Gazette, Oct.
6. 13. 16. 27. 30. 1690; Monthly Mercury for Nov. 1690; History
of King, William, 1702; Burnet, ii. 60.; the Life of Joseph Pike,
a Quaker of Cork

FN 758 Balcarras; Annandale's Confession in the Leven and
Melville Papers; Burnet, ii. 35. As to Payne, see the Second
Modest Inquiry into the Cause of the present Disasters, 1690.

FN 759 Balcarras; Mackay's Memoirs; History of the late
Revolution in Scotland, 1690; Livingstone's Report, dated May 1;
London Gazette, May 12. 1690.

FN 760 History of the late Revolution in Scotland, 1690.

FN 761 Mackay's Memoirs and Letters to Hamilton of June 20. and
24. 1690 Colonel Hill to Melville, July 10 26.; London Gazette,
July 17. 21. As to Inverlochy, see among the Culloden papers, a
plan for preserving the peace of the Highlands, drawn up, at this
time, by the father of President Forbes.

FN 762 Balcarras.

FN 763 See the instructions to the Lord High Commissioner in the
Leven and Melville Papers.

FN 764 Balcarras.

FN 765 Act. Parl. June 7. 1690.

FN 766 Balcarras.

FN 767 Faithful Contendings Displayed; Case of the present
Afflicted Episcopal Clergy in Scotland, 1690.

FN 768 Act. Parl. April 25. 1690.

FN 769 See the Humble Address of the Presbyterian Ministers and
Professors of the Church of Scotland to His Grace His Majesty's
High Commissioner and to the Right Honourable the Estates of

FN 770 See the Account of the late Establishment of Presbyterian
Government by the Parliament of Scotland, Anno 1690. This is an
Episcopalian narrative. Act. Parl. May 26. 1690.

FN 771 Act. Parl. June 7. 1690.

FN 772 An Historical Relation of the late Presbyterian General
Assembly in a Letter from a Person in Edinburgh to his Friend in
London licensed April 20. 1691.

FN 773 Account of the late Establishment of the Presbyterian
Government by the Parliament of Scotland, 1690.

FN 774 Act. Parl. July 4. 1690.

FN 775 Act. Parl. July 19 1690; Lockhart to Melville, April 29.

FN 776 Balcarras; Confession of Annandale in the Leven and
Melville Papers.

FN 777 Balcarras; Notes of Ross's Confession in the Leven and
Melville Papers.

FN 778 Balcarras; Mary's account of her interview with
Montgomery, printed among the Leven and Melville Papers.

FN 779 Compare Balcarras with Burnett, ii. 62. The pamphlet
entitled Great Britain's Just Complaint is a good specimen of
Montgomery's manner.

FN 780 Balcarras; Annandale's Confession.

FN 781 Burnett, ii. 62, Lockhart to Melville, Aug. 30. 1690 and
Crawford to Melville, Dec. 11. 1690 in the Leven and Melville
Papers; Neville Payne's letter of Dec 3 1692, printed in 1693.

FN 782 Historical Relation of the late Presbyterian General
Assembly, 1691; The Presbyterian Inquisition as it was lately
practised against the Professors of the College of Edinburgh,

FN 783 One of the most curious of the many curious papers written
by the Covenanters of that generation is entitled, "Nathaniel, or
the Dying Testimony of John Matthieson in Closeburn." Matthieson
did not die till 1709, but his Testimony was written some years
earlier, when he was in expectation of death. "And now," he says,
"I as a dying man, would in a few words tell you that are to live
behind my thoughts as to the times. When I saw, or rather heard,
the Prince and Princess of Orange being set up as they were, and
his pardoning all the murderers of the saints and receiving all
the bloody beasts, soldiers, and others, all these officers of
their state and army, and all the bloody counsellors, civil and
ecclesiastic; and his letting slip that son of Belial, his father
in law, who, both by all the laws of God and man, ought to have
died, I knew he would do no good to the cause and work of God."

FN 784 See the Dying Testimony of Mr. Robert Smith, Student of
Divinity, who lived in Douglas Town, in the Shire of Clydesdale,
who died about two o'clock in the Sabbath morning, Dec. 13. 1724,
aged 58 years; and the Dying Testimony of William Wilson,
sometime Schoolmaster of Park in the Parish of Douglas, aged 68,
who died May 7. 1757.

FN 785 See the Dying Testimony of William Wilson, mentioned in
the last note. It ought to be remarked that, on the subject of
witchcraft, the Divines of the Associate Presbytery were as
absurd as this poor crazy Dominie. See their Act, Declaration,
and Testimony, published in 1773 by Adam Gib.

FN 786 In the year 1791, Thomas Henderson of Paisley wrote, in
defence of some separatists who called themselves the Reformed
Presbytery, against a writer who had charged them with "disowning
the present excellent sovereign as the lawful King of Great
Britain." "The Reformed Presbytery and their connections," says
Mr. Henderson, "have not been much accustomed to give flattering
titles to princes." . . . . . "However, they entertain no
resentment against the person of the present occupant, nor any of
the good qualities which he possesses. They sincerely wish that
he were more excellent than external royalty can make him, that
he were adorned with the image of Christ," &c., &c., &c. "But
they can by no means acknowledge him, nor any of the episcopal
persuasion, to be a lawful king over these covenanted lands."

