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Ritchie's Fabulae Faciles by John Kirtland, ed.

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9. Cepheus. See the note on _Perseus_, 4, 4.

10. civis suos, 'his subjects.'

13. certam. See the note on _quodam_, 3, 15. _Dies_ is regularly
masculine, but when used of an appointed day it is often feminine.

omnia, 'all things,' 'everything,' or 'all.' See the note on _omnium_,
line 6.

16. deplorabant, tenebant. Be careful to show the meaning of the tense by
your translation.

18. quaerit. The present is often used of a past action instead of the
perfect, to bring the action more vividly before us as if it were taking
place now. This is called the historical present.

19. haec geruntur, 'this is going on.'

20. horribili. Here the adjective is made emphatic by being put before
its noun; in 4, 14 the same effect is gained by putting _horribili_ last
in its clause.

22. omnibus, dative of indirect object after the compound verb
_(in+iacio)_. Translate 'inspired in all,' but the literal meaning is
'threw into all.'

26. induit. See the note on 3, 13.

aera. See the note on 4, 11.

6. 2. suo, eius. Distinguish carefully between these words. _Suus_ is
used of something belonging to the subject, _eius_ of something belonging
to some other person or thing just mentioned.

5. volat. See the note on 4, 25.

7. sustulit. Notice that the perfect forms of _tollo_ are the same as
those of _suffero (sub + fero)_, 'endure.'

8. neque, here to be translated 'and ... not.' _Neque_ is thus used
regularly for _et non_.

13. exanimata, used here as a predicate adjective.

16. rettulit. 'To give thanks' or 'thank' is usually _gratias agere_, as
in 3, 19; _gratiam referre_ means 'to show one's gratitude,' 'to
recompense' or 'requite.'

18. duxit. This word came to mean 'marry,' because the bridegroom 'led'
his bride in a wedding procession to his own home. It will be seen,
therefore, that it can be used only of the man.

Paucos annos. See the note on 3, 20.

20. omnis. What does the quantity of the _i_ tell you about the form?

7. 1. quod, not the relative pronoun, but a conjunction.

3. eo, the adverb.

in atrium. Although inrupit means 'burst _into_,' the preposition is
nevertheless required with the noun to express the place into which he

6. ille. See the note on _Perseus_, 4, 4.

8. Acrisi. In Nepos, Caesar, Cicero, and Vergil, the genitive singular of
second-declension nouns in _-ius_ and _-ium_ ends in _i_, not _ii_; but
the nominative plural ends in _ii_, and the dative and ablative plural in

10. istud. Remember that _iste_ is commonly used of something connected
with the person addressed. Here the meaning may be 'that oracle I told
you of.' See 3, 4.

12. Larisam. See the note on 3, 12.

neque enim, 'for ... not,' as if simply _non enim_, but Latin uses _neque_
to connect the clauses.

14. in omnis partis, 'in all directions' or 'in every direction.'

15. Multi. See the note on _omnium_, 5, 6.

17. discorum. The discus was a round, flat piece of stone or metal, and
the athletes tried to see who could throw it farthest.

18. casu. This is one of the ablatives of manner that do not take _cum_.

19. stabat. Notice the tense.


9. 2. omnium hominum. This means 'all men' in the sense of 'all mankind.'

3. oderat. _Odi_ is perfect in form, but present in meaning; and the
pluperfect has in like manner the force of an imperfect.
5. media nocte, 'in the middle of the night,' 'in the dead of night.'

7. Nec tamen, 'not ... however.' See the note on _neque enim,_ 7, 12.

8. movebant. Contrast this tense with appropinquaverant and excitati

13. Tali modo = _hoc modo_, 4, 20.

20. a puero, 'from a boy,' 'from boyhood.'

exercebat, the imperfect of customary action, as is also consumebat.

24. autem. See the note on 5, 8.

25. arti, dative of indirect object with the intransitive verb studebat.

10. 2. omnibus viribus, 'with all his might,' ablative of manner.

3. e vita. Notice that the preposition denoting separation appears both
with the noun and in the verb. Compare _in atrium inrupit_, 7, 3.

4. neque quisquam, 'and not any one,' _i.e_. 'and no one.' _Quisquam_ is
used chiefly in negative sentences.

5. voluit, 'was willing.'

7. facit. See the note on 4, 25.

8. nomine. See the note on 5, 8.

9. vir crudelissimus, not 'cruelest man,' but 'most cruel man.' The
superlative is often thus used to denote simply a high degree of the

consueverat. Inceptive verbs end in _sco_ and denote the beginning of an
action or state. The perfect and pluperfect of such verbs often represent
the state of things resulting from the completion of the action, and are
then to be translated as present and imperfect respectively. So
_consuesco_ = 'I am becoming accustomed,' _consuevi_ = 'I have become
accustomed' or 'am accustomed,' _consueveram_ = 'I had become accustomed'
or 'was accustomed.'

11. sacrificio, 'for the sacrifice,' dative of purpose.

ea. Why is dies feminine here? See the note on _certam_, 5, 13.

12. omnia. See the note on 5, 13.

15. capitibus, dative of indirect object after the compound verb _(in +

16. iam. The omission of the conjunction that would naturally join this
clause with the preceding, and the repetition of _iam_, which thus in a
way connects the two clauses, reflect the imminence of the danger and
heighten our anxiety for the hero. Observe too how the tenses of the
verbs contribute to the vividness of the picture. We see Hercules at the
altar and the priest, knife in hand, about to give the fatal blow.

18. altero. Supply _ictu_.

19. Thebis, locative case. Notice that some names of towns are plural in

21. Thebanis, dative with the adjective finitimi.

autem, 'now.'

22. Thebas. Names of towns are used without a preposition to express the
place to which.

23. veniebant, postulabant, imperfect of customary action.

25. civis suos, 'his fellow-citizens.' Compare 5, 10.

hoc stipendio, ablative of separation.

27. atque. This conjunction adds an important statement by way of
supplement. Here the meaning is something like 'and not only that, but.'

11. 11. conversa. _Est_ and _sunt_ are frequently not expressed with the
perfect participle.

17. suos ipse sua. Notice how the enormity of the crime is emphasized by
the use of all these words repeating the same idea.

23. oraculum Delphicum. See the note on 5, 6.

hoc oraculum omnium = _hoc omnium oraculorum_.

25. Hoc in templo. Monosyllabic prepositions often stand between the
noun and an adjective modifying it.

12. 1. qui. Remember that the relative pronoun agrees in gender, number,
and person with its antecedent; that its case depends upon its use. How
are the person and number of qui shown?

2. hominibus. See the note on 9, 2.

4. neque. See the note on 6, 8.

7. Tiryntha. This is a Greek accusative form. See the note on _aera_,
4, 11.

10. Duodecim annos, accusative of duration of time.

11. Eurystheo. The English verb 'serve' is transitive, but _servio_ ('be
subject to') is intransitive and takes an indirect object.

14. quae. See the note on line 1. What is the case of quae?

16. Primum is chiefly used in enumeration, primo (line 6) in contrasting
an action or state with one that follows it.

19. secum. The preposition _cum_ follows and is joined to the reflexive
and personal pronouns, usually also to the relative pronoun.

22. neque enim. See the note on 7, 12.

26. respirandi, the genitive of the gerund. It modifies facultas. The
gerund corresponds to the English verbal noun in _-ing_.

13. 5. Hoc. We might expect _haec_ referring to Hydram, but a
demonstrative pronoun is commonly attracted into the gender of the
predicate noun (here monstrum).

cui erant, 'which had,' literally 'to which there were.' This
construction is found only with _sum_. It is called the dative of

8. res. In rendering this word choose always with great freedom the most
suitable English word.

13. 8. magni periculi. We say 'one of great danger.'

9. eius. What possessive would be used to modify sinistra?

11. hoc conatu, ablative of separation.

14. comprehenderunt. See the note on 3, 13.

unde = _ex quibus_.

16. auxilio Hydrae, 'to the aid of the Hydra,' but literally for aid
(i.e. as aid) to the Hydra,' for Hydrae is dative. This is called the
double dative construction, auxilio the dative of purpose, and Hydrae the
dative of reference, i.e. the dative denoting the person interested.

17. abscidit. See the note on 4, 25.

mordebat, 'kept biting,' the imperfect of repeated action.

18. tali modo. See the note on 9, 13.

interfecit. We have now had several verbs meaning 'kill.' _Interficio_ is
the most general of these; _neco_ (line 4) is used of killing by unusual
or cruel means, as by poison; _occido_ (12, 23) is most commonly used of
the 'cutting down' of an enemy in battle.

19. reddidit, as well as imbuit, has sagittas for its object, but we must
translate as if we had _eas_ with reddidit.

