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Publications of the Scottish History Society, Vol. 36 by Sir John Lauder

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In that which theirs up of it theirs roome to lodge a king and his palace.
Al the chambres are dismantled, wtout plenishing save only one in which we
fand som wery weill done pictures, as the present Kings wt the Queens,
Cardinal Mazarin's (who was a Sicilian, a hatmakers sone) and others. The
thing we most noticed heir was a magnifick stair or trumpket most curiously
done, and wt a great deall of artifice, wt great steps of cut stone, the
lenth of which I measured and fand 20 foot. I saw also a very pretty
spatious hall, which made us notice it, and particularly Colinton, who told
me that Colinton hous had not a hall that was worth, whence he would take
the pattern of that. We fand it thre score 12 foot long, and iust the halfe
of it broad, thats to say 36. Above the chimly of the roome are written in
a large broad the 10 commandements.

[148] Philippe de Chabot, amiral de Brion. Guillaume Gouffier, amiral
da Bonnivet, was another of Francis I's admirals.

Heir we bade adieu to our commorads, they forward to Micbo that night, 2
leagues beyond Bonnevette, to morrow being to dine at Richelieu and lay at
Loudun; we back to Poictiers.

Its like that we on their intreaties had gone forward to Richelieu if we
had bein weill monted; but seing us all 3 so ill monted it minded us of
that profane, debaucht beschop Lesly, who the last tyme the bischops ware
in Scotland (when Spootswood was Archbischop) was bischop of the Isles. He
on a tyme riding with the King from Stirveling to Edinburgh he was wery ill
monted, so that he did nothing but curse wtin him selfe all the way. A
gentleman of the company coming up to him, and seing him wt a wery
discontented, ill looking countenance demanded, Whow is it, whow goes it wt
you, my Lord? He answered, Was not the Dewill a fooll man, was he not a
fooll? The other demanding wheirin, he replied, If he had but sett Job on
the horse I am on, he had cursed God to his face. Let any man read his
thoughts from that.

The richness of France is not much to be wondred at, since to lay asyde the
great cities wt their trafficks, as Tours in silkes. Bordeaux wt Holland
wares of all sorts, Marseilles wt all that the Levant affordes, etc., their
is not such a pitty city in France which hath not its propre traffick as
Partenay[149] in its stuffes, Chatteleraut in its oil of olives, its
plumdamies and other commodities which, by its river of Vienne, it impartes
to all places that standes on the Loier.

[149] A town in Poitou.

In France heir they know not that distinction our Civil Law makes betuixt
Tutors and Curators, for they call all curators, of which tho they have a
distinction, which agries weill wt the Civil Law, for these that are given
to on wtin the age of 14 they call _curateurs au persones et biens_, which
are really the Justinianean tutors who are given _principaliter ad tuendam
personam pupilli_ and _consequenter tantum res_; thes that [are] given to
them that are past their 14, but wtin their 25, they call _curateurs du
causes_, consequentialy to that, _quod curatores certoe rei vel causoe dari
possunt_, and wtout the auctority of thir the minors can do nothing, which
tends any wayes to. the deteriorating their estat, as selling, woodsetting
or any wayes alienating.

What concernes the consent of parents in the marriage of their children,
the French law ordaines that a man wtin the age of 28, a woman wtin 25 sall
not have the power of disposing themselfes in marriage wtout the consent of
their parents. If they be past this age, and their parents wil not yet
dispose of them, then and in that case at the instance of the Judge, and
his auctority interveening they may marry tho their parents oppose.

When the friends of a pupil or minor meits to choose him a curator, by the
law of France they are responsible to the pupill if ether the party nominat
be unfitting, or behave himself fraudulently and do damnage, and be found
to be not _solvendo_.

At Bourges in Berry theirs no church of the religion, since, notwtstanding
its a considerable toune, their are none of the religion their, but one
family, consisting of a old woman and hir 2 daughters, both whores; the one
of them on hir deathbed turned Catholick when Mr. Grahame was their.

Its a very pleasant place they say, situate on a river just like the Clin
heir; they call it the Endre.

Heir taught the renouned Cuiacius,[150] whom they call their yet[151] but a
drunken fellow. His daughter was the arrantest whore in Bourges. Its not
above 4 or 5 years since she died, whence I coniecture she might be comed
to good years or she died.

[150] Jacques Cujas, eminent jurist, 1522-1590.

[151] i.e. 'still speak of there as.'

This university is famous for many others learned men, as Douell,[152]
Hotoman,[153] Duarene,[154] Vulteius, etc.

[152] Possibly Douat, author of _Une centaines d'anagrammes_.
Paris, 1647.

[153] Francois Hotman, celebrated jurist, 1524-1590.

[154] Francois Duaren, jurist, 1509-1559.

The posterity of the poor Waldenses are to be sein stil in Piedmont,
Merindol, and the rest of Savoy, as also of the Albigenses in Carcasson,
Beziers and other places of Narbon. They are never 10 years in quietness
and eas wtout some persecution stirred against, whence they are so stript
of all their goods and being that they are necessitate to implore almes of
the protestant churches of France. About 12 years ago a contribution was
gathered for them, which amounted to neir 400,000 livres, which was not

The principall trafick of Geneva is in all goldsmiths work. The best
_montres_ of France are made their, so that in all places of France they
demand Geneva _montres_, and strangers if they come to Geneva they buy
usually 3 or 4 to distribute amongs their friends when their are at home.

In the mor southren provences of France to my admiration I fand they had
and eated upright[155] cheries 2 tymes of the year, end of May and
beginning of June, a little after which they are ordinar wt ourselfes, and
also again in Octobre. On a day at the beginning of that moneth at dinner
Mr. Daille profered to make me eat of novelties, wheiron he demanded me
what fruits I eated in the beginning of the year. I replied I had eaten
asparagus, cherries and strawberries. You sall eat of cherries yet, said
he, and wt that we got a plate full of parfait cherries, tho they had not
so natural a tast as the others, by reason of the cold season, and the want
of warmness which the others enioy. They had bein but gathered that same
day; they are a sort of bigaro;[156] when the others are ripe they are not
yet flourished.

[155] Perhaps standard. Compare 'upright bur,' Jamieson's _Dict_.

[156] Bigarade is a bitter orange. This may mean a bitter cherry.

The most usuall names that women are baptized wt heir be Elizabeth,
Radegonde, Susanne, Marguerite and Madleine. The familiar denomination they
give the Elizabeths is babie, thus they call J. Ogilvies daughter at
Orleans; that for Marguerite is Gotton, thus they call Madame Daille and
hir litle daughter. Thess of the religion, usually gives ther daughters
names out of the bible, as Sarah, Rachel, Leah, etc. They have also a way
of deducing women names out of the mens, as from Charles, Charlotte, from
Lowis, Lowisse, from Paul, Pauline, from Jean, Jeane. Thir be much more
frequent amongs the baser sort then the gentility, just as it is wt the
names of Bessie, Barbary, Alison and others wt us.

A camel or Dromedary would be as much gazed on in France for strangers as
they would be in Scotland. In Italy they have some, but few, for they are
properly Asiatick wares, doing as much service to the Persian, Arabian and
others Oriental nations acknowledging the great Tartar chain as the silly,
dul asse and the strong, robust mule does to the French. The camel,
according to report indeniable, because a tall, hy beast it most couch and
lay doune on its forward feet to receave its burden, which if it find to
heavy it wil not stir til they ease it of some of it; if it find it
portable it recoveres its feet immediatly.

