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Santo Domingo by Otto Schoenrich

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stirring up South American susceptibilities. It would, however, permit
of less latitude for the improvement of conditions in Santo Domingo.

For some time to come it is probable that some form of protectorate
will be the choice of both parties. Many American statesmen are
opposed to annexation, and the Dominicans as a rule would prefer the
phantom of sovereignty in a mediatized republic to the real advantages
of annexation.

It is only natural that Dominicans should feel sad at passing under
the government of a foreign power. But those of clearer vision
recognize that there is no alternative, that the independence of the
Republic has long been a fiction, that real freedom is only now
beginning to dawn, and that American assistance will give the greatest
impetus to prosperity. For several years the number of persons taking
such a broader view has been rapidly increasing. It was not long ago
when friends of mine in Santo Domingo would lead me to the middle of
the plazza, out of hearing of any eavesdropper, and then with bated
breath confide their conviction that the only salvation of the
country lay in the United States. Ruin and sorrow brought by the civil
wars have caused such ideas to spread and be openly expressed. At
present it may be said that many Dominicans welcome American
assistance, that the great majority accept it, and that only a small
minority are bitterly opposed to it, and these objectors are
principally former politicians and revolutionists whose opinion counts
for least. The number of those favoring American intervention is being
increased by the splendid administrative work of the present American
authorities and would doubtless be still further augmented by valuable
constructive legislation and by a more uniform display of tact and
kindliness on the part of all American officials.

These relations between the two countries impose at least a moral duty
upon the United States. They make it incumbent upon the United States,
as far as is in its power, to foster the development of Santo Domingo
and promote the happiness of the Dominican people. One measure it
should adopt is the granting of suitable tariff concessions. Another
measure is the creation, for the administration of the countries
dependent on the United States, of a corps of trained men, selected
and retained without regard to political considerations, thoroughly
qualified for the duties they are to assume, speaking the language of
the country where they are sent, and capable of a sympathetic
understanding with the inhabitants. By showing an interest of this
kind the United States will properly fulfill its proud mission of
spreading liberty and prosperity in the new world.

The closer relations between the United States and Santo Domingo will
bring that country one boon of inestimable value, namely, peace. It is
obvious that all the troubles which have befallen the Dominican
Republic are due directly or indirectly to the state of civil
disorder which has so long been the bane of the country. Another
advantage which these relations will bring is a proper administration
of the country's finances. Peace and efficient administration will
mean the multiplication of roads, railroads and other public
improvements, the extension of education and a rapid advance of the
people and development of the country. When we think of the vast
resources of Santo Domingo, the mineral treasures hidden within Its
forest covered mountains, the unlimited agricultural wealth concealed
beneath its fertile soil, the enchanting beauty of its scenery, the
courtesy and hospitality of its people, its glorious early days and
distressing later history, we must be glad that the clouds which have
so long shrouded the land in darkness are definitely dissipated at
last and that the sun of peace and prosperity has begun to shine.

With peace assured and with means of communication provided, it is
easy to make predictions as to the economic future of Santo Domingo.
There will probably never be much manufacturing but agriculture will
increase with enormous strides assisted by streams of foreign capital
which will not be slow to realize the exceptional opportunities
offered. Sugar growing will probably be preferred and the southern
plains as well as a great portion of the rich Cibao Valley will soon
be covered with waving canefields. Tobacco will also receive attention
and perhaps fruit growing. Cacao and coffee will spread more slowly.
Prospecting for mineral wealth will be undertaken. The extension of
agriculture will stimulate commerce and augment, the wealth of the
people. Within a few years the country will become one of the richest
gardens of the West Indies.

The curtain has gone down upon the epoch of revolutions, conspiracies,
civil wars and destruction. That period belongs to the past as
definitely as the era of freebooters and pirates. A new era has begun
for beautiful Quisqueya, in which, under the protection of the Stars
and Stripes, it is destined to enjoy a greater measure of freedom,
progress and prosperity than its inhabitants have ever dreamed.