22. ad se. Compare this construction with the use of the dative in 4, 2.
Notice that se does not refer to Herculem, the subject of referre, but to
Eurystheus, the subject of Iussit. When the reflexive thus refers to the
subject of the principal verb rather than to the subject of the
subordinate verb with which it s directly connected, it is called

23. tantae audaciae. The genitive of description, like the ablative of
description, consists always of a noun with some modifying word. Compare
_specie horribili_, 4, 14.

autem. Compare 5, 8 and 10, 21.

24. incredibili celeritate, ablative of description.

25. vestigiis, ablative of means.

26. ipsum, contrasts cervum with vestigiis.

27. omnibus viribus. See the note on 10, 2.

14. 1. currebat, 'he kept running.'

sibi, dative of reference. It need not be translated,

ad quietem, 'for rest.' Purpose is frequently thus expressed by _ad_.

3. cucurrerat. The pluperfect is sometimes used with postquam when the
lapse of time is denoted.

4. cursu, ablative of cause.

exanimatum = _qui exanimatus erat_. The participle is often equivalent to
a relative clause.

5. rettulit. See the note on 13, 19.

8. rem. See the note on _res_, 13, 8.

10. apro, dative of indirect object after the compound verb (_ob +

11. timore perterritus. It is not necessary to translate both words.

13. iniecit, i.e. upon the boar.

summa cum difficultate. Compare this with _omnibus viribus_, 13, 27, and
notice that _cum_ may be omitted with the ablative of manner when there
is an adjective. For the position of cum, see the note on 11, 25.

15. ad Eurystheum. We are told elsewhere that Eurystheus was so
frightened when he saw the boar that he hid in a cask.

vivus. Why have we the nominative here, but the accusative (vivum) in
line 5?

17. quarto. The capture of the Erymanthian boar is usually given as the
third labor and the capture of the Cerynean stag as the fourth.

narravimus. The writer sometimes uses the first person plural in speaking
of himself, instead of the first person singular. This is called the
plural of modesty, and is the same as the English usage.

18. in Arcadiam. How does this differ in meaning from _in Arcadia_?

20. appeteret. The subjunctive introduced by cum, 'since,' may express
the reason for the action of the main verb.

23. Hercules. See the note on _Perseus_, 4, 4.

26. quod, conjunction, not pronoun.

reliquos centauros, 'the rest of the centaurs,' 'the other centaurs.'
Compare _media nocte_, 9, 5. Notice that _reliqui_ means about the same
as _ceteri_, and see the note on 4, 13.

28. inquit, historical present. This verb is used parenthetically with
direct quotations.

15. 1. dabo. Notice that Latin is more exact than English in the use of
the future tense in subordinate clauses. In English we often use the
present in the subordinate clause and leave it to the principal verb to
show that the time is future.

7. pervenerunt. See the note on 4, 26.

10. constitit, from _consisto_, not _consto_.

16. fuga. Latin says 'by flight,' not 'in flight.'

17. ex spelunca. See the note on 10, 3.

21. locum, the direct object of Adiit, which is here transitive. We might
also have _ad locum_ with _adeo_ used intransitively.

16. 4. Herculi. See the note on 10, 15.

laborem. This labor is usually given as the sixth, the destruction of the
Stymphalian birds as the fifth.

6. tria milia boum, 'three thousand cattle,' literally 'three thousands
of cattle.' The partitive genitive is the regular construction with the
plural _milia_, but the singular _mille_ is commonly used as an
adjective, like English 'thousand.' Thus 'one thousand cattle' would be
_mille boves_.

7. ingentis magnitudinis. See the note on _tantae audaciae_, 13, 23.

8. neque enim umquam, 'for ... never.' See the note on _neque enim_, 7,

11. multae operae. See the note on _magni periculi_, 13, 8.

12. duodeviginti pedum, i.e. in width.

duxit. This word is used with reference to the progress of work on a wall
or ditch from one end of it to the other.

15. opus. Compare this word with operae and labore, line 12. _Labor_ is
used of heavy or exhausting labor, _opera_ of voluntary exertion or
effort, _opus_ of that upon which one labors or of the completed work.

17. imperaverat. This verb takes an indirect object to express the person
ordered (ei). The action commanded is expressed by the subjunctive in a
clause introduced by _ut_ and used as the object of _impero_ (ut
necaret). Notice that this may be translated 'that he should kill' or 'to
kill.' Compare now the construction with _iubeo_, 13, 22, with which the
command is expressed by the accusative and infinitive (_Herculem

19. carne. _Vescor_ is an intransitive verb and governs the ablative.

22. appropinquandi. See the note on 12, 26.

23. constitit, from _consto_. Compare 15, 10.

pedibus, 'on foot,' literally 'by his feet.'

25. consumpsisset. The imperfect and pluperfect tenses of the subjunctive
are used with cum, 'when,' to describe the circumstances of the action of
the main verb. Compare 14, 20, and the note.

26. hoc conatu. See the note on 13, 11.

27. peteret. The subjunctive is used with ut to express purpose. The best
translation is usually the infinitive ('to ask'), but the Latin
infinitive is not used in model prose to express purpose.

17. 3. avolarent. This is not subjunctive of purpose, but of result, as
is indicated by tam.

6. ex. Compare this with _ab_, 16, 21, and _de_, 16, 13. We commonly
translate all of these 'from,' but the real meanings are 'out of,' 'away
from,' and 'down from' respectively.

Creta. See the note on 3, 12.

7. esset. See the note on 14, 20.

8. insulae, dative with the compound verb (_ad_ + _propinquo_).

appropinquaret. See the note on 16, 25.

9. tanta ... ut. Notice how frequently the clause of result is connected
with a demonstrative word in the main clause.

12. navigandi imperitus, 'ignorant of navigation,' 'inexperienced in
sailing.' See the note on 12, 26.

21. cum, the conjunction.

ingenti labore. See the note on _summa cum difficultate_, 14, 13.

25. ut reduceret. See the note on 16, 27.

26. carne. See the note on 16, 19.

vescebantur, imperfect of customary action.

18. 3. ut traderentur. Notice that _postulo_, like _impero_, takes an
object-clause introduced by _ut_ and having its verb in the subjunctive.

sibi, the indirect reflexive. See the note on 13, 22.

4. ira ... interfecit, 'became furiously angry and killed the king,'
literally 'moved by wrath killed the king.' The participle is frequently
best rendered by a finite verb.

18. 4. cadaver. The subject of an infinitive stands in the accusative
case. We might translate here 'and gave orders that his body should be
thrown.' See the note on 16, 17.

6. mira rerum commutatio. When a noun has both an adjective and a
genitive modifier, this order of the words is common.

7. cum cruciatu, ablative of manner.

necaverat. See the note on _interfecit_, 13, 18.

10. referebant. See the note on 6, 16.

modo. This is the adverb, not a case of _modus_, the dative and ablative
singular of which would be _modo_. Make a practice of carefully observing
the quantity of vowels.

11. orabant. Notice that this verb, like _impero_ and _postulo_, takes
_ut_ and the subjunctive.

14. ad navigandum. See the note on _ad quietem_, 14, 1.

16. post, here an adverb of time.

18. dicitur. Notice that the Latin construction is personal ('the nation
is said to have consisted'), while English commonly has the impersonal
construction ('it is said that the nation consisted').

19. rei militaris, 'the art of war.'

25. mandavit. See the note on 16, 17.

26. Amazonibus, dative after the compound verb.

19. 1. persuasit. Notice that this verb governs the same construction
that we have already found used with _impero_ and _mando_.

2. secum. See the note on 12, 19.

5. appulit. Supply _navem_.

6. doceret. A clause of purpose is frequently introduced by a relative.
Translate like the _ut_-clause of purpose, here 'to make known,'
literally 'who was to make known.'

14. magno intervallo, ablative of degree of difference.

16. non magna. The effect of the position of these words may be
reproduced by translating 'but not a large one.'

neutri. The plural is used because the reference is to two parties, each
composed of several individuals. 'Neither' of two individuals would be

17. volebant, dedit. Consider the tenses. Each army waited for some time
for the other to cross; finally Hercules gave the signal.

22. occiderint. The perfect subjunctive is sometimes used in result
clauses after a past tense in the principal clause. This is contrary to
the general principle of the sequence of tenses, which requires the
imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive after a past tense, the present or
perfect subjunctive after a present or future tense.

23. Viri. Compare this with _hominibus_, 12, 2.

24. praestabant. Compare the tense with praestiterunt, line 21.

27. neu. As _neque_ or _nec_ is used for 'and not,' so _neve_ or _neu_
for 'and that not' in an object-clause or a clause of purpose.

20. 1. quibus, 'and by these,' The relative is much used in Latin to
connect a new sentence with the one preceding. When so used, it is
generally best rendered by 'and' or 'but' and a demonstrative or personal

ita ... ut. See the note on 17, 9.

2. essent, most easily explained as the subjunctive of attraction. By
this is meant that the verb is attracted into the mood of the clause upon
which it depends.