There comes severall Jewes to France, especially as professing physick, in
which usually they are profondly skilled. Mr. Daille know on that turned
protestant at Loudun. Another, a very learned man, who turned Catholik at
Montpeliers, who a year after observing a great nombre of peaple that lived
very devotly and honestly, that ioined not wt the Church of Rome, having
informed himself of the protestants beleife, he became of the Religion,
publishing a manifesto or Apology wheirin he professes the main thing whey
he quites the Catholick religion for is because he can never liberate their
tennet wheirby they teach that we most really and carnally eat our God in
the Sacrament, from uniustice, absurdity and implication.[157]

[157] Implication perhaps means confusion of ideas.

The Laws of Spaine, as also of Portugal, strikes wery sore against Jewes
that will not turne Christians, to wit, to burning them quick, which hath
bein practicate sewerall tymes. On the other hand a Jew thats Christian if
at Constantinople he is wery fair to be brunt also. Whence may be read
Gods heavy judgement following that cursed nation. Yet Holland, that sink
of all religions, permits them their synagogues and the publick excercise
of their religion. They rigorously observe their sabath, our Saturdy, so
that they make ready no meat on that day. If the wind sould blow of their
hat they almost judge it a sin and a breach of the sabath to follow it and
take it up. Their was a Jew wt us in the 1662 year of God that professed at
least to turne Christian, and communicated in the Abby Church.

We may deservedly say, _omnia sunt venalia Gallis_, for what art their not
but its to be sold publickly. Not so much as rosted aples ready drest,
_chastans_,[158] _poirs_, rosted geese cut unto its percels, but they are
crieng publicklie, and really I looked upon it as a wery good custome, for
he that ether cannot or wil not buy a whole goose he'el buy it may be a

[158] Chestnuts.

The prices of their meats waries according to the tymes of the year. The
ordinars of some we have already mentioned; for a capon they wil get whiles
20 sous, whiles but 14 or 12.

Theirs a fellow also that goes wt a barrel of vinegar on his back, crieng
it thorow the toune; another in that same posture fresch oil, others
moustard, others wt a maille[159] to cleave wood, also poor women wt their
asses loadened wt 2 barrels of water crying, _Il y a l'eau fresche_. At
Paris its fellows that carryes 2 buckets tied to a ordinar punchion
gir,[160] wtin which they march crieng _de l'eau_, which seimed a litle
strange to us at first, we not crying it so at home. Also theirs to be
heard women wt a great web of linnen on their shoulder, a el[161] wand in
their hand, crieng their fine _toile_. Theirs also poor fellows that goes
up and doune wt their hurle barrows in which they carrie their sharping
stone to sharp axes or gullies to any bodie that employes him.

[159] Mell, mallet, beetle.

[160] Hoop.

[161] An el.

Their came a Charlatan or Mountebanck to Poictiers the Septembre we was
their, whose foolies we went whiles to sie. The most part of the French
Charletanes and Drogists when they come to a toune to gain that he get them
themselfes[162] a better name, and that they may let the peaple sie that
they are not cheaters as the world termes them, they go to all the
Phisitians, Apothecaries and Chiurgions of the toune and proferes to drink
any poison that they like to mix him, since he hath a antidote against any
poison whatsoever.

[162] The meaning is, with the object of getting for themselves.

A mountebank at Montpeliers having made this overture, the potingers[163]
most unnaturally and wickedly made him a poisonable potion stuffed wt
sulfre, quick silver, a vicked thing they cal _l'eau forte_, and diverse
others burning corrasive ingredients to drink. He being confident in his
antidote, he would drink it and apply his antidote in the view of all the
peaple upon the stage. He had not weill drunk it when by the strenth of the
ingredients he sunk all most dead upon the scalfold or stage; he suddenly
made his recourse to his antidote which he had in his hand; but all would
not do, or halfe a hower it bereaved him of his life.

[163] Apothecaries.

Their are also some of them that by litle and litle assuesses themselfes to
the drinking of poison, so that at lenth by a habit they are able to take a
considerable draught wt out doing themselfes harme. Historians reportes
this also to have bein practicate by Mithridates, King of Persia

[164] Interlined.

Upon the founding of the Jesuits Colledge at la Fleche on made thir 2 very
quick lines:

Arcum dola dedit patribus Gallique sagittam,
Quis funem autem quem meruere dabit.[165]

[165] _Dola_ is a mistake for _dona_. The pentameter does
not scan. It might be emended, _Dic mihi quis funem_.

In many places of Germany their growes very good wines, in some none at
all. The Rhenish wine which growes on the renouned Rhein, on which standes
so many brave tounes, is weill enough knowen. They sometymes sell their
wine by the weight as the livre or pound, etc., which may seime as strange
as the cherries 2 tymes a year in France. Thus they ar necessitate to do in
the winter, when it freizes so that they most break it wt great mattocks
and axes, and sell it in the faschion we have named.

Adultery, especially in the women, is wery vigorously punished in many
places of France. In Poictou, as Mr. Daille informed, they ignominously
drag them after the taile of a mule thorow the streits, the hangman
convoying them, then they sett them in the most publick part of the toune
bound be a stake, wt their hands behind their backs, to be a obiect of
mockery ther to all that pleases.

They that commits any pitty roobery or theifte are whipt thorow the toune
and stigmatized wt a hote iron marked wt the _flower de lis_ on the cheik
or the shoulder. If any be taken after in that fault having the mark,
theirs no mercy for them under hanging.

Every province almost hath its sundry manner of torturing persones
suspected for murder or even great crimes to extort from them a confession
of the truth. At Paris the hangman takes a serviet, or whiles a wool cloath
(which I remember Cleark in his Martyrologie discovering the Spanish
Inquisition also mentioned), which he thrustes doune the throat of him as
far as his wery heart, keiping to himselfe a grip of one end of the cloath,
then zest wt violence pules furth the cloath al ful of blood, which cannot
be but accompanied wt paine. Thus does the _burreau_ ay til he confesses.
In Poictou the manner is wt bords of timber whilk they fasten as close as
possibly can be both to the outsyde and insyde of his leg, then in betuixt
the leg and the timber they caw in great wedges[166] from the knee doune to
the wery foot, and that both in the outsyde and insyde, which so crusheth
the leg that it makes it as thin and as broad as the loafe[167] of a mans
hand. The blood ishues furth in great abondance. At Bourdeaux, the capital
of Guienne, they have a boat full of oil, sulfre, pitch, resets, and other
like combustible things, which they cause him draw on and hold it above a
fire til his leg is almost all brunt to the bone, the sinews shrunk, his
thigh also al stretched wt the flame.

[166] The torture of the boot was apparently new to Lauder, but from
his later MSS., it appears to have been in use in Scotland.

[167] Loof, palm.