Admiral Cristopher Columbus, viceroy 1492-1500
Adelantado Bartholomew Columbus 1496-1498
Comendador Francisco de Bobadilla 1500-1502
Comendador Nicolás de Ovando 1502-1509
Diego Columbus, Second Admiral 1509-1515
Licentiate Cristábal Lebrán, in connection with Royal
Audiencia 1515-1516
Luis de Figueroa, Bernardino de Manzanedo, and
Ildefonso de Santo Domingo, friars of the order of
San Jeránimo 1516-1519
Licentiate Rodrigo de Figueroa 1519-1520
Diego Columbus, Second Admiral 1520-1524
Royal Audiencia, in connection with judges Caspar de
Espinosa and Alonso de Zuazo 1524-1528

_Governors and Captains-General _

(Note. Owing to the incompleteness of the records
the following list probably contains inaccuracies.)

Sebastián Ramirez de Fuenleal, Bishop of Santo Domingo
and Concepcián de la Vega 1528-1531
Royal Audiencia 1531-1533
Licentiate Alonso de Fuenmayor, Bishop of Santo Domingo
and Concepcián de la Vega 1533-1540
Louis Columbus, Third Admiral 1540-1543
Licentiate Alonso Lápez de Cerrato 1543-1549
Licentiate Alonso de Fuenmayor, Archbishop of Santo
Domingo 1549-1556
Licentiate Alonso de Maldonado 1556-1560
Licentiate Cepeda 1560
Licentiate Veras 1560-1561
Licentiate Alonso Arias de Herrera 1561-1564
Antonio de Osorio 1564-1583
Licentiate Cristábal de Ovalles 1583-1590
Lope de Vega Portocarrero 1590-1597
Domingo de Osorio 1597-1608
Diego Gámez de Sandoval 1608-1624
Diego de Acuña 1624-1634
Maestre de Campo Juan Bitrián de Viamonte 1634-1646
Nicolás Velazco Altamirano 1646-1649
Maestre de Campo Gabriel de Chaves Osorio 1649-1652
Bernardino de Menesets y Bracamonte, Count of Peñalva 1652-1657
Felix de Zuñiga 1657-1658
Andrés Pérez Franco 1658-1660
Juan Francisco de Montemayor Cárdova y Cuenca 1660-1662
Juan de Balboa y Mogrovejo 1662-1670
Pedro de Carvajal y Lobos 1670-1671
Maestre de Campo Ignacio de Zayas Bazán 1671-1677
Dr. Juan de Padilla Guardiola y Guzmán 1677-1679
Maestre de Campo Francisco de Segura Sandoval y
Castilla 1679-1684
Maestre de Campo Andrés de Robles 1684-1689
Admiral Ignacio Pérez Caro 1689-1698
Maestre de Campo Gil Correoso Catalan 1698-1699
Severino de Manzaneda 1699-1702
Admiral Ignacio Pérez Caro 1702-1706
Licentiate Sebastián de Cerezada y Girán 1706-1707
Guillermo Morfi 1707-1713
Brigadier Pedro de Niela y Torres 1713-1714
Colonel Antonio Landeche 1714-1715
Brigadier Fernando Constanzo y Ramárez, Knight of
Santiago 1715-1723
Colonel Francisco de la Rocha y Ferrer 1723-1732
Brigadier Alfonso de Castro y Mazo 1732-1739
Brigadier Pedro Zorrilla y de San Martin, Marquis of la
Gándara Real 1739-1750
Brigadier Juan José Colomo 1750
Teniente rey José de Zunnier de Basteros 1750-1751
Brigadier Francisco Rubio y Peñaranda 1751-1759
Field-Marshal Manuel de Azlor y Urries 1759-1771
Brigadier José Solano y Bote 1771-1779
Brigadier Isidore de Peralta y Rojas 1779-1785
Colonel Joaquán García y Moreno 1785-1786
Brigadier Manuel González de Torres 1786-1788
Brigadier Joaquán García y Moreno 1788-1801



General Toussaint l'Ouverture 1801-1802
General Antoine Nicolas Kerverseau 1802-1803
General Marie Louis Ferrand 1803-1808
General L. Barquier 1808-1809