4. pugnatum est, 'the battle raged' or 'they fought,' literally 'it was
fought,' Intransitive verbs are often thus used impersonally in the
passive, with the subject implied in the verb itself, as pugnatum
est = _pugna pugnata est_.

11. aestatis, partitive genitive. Notice that multum is used as a noun.

13. nactus. The perfect active participle is wanting in Latin, but the
perfect participle of deponent verbs is active in meaning.

24. specie horribili. See the note on 4, 14.

26. timore perterriti. See the note on 14, 11.

continebantur, 'kept themselves shut up.' This is the so-called reflexive
use of the passive, in which the subject is represented as acting upon

pecora. This word is used of herds of cattle, pecudes (line 25) of single
animals, especially sheep.

28. commotus consuluit. See the note on 18, 4.

21. 3. liberaret. See the note on 16, 27.

oraculo. Notice that parere is intransitive and has the dative of
indirect object, while 'obey' is transitive. It may help to understand
the Latin construction if you translate such verbs as _pareo_ by
intransitives, here 'to submit to.'

4. sacrificio. See the note on 10, 11.

5. ipso temporis puncto quo, 'at the very moment when.'

8. egressus. See the note on 20, 13.

de rebus ... factus est, 'was informed of the state of things,' literally
'was made more certain about the things which were being done.' In what
gender, number, person, and case is quae? Give a reason for each.

11. posset. The subjunctive is used because the words of the king are
quoted indirectly. He said _si potes_, 'if you can.'

19. Ipse. Notice the use of this word in contrasts, frequently, as here,
of a person with that which belongs to him or with his subordinates.

20. inter se, 'to one another.'

22. esset, subjunctive in an indirect question. The direct form would be
_Quantum periculum est_? ('How great is the danger?'). multas terras,
just as we say 'many lands,'

23. Europae. Compare _Thebanis_, 10, 21.

24. in utroque litore, 'on each shore,' 'on both shores.'

25. columnas. The ancients believed that the Rock of Gibraltar was the
pillar set up by Hercules on the European side.

22. 4. tantum, an adverb.

5. dederit. See the note on 19, 22.

9. quo in loco. See the note on 11, 25. essent. See the note on 21, 22.

10. sibi, the indirect reflexive.

12. et ... et, 'both ... and.'

18. progredi, 'from proceeding.'

19. prohibebant, 'attempted to prevent,' imperfect of attempted action.
Notice that the use of the imperfect to express customary, repeated, or
attempted action follows naturally from its use to denote action going on
in past time. The present, the tense which denotes action going on in
present time, has the same special uses.

20. barbari. This word was used by the Greeks of all other peoples; by
the Romans it was used of all but the Greeks and themselves.

24. ceciderunt. Let the quantity of the _i_ tell you whether this comes
from _cado_ or _caedo_. Is occiderint a compound of _cado_ or _caedo_?

25. in talibus rebus, _i.e_. when a god intervenes in behalf of his

26. nihil incommodi, 'no harm,' literally 'nothing of harm'; incommodi is
partitive genitive.

23. 2. quam celerrime, 'as rapidly as possible.' _Quam_ with the
superlative expresses the highest possible degree.

3. Necesse, predicate adjective with erat, the subject being has

5. citeriore. The Romans called upper Italy _Gallia Citerior_, 'Hither
Gaul,' because it was occupied by Gallic tribes.

6. perenni. Learn the derivation of this word. The meaning of a word may
often be seen most easily and remembered most surely by noticing its

tecti, used as predicate adjective.

9. copiam. Notice carefully the meaning of this word. In what sense have
we found the plural _copiae_ used?

10. rebus, 'preparations.' See the note on _res_, 13, 8.

consumpserat. See the note on 14, 3.

11. omnium opinionem. Hitherto we have had _opinionem omnium_, but here
_omnium_ is made emphatic by being placed first.

15. itinere, ablative of cause.

fessus, 'since he was weary.' Notice that a Latin adjective or participle
must often be expanded into a clause in the translation.

16. Haud = _non_. It modifies a single word, usually an adjective or

19. modo. See the note on 18, 10.

ingenti magnitudine. Compare _ingentis magnitudinis_, 16, 7.

23. boum. Learn the declension of this word from the vocabulary.

24. ne. A negative clause of purpose is introduced by _ne_.

24. 2. omnibus locis. _Locus_ modified by an adjective is often used
without _in_ in the ablative of place.

3. nusquam. We say 'could not find anywhere,' but Latin prefers to
combine the negative with another word.

6. reliquis. See the note on _reliquos centauros_, 14, 26.

7. e bobus. Compare _boum_, 23, 23. With unus the ablative with _ex_ or
_de_ is commonly used instead of the partitive genitive.

16. neque quicquam. See the note on 10, 4.

21. more suo, 'according to his custom.'

turbatus, 'was confused ... and.' See the note on _ira ... interfecit_,
18, 4.

22. in. See the note on _in atrium_, 7, 3.

25. respirandi. See the note on 12, 26.

25. 2. quam quos, for _quam eos quos_.

11. cui. See the note on _cui erant_, 13, 5.

12. Herculi imperaverat, 'had enjoined upon Hercules.'

17. Eurystheo. See the note on _oraculo_, 21, 3.

19. quaesiverat. With this verb the person of whom the question is asked
is expressed in the ablative with _ab, de_, or _ex_.

23. orbis terrarum, 'of the world,' literally 'of the circle of lands.'

26. umeris suis, ablative of means, but we say 'on his shoulders.'

ne. See the note on 23, 24.

decideret. Notice the force of the prefix _de_.

27. miratus, 'wondering at.' The perfect participle of deponent verbs is
often best rendered into English by a present participle.

26. 3. Herculi, dative with prodesse.

ille. See the note on _Perseus_, 4, 4.

4. certo, the adverb.

6. venisset. What would the form be in the direct question?

inquit. See the note on 14, 28.

7. filiabus. To avoid confusion with the corresponding forms of
_deus_ and _filius_, the dative and ablative plural of _dea_ and _filia_
sometimes end in _abus_.

sponte. This noun is practically confined to the ablative singular, in
prose usually with _mea, tua_, or _sua_, 'of my, your, his own accord.'

9. posset, subjunctive because indirect. The thought of Hercules was _si

11. abesset. This also is indirect, quoting _absum_.

12. umeris. See the note on 25, 26.

17. pauca milia. Extent of space, like duration of time, is expressed by
the accusative,

passuum. See the note on 16, 6.

21. ita ut, 'as'

accepissent. Hitherto we have found the indicative in causal clauses
introduced by quod. The subjunctive indicates that the reason is quoted;
the Hesperides said _quod accepimus_.

28. gratias egit. See the note on 6, 16.

27. 2. e laboribus. See the note on 24, 7.

3. Herculi praeceperat = _Herculi imperaverat_, 25, 12.

5. posset, subjunctive because it quotes the thought of Eurystheus,

6. ut ... traheret. This clause is not itself the object of dedit, but in
apposition with the object (Negotium).

7. omnium, partitive genitive.

11. narramus. The present is sometimes used with antequam to express
future action, as in English with 'before.' See the note on 15, 1.

alienum, predicate adjective, the subject of videtur being pauca ...
proponere. In the passive _video_ may mean 'be seen,' but it usually
means 'seem.'

13. qui idem, 'which also,' literally 'which the same.'

14. Ut, 'when.'

15. deducebantur, customary action.

19. Stygis fluminis. We say 'river Styx,' but 'Mississippi River.'

quo, ablative of means.

20. necesse. See the note on 23, 3.

possent. The subjunctive is used with antequam to denote that the action
is expected or intended.

21. in. We say 'over.'

25. prius. Notice that Latin is here more exact than English, using the
comparative because only two actions are spoken of.

dedisset, subjunctive because indirect. Charon said _nisi dederis_
(future perfect), _non transveham_, 'unless you first give (shall have
given), I will not carry you across.'

28. 1. mortui, used as a noun, 'of the dead man.'

eo consilio, 'with this purpose,' 'to this end.' The clause ut ... posset
is in apposition with consilio.

6. Ut. Compare 27, 14.

8. quod cum fecissent, 'and when they had done this.' See the note on
_quibus_, 20, 1.

13. Stabant, 'there stood.' What is its subject?

15. mortuis, dative of indirect object.

et. Notice that ambiguity is avoided by a change of conjunctions, et
connecting the clauses and -que connecting praemia and poenas. Of these
connectives, _et_ connects two ideas that are independent of each other
and of equal importance; _-que_ denotes a close connection, often of two
words that together express a single idea; while _ac_ or _atque_ (see
line 18) adds something of greater importance.

18. et. _Multi_ is often joined by _et_ to another adjective modifying
the same noun.

24. ex. Compare 25, 18.