On a tyme we went to sie the charlatan at the Marcher Vieux, who took
occasion to show the spectators some vipers he had in a box wt scalves[168]
in it, as also to refute that tradition delivered by so many, of the young
vipers killing their mother in raving[l69] her belly to win furth, and
that wt the horrid peine she suffers in the bringing furth her young she
dies, which also I have heard Mr. Douglas--preaching out of the last of the
Acts about that Viper that in the Ile of Malta (wheir they are a great more
dangerous then any wheir else) cleave to Pauls hand--affirme at least as a
thing reported by naturalists, the etymon of the Greek word [Greek:
hechidnae] seiming to make for this opinion, since it comes [Greek: apo ton
echein taen odunaen][170] _a habendo dolorem_. Yet he hath demonstrated the
falshood of that opinion: for he showed a black viper also spooted wt
yellow about the lenth of a mans armes, about the grossenesse of a great
inkhorne wholly shappen like a ell[171] save only its head wt its tongue,
which was iust like a fork wt 2 teeth, wheir its poison mainly resydes,
that had brought furth 2 young ones that same very day, which he showed us
wt some life in them just like 2 blew, long wormes that are wrinkled; and
notwtstanding the mother was on life and no apparence of any rupture in hir
belly. To let us sie whow litle he cared for it he took hir and wrapt it
that she might not reach him wt hir head, and put it in his mouth and held
it a litle space wt his lipes; which tho the common peaple looked on as a
great attempt, yet surely it was nothing, since their is no part of the
Viper poisonnable save only its head and its guts. As for the flech of it,
any man may eat it wtout hazard, for the same very charlatan promised that
ere we left the toune, having decapitated and disbowelled it, he sould eat
the body of it before all that pleased to look on, which he might easily
do. For as litle as he showed himself to care for it, yet he having
irritate and angred it, either by his brizing[172] it in his mouth or by
his unattentive handling of it (for such is the nature of the Viper that
tho its poison be a great deall more subtil, percing and penetrating, and
consequently in some account more dangerous then that of the hideous
coleuure or serpent, yet it wil not readily sting or bit except they be
exasperate, when the others neids no incitations, but wil pershew a man if
they sy him), when he was not taking heid, it snatcht him by the finger, he
hastily shakt it of on the stage and his finger fell a blooding. He was
not ordinarly moved at this accident, telling us that it might endanger the
losse of his finger. He first scarified the flech that was about the wound,
then he caused spread some theriac (one of the rarest contrepoisons, made
mainly of the flech of the Viper) on a cloath which he applied to it. About
a halfe hower after he looked to it in our presenc, and his finger was also
raisen in blay[173] blisters. He said he would blood himselfe above a
hower, to the end to reid himselfe of any blood already poisoned and
infected, lest by that circulation that the blood makes thorow al the body
of a man once of the 24 howers the blood infected sould communicate itselfe
to much. Also he sayd that he had rather bein stung in the leg, the thigh,
or many other parts of the body then the finger, by reason of the great
abondance of nerves their, and the sympathy the rest of the body keips wt
them, which renders the cure more difficile.

[168] Shelves.

[169] Riving, tearing.

[170] Mistake for [Greek: hodunaen]. The etymology is fanciful and

[171] Eel.

[172] Squeezing.

[173] Livid.

This charlatan seimed to be very weill experimented. He had bein at Rome,
which voyage is nothing in France, and thorow the best of France. The stone
thats to be found in the head of the hie[174] toad is very medicinal and of
great use their. They call a toad grappeau; a frog grenouille.

[174] i.e. he.

The papists looks very much on the 7 sone for the curing of the
cruels;[175] severall of the protestants look on it as superstition. They
come out of the fardest nooks of Germany, as also out of Spain itselfe, to
the King of France to be cured of this: who touches wt thir wordes, which
our King aequivalently uses, tho he gives no peice of Gold as our King does,
_c'est le roy qui vous touche, c'est Dieu qui vous guerisse_. He hath a set
tyme of the year for the doing of it. The day before he prepares himself by
fasting and praying that his touche may be the more effectuall. The French
could give me no reason of it but lookt on it as a gift of God.

[175] Cruels, scrofula, king's evil. For the healing powers of the
seventh son, compare Chambers's _Book of Days_, vol. i. p. 167;
_Notes and Queries_, June 12, 1852.

We can not forget a witty answer of a young English nobleman who was going
to travel thorow France and Italie, whom his friends feared exceedingly
that he would change his Religion, because he mocked at Religion. They
thought that King James admonition to him might do much to keip him
constant, wheiron they prayed the King to speak to him. Yes I shall do
that, quoth he. When he came to take his leave of the King, King James
began to admonish him that he would not change his Religion, for amongs
many other inconveniences he would so render himselfe incapable of serving
his King and his country, and of bearing any office theirin. He quickly
replied, I wonder of your Majesty who is so wise a man that ye sould speak
so; for ther is no a man in all France or Italy that wil change wt me tho I
would give him a 100,000 livres aboot.[176] The King was wery weill
satisfied wt this, telling his freinds that he was not feared he would
change, but that he saw he would bring back all the Religion he carried
afield wt him.

[176] To boot.

At the Marcher Vieux beyond our expectation we saw one of the fellows eat
the Viper head and all. The master striped it as a man would do an elle,
and clasped it sicker wtin a inch of its neck. The fellow took the head of
it in his mouth and zest[177] in a instant bit it of its neck and over his
throat wt it, rubing his throat griveously for fear that it stake their. He
had great difficulty of getting it over, and wt the time it had bein in his
mouth his head swalled as big as 2 heads. The master immediatly took a
glasse halfe full of wine, in which he wrang the blood and bowells of the
headlesse body of the Viper and caused him drink it also, breaking the
glasse in which he drank it to peices on the stage, causing sweip all wery
diligently away that it might do no harme. Immediatly on the fellows
drinking of it he had ready a cup of contrepoison, which he caused him
drink, then giving him a great weighty cloak about his shoulders he sent
him to keip him selfe warme before a great fire. The reason of which was to
contrepoise the cold nature of this poison as of all that poison thats to
be found in living creatures, which killeth us by extinguishing our natural
radical heat, which being chockt and consumed the soul can no more execute
its offices in the body but most depart.

[177] Just.

In the more Meridional provinces of France, as Provence, Languedoc, etc.,
they have besydes the other ordinar Serpents also Scorpions, which,
according as we may sie them painted, are just like a litle lobster, or
rather the French _rivier Escrivises_. They carry their sting in their
taile as the Viper does in its mouth. Tho it be more dangerous then any,
yet it carries about wt it contrepoison, for one stung wt it hath no more
ado, but to take that same that stung him, or any other if he can light on
it, and bruise out its substance on the place wheir he is stung, and theirs
no hazard. The potingers also extracts a oile which hath the same virtue.

Its not amisse to point as it ware wt the finger at that drollery of the
priest who preaching upon the gifts that the 3 wise men gave to Christ,
alleadged the first gave _d'or, myrrthe_, the 2d _argent_. He could never
find, tho he repeated it 20 tymes over, what the 3d gave wt the rest of its
circumstances. As also of the soger that made good cheir to his Landlord;
and of Grillet the Deviner who notwtstanding of his ignorance yet fortune

The Frenchwomen thought strange to hear that our women theyle keip the
house a moneth after they are lighter, when they come abroad on 8 dayes,
and they are very weak that keips it a fortnight.

Be the Lawes of France a slave, let him be a Turk, slave to a Venitien or
Spaniard, etc. (such enemies they pretend themselfes to be to servitude,
tho their be legible enough marks of it amongs them as in their _gens de
main mort_,[178] etc.), no sooner sets he his foot on French ground but
_ipso facto_ he is frie. Yet al strangers are not in the same condition
their, nether brook they the same priveledges, for some they call
Regnicolls,[179] others Aubiens[180] (_suivans les loix du Royaume_,
bastards). The principal difference they make betuixt them is this, that if
a Regnicoll such as the Scots are, chance to dy in France they have the
power of making a testament and disposing of their goods as they please
which they have their, whither they be moveable or immoveable. If they die
not leiving a testament yet its no less secure, since their friends to the
10 degrie may take possession of them. Its not so wt the Aubiens who have
no such right, but dieng, the King is their heir, unless it may be they be
Aubiens naturalized, who then begin to have the priveledges of the others
and the very natives.

[178] Serfs under the feudal law, whose power of disposing of their
property by will was restricted.

[179] A legal term meaning native or naturalised citizens.