_Governors and Captains-General_

Brigadier Juan Sánchez Ramárez 1809-1811
Colonel Manuel Caballero y Masot 1811-1813
Brigadier Carlos de Urrutia y Matos 1813-1818
Brigadier Sebastian Kindelan y Oregán 1818-1821
Brigadier Pascual Real 1821


_Governor and President_

Licentiate José Nuñez de Cáceres 1821-1822



Jean Pierre Boyer 1822-1843
Charles Riviáre Hérardi ainé 1843-1844



Central Council of Government (Provisional government) 1844
Pedro Santana, Provisional and Constitutional President 1844-1848
Manuel Jiménez, Constitutional President 1848-1849
Buenaventura Baez, Constitutional President 1849-1853
Pedro Santana, Constitutional President 1853-1856
Manuel de Regla Mota, Vice-President 1856
Buenaventura Baez, Vice-President 1856-1858
José Desiderio Valverde, Constitutional President 1858
Pedro Santana, Provisional and Constitutional President 1858-1861


_Governors and Captains-General_

Lieutenant-General Pedro Santana 1861-1862
Lieutenant-General Felipe Ribero y Lemoine 1862-1863
Brigadier Carlos de Vargas 1863-1864
Lieutenant-General José de la Gándara 1864-1865


José Salcedo, Provisional President 1863-1864
Gaspar Polanco, Provisional President 1864-1865
Benigno Filorneno de Rojas, Provisional President 1865
Pedro Antonio Pimentel, Constitutional President 1865
José Maria Cabral, Provisional President 1865
Buenaventura Baez, Provisional and Constitutional
President 1865-1866
José Maria Cabral, Constitutional President 1866-1868
Buenaventura Baez, Constitutional President 1868-1873
Ignacio Maria Gonzalez, Provisional and Constitutional
President 1874-1876
Uliees F. Espaillat, Constitutional President 1876
Ignacio María González, Provisional President 1876
Buenaventura Baez, Provisional and Constitutional
President 1876-1878
Cesareo Guillermo, Provisional and Constitutional
President 1878
Ignacio Marña González, Constitutional President 1878
Jacinto de Castro, President Supreme Court 1878
Cesareo Guillermo, Provisional and Constitutional
President 1878-1879
Gregorio Luperán, Provisional President 1879-1880
Fernando A. de Meriño, Constitutional President 1880-1882
Ulises Heureaux, Constitutional President 1882-1884
Francisco Gregorio Billini, Constitutional President 1884-1885
Alejandro Woss y Gil, Vice-President and Provisional
President 1885-1887
Ulises Heureaux, Constitutional President (4 terms) 1887-1899
Juan Wenceslao Figuereo, Vice-President 1899
Horacio Vásquez, Provisional President 1899
Juan Isidro Jimánez, Constitutional President 1899-1902
Horacio Vásquez, Provisional President 1902-1903
Alejandro Woss y Gil, Provisional and Constitutional
President 1903
Carlos E. Morales, Provisional and Constitutional
President 1903-1906
Ramán Cáceres, Vice-President and Constitutional
President 1906-1911
Eladio Victoria, Provisional and Constitutional
President 1911-1912
Adolfo A. Nouel, Provisional President 1912-1913
José Bordas Valdez, Provisional President 1913-1914
Ramán Baez, Provisional President 1914
Juan Isidro Jimánez, Constitutional President 1914-1916
Francisco Henriquez Carvajal, Provisional President 1916


_Military Governor_

Rear-Admiral H. S. Knapp 1916-



The equivalents between old weights and measures still in use in Santo
Domingo with the legal or metric system, are as follows, the
equivalents with American measures being also given:

Dominican American Metric

Measures of length:
1 league 3.46 miles 5.5727 kilometers
1 ona 3 feet, 10.79 inches 1.1884 meters
1 yard 35.996 inches 0.9143 meter
1 vara 32.91 inches 0.836 meter
1 foot 10.945 inches 0.278 meter
1 inch 0.9055 inch 0.023 meter
1 line [1] 0.0787 inch 0.002 meter

Surface measures:
1 tarea [2] 0.1554 acre 628.86 sq. meters
1 caballeria 186.50 acres 75.4636 hectares

Liquid measures:
1 bottle 0.7392 quart 720 grams
1 gallon 3.3265 quarts 3.34 liters