27. se socios, direct object and predicate accusative respectively.

29. 3. ne. After verbs of fearing _ne_ must be rendered 'that,' _ut_,
'that not.' Notice, however, that the negative idea is as clearly present
here as in the other clauses introduced by _ne_ that we have met, for
Charon wishes that the thing may not happen.

13. fecisset, indirect for _feceris_.

18. refugerit. See the note on 19, 22.

23. quae cum ita essent, 'and this being the case,' 'and so,' literally
'since which things were so.'

24. liberatus. See the note on _ira ... interfecit_, 18, 4.

25. quae, object of perscribere, which is the subject of est; longum is
predicate adjective.

26. est. We say 'would be.'

aetate, ablative of specification. Translate 'when he was now advanced in
age' (_i.e_. 'late in life'), and see the note on _fessus_, 23, 15.

30. 1. accidit. This is one of several impersonal verbs which take for
their subject a clause of result (ut ... occiderit).

3. ut ... iret, a clause of result; used as the subject of esset, mos
being predicate.

quis. After _si, nisi, ne_, and _num_, this is not the interrogative, but
an indefinite pronoun ('any one'),

occidisset, indirect for _occiderit_, which would be the form used in the
laws; or it may be explained as subjunctive by attraction to iret.

7. transeant, not 'they are crossing,' but 'they are to cross.' The
direct form would be _transeamus ('How in the world are we to get
across?'), subjunctive because the question expresses doubt. This is
called the deliberative subjunctive.

10. progressus, 'after advancing.'

11. revertebatur. This verb is deponent in the present, imperfect, and

16. humi, locative, 'on the ground.'

ne. See the note on 23, 24.

sui ulciscendi, 'of avenging himself.' This is called the gerundive
construction. It is regularly used instead of the gerund when the gerund
would have an accusative object (_se ulciscendi_). Notice that the gerund
is a verbal noun; the gerundive a verbal adjective, agreeing with its
noun like any other adjective.

17. morientis, 'of a dying man.' Compare _mortui_, 28, 1.

18. vis, from _volo_.

20. si ... venerit, 'if you ever suspect him.' What is the literal
meaning? Notice that we use the present, while Latin by the use of the
future perfect indicates that the action is to precede that of the main

21. inficies. The future indicative is sometimes used, as in English, for
the imperative.

22. nihil mali. See the note on 22, 26.

suspicata. See the note on 25, 27.

25. Iolen, filiam, captivam, direct object, appositive, and predicate
accusative respectively.

26. domum. See the note on _ad domum_, 3, 15.

31. 1. referret. See the note on 19, 6.

2. facerent, subjunctive by attraction. The verb of a clause dependent
upon an infinitive is put in the subjunctive when the two clauses are
closely connected in thought. We have already met this construction in
the case of dependence upon a subjunctive; see the note on 20, 2.

gerere. Compare 30, 3. Such phrases as _mos est_ may have as subject
either an infinitive or a clause of result.

3. verita. This participle is regularly rendered as present,

ne. See the note on 29, 3.

4. vestem. Notice that the position of this word helps to make it clear
that it is the object of infecit as well as of dedit.

5. suspicans. This does not differ appreciably in force from _suspicata_,
30, 22.

8. exanimatus, 'beside himself.'

14. succenderent. Notice the force of the prefix _sub_ in this word and
in subdidit below.

15. inductus, 'moved.'


33. 1. alter ... alter, 'one ... the other.' Remember that this word is
used to denote one of two given persons or things. We have in this
passage an instance of the chiastic order, in which variety and emphasis
are gained by reversing the position of the words in the second of two
similar expressions. Here the two names are brought together by this

3. regni, objective genitive, _i.e_. a genitive used to denote the object
of the feeling cupiditate.

6. ex amicis. Quidam, like _unus_, commonly has _ex_ or _de_ and the
ablative, instead of the partitive genitive.

10. puerum mortuum esse, 'that the boy was dead,' literally 'the boy to
be dead.' This is indirect for _Puer mortuus est_, 'The boy is dead.'
Notice carefully what changes Latin makes in quoting such a statement
indirectly, and what the changes are in English. We have already met two
constructions of indirect discourse, the subjunctive in indirect
questions, and the subjunctive in informal indirect discourse. By the
latter is meant a subordinate clause which, though not forming part of a
formal quotation, has the subjunctive to show that not the speaker or
writer but some other person is responsible for the idea it expresses
(see the notes on _dedisset_, 27, 25, and _occidisset_. 30, 3). In
indirect discourse, then, a statement depending upon a verb of saying,
thinking, knowing, perceiving, or the like has its verb in the infinitive
with the subject in the accusative; a command or question has its verb in
the subjunctive; and any clause modifying such a statement, command, or
question has its verb in the subjunctive.

33. 13. intellegerent. See the note on 14, 20.

14. nescio quam fabulam, 'some story or other.' Notice that _nescio_ with
the interrogative pronoun is equivalent to an indefinite pronoun.

19. oraculum. Read again the description beginning at the bottom of
page 11.

21. quis. See the note on 30, 3.

Post paucis annis, 'a few years later,' literally 'later by a few years.'
Post is here an adverb, and paucis annis ablative of degree of
difference. The expression is equivalent to _post paucos annos_.

22. accidit. See the note on 30, 1.

facturus, 'intending to make.' The future participle with a form of _sum_
is used to express an intended or future action. This is called the
active periphrastic conjugation.

23. certam. See the note on 5, 13.

24. Die constituta, ablative of time.

26. a pueritia. Compare _a puero_, 9, 20.

34. 2. transeundo flumine. See the note on _sui ulciscendi_, 30, 16.

nescio quo. See the note on 33. 14.

4. uno pede nudo, 'with one foot bare,' the ablative absolute. This
construction consists of two parts, a noun, or pronoun corresponding to
the subject of a clause, and a participle corresponding to the verb of a
clause. A predicate noun or adjective may take the place of the
participle. In the latter case the use of the participle 'being' will
show the two parts in the relation of subject and predicate, 'one foot
being bare.'

34.6. demonstravisset, subjunctive because subordinate in indirect
discourse. See the note on 33, 10. Pelias thought, _Hic est homo quem
oraculum demonstravit_.

9. vellus aureum. Phrixus and his sister Helle were about to be put to
death, when they were rescued by a ram with fleece of gold, who carried
them off through the air. Helle fell from the ram's back into the strait
that separates Europe and Asia, called after her the Hellespont, 'Helle's
sea,' and known to us as the Dardanelles. Phrixus came safely to Colchis,
and here he sacrificed the ram and gave the fleece to Aeetes. Read Mr.
D.O.S. Lowell's _Jason's Quest_.

11. ut ... potiretur. See the note on 27, 6.

hoc vellere. _Potior_ takes the same construction as _vescor_, for which
see the note on 16, 19.

16. iter, accusative of extent.

20. usui, dative of purpose. We say 'of use' or 'useful.'

24. operi dative after the compound with _prae_. Notice that not all
verbs compounded with prepositions govern the dative. Many compounds of
_ad, ante, com_ (for _cum_), _in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, sub_, and
_super_ do have the dative, and some compounds of _circum_. You will find
it profitable to keep a list of all such compound verbs governing the
dative that you meet in your reading.

25. ne ... quidem, 'not ... even.' The word emphasized must stand between
_ne_ and _quidem_.

ad laborem. See the note on _ad quietem_, 14, 1.

26. Ad multitudinem transportandam, used like _ad laborem_. The gerundive
in this use is very common.

27. quibus. The antecedent _eae_ is not expressed. Notice that _utor_
governs the same case as _vescor_ and _potior_. Two other deponent verbs,
not found in this book, take this construction, namely _fruor_, 'enjoy,'
and _fungor_, 'perform.'

nostro mari, _i.e_. the Mediterranean.

consuevimus. See the note on _consueverat_, 10, 9.

35. 8. citharoedum. It was said that Orpheus made such sweet music on his
golden harp that wild beasts, trees, and rocks followed him as he moved.
By his playing he even prevailed upon Pluto to give back his dead wife

Theseum, a mythical hero, whose exploits resemble and rival those of
Hercules. The most famous of them was the killing of the Minotaur.
Theseus was the national hero of Athens.

Castorem, the famous tamer of horses and brother of Pollux, the boxer.
Read Macaulay's _Lays of Ancient Rome, The Battle of the Lake Regillus_.

10. quos, the subject of esse. Its antecedent is eos, line 11. The
relative frequently precedes in Latin, but the antecedent must be
translated first.

16. Argonautae. Notice the composition of this word.

24. deicerentur, part of the result clause.

26. arbitrati. See the note on 25, 27.

egredi. See the note on 22, 18.

27. pugnatum est. See the note on 20 4.

36. 5. Postridie eius diei, 'the next day,' more literally 'on the day
following that day.' This idea may be expressed by _postridie_ alone, and
the fuller expression is simply more formal.