[180] _Aubains_. Foreigners, whose succession fell to the Crown
(_droit d'aubaine_).

The Laws of France [this is the rigor][181] denies children begotten in
Adultery or incest aliments, which tho harsh, condemning the innocent for
the guilty, yet they think it may serve to deterre the parents from sick
illicit commixtions.

[181] Interlined.

The Laws of France, as of the most of Europe (tho not practicate wt us), in
thess case wheirin a man gets a woman wt child, ordains that ether he marry
hir or that he pay hir tocher good, which is very rigorously execute in

We can not forget a Anagram that one hes found in Cornelius Jansenius, to
wit, _Calvini sensus in ore_.

At Rome the Jews have a street assigned to them to live in a part. In
France, especially in Montpeliers, wheir theirs seweralls, they dare not
wear hats of that coleur that others wear, as black or gray, but ether rid
or green or others, that all may know them from Christians.

The King of France amongs other titles he assumes, he calls himselfe Abbot
of St. Hilaire, to wit of that church that bears the name in Poictiers,
whence its amongs the aenigma'es of France that the Abbot of St. Hilaire
hath the right of laying with the Queen of France the 1 night of the
marriage. Wheirupon when this king married the Infanta of Spaine, some of
the French nobility told hir that the Abbot of St. Hilaire had the right of
lying wt the Queen of France the first night, she replied that no Abbot
sould lay wt hir but her prince. They pressing that the laws of France ware
such, she answered she would have that law repealed. They telling hir the
matter she said the Abbot sould be welcome.

The most part of Them that sweips the chimelies in France we discovered to
be litle boyes that come out of Savoy wt a long trie over the shoulders,
crying shrilly thorow the cityes, _je vengeray vos cheminees haut en bas_.
Its strange of thir litle stirrows,[182] let us or the Frenchmen menace
them as we like we can never get them to say, _Vive le Roy de France_, but
instead of it, ay _Vive la Reine de Sauoye_.

[182] Lads, fellows.

We was not a little amazed to sy them on dy making ready amongs other
things to our diet upright poddock stools, which they call _potirons_ or
_champignons_. They'le raise in a night. They grow in humid, moisty places
as also wt us. They frie them in a pan wt butter, vinegar, salt, and spice.
They eated of it greedily vondering that I eated not so heartily of them as
they did; a man seimes iust to be eating of tender collops in eating them.
But my praeiudice hindred me.

To know the way of making their sups is not uunecessar since our curiosity
may cause us make of them at home. Of this we spoke something already.
Further he that hes made ready boiled flech, he hath no more ado but to
take the broth or sodden water wt his flech and pour it above his cut doune
loaves, which we proved to be very nourishing. If a man would make a good
soup wtout flech, he would cut me doune some onions wt a lump of butter
ether fresh or salt, which he sall frie in a pan, then pour in some
vinaigre, then vater, then salt and spice, and let al boil together, then
pour it on your sup, and I promise you a good sup.

We cannot forget what good company we have had some winter nights at the
fire syde, my host in the one noock, Madame in the other, and I in the
mides, in the navel of the fire. He was of Chattelerault, she of Partenay:
they would fallen to and miscalled one anothers country, reckning over al
that might be said against the place wheir the other was born and what
might be sayd for their oune. Whiles we had very great bickering wt good
sport. They made me iudge to decide according to the relevancy of what I
fand ether alledge. I usually held for Madame as the weaker syde.

The most part of the French sauces they make wt vergus.[183] For geese they
use no more but salt and water.

[183] Verjuice.

This consequence may be whiles used: Sy ye this, yes. Then ye are not
blind: hear you that; R, yes. Then ye are not deaf.

We saw a horse ruber wt a blew bonnet in Poictiers almost in the faschion
of our Scotes ones; another we saw not, from our leiving of Berwick, til
our returne to it againe.

To be fully informed of the history of the brave General [Mareschal][184]
Birron,[185] whom they had such difficulty to get headed; as of the
possessed Convent of Religious vomen called _les diablesses de Loudun_; as
of the burning of the preist as sorcerer and his arraigning his iudges
before the tribunal of the Almighty to answer him wtin a few dayes, and all
that sat upon his Azize their dying mad wtin som litle tyme; it wil not be
amisse to informe ourselfe of them from the History of France.

[184] Interlined.

[185] Ch. de Gontant, Duc de Biron, Marshal of France, born 1562, died
1602. A favourite of Henry IV, but executed for treason against

The French, tho the civilest of peaple, yet be seweral experiences we may
find them the most barbarous. Vitnes besyde him who dwellt at Porte St.
Lazare, another who brunt his mother because she would not let him ly wt
hir, and was brunt quick himselfe at the place in Poictiers some 5 years

The French Law is that if a women be 7 years wtout hearing news of hir
husband that she may marrie againe.

We have marked the German language to have many words common wt our oune,
as bread, drink, land, _Goet_ for our God; _rauber_; feeds,[186]
_inimiticiae_; march, _limites_; fich; flech; _heer_, sir; our man, _homo_;
_weib_ for wife.

[186] Feeds, _fehde_, feuds.

We have eated puddings heir also that we call sauses, which they make most
usualy of suine.

We cannot passe over in silence the observation the naturalists hath of the
Sow, that it hath its noble parts disposed in the same very sort they are
found in a man, which may furnish us very great matter of humility, as also
lead us to the consideration and sight of our bassesse, that in the
disposall of our noble parts we differ nothing from that beast which we
recknon amongs the filthiest. They make great use of it in France heir. In
travelling we rencontred wery great heards.

Tuo boyes studieing the grammar in the Jesuits Colledge at Poictiers,
disputing before the regent on their Lesson, the on demanded, _Mater cuius
generis est_: the other, knowing that the mother of the proponer had a wery
ill name of a whore, replied wittily, _distinguo; da distinctionem_ then;
replied, _si intelligas de mea est faeminini; si de tua, est communis_ (in
the same sort does Rosse tel it).

The occasion of the founding that order of the Charterous in France is wery
observable. About the tyme of the wars in the Low Contries their was a man
at Paris that led one of the strictest, godliest and most blameless lifes
that could be, so that he was in great reputation for his holinesse. He
dies, his corps are carried to some church neir hand wheir a preist was to
preach his funeral sermon the nixt day. A great concourse of peaple who
know him al weill are gathered to heir, amongs other, lead by meer
curiosity, comes a Soger (Bruno) who had served in the Low Country wars
against the Spaniard and had led a very dissolute, prophane, godless life.
The preist in his sermon begins to extol the person deceased and amongs
other expressions he had that, that undoubtedly he was in paradis at the
present. Upon this the dead man lifted himselfe up in his coffin and cried
wt a loud voice, _justo dei iudicio citatus sum_: the peaple, the preist
and al ware so terrified that they ran al out of the kirk, yet considering
that he was a godly man and that it would be a sin to leive his corps
unburied they meit the nixt day. They ware not weill meet, when he cried
again, _iusto dei indicio indicatus sum_; when they came again the 3d tyme,
at which he cried, _justo dei iudicio condemnatus sum_. This seimed wery
strange to all, yet it produced no such effects in any as in our Soger, who
was present al the tymes: it occasioned enexpressible disquietment of
spirit, and he fell a raisoning, If such a man who was knowen to be of so
blamlesse a conversation, who was so observant of al his dueties to God be
dammed, hath not obtained mercy, oh what wil word of[187] the who hath lead
so vicious a life, thinks thou that thou will be able to reach the height
that that man wan to, no. At last considering that company and the tongue
ware great occasions to sin he resolves to institute a order who sould have
converse wt none and whom all discourse should be prohibited save onlie
when they meet one another, thir 2 words _Memento Mori_. For this effect he
fel in scrutiny of a place wheir they might be friest from company, and
pitched upon a rocky, desolate, unhabited place not far from Grenoble
(about 3 leagues), wheir they founded their first Convent, which bears the
name of Chartrouse, and is to be sein at this day. Notwtstanding that their
first institution bears that they stay far from the converse of men, yet
(which also may be observed in the primitive Monachisme) they are creeping
into the most frequented cities. Vitness their spatious Convent, neir halfe
a mile about, at Paris.