Dry measures:
1 fanega 1.575 bushels 55.5 liters
1 almud 0.1596 bushel 5.625 liters
1 cuartillo 0.0328 bushel 1.156 liter

1 ton 2,028.232 pounds 920 kilograms
1 quintal 101.412 pounds 46 kilograms
1 arroba 25.353 pounds 11.5 kilograms
1 pound 1.014 pounds 460 grams
1 ounce 0.06338 pound, or 28.75 grams
1.014 ounces avoirdupois
1 adarme 27.78 grains 1.8 grams
1 grain[3] 0.7706 grain 5 centigrams

The following measures are cited for comparison:

American Metric
Porto Rican cuerda 0.9701 acre 3930.4037 sq. meters
Porto Rican caballeria 194.02 acres 78.608 hectares
Cuban caballeria 33.16 acres 13.4202 hectares
Haitian carreau 3.194 acres 12,928 sq. meters

[Footnote 1: 12 lines = 1 inch; 12 inches = 1 foot; 3 feet = 1 vara; 3
varas = 1 vara conuquera; 20,000 feet = 1 league]

[Footnote 2: A tarea is a parcel of land measuring 100 square varas
conuqueras. It is the usual measure of land. 300 tareas = 1 peonia; 4
peonias = 1 caballeria.]

[Footnote 3: 36 grains = 1 adarme; 16 adarmes = 1 ounce; 16 ounces = 1
pound; 25 pounds = 1 arroba; 4 arrobas = 1 quintal; 20 quintals =
1 ton.]




_Concluded February 8, 1907

Ratification advised by Senate February 25, 1907

Ratified by President June 2, 1907

Ratified by President of the Dominican Republic June 18, 1907

Ratifications exchanged at Washington July 8, 1907

Proclaimed July 25, 1907_



Whereas a convention between the United States of America and the
Dominican Republic providing for the assistance of the United States
in the collection and application of the customs revenues of the
Dominican Republic, was concluded and signed by their respective
Plenipotentiaries at the City of Santo Domingo, on the eighth day of
February, one thousand nine hundred and seven, the original of which
convention, being in the English and Spanish languages, is word for
word as follows:

Whereas during disturbed political conditions in the Dominican
Republic debts and claims have been created, some by regular and some
by revolutionary governments, many of doubtful validity in whole or
in part, and amounting in all to over $30,000,000, nominal or
face value;

And whereas the same conditions have prevented the peaceable and
continuous collection and application of National revenues for payment
of interest or principal of such debts or for liquidation and
settlement of such claims; and the said debts and claims continually
increase by accretion of interest and are a grievous burden upon the
people of the Dominican Republic and a barrier to their improvement
and prosperity;

And whereas the Dominican Government has now effected a conditional
adjustment and settlement of said debts and claims under which all its
foreign creditors have agreed to accept about $12,407,000 for debts
and claims amounting to about $21,184,000 of nominal or face value,
and the holders of internal debts or claims of about $2,028,258
nominal or face value have agreed to accept about $645,827 therefor,
and the remaining holders of internal debts or claims on the same
basis as the assents already given will receive about $2,400,000
therefor, which sum the Dominican Government has fixed and determined
as the amount which it will pay to such remaining internal debt
holders; making the total payments under such adjustment and
settlement, including interest as adjusted and claims not yet
liquidated, amount to not more than about $17,000,000.

And whereas a part of such plan of settlement is the issue and sale of
bonds of the Dominican Republic to the amount of $20,000,000 bearing
five per cent interest payable in fifty years and redeemable after ten
years at 102-1/2 and requiring payment of at least one per cent per
annum for amortization, the proceeds of said bonds, together with such
funds as are now deposited for the benefit of creditors from customs
revenues of the Dominican Republic heretofore received, after payment
of the expenses of such adjustment, to be applied first to the payment
of said debts and claims as adjusted and second out of the balance
remaining to the retirement and extinction of certain concessions and
harbor monopolies which are a burden and hindrance to the commerce of
the country and third the entire balance still remaining to the
construction of certain railroads and bridges and other public
improvements necessary to the industrial development of the country;
And whereas the whole of said plan is conditioned and dependent upon
the assistance of the United States in the collection of customs
revenues of the Dominican Republic and the application thereof so far
as necessary to the interest upon and the amortization and redemption
of said bonds, and the Dominican Republic has requested the United
States to give and the United States is willing to give such