FN 787 An enthusiast, named George Calderwood, in his preface to
a Collection of Dying Testimonies, published in 1806, accuses
even the Reformed Presbytery of scandalous compliances. "As for
the Reformed Presbytery," he says, "though they profess to own
the martyr's testimony in hairs and hoofs, yet they have now
adopted so many new distinctions, and given up their old ones,
that they have made it so evident that it is neither the martyr's
testimony nor yet the one that that Presbytery adopted at first
that they are now maintaining. When the Reformed Presbytery was
in its infancy, and had some appearance of honesty and
faithfulness among them, they were blamed by all the other
parties for using of distinctions that no man could justify, i.e.
they would not admit into their communion those that paid the
land tax or subscribed tacks to do so; but now they can admit
into their communions both rulers and members who voluntarily pay
all taxes and subscribe tacks." . . . . "It shall be only
referred to government's books, since the commencement of the
French war, how many of their own members have accepted of places
of trust, to be at government's call, such as bearers of arms,
driving of cattle, stopping of ways, &c.; and what is all their
license for trading by sea or land but a serving under

FN 788 The King to Melville, May 22. 1690, in the Leven and
Melville Papers.

FN 789 Account of the Establishment of Presbyterian Government.

FN 790 Carmichael's good qualities are fully admitted by the
Episcopalians. See the Historical Relation of the late
Presbyterian General Assembly and the Presbyterian Inquisition.

FN 791 See, in the Leven and Melville Papers, Melville's Letters
written from London at this time to Crawford, Rule, Williamson,
and other vehement Presbyterians. He says: "The clergy that were
put out, and come up, make a great clamour: many here encourage
and rejoyce at it . . . . There is nothing now but the greatest
sobrietie and moderation imaginable to be used, unless we will
hazard the overturning of all; and take this as earnest, and not
as imaginations and fears only."

FN 792 Principal Acts of the General Assembly of the Church of
Scotland held in and begun at Edinburgh the 16th day of October,
1690; Edinburgh, 1691.

FN 793 Monthly Mercuries; London Gazettes of November 3. and 6.

FN 794 Van Citters to the States General, Oct. 3/13 1690.

FN 795 Lords' Journals, Oct. 6. 1690; Commons' Journals, Oct. 8.

FN 796 I am not aware that this lampoon has ever been printed. I
have seen it only in two contemporary manuscripts. It is entitled
The Opening of the Session, 1690.

FN 797 Commons' Journals, Oct. 9, 10 13, 14. 1690.

FN 798 Commons' Journals of December, 1690, particularly of Dec.
26. Stat. 2 W. & M. sess 2. C. 11.

FN 799 Stat. 2 W. and M. sess. 2. c. I. 3, 4.

FN 800 Burnet, ii. 67. See the journals of both Houses,
particularly the Commons' Journals of the 10th of December and
the Lords' Journals of the 30th of December and the 1st of
January. The bill itself will be found in the archives of the
House of Lords.

FN 801 Lords' Journals, Oct. 30. 1690. The numbers are never
given in the Lords' Journals. That the majority was only two is
asserted by Ralph, who had, I suppose, some authority which I
have not been able to find.

FN 802 Van Citters to the States General, Nov. 14/24 1690. The
Earl of
Torrington's speech to the House of Commons, 1710.

FN 803 Burnet, ii. 67, 68.; Van Citters to the States General,
Nov. 22/Dec 1 1690; An impartial Account of some remarkable
Passages in the Life of Arthur, Earl of Torrington, together with
some modest Remarks on the Trial and Acquitment, 1691; Reasons
for the Trial of the Earl of Torrington by Impeachment, 1690; The
Parable of the Bearbaiting, 1690; The Earl of Torrington's Speech
to the House of Commons, 1710. That Torrington was coldly
received by the peers I learned from an article in the Noticias
Ordinarias of February 6 1691, Madrid.

FN 804 In one Whig lampoon of this year are these lines

"David, we thought, succeeded Saul,
When William rose on James's fall;
But now King Thomas governs all."

In another are these lines:

"When Charles did seem to fill the throne,
This tyrant Tom made England groan."

A third says:

"Yorkshire Tom was rais'd to honour,
For what cause no creature knew;
He was false to the royal donor
And will be the same to you."

FN 805 A Whig poet compares the two Marquesses, as they were
often called, and gives George the preference over Thomas.

"If a Marquess needs must steer us,
Take a better in his stead,
Who will in your absence cheer us,
And has far a wiser head."

FN 806 "A thin, illnatured ghost that haunts the King."

FN 807 "Let him with his blue riband be
Tied close up to the gallows tree
For my lady a cart; and I'd contrive it,
Her dancing son and heir should drive it."

FN 808 As to the designs of the Whigs against Caermarthen, see
Burnet, ii. 68, 69, and a very significant protest in the Lords'
journals, October 30. 1690. As to the relations between
Caermarthen and Godolphin, see Godolphin's letter to William,
dated March 20. 1691, in Dalrymple.

FN 809 My account of this conspiracy is chiefly taken from the
evidence, oral and documentary, which was produced on the trial
of the conspirators. See also Burnet, ii. 69, 70., and the Life
of James, ii. 441. Narcissus Luttrell remarks that no Roman
Catholic appeared to have been admitted to the consultations of
the conspirators.

FN 810 The genuineness of these letters was once contested on
very frivolous grounds. But the letter of Turner to Sancroft,
which is among the Tanner papers in the Bodleian Library, and
which will be found in the Life of Ken by a Layman, must convince
the most incredulous.

FN 811 The words are these: "The Modest inquiry--The Bishops'
Answer--Not the chilling of them--But the satisfying of friends."
The Modest Inquiry was the pamphlet which hinted at Dewitting.

FN 812 Lords' and Commons' Journals Jan 5 1690/1; London Gazette,
Jan 8

End of The History of England from the Accession of James II, Vol. 3

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