[187] What will become of thee. Compare German, _werden,

These of the Religion at Poictiers from St. Michel to Paise[188] they have
no preaching the Sabath afternoone.

[188] Pasch, Easter.

Its not leasum for a man or woman of the Religion to marry wt a Papist;
which if they do, they most come and make a publick confession of the fault
and of the scandal they have given by such a marriage before the whole
church. Experience hes learned them to use it wery sparingly and meekly,
for when they would have put it in execution on som they have lost them,
they choosing rather to turne papists then do it. We are not so strick in
this point as they are; for wt us _licet sed non expedit cum non omne quod
liceat honestum sit_.

Out of the same fear of loosing them they use wery sparingly the dart of
excommunication except against such as lives al the more scandoulously. The
protestants in speaking of their Religion before papists they dare not
terme it otherwise then _pretendue Reformee_.

We have eaten panches[189] heir, which we finding drest in a different sort
from ours but better, we informed ourselfe of it thus: they keip them not
intier as we do, but cuts them into peices as big as a man wil take in his
mouth at once, then puts them in a frying pan wt a considerable lump of
butter, having fryed them a good space, they put in vineger, a litle salt
and some spice; this is all.

[189] Tripe.

Their goosing irons they heat them not in the fire as we do; but hath a
pretty device. They make the body of the iron a great deall thicker then
ours, which is boss,[190] and which opens at the hand, which boss they fil
wt charcoall, which heats the bottom of the iron, which besydes that its
very cleanly, they can not burn themselfes so readily, since the hands not

[190] Hollow.

They dry not out their linnens before the fire as we do: they have a broad
thing iust like a babret[191] on which we bak the cakes, only its of brass
very clear, its stands on 4 right hight feet. They take a choffer whiles of
brass oftner lame,[192] filled wt charcoall, which they sett beneath the
thing, on which they dry out their cloaths wery neitly.

[191] Babret or bawbret or baikbred, kneading trough.

[192] Earthenware.

We think fit to subioine heir a ridle or 2. Your father got a child; your
mother bore the same child and it was nether brother nor sister to you:
yourselfe. A man married a woman which was so his wife, his daughter and
his sister. A man got his mother wt child of a lasse, which by that means
was both his sister and his daughter, whom he afterwards not knowing

France thinkes it a good policy to height[193] the gold and silver of
stranger nations, by that thinking to draw the money of al other nations to
themselfes. This gives occasion to that book we have sein called
_Declaration du Roy et nouveau reglement sur le faict des Monnoyes tant de
France que estrangeres, donne par Lowis 13, an_ 1636. This book at least
hath 500 several peices gold and silver currant in France. It specifies
what each of them vieghs and what the King ordaines them to passe for.
First he showes us a great nombre of French peices of gold wt their shapes
what they carry on both sydes: then the gold of Navarre that passes: then
the Spanish and of Flanders, as the ducat and pistoles: then of Portugal,
as St. Estienne: then the English Rosenoble passing for 10 livres 10 souse:
the noble Henry of England for 9 liv. 10 souse: English Angelot for 7
livres: the Scotes and English Jacobuses, which we call 14 pound peices, as
also the Holland Ridres for 13 liv: that Scots peice thats wt 2 swords
thorow other, crouned the whol is 13, the halfe one 6 liv. 10 souse (it
hath, _salus populi est suprema lex)_: the new Jacobus, which we cal the 20
shiling sterling peice, 12 fra: then Flandres gold. The Scotes croune of
gold, which hath on the one syde_ Maria D.G. Regina Scotorum_, passes for 4
livres 5 souse.[194] Then he hath the Popes money, which hath Peter and
Paul on the one syde and the Keyes, the mitre and 3 flies on the other,
some of it coined at Avignon, some at Rome. Then the gold of Bologne,
Milan, Venise, Florence, Parma, Avoye, Dombes, Orange, Besancon, Ferrare,
Lucque, Sienne, Genes, Savoye, Geneve, wt that about the syde, _lux oritur
post tenebras_: Lorraine, Liege, Spinola, Mets, Frise, Gueldres, Hongry,
L'empyre, Salbourg, Prusse, Provinces Unies wt this, _concordia res parvae
crescunt_, Ferrare and then of Turquie, which is the best gold of them al,
its so fine it wil ply like wax: the armes wtin consistes of a number of
caracters iust like the Hebrew. Thus for the Gold. As to mony it hath al
the several realles of the Spaniard, as of al the Dolles or Dollers of the
Empire wt the silver of al their neighbouring nations. Our shiling[195] is
ordained to passe for 11 souse.

[193] Enhance the price of.

[194] For a comparison of these values, see Introduction, p. xliii.

[195] Here the shilling sterling.

Goropius Becanus in hes _Origines Antwerpianae_ would wery gladly have the
world beleive that the Cimbrick or Low Dutch is the first language of the
world, that which was spoken in Paradise; finally that the Hebrew is but a
compond ishue of it because the Hebrew seimes to borrow some phrases and
words of it when in the interim[196] it borrows of none. This he layes
doune for a fondement and as in confesso, which we stiffly and on good
ground denieng, al his arguments wil be found to split on the sophisme
_petitionis principii_.

[196] When in fact. So again p. 85.

The ground upon which the Phrygians vendicats their langage for the
anciennest is not worth refuting, to wit that these 2 Children that
Psammeticus King of Egypt caused expose so that they never hard the woice
of man: the first thing ever they cried was _bec_, which in the Phrygian
language, as also in old Low Dutch (so that we have to do wt Goropius heir
also, who thinks this to make mutch to his cause) signifies bread, is not
worth refuting, since they might ether light on that word by chance, or
they had learned it from the baying of the sheip wt whom they had

To abstract from the Antiquitie of tongues, the most eloquent language at
present is the French, which gets such acceptance every wheir and relishes
so weill in eaches pallat that its almost universal. This it ounes to its
_beauxs esprits_, who hath reformed it in such a faschion that it miskeens
the garbe it had 50 or 60 years ago, witnesse _l'Historie du Serre_
(_francion_),[197] Montaign'es Essayes and du Barta'es Weeks,[198] who wt
others have written marvelously weill in the language of their tyme, but at
present is found no ways smooth nor agriable. We have sein the works of Du
Bartas, which, tho in langage at present ancient, is marvelously weill
exprest, large better than his translator Joseph Sylvester hath done.
Amongs his works their was one which I fancied exceidingly, _La Lepanthe de
Jacques 6, Roy d'Ecosse_, which he tornes in French, containing a narration
of that bloody wictory the Christians gained over the Turk, Octobre 1571,
the year before the massacre at Paris, on the Lepanto, which Howel in his
History of Venise describes at large. He speaks wt infinite respect of our
King, calling him among other stiles _Phoenix Ecossois_.

[197] _Francion_ interlined. _Histoire Comique de
Francion_, 1623-67. Sorel mentioned again p. 104. For de Serre,
see same page. I thought at first that here Serre might be Sieur,
but it is distinctly written, therefore perhaps _Francion_ is
interlined by mistake. The reference is to an early writer, De
Serres died in 1598. Sorel's _Francion_ was published in 1623.