The Dominican Government, represented by its Minister of State for
Foreign Relations, Emiliano Tejera, and its Minister of State for
Finance and Commerce, Federico Velasquez H., and the United States
Government, represented by Thomas C. Dawson, Minister Resident and
Consul General of the United States to the Dominican Republic,
have agreed:

I. That the President of the United States shall appoint, a General
Receiver of Dominican Customs, who, with such Assistant Receivers and
other employees of the Receivership as shall be appointed by the
President of the United States in his discretion, shall collect all
the customs duties accruing at the several customs houses of the
Dominican Republic until the payment or retirement of any and all
bonds issued by the Dominican Government in accordance with the plan
and under the limitations as to terms and amounts hereinbefore
recited; and said General Receiver shall apply the sums so collected,
as follows:

First, to paying the expenses of the receivership; second, to the
payment of interest upon said bonds; third, to the payment of the
annual sums provided for amortization of said bonds including interest
upon all bonds held in sinking fund; fourth, to the purchase and
cancellation or the retirement and cancellation pursuant to the terms
thereof of any of said bonds as may be directed by the Dominican
Government; fifth, the remainder to be paid to the Dominican
Government. The method of distributing the current collections of
revenue in order to accomplish the application thereof as hereinbefore
provided shall be as follows:

The expenses of the receivership shall be paid by the Receiver as they
arise. The allowances to the General Receiver and his assistants for
the expenses of collecting the revenues shall not exceed five per cent
unless by agreement between the two Governments.

On the first day of each calendar month the sum of $100,000 shall be
paid over by the Receiver to the Fiscal Agent of the loan, and the
remaining collection of the last preceding month shall be paid over to
the Dominican Government, or applied to the sinking fund for the
purchase or redemption of bonds, as the Dominican Government
shall direct.

_Provided_, that in case the customs revenues collected by the General
Receiver shall in any year exceed the sum of $3,000,000, one half of
the surplus above such sum of $3,000,000 shall be applied to the
sinking fund for the redemption of bonds.

II. The Dominican Government will provide by law for the payment of
all customs duties to the General Receiver and his assistants, and
will give to them all needful aid and assistance and full protection
to the extent of its powers. The Government of the United States will
give to the General Receiver and his assistants such protection as it
may find to be requisite for the performance of their duties.

III. Until the Dominican Republic has paid the whole amount of the
bonds of the debt its public debt shall not be increased except by
previous agreement between the Dominican Government and the United
States. A like agreement shall be necessary to modify the import
duties, it being an indispensable condition for the modification of
such duties that the Dominican Executive demonstrate and that the
President of the United States recognize that, on the basis of
exportations and importations to the like amount and the like
character during the two years preceding that in which it is desired
to make such modification, the total net customs receipts would at
such altered rates of duties have been for each of such two years in
excess of the sum of $2,000,000 United States gold.

IV. The accounts of the General Receiver shall be rendered monthly to
the Contaduria General of the Dominican Republic and to the State
Department of the United States and shall be subject to examination
and verification by the appropriate officers of the Dominican and the
United States Governments.

V. This agreement shall take effect after its approval by the Senate
of the United States and the Congress of the Dominican Republic.

Done in four originals, two being in the English language, and two in
the Spanish, and the representatives of the high contracting parties
signing them in the City of Santo Domingo this 8th day of February, in
the year of our Lord 1907.




And whereas the said convention has been duly ratified on both parts,
and the ratifications of the two governments were exchanged in the
City of Washington, on the eighth day of July, one thousand nine
hundred seven;

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of
the United States of America, have caused the said convention to be
made public, to the end that the same and every article and clause
thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United
States and the citizens thereof.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal
of the United States of America to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington, this 25th day of July in the year of
our Lord one thousand nine hundred and seven, and of the Independence
of the United States of America the one hundred and thirty-second.


By the President:


_Acting Secretary of State._

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