9. in ancoris, 'at anchor.'

10. haberent. See the note on 34, 6.

11. ex Argonautis. See the note on 33, 6.

13. Qui, 'he.' See the note on _quibus_, 20, 1.

dum quaerit, 'while looking for.' The present indicative with _dum_ is
often to be translated by a present participle.

15. vidissent. We say 'saw,' but Latin makes it plain that the seeing
(and falling in love) came before the attempt to persuade.

ei. Keep a list of all intransitive verbs which are used with the dative.

16. negaret. This verb is commonly used instead of _dico_ when a negative
statement follows; when thus used, it should be translated by 'say' with
the appropriate negative, here 'said that he would not.'

37. 1. praebuisset, subjunctive in a subordinate clause of indirect

2. supplici. See the note on 7, 8.

6. accubuerat. The Romans reclined at table, supporting themselves on the
left arm and taking the food with the right hand. They naturally
represented others as eating in the same way.

appositum, 'that had been placed before him.' See the note on
_exanimatum_, 14, 4.

7. Quo ... moreretur, 'and so it came to pass that Phineus was nearly
dying of starvation,' literally 'that not much was wanting but that
Phineus would die.' Ut ... abesset is a clause of result, the subject of
factum est; quin ... moreretur is a form of subordinate clause with
subjunctive verb used after certain negative expressions; fame is
ablative of cause. Notice that _fames_ has a fifth-declension ablative,
but is otherwise of the third declension.

9. Res male se habebat, 'the situation was desperate.' What is the
literal meaning?

12. opinionem virtutis, 'reputation for bravery.'

13. quin ferrent. Negative expressions of doubt are regularly followed by
_quin_ and the subjunctive.

16. quanto in periculo. See the note on 11, 25.

suae res, 'his affairs.' See the note on _res_, 13, 8.

17. repperissent. Phineus used the future perfect indicative.

22. nihil, used adverbially.

23. aera. See the note on 4, 11.

27. Hoc facto, 'when this had been accomplished.' See the note on 34, 4.
The ablative absolute is often used instead of a subordinate clause of
time, cause, condition, or the like.

38. 1. referret. See the note on 6, 16.

3. eo consilio. See the note on 28, 1.

4. ne quis, 'that no one.' 'Negative clauses of purpose and negative
clauses of result may be distinguished by the negative: _ne, ne quis_,
etc., for purpose; _ut non, ut nemo_, etc., for result.

parvo intervallo, 'a short distance apart,' ablative absolute. See the
note on 34, 1.

5. in medium spatium, 'between them.'

7. quid faciendum esset, 'what was to be done.' The gerundive is used
with _sum_ to denote necessary action. This is called the passive
periphrastic conjugation.

8. sublatis ... solvit, 'weighed anchor and put to sea.' What is the
literal translation? The ablative absolute is often best translated by a
cooerdinate verb, and this requires a change of voice, for the lack of a
perfect active participle in Latin is the reason for the use of the
ablative absolute in such cases. If there were a perfect active
participle, it would stand in the nominative, modifying the subject, as
we have found the perfect participle of deponent verbs doing.

11. recta ... spatium, 'straight between them.'

12. cauda tantum amissa, 'having lost only its tail-feathers.' Notice
that we change the voice, as in line 8, and that the use of the ablative
absolute is resorted to here for the same reason as in that passage. Make
sure at this point that you know three ways in which the ablative
absolute may be translated, as in this passage, as in line 8, and as
suggested in the note on 37, 27.

14. concurrerent, 'could rush together.' See the note on _possent_, 27,

intellegentes, equivalent to _cum intellegerent_.

17. dis, the usual form of the dative and ablative plural of _deus_, as
_di_ of the nominative plural.

quorum, equivalent to _cum eorum_. A relative clause of cause, like a
_cum_-clause of cause, has its verb in the subjunctive.

27. negabat. See the note on 36, 16.

39. 1. traditurum. In infinitives formed with participles _esse_ is often

prius. See the note on 27, 25.

3. Primum. See the note on 12, 16.

4. iungendi erant. See the note on 38, 7.

8. rei bene gerendae, 'of accomplishing his mission.' What is the literal

10. rem aegre ferebat, 'she was greatly distressed.' What is the literal

12. Quae ... essent. See the note on 29, 23.

13. medicinae, objective genitive.

14. Media nocte. See the note on 9, 5.

insciente patre, 'without the knowledge of her father,' ablative

15. venit. See the note on 3, 13.

17. quod ... confirmaret, a relative clause of purpose.

19. essent, subjunctive in informal indirect discourse, or by attraction
to oblineret.

20. hominibus. See the note on 34, 24.

21. magnitudine et viribus, ablative of specification.

40. 2. nihil valere, 'prevailed not.'

5. qua in re. See the note on 11, 25.

6. confecerit. See the note on 19, 22.

8. quos. See the note on _quibus_, 20, 1.

9. autem. See the note on 5, 8.

10. essent, subjunctive by attraction.

11. quodam, 'some.'

16. gignerentur, 'should be born.' With dum, 'until,' the subjunctive is
used of action anticipated, as with _antequam_ (see the note on
_possent_, 27, 20).

19. omnibus agri partibus. See the note on 18, 6.

20. mirum in modum = _miro modo_.

25. nescio cur, 'for some reason.' See the note on 33, 14.

28. nullo negotio, 'with no trouble,' 'without difficulty.'

41. 3. quin tulisset. See the note on 37, 13.

15. quam primum, 'as soon as possible.' See the note on 23, 2.

16. avecturum. See the note on _traditurum_, 39, 1.

17. Postridie eius diei. See the note on 36, 5.

19. loco. The antecedent is frequently thus repeated in the relative

21. qui ... essent, 'to guard the ship.' See the note on 13, 16.

22. ipse. See the note on 21, 19.

27. quidam. This word may sometimes be rendered by the indefinite

28. demonstravimus. See the note on _narravimus_, 14, 17.

42. 5. dormit. See the note on _fugit_, 4, 25.

12. aliqui. Learn from the vocabulary the difference between _aliquis_
and _aliqui_.

maturandum sibi, 'they ought to hasten,' more literally 'haste ought to
be made by them'; maturandum (_esse_) is the impersonal passive, and sibi
the so-called dative of the agent. With the gerundive the person who has
the thing to do is regularly expressed in the dative.

16. mirati. See the note on 25, 27.

20. dis. See the note on 38, 17.

21. evenisset. See the note on _accepissent_, 26, 21.

23. vigilia. The Romans divided the day from sunrise to sunset into
twelve hours (_horae_), the night from sunset to sunrise into four
watches (_vigiliae_).

24. neque enim. See the note on 7, 12.

25. inimico animo, ablative of description.

43. 2. hoc dolore, 'this anger,' _i.e_. 'anger at this.'

Navem longam, 'war-galley,' 'man-of-war.' The adjective contrasts the
shape of the man-of-war with that of the merchantman.

4. fugientis, used as a noun, 'the fugitives.'

6. qua, ablative of means.

7. qua, 'as,' but in the same construction as eadem celeritate.

8. Quo ... caperentur. See the note on 37, 7.

9. neque ... posset, 'for the distance between them was not greater than
a javelin could be thrown.' What is the literal translation? The clause
quo ... posset denotes result; the distance was not _so great that_ a
javelin could not be thrown from one ship to the other.

11. vidisset. See the note on 36, 15.

15. fugiens, 'when she fled.' See the note on _fessus_, 23, 15.

18. fili. See the note on 7, 8.

19. Neque ... fefellit, 'and Medea was not mistaken.' What is the literal

20. ubi primum, 'as soon as,' literally 'when first.'

24. prius, not to be rendered until quam is reached. The two words
together mean 'before,' more literally 'earlier than,' 'sooner than,'
They are sometimes written together (_priusquam_).

25. nihil ... esse, 'that it would be of no advantage to him.'

44. 5. pollicitus erat. Verbs of promising do not usually take in Latin
the simple present infinitive, as in English, but the construction of
indirect discourse.

10. mihi. The dative of reference is often used in Latin where we should
use a possessive in English. Translate here as if the word were _meus_,
modifying dies.

11. Liceat mihi, 'permit me,' literally 'let it be permitted to me.'
Commands and entreaties in the third person are regularly expressed in
the subjunctive.

dum vivam, 'so long as I live.' The verb with _dum_ 'so long as' is not
restricted to the present, as with _dum_ 'while,' but any tense of the
indicative may be used. We have here the future indicative, or the
present subjunctive by attraction.

12. tu. The nominative of the personal pronouns is commonly expressed
only when emphatic. Here the use of the pronoun makes the promise more

15. rem aegre tulit, 'was vexed.' Compare 39, 10.