[198] G. de Saluste, sieur du Bartas, 1544-1590, religious poet. His
_Divine Weeks_ were translated by Joshua Sylvester.

To returne to our French language, not wtout ground do we estime it the
Elegantest tongue. We have bein whiles amazed to sy [hear][199] whow
copiously and richly the poor peasants in their meiting on another would
expresse themselfes and compliment, their wery language bearing them to it;
so that a man might have sein more civility in their expressions (as to
their gesture its usually not wery seimly) then may be fund inthe first
compliments on a rencontre betuixt 2 Scotes Gentlemen tolerably weil breed.
Further in these that be ordinar gentlewomen only, theirs more breeding to
be sein then in some of our Contesses in Scotland. For their frinesse[200]
ennemy to a retired sullen nature they are commended be all; none wt whom
a person may move easily and sooner make his acquaintance then wt them, and
yet as they say wery difficult to board; the Englishwomen being plat
contrary. They wil dance wt him, theyle laugh and sport wt him, and use al
innocent freedome imaginable, and this rather wt strangers then their

[199] Interlined.

[200] Freeness.

[201] Four lines erased in MS.

This much precisely for the French mony (only its not to be forgotten that
no goldsmith dare melt any propre French mony under the pain of hanging),
their langage, and their women: of the men we touched something already in
a comparison of them wt the Spaniard. I have caused Madame Daille some
vinter nights sit doune and tell me tales, which I fand of the same very
stuffe wt our oune, beginning wt that usually _Il y avoit un Roy et une
Reine_, etc., only instead of our red dracons and giants they have
lougarous or war-woophs.[202] She told me on a tyme the tale or conte of
daupht Jock wt his _sotteries_, iust as we have it in Scotland. We have
laughten no litle at some.

[202] Loups-garou or were-wolves,

We saw the greatest aple we ever saw, which we had the curiosity to
measure, to measure about and fand it 18 large inches. The gourds are
monstrous great heir: we have sein them greater then any cannon bullet ever
we saw. We have eaten cormes[203] heir, which is a very poor fruit, tho the
peasants makes a drink of it they call cormet. In Octobre is the tyme of
their roots, as Riphets, tho they eat of them al summer throw, neips and

[203] Sorb apples.

[204] Parsnips.

Let us mark the reason whey the Pope permits bordel houses at Rome, and
then let us sie who can liberat it from clashing immediatly wt the Aposles
rule, Romans 3, v. 8. O. sayes the Pope, the toleration of stues in this
place is the occasion of wery much good, and cuts short the occasion of
wery mutch evil, for if men, especially the Italian, who, besydes his
natural genius to Venery, is poussed by the heat of the country had not
vomen at their command to stanch them, its to be feared that they would
betake themselfes to Sodomy (for which stands the Apology of the
Archbischop of Casa at this day), Adultery, and sick like illicit
commixtions, since even notwtstanding of this licence we grant to hinder
them from the other, (for _ex duabus malis minus est eligendum_), we sie
some stil perpetrating the other. O brave, but since we sould not do evil
that good sould come theirof, either let us say this praetext to be false
and vicket, or the Aposles rule to be erroneous. Nixt if ye do it on so
good a account, whence comes it that the whores most buy their licence by a
100,000 livres a year they pay to your exchequer, whey have they not simply
their liberty since its a act, as ye say, of so good consequence?

The ancient inhabitants of Rome at that tyme when it became of Pagan
Christian seimes to me much viser then our reformers under Knox when we
past from Papisme to Protestantisme. They did not demolish the Heathen Idol
temples, as we furiously did Christian, but converted them to Christian
temples, amongs others witness the stately temple dedicat to the goddess
Fortune, much respected by the Romans, at present a church. Yea the
Italians boasts that they have cheated, robbed the Devil in converting that
hous which was consecrat for his service unto the service of the true God.
But all that heirs of our act laughts at it as madness.

Theirs a Scots Colledge at Rome.

I find that conclusion the Duke of Burgundy tried on a peasant, whom he
fand in a deip sleip in the fields as he returned from the hunting on a
tyme, wery good. On a tyme we fel a discoursing of those that are given to
riseng in their sleip and do things, whiles more exactly then give they
ware waking. I cannot forget on drollery. 2 gentlemen fell to lodge to
gither at one innes, the one began to plead for a bed by himselfe, since
the other would find him a wery ill bedfellow, for he was so much given to
hunting, that in the night he used to rise and cry up and doune the chambre
hobois, hobois, as on his dog; the other thought Il'e sy if I can put you
from that, wheiron he feigned he was iust of that temper in rising thorow
his sleip, and that he was so much given to his horses that he thought he
was dressing and speaking to them. Since it was so[205] they lay both
together; about midnight the one rises in his sleip begines to cry on his
doges; the other had brought a good whip to the bed wt him, makes himselfe
to rise as throw his sleip, fals to and whipes the other throw the house
like a companion,[206] whiles crying, Up, brouny; whiles, Sie the iade it
wil no stir. The other wakened son enough, crying for mercy, for he was not
a horse; the other, after he had whipt him soundly, made himselfe to waken,
wheiron the other fel a railing on him; the other excused himselfe wery
fairly, since he thought he was whiping his horses. In the interim the
other never rose to cry on his doges again.

[205] Interlined.

[206] Low fellow.

France in such abondance produces win, that seweral years if ye'el bring 2
punchions to the field as great as ye like, live them the on and they'le
let you carry as many graps wt you as the other wil hold.

They have in France the _chat sauuage_; the otter, which is excellent
furring; the Regnard, the Wolfe. In the mountaines of Dauphine theirs both
_ours_ and _sangliers_, bear and boor.

Their doges are generally not so good as ours. Yet their a toune in
Bretagne which is garded by its dogs, which all the day ower they have
chaned, under night they loose, who compasses the toune al the night ower,
so that if either horse or man approach the city, they are in hazard to be
torn in peices.

The wolfes are so destructive to the sheip heir that if a man kill a wolfe
and take its head and its taille and carry it thorow the country willages
and little borrowes, the peasants as a reward will give him som egges, some
cheese, some milk, some wooll, according as they have it. They have also
many stratagemes to take the wolfe. Amongs others this: they dig a wery dip
pit, wheir they know a wolfe hantes; they cover it with faill,[207] fastens
a goose some wery quick, which by its crying attracks the wolfe who coming
to prey on the goose, zest[208] plumpes he in their, and they fell him
their on the morning.

[207] Turf.

[208] Just.

We have sein that witty satyre that Howel has about the end of his Venitian
History in French. The French Ministers of the Religion are exceedingly
given to publish their sermons, in that like to the English. Vitnesse
Daille'es sermons; Jean Sauvage, Ministre at Bergerac, betuixt Limosin
(wheir they eat so much bread when they can get it) and Perigord, dedicated
to Mr. de la Force, living at present their, Mareschal de France, father of
Mareschal Turaines lady: wt diverses others we have sein. We have sein a
catechisme of Mr. Drelincourt which we fancied exceedingly.

The halfe of France wt its revenues belongs to the Ecclesiasticks, yea, the
bueatifullest and the goodliest places. To confine our selfes wtin
Poictiers, the rents of whosse convents, men and women togither, wil make
above six 100 thousand livers a years, besydes what the bischop hath, to
wit, 80,000 livres a year. The Benedictines, a wery rich order as we have
marked, have 30,000 livres in rent; the Feuillans[209] 20,000; besydes what
the Jacobins, Cordeliers, Minims, thess de la Charite, Capucyns, Augustins,
the Chanoines of Ste. Croix, St. Radegonde, St. Peter, the cathedral of
Poictiers, Notre Dame la grande, St. Hilaires, wt other men and al the
women religious, have, being put togither wil make good my proposition.

[209 1] See p. 47, *note.

We had almost forgot the Jesuits, who, above 50 years ago, entred Poictiers
wt their staffes in their hand, not a 100 livres amongs them all, since
have wt their crafty dealings so augmented their Convent that they have
40,000 livres standing rent. Whow they come be this is not uneasy to
dewine, we toucht it a litle already. If any fat carcasse be on his
deathbed, they are sure to be their, undermine him wt all the slights
imaginable, wring donations in their faveurs from them, of which we know
and have heard seweral exemples: vitness the Abby at Bourdeaux, whom they
undermined, and he subtilly getting a grip of his testaments tore it and so
revocked his will. Also that testament so agitate by the Jesuits and the
sone of the deceased who was debauched before the Duke of Parme, the
Jesuits relaying on thesse words that the fathers Jesuits sould be his
heirs, providing that they gave his sone _ce qu'ils voudront_, what they
would: the Duk turning them against the Jesuits exponed them, that what
they would have themselfes that that sould be given to his sone.

Diverse others we have heard. The lawes of France wil hardly permit the
father to disinherit his sone, unless he can prove him guilty of some hy
ingratitude and disobedience against him, or that he hath attempted
something against the life of his father; that he is debaucht he cannot.

The custome among the great ones of the most part of the world is that they
cause any other of quality that comes to sy them be conveyed thorow their
stables to sy their horses, as also causeth them sy their doges, their
haucks, ther gardens. Particularly in Spaine the custome is such, that they
take special heed what horse or what dog ye praise most, and if ye
change[210] to say, O their is a brave horse, the horse wil be as soon at
your lodging in a gift as your selfe wil be.

[210] Chance.

We happened to discourse on night of fools and madmen, of their several
sortes, of the occasions, as love, study, vin, hypocondriack, melancholly,
etc. They told me of one at Marseilles who beleifed himselfe to be the
greatest King of the world, that all the shipes of the harbour, together wt
their waires, ware his; of another who really beleifeth himselfe to be made
of glasse, cryed horridly if any but approach him for fear they sould break
him. His friends, at the advice of some Doctor, took a great sand glasse
and brook it on tyme on his head as he was raging in that fit: seeing the
peices of glasse falling doune at his feet he cryed more hideously then
ever, that he was broken to peices, that his head was broken. After he had
calmed a litle they desyred his to consider that the glasse was broken, but
that he was not broken; and consequently that he was not glasse. On this
remonstrance he came to himselfe, and confessed he was not glasse. The same
was practicat on a nother who beleived himselfe to be lame.

We cannot forgett a story that happened at the bedlam at Paris. 2 gentlemen
out of curiosity coming to sie the madmen, the Keeper of the Hospital be
reason of some businesse he had could not go alongs wt them, whence he
ordains one of the fools that was besyde to go alongs wt them, and show
them al the madmen wt the occasions and nature of their madnese. The fool
carried them thorow them all, showing that their was on mad for love, their
another wt to much study, a third besottedly fool wt drunkness, a 4th
Hypocondriack, and so wt all the rest marvelous pertinently. At last as
they ware going out he sayd: Gentlemen, I beleife ye wondred at the folly
of many ye have sein; but theirs a fool (pointing at him) whom ye'el admire
more then them all, that poor fellow beleifes him selfe to be the beloved
Aposle St. John, but to let you sie that he is not St. John, and whow false
his beleife is, I that am St. Piter (for he chiefly held himselfe to be St.
Peter) who keips the gates of heaven never opend the door to let him in
yet. The gentlemen thought wery strange to find him so deiply fooll when
they reflected whow pertinently he had discoursed to them before and not
discovered the least foly. They ware informed that he was once a doctor in
the colledge of Sorbonne, and that to much study had reduced him to that.
It would appear he hes studied to profundly Peters primacy above the rest
of the Aposles.

The Protestant Churches throw Poictou keip a solemne fast 28 of Octobre, wt
the Papists St. Simons day. The occasion was to deprecate Gods wrath which
he showed he had conceived by reason he threathned them in sewerall places
wt Scarcity of his word and removing of his candlestick, since sewerall
temples ware throwen doune, as that at Partenay, etc. For that effect they
sent 4 of the Religion, the eminentest amongs them in the Province to the
King wt a supplication. We had 3 preachings. We eated no flech that day for
fear of giving occasion to the Papists to mock: we suped on a soup, fried
egges, roosted chaistains, and apples wt peirs.

Sewerall schollers have made paction wt the Dewil, under the Proviso he
would render them wery learned, which hath bein discovered. One at Tholouse
gave his promise to the Dewil, which having confessed, they resolve to
procede iudicially against him. Since the Dewil loves not iustic, they send
a messenger to the place wheir they made the pact to cite him to compeir
and answer. He not compairing they declaire him contumacious; and as they
procede to condemn him as guilty, behold a horrid bruit about the hous and
the obligation the lad had given him droops of the rigging[211] amongs the
mids of the auditors. We fand the story called _funeste resemblance_ not
il of the scholler in Lipswick University, who having killed on of his
companions was put to flie, wheiron after a long peregrinatione he came to
Coloigne, wheir to his misfortune was a young man whom he resembled so neir
that theirs no man but he would take on for the other. This young man had
ravished just at that same tyme a gentlewoman of great condition: now the
Lawes of Germany, as also of France, permits to pershue a _Ravisseiur_, tho
the women consent, if her parents contradict, criminelly for his life. On
this our scholler Proclus is slain in the streets for him; together with
what followes.

[211] Rooftree.

Thorow all Languedoc and Provence the olive tries is as common as the
walnuts in Poictou: oranges thorow much of France and in seweral places
China oranges. Lentils, the seeds rise and mile[212] growes abondantly
towards Saumer: the Papists finds them wery delicate in caresme or Lent.
Its wonderful to sie what some few degries laying neerer the sun fertilizes
a country.

[212] Mil, millet.

France is a country that produceth abondantly all that the heart of man can
desire, only they are obligded to fetch their spices (tho they furnish
other countries wt saffran which growes in seweral places of Poictou,
costes 15 livres the pound at the cheapest) from Arabia, their sugar from
America and the Barbado Islands: yet wtout ether of the tuo they could live
wery weill.

A man may live 10 years in France or he sy a French man drink their oune
Kings health. Amongs on another they make not a boast to call him[213]
_bougre, coquin, frippon_, etc. I have sein them in mockery drink to the
King of Frances coachhorses health.

[213] _i. e_. think nothing of calling him.

The plumdamy, heir prunecuite,[214] they dry so in a furnace.

[214] Prune, dried plum.

About the end of Octobre the peasants brings in their fruits to Poictiers
to sel, especially their Apples, and that in loadened chariots. The beggar
wifes and stirrows[215] ware sure to be their, piking them furth in
neiwfulles[216] on all sydes. I hav sein the peasents and them fall be
ears thegither, the lads wt great apples would have given him sick a slap
on the face that the cowll[217] would have bein almost like to greet; yet
wt his rung[218] he would have given them a sicker neck herring[219] over
the shoulders. I am sure that the halfe of them was stollen from many of
them or they got them sold.

[215] Lads, boys.

[216] Handfuls.

[217] Fellow. See Jamieson's _Dict_, s.v. 'Coulie.'

[218] Staff.

[219] 'A smart wipe.' I have not traced the expression 'neck herring.'