20. Vultisne, the verb _vultis_ and the enclitic _-ne_, which is used to
introduce a question, and is incapable of translation. Num (line 21)
introduces a question to which a negative answer is expected, and is
likewise not to be translated, except in so far as its effect is
reproduced by the form of the question or the tone of incredulity with
which the words are spoken.

28. effervesceret. See the note on 40, 16.

45. 3. stupentes, 'in amazement.'

5. Vos. See the note on 44, 12. Vos and ego in the next sentence are

7. Quod ubi. See the note on 28, 8.

10. necaverunt. See the note on _interfecit_, 13, 18.

13. quibus. For the case see the note on _quibus_, 34, 27.

15. re vera, 'really.'

18. aegre tulerunt, 'were indignant at.' Compare 39, 10, and 44, 15.

23. Creonti. See the note on _cui erant_, 13, 5.

25. nuntium, 'a notice of divorce.'

26. duceret. See the note on _duxit_, 6, 18.

28. ulturam. See the note on 39, 1.

46. 1. Vestem. Compare the story of the death of Hercules, pp. 30, 31.

3. quis. See the note on 30, 3.

induisset, subjunctive by attraction.

5. nihil mali. See the note on 22, 26.

16. itaque, not the adverb _itaque_, but the adverb _ita_ and the
enclitic conjunction _-que_.

aera. See the note on 4, 11.

21. in eam partem, 'to that side.'


49. 4. insidias. This refers to the story of the wooden horse.

9. quem, subject of excogitasse. The English idiom is 'who, some say,
devised.' Notice that excogitasse is contracted from _excogitavisse_.

10. quo, ablative of means.

19. aliae ... partis, 'some in one direction and some in another,' but
Latin compresses this into the one clause 'others in other directions.'

20. qua. See the note on 43, 6.

26. quibusdam, dative with obviam facti, 'having fallen in with,' 'having

27. Accidit. See the note on 30, 1.

50. 2. gustassent, contracted from _gustavissent_.

patriae et sociorum. Verbs of remembering and forgetting take the
genitive or the accusative, but _obliviscor_ prefers the former.

4. cibo. See the note on 16, 19.

5. hora septima. See the note on 42, 23.

11. docuerunt. See the note on 4, 26.

51. 6. tantum, the adverb.

23. se, 'they,' _i.e_. himself and his companions.

praedandi causa, 'to steal.' Purpose is frequently thus expressed by
_causa_ with the genitive of the gerund or gerundive. What other ways of
expressing purpose have you met in your reading?

24. a Troia. The preposition is sometimes used with names of towns, with
the meaning 'from the direction of' or 'from the neighborhood of.'

25. esse. It will help you to understand indirect discourse if you will
try to discover what words would be used to express the idea in the
direct form. Here, for instance, the exact words of Ulysses would have
been in Latin: _Neque mercatores sumus neque praedandi causa venimus; sed
a Troia redeuntes vi tempestatum a recto cursu depulsi sumus_.

27. ubi ... essent. The question of Polyphemus was _Ubi est navis qua
vecti estis_?

sibi ... esse, 'that he must be exceedingly careful.' See the note on
_maturandum sibi_, 42, 12.

29. in ... esse, 'had been driven on the rocks and entirely dashed to
pieces.' See the note on _ira ... interfecit_, 18, 4.

52. 1. membris eorum divulsis, 'tearing them limb from limb.'

4. ne ... quidem. See the note on 34, 25.

6. tam. Notice that the force of a second demonstrative word is lost in
the English rendering. So _hic tantus vir_, 'this great man,' etc.

7. humi. See the note on 30, 16.

prostratus, 'throwing himself down.' See the note on _continebantur_,
20, 26.

8. rei gerendae, 'for action.' Compare 39, 8.

9. in eo ... transfigeret, 'was on the point of transfixing.' The clause
of result ut ... transfigeret is explanatory of in eo.

13. nihil sibi profuturum. See the note on 43, 25.

17. hoc conatu. See the note on 13, 11.

18. nulla ... oblata, 'since no hope of safety presented itself.' See the
note on _continebantur_, 20, 26.

21. et. See the note on 28, 18.

23. laturi essent, 'would bring,' more literally 'were going to bring.'
Notice that in subjunctive constructions the periphrastic form is
necessary to express future action clearly, since the subjunctive has no

25. quod, object of the implied _fecerat_.

53. 14. quo. See the note on 43, 7.

15. id ... saluti, 'and this was his salvation,' literally 'that which
was for safety to him.' For the datives see the note on 13, 16.

20. tertium, the adverb.

22. Neminem. Why is the accusative used?

27. inquit. See the note on 14, 28.

28. quam facultatem, for _facultatem quam_. The antecedent is often thus
attracted into the relative clause,

ne omittamus, 'let us not neglect,' the hortatory subjunctive.

29. rei gerendae. See the note on 52, 8.

54. 1. extremum palum, 'the end of the stake.' Other adjectives denoting
a part of the object named by the noun they modify are _medius_, 'the
middle of'; _ceterus_, 'the rest of'; _reliquus_, 'the rest of';
_primus_, 'the first of'; _summus_, 'the top of'; _imus_, 'the bottom

5. dum errat, 'wandering.'

23. pecus. Is this _pecus, pecoris_, or _pecus, pecudis_? See the note on
_pecora_, 20, 26.

24. venerat. We say 'came,' but the Latin by the use of the pluperfect
denotes that this action preceded that of tractabat.

55. 1. quas. See the note on _quibus_, 20, 1.

inter se. Compare 21, 20.

5. fore, 'would happen.'

15. aliquod. Compare 42, 12, and the note.

16. id ... erat, 'as was indeed the case.'

17. auxiliandi causa. See the note on 51, 23.

26. correptum coniecit, 'seized and threw.'

27. non ... submergerentur. See the note on 37, 7.

56. 4-6. These verses and those on p. 57 and p. 59 are quoted from
Vergil's Aeneid.

6. vinclis, for _vinculis_.

8. viris. Let the quantity of the first _i_ tell you from what nominative
this word comes.

11. sibi proficiscendum. See the note on _maturandum sibi_, 42, 12.

13. iam profecturo, 'as he was now about to set out.'

16. naviganti, 'to one sailing.'

25. mirabantur, 'had been wondering.' With iam dudum and similar
expressions the imperfect denotes action begun some time before and still
going on at the given past time. This is similar to the use of the
present already commented on (see the note on _es_, 4, 1).

28. celata, plural because of the plural expression aurum et argentum.

57. 1. venti, subject of ruunt and perflant.

2. velut agmine facto, 'as if formed in column.'

3. data. _Est_ is omitted.

10. proiecissent. See the note on _accepissent_, 26, 21.

13. in terram egrediendum esse, 'that a landing must be made.'

18. quam, an adverb modifying crudeli.

19. essent, informal indirect discourse or subjunctive by attraction.

20. vellet, subjunctive of characteristic. This name is given to the
subjunctive when used in relative clauses to define or restrict an
indefinite or general antecedent. So here it is not 'no one was found,'
but 'no one willing to undertake this task was found.'

21. deducta est, 'came.'

23. praeesset, subjunctive of purpose.

25. evenit. This verb takes the same construction as _accidit_, 30, 1.

58. 1. nihil. See the note on 37, 22.

2. morti. Compare 49, 26.

5. aliquantum itineris, 'some distance on the journey.' The two words are
accusative of extent of space and partitive genitive respectively.

11. sibi, 'for them,' dative of reference.

12. foris. This is translated like foras above, but the former was
originally locative and is therefore used with verbs of rest; the latter,
accusative of place whither and therefore used with verbs of motion.

15. accubuerunt. See the note on 37, 6.

25. perturbatus, used as a predicate adjective, 'agitated.'

27. correpto. See the note on 38, 8.

59. 1. quid. See the note on _quis_, 30, 3.

gravius, 'serious.'

ei. The direct form of these two speeches would be: _Si quid gravius tibi
acciderit, omnium salus in summo discrimine erit_; and _Neminem invitum
mecum adducam; tibi licet, si mavis, in navi manere; ego ipse sine ullo
praesidio rem suscipiam_. Notice that _ego_ is not used to represent _se_
of line 2, but is used for _se_ of line 4 for the sake of the contrast
with _tibi_.

6. nullo. Instead of the genitive and ablative of _nemo_, _nullius_ and
_nullo_ are regularly used.

7. Aliquantum itineris. See the note on 58, 5.

10. in eo ... intraret. See the note on 52, 9.

11. ei. Compare 49, 26, and 58, 2.

14. Circes, a Greek form of the genitive.

16. Num. See the note on 44, 20. Nonne (line 14) is used to introduce a
question to which an affirmative answer is expected.

18. nullis. See the note on 24, 3.

22. tetigerit. See the note on 30, 20.

tu ... facias, 'see that you draw your sword and make an attack upon

24. visus, 'sight,' The use of the plural is poetic.

25. tenuem ... auram. The order of the words here is poetic.

60. 1. atque, 'as.' After adjectives and adverbs denoting likeness and
unlikeness, this use of _atque_ is regular.

3. depulsa est. See the note on 4, 26.

4. sibi. See the note on 58, 11.

11. ut ... erat, 'as he had been instructed,' more literally 'as had been
enjoined upon him.' An intransitive verb must be used impersonally in the
passive, for it is the direct object of the active voice that becomes the
subject of the passive. If the intransitive verb takes a dative in the
active, this dative is kept in the passive. Notice that the corresponding
English verbs are transitive, and that the dative may therefore be
rendered as the object in the active construction and as the subject in
the passive.

13. sensisset. See the note on _vidissent_, 36, 15.

14. sibi vitam adimeret, 'take her life.' The dative of reference is thus
used after some compound verbs to name the person from whom a thing is
taken. This construction is sometimes called the dative of separation.

15. timore perterritam. See the note on 14, 11.

20. ei pedes, 'his feet.' See the note on 44, 10.

21. imperasset, contracted from _imperavisset_.

22. in atrium. See the note on 7, 3.

26. sunt, goes with reducti.

29. reliquis Graecis, indirect object of diceret.

30. Circaeam. Notice that this use of the adjective instead of the
genitive often cannot be imitated in the English rendering, but must be
translated by the possessive case or a prepositional phrase.

61. 8. ei persuasum sit, 'he was persuaded.' See the note on 60, 11. The
clause ut ... maneret is the subject of persuasum sit; if the latter were
active, the clause would be its object. For the tense of persuasum sit
see the note on 19, 22.

10. consumpserat. See the note on 14, 3.

patriae, objective genitive, to be rendered, as often, with 'for.'

15. usui. See the note on 34, 20.

23. antequam perveniret. We say 'before he could come.' See the note on
_possent_, 27, 20.

24. hoc loco. See the note on 24, 2.

longum est. We say '_would_ be tedious' or '_would_ take too long.'



abl. = ablative.
acc. = accusative.
act. = active.
adj. = adjective.
adv. = adverb.
comp. = comparative.
conj. = conjunction.
dat. = dative.
dem. = demonstrative.
f. = feminine.
freq. = frequentative.
gen. = genitive.
ger. = gerundive.
impers. = impersonal.
indecl. = indeclinable.
indef. = indefinite.
infin. = infinitive.
interrog. = interrogative.
loc. = locative.
m. = masculine.
n. = neuter.
part. = participle.
pass. = passive.
perf. = perfect.
pers. = personal.
plur. = plural.
prep. = preposition.
pron. = pronoun or pronominal.
rel. = relative.
sing. = singular.
superl. = superlative.

_The hyphen in initial words indicates the composition of the words_.


a or ab (the former never used before words beginning with a
vowel or _h_), prep. with abl., _away from, from; of; by_.
abditus, -a, -um [part of abdo], _hidden, concealed_.
ab-do, -dere, -didi, -ditus, _put away, hide_.
ab-duco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductus, _lead_ or _take away_.
ab-eo, -ire, -ii, -iturus, _go away, depart_.
abicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectus [ab + iacio], _throw away_.
abripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptus [ab + rapio], _snatch away, carry off_.
abscido, -cidere, -cidi, -cisus [abs = ab + caedo], _cut away_ or _off_.
ab-scindo, -scindere, -scidi, -scissus, _tear away_ or _off_.
ab-sum, abesse, afui, afuturus, _be away, be absent, be distant; be
ab-sumo, -sumere, -sumpsi, -sumptus, _take away, consume, destroy_.
Absyrtus, -i, m., _Absyrtus_.
ac, see atque.
Acastus, -i, m., _Acastus_.
accendo, -cendere, -cendi, -census, _kindle, light_.
accido, -cidere, -cidi [ad + cado], _fall to_ or _upon; befall, happen_.
accipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptus [ad + capio], _take to oneself, receive,
accept; hear; suffer_.
accumbo, -cumbere, -cubui, -cubitus, _lie down_ (at table).
accurro, -currere, -curri, -cursus [ad + curro], _run to, come up_.
acer, acris, acre, _sharp, shrill_.
acies, -ei, f., _line of battle_.
Acrisius, -i, m., _Acrisius_.
acriter [acer], adv., _sharply, fiercely_.
ad, prep. with acc., _to, toward; at, near; for_.
ad-amo, -amare, -amavi, -amatus, _feel love for, fall in love with_.
ad-duco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductus, _lead to, bring, take; induce,
ad-eo, -ire, -ii, -itus, _go to, approach_.
ad-fero, adferre, attuli, adlatus, _bear to, bring_.
adficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectus [ad + facio], _do to, move, affect;
visit, afflict_.
ad-fligo, -fligere, -flixi, -flictus, _dash to, shatter_.
adhibeo, -hibere, -hibui, -hibitus [ad + habeo], _hold to, employ, show_.
ad-huc, adv., _to this point, up to this time, yet, still_.
adicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectus [ad + iacio], _throw to, throw, hurl_.
adimo, -imere, -emi, -emptus [ad + emo], _take to oneself, take away_.
aditus, -us [adeo], m., _approach, entrance_.
ad-iungo, -iungere, -iunxi, -iunctus, _join to, join_.
ad-ligo, -ligare, -ligavi, -ligatus, _bind to, bind_.
Admeta, -ae, f., _Admeta_.
ad-miror, -mirari, -miratus, _wonder at, admire_.
ad-mitto, -mittere, -misi, -missus, _send to, admit; allow_.
ad-sto, -stare, -stiti, _stand at_ or _near_.
adulescens, -entis, m., _youth, young man_.
adulescentia, -ae [adulescens], f., _youth_.
ad-uro, -urere, -ussi, -ustus, _set fire to, burn, scorch, sear_.
ad-venio, -venire, -veni, -ventus, _come to_ or _toward, approach,
adventus, -us [advenio], m., _approach, arrival_.
Aeacus, -i, m., _Aeacus_.
aedifico, -are, -avi, -atus [aedis + facio], _make a building, build_.
aedis, -is, f., sing. _temple_, plur. _house_.
Aeetes, -ae, m., _Aeetes_.
aegre [aeger, _sick_], adv., _ill, with difficulty_.
Aegyptii,-orum, m. pl., _Egyptians_.
aeneus, -a, -um [aes], _of copper_ or _bronze_.
Aeolia, -ae [Aeolus], f., _Aeolia_.
Aeolus, -i, m., _Aeolus_.
aer, aeris, m., _air_.
aes, aeris, n., _copper, bronze_.
Aeson, -onis, m., _Aeson_.
aestas, -tatis, f., _summer_.
aetas, -tatis, f., _age_.
Aethiopes, -um, m. plur., _Ethiopians_.
Aetna, -ae, f., _Etna_.
ager, agri, m., _field, land_.
agmen, -minis [ago], n., _band, column_.
agnosco, -gnoscere, -gnovi, -gnitus [ad + (g)nosco, _come to know],
ago, agere, egi, actus, _drive; do; pass, lead_; gratias agere, see
ala, -ae, f., _wing_.
albus, -a, -um, _white_.
Alcmena, -ae, f., _Alcmena_.
alienus, -a, -um [alius], _belonging to another, out of place_.
ali-quando, adv., _at some time or other; finally, at length_.
ali-quantum, -quanti, n., _somewhat_.
ali-qui, -qua, -quod, indef. pron. adj., _some, any_.
ali-quis, -quid, indef. pron., _someone, any one, something, anything,
some, any_.
aliter [alius], adv., _in another way, otherwise, differently_.
alius, -a, -ud, _another, other_; alii ... alii, _some ... others.
alo, -ere, -ui, -tus, _nourish_.
Alpes, -ium, f. plur., _Alps_.
alter, -era, -erum, _one_ or _the other_ (of two); _another, second_.
altus, -a, -um [part, of alo], _high, deep_; altum, -i, n., _the deep_.
Amazones,-um, f. plur.,_Amazons_.
amentia, -ae [a + mens, _mind_], f., _madness_.
amicus, -i, m., _friend_.
a-mitto, -mittere, -misi, -missus, _send away, lose_.
amo, -are, -avi, -atus, _love_.
amor, -oris [amo], m., _love_.
a-moveo, -movere, -movi, -motus, _move away_.
amphora, -ae, f., _jar, bottle_.
an, conj., _or_ (in questions).
ancora, -ae, f., _anchor_; in ancoris, _at anchor_.
Andromeda, -ae, f., _Andromeda_.
anguis, -is, m. and f., _serpent, snake_.
anima, -ae, f., _breath, soul, life_.
animadverto, -vertere, -verti, -versus [animus + ad-verto], _turn the
mind to, observe_.
animus, -i, m., _mind; heart; spirit, courage_.
annus, -i, m., _year_.
ante, prep, with acc. and adv., _before_.
antea [ante], adv., _before_.
antecello, -cellere, _surpass, excel_.
ante-quam, conj., _before than, sooner than, before_.
antiquus, -a, -um, _ancient_.
antrum, -i, n., _cave_.
anxius, -a, -um, _anxious_.
aper, apri, m., _wild boar_.
aperio, -ire, -ui, -tus, _open_.
apertus, -a, -um [part, of aperio], _open_.
Apollo, -inis, m., _Apollo_.
appello, -pellare, -pellavi, -pellatus, _call, name_.
appello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsus [ad + pello], _drive to, bring to_;
with or without navem, _put in_.
appeto, -petere, -petivi, -petitus [ad + peto], _draw near_.
appono, -ponere, -posui, -positus [ad + pono], _put to_ or _near, set
before, serve_.
appropinquo, -propinquare, -propinquavi, -propinquatus [ad + propinquo],
_approach to, approach_.
apud, prep, with acc., _among, with_.
aqua, -ae, f., _water_.
ara, -ae, f., _altar_.
arbitror, -ari, -atus, _consider, think, judge_.
arbor, -oris, f., _tree_.
arca, -ae, f., _chest, box, ark_.
Arcadia,-ae, f., _Arcadia_.
arcesso, -ere, -ivi, -itus, _call, summon, fetch_.
arcus, -us, m., _bow_.
ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus, _be on fire, burn_.
argentum, -i, n., _silver_.
Argo, Argus, f., _the Argo_.
Argolicus, -a, -um, _of Argolis_ (the district of Greece in which Tiryns
was situated), _Argolic_.
Argonautae, -arum [Argo + nauta], m. plur., _Argonauts_.
Argus, -i, m., _Argus_.
aries, -etis, m., _ram_.
arma, -orum, n. plur., _arms, weapons_.
armatus, -a, -um [part, of armo], _armed_.
armo, -are, -avi, -atus [arma], _arm, equip_.
aro, -are, -avi, -atus, _plow_.
ars, artis, f., _art_.
ascendo, -scendere, -scendi, -scensus [ad + scando], _climb to, ascend,
aspicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus [ad + specio], _look at_ or _on,
at, conj., _but_.
Athenae, -arum, f. plur., _Athens_.
Atlas, -antis, m., _Atlas_.
atque or ac (the latter never used before words beginning with a vowel
or _h_), conj., _and_; after words of comparison, _as, than_.
atrium, -i, n., _hall_.
attingo, -tingere, -tigi, -tactus [ad + tango], _touch at_.
audacia, -ae [audax, _bold_], f., _boldness, audacity_.
audeo, audere, ausus sum, _dare_.
audio, -ire, -ivi, -itus, _hear; listen_ or _attend to_.
aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatus [ab + fero], _bear away, carry off_.
aufugio, -fugere, -fugi [ab + fugio], _flee_ or _run away_.
Augeas, -ae, m., _Augeas_.
aura, -ae, f., _air, breeze_.
aureus, -a, -um [aurum], _of gold, golden_.
auris, -is, f., _ear_.
aurum, -i, n., _gold_.
aut, conj., _or_; aut ... aut, _either ... or_.
autem, conj., _moreover; but, however; now_.
auxilior, -ari, -atus [auxilium], _help_.
auxilium, -i, n., _help, aid_.
a-veho, -vehere, -vexi, -vectus, _carry away_.
avis, -is, f., _bird_.
a-volo, -volare, -volavi, -volaturus, _fly away_.
avus, -i, m., _grandfather_.


baculum, -i, n., _stick, wand_.
balteus, -i, m.., _belt, girdle_.
barbarus, -a, -um, _barbarian_.
beatus, -a, -um, _happy, blessed_.
bellicosus, -a, -um [bellum], _war-like_.
bellum, -i, n., _war_.
belua, -ae, f., _beast, monster_.
bene [bonus], adv., _well; successfully_.
beneficium, -i [bene + facio], n., _well-doing, kindness, service,
benigne [benignus, _kind_], adv., _kindly_.
benignitas, -tatis [benignus, _kind_], f., _kindness_.
bibo, bibere, bibi, _drink_.
biceps, -cipitis [bi- + caput], adj., _two-headed_.
bonus, -a, -um, _good_.
bos, bovis, gen. plur. boum, dat. and abl. plur. bobus, m. and f., _ox,
bull, cow_.
bracchium, -i, n., _arm_.
brevis, -e, _short_.
Busiris, -idis, m., _Busiris_.


Cacus, -i, m., _Cacus_.
cadaver, -eris, n., _dead body, corpse, carcass_.
cado, cadere, cecidi, casurus, _fall_.
caecus, -a, -um, _blind_.
caedes, -is [caedo, _cut_], f., _cutting down, killing, slaughter_.
caelum, -i, n., _heaven, sky_.
Calais, -is, m., _Calais_.
calamitas, -tatis, f., _misfortune, calamity, disaster_.
calceus, -i, m., _shoe_.
calefacio, -facere, -feci, -factus [caleo, _be hot_ + facio], _make hot_.
calor, -oris [caleo, _be hot_], m., _heat_.
campus, -i, m., _plain, field_.
cancer, cancri, m., _crab_.
canis, -is, m. and f., _dog_.
canto, -are, -avi, -atus [freq. of cano, _sing_], _sing_.
cantus, -us [cano, _sing_], m., _singing, song_.
capio, capere, cepi, captus, _take, catch, seize; receive, suffer;
captivus, -a, -um [capio], _captive_.
caput, capitis, n., _head_.
carcer, -eris, m., _prison_.
carmen, -minis [cano, _sing_], n., _song, charm_.
caro, carnis, f., _flesh_.
carpo, -ere, -si, -tus, _pluck_.
Castor, -oris, m., _Castor_.
castra, -orum, n. plur., _camp_.
casu [abl. of casus], adv., _by chance, accidentally_.
casus, -us [cado], m., _fall; chance, accident_.
catena, -ae, f., _chain_.
cauda, -ae, f., _tail_.
causa, -ae, f., _cause, reason_; abl. causa, _for the sake of_.
caveo, cavere, cavi, cautus, _beware, take care; be on one's guard
against, beware of_.
celeber, celebris, celebre, _frequented; renowned, celebrated_.
celeritas, -tatis [celer, _swift_], f., _swiftness, quickness, speed_.
celeriter [celer, _swift_], adv., _swiftly, quickly_.
celo, -are, -avi, -atus, _hide, conceal_.
cena, -ae, f., _dinner_.
cenaculum, -i [cena], n., _dining-room_.
Cenaeum, -i, n., _Cenaeum_ (a promontory of Euboea).
ceno, -are, -avi, -atus [cena], _dine_.
censeo, censere, censui, census, _think, believe, consider_.
centaurus, -i, m., _centaur_.
centum, indecl. adj., _one hundred_.
Cepheus, -i, m., _Cepheus_.
Cerberus, -i, m., _Cerberus_.
Ceres, Cereris, f., _Ceres_.
cerno, cernere, crevi, certus or cretus, _discern, perceive, make out_.
certamen, -minis [certo, _strive_], n., _struggle, contest_.
certo [abl. of certus], adv., _with certainty, for certain, certainly_.
certus, -a, -um [part. of cerno], _determined, fixed, certain_; certiorem
facere, _to make more certain, inform_.
cervus, -i, m., _stag_.
ceteri, -ae, -a, plur. adj., _the other, the remaining, the rest of_.
Charon, -ontis, m., _Charon_.
cibus, -i, m., _food_.
cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus, _surround, gird_.
Circe, -es, f., _Circe_.
Circaeus, -a, -um [Circe], _of Circe_.
circiter, prep. with acc. and adv., _about_.
circum, prep. with acc., _around_.
circum-do, -dare, -dedi, -datus, _put around, surround_.
circum-sto, -stare, -steti, _stand around_.
citerior, -ius [comp. from citra, _on this side of_], adj., _on this
side, hither_.
cithara, -ae, f., _cithara, lute, lyre_.
citharoedus, -i [cithara], m., _citharoedus_ (one who sings to the
accompaniment of the cithara).
civis, -is, m. and f., _citizen, fellow-citizen, subject_.
civitas, -tatis [civis], f., _state_.
clamito, -are, -avi, -atus [freq. of clamo, _call out_], _call out_.
clamor, -oris [clamo, _call out_], m., _shout, cry_.
clava, -ae, f., _club_.
clementia, -ae [clemens, _merciful_], f., _mercy, kindness_.
coepi, coepisse, coeptus (used in tenses of completed action), _have
begun, began_.
cogito, -are, -avi, -atus, _consider, think over_.
cognosco, -gnoscere, -gnovi, -gnitus [com- + (g)nosco, _come to know_],
_find out, learn_; in tenses of completed action, _have found out,

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