When we have had occasion to tel the Frenchman what our Adwocats would get
at a consultation, 10,20 crounes, whiles they could not but look on it as a
abuse, and think that our Justice was wery badly regulate and constitute.
Thorow France a Adwocat dare take no more than a _quartescus_[220] for a
consultation, but for that he multiplies them; for a psisitians advice as
much. Surely if it be enquired whose ablest to do it, France by 20 degries
might be more prodigal this way then we are; but their are wiser. Theris
above 200 Adwocats at Poictiers. Of these that gets not employment they
say, he never lost a cause, whey, because he never plaid one. Also, that
theirs not good intelligence betuixt the Jugde and him, whey, because they
do not speak togither.

[220] Quart d'ecu, a silver coin, quarter of an ecu. See
Introduction, p. xlii. The cardecue was a common coin in Scotland.

As to the privilege of primogeniture in France its thus, that the eldest
carries away 2 parts of thrie: as, for instance, the father is a man of
15,000 livres a year, the eldest hath 10,000, the other 5000 goes amongs
the cadets.

Al the Capital tounes of provinces of France are frie from Taille.[221]

[221] A tax on persons not noble or ecclesiastic or exempted.

The wood cannot be but wholesomer to dresse meat wt then our coall: also
they impute the oftner contagions that happens in Brittain to the smook of
our coall, which grossens and thickens et,[222] by consequence infectes the
air, their wood smooking wery little.

[222] For 'it.'

The French cryes out against the wanity of our King who most be served by
his subjects on their knees, since that the knees sould be keipt to God
alone; as also their King more absolute then [he] tho not served so. Yea
some have bein so impudent as to impute (count)[223] the murder of our late
King (which 1000 tymes hath bein casten up to me) as a iust iudgement of
God on them for their pride. I cannot forget whow satyrically they have
told this, saying that the peaple of great Britain keip their Kings at
their beck, at their pleasure not only to bereave them of their croune but
also of their life. I endewored to show them that they understood not
things aright, that the same had bein practicat in France on Henry the 4t:
the cases are not indeed alike, since our King was brought to a Schaffold,
the other slain be a Assasin, Ravelliak, and regretted. To make the case
iump the better, I remitted them to ther History to sie wt what publick
consent Henry 3d was slain be Clement the Jacobine, yet heir their was no
iudiciall procedure as against our King. Whence I had recourse to
Chilperick, whom the peaple, tho legittime heir, first deposed then cowed
him, and thrust him in a Monastry surrogating Pepin his brother in his
roome. This wexed them, they could never answer this sufficiently.

[223] Interlined.

Sewerall tymes in France persones have suffered because they had discovered
some plot or conspiracy against the King or estat and could not prove it.
The Law is the same wt us, tho it seimes to carry injustice. On all hands I
am in danger: if I do not reveale it I am aequally guilty of the treason as
the actors are; if I rewealle it, I am immediatly made prisoner, tortured
to show all I know of it, put to prove what I say, in which if I failly I
lose my life. What can a man do when he have no proofes? He most tho'
reveall it and consequently lose his life; since after the truth sal appear
and he sal be held be all to have died gloriously as a weill wisher to his

Its was strange of Cardinal Richelieu who know[224] all things that past
thorow France as if he had bein present, and 2 of the most intimate sould
not have spoken ill of him at Poictiers but he sould have knowen it or 4
dayes at Paris. Some imputed it to a familiar spirit he had, others to his
spies he had every wheir. He was _toute en toute_ in France in his tyme.

[224] Lauder's way of spelling knew. Compare p. 98, slow for slew.

The French mock at our sweit sauses and sugared sallades. Their salt is a
great deall better and more sawory then ours is. That which we parfait be
the fire, which cannot but in some measure consume the strenth of its
savorinesse, the sun denieng us it, they parfait be the sun. In Bearn or
Navarre they make it be the fire as we do; but they make more cont of that
which comes from the Rochel, which the Hollanders, Dans, and others carries
in abondance then of their. On the place wheir they make it its sold for a
sous marky[225] la livre, which costs at Poictiers 20 sous. In 2 heurs tyme
the sun will converte a great ditch full of sea water unto upright salt:
that they showle out, fills it again, and so in 3 moneth, May, Juin, July,
they make more salt then the fire maks in 2 years in Scotland: and wt lesse
cost and lesse pain. That our salt is whitter, its the effect of the fire,
since they could render theirs as white but it sould lose so werie much of
its savory. Their is a ile neir to that of St Christople which hath
montaines of Salt. The sea casts in the water on the dry land and the sun
convertes it immediatly, which beats their so violently that no corn can
grow; it rises but its brunt or it come to the head. The sugar growes
marvelously weill in it.

[225] _Sou marque_. Copper coin worth fifteen deniers. That
was the value of the _sou parisis_. The _sou tournois_ was worth
twelve deniers.

The day before great fests, as _les Roys_[226] _Toussaints_, etc., their
fellows that wt white surplices and a pigful[227] of holy water wt a spung
in it goes thorow al the Catholick houses be-sprinkling the persons as also
the house, and so sanctifieng them that the Dewil dare not enter their;
passing by the Protestants houses as infected; or rather, as the Angel who
smote the first born of the Egyptians past the Israelits. At _Toussaints_
al are in ther best cloaths.

[226] Epiphany.

[227] Jarful.

Of the fal of our first parents its enquired what might have happened in
the case of the women alone sould have fallen, the man keiping his
integrity: wheither the children would have bein culpable wt the mother, or
innocent wt the father. 2'do if any children had bein born before the fal
they sould have bein exempt from the curse or not. 3'o if our parents fell
the same day they ware created. 4to who would be Cains wife, ether his
mother or a sister.

Upon what the Scripture teaches us, that for the 40 years the Israelites
ware in the wilderness their shoes nor their garments waxed not old, it may
be enquired what they did for cloaths to their childeren that ware born in
the wilderness, also theirs one that was 10 years old, another 20, at their
coming furth out of Egypt, they had cloathes and shoes meit for them at
that age, it may be demanded whow the same cloaths gained[228] them when
they came to be 30 or 40 year old. It seimes to be said that the cloaths
waxt wide as they grew.

[228] Fitted.

It may be demanded also, whither it was really a miracle in passing the rid
sea or give it was only at a low ebbe, since Moses know weill enough both
the sea and the desart, having feid his father-in-laws flocks their about
long tyme.

I demand, if our first parents had keipt their state of innocence whither
they would have procreat their children in that same faschion that man and
woman does now. It seims that they sould have copulated carnally, since
theirs no other raison assignable whey God sould have made distinction of
sex, since these sould have bein in wain: _at Deus et Natura nihil faciunt
frustra_. On the other hand I dare not say they sould have copulate
carnally when I consider the brutality and filthinesse of the act which
does no wayes agree wt the perfection wheirin they ware created. On the
supposition that they had keipt their innocence and begotten children, I
demand whither the children at their coming furth of the bellie sould have
had the vigueur that Adam had when he was created; or whither they bit to
be born litle that could nether speak nor go for the first 6 quarters of a
year as at present. This it seimes absurd to think, since that would have
argued wery much imperfection in the man, which I wil be wery loath to
think him capable of as he was in that state: the other syde seimes as
absurd, since its inconceivable to think whow Ewe could have born a strong,
robuste man of Adams strenth at the age of 30 years in hir womb.

I demand also whither Adam after he had lived many hundred years on earth
sould have died, gone to heaven and left the earth to his posterity, and so
after a long tyme his posterity to theirs. Necessity seimes to say that it
sould have bein so, since that if the fathers had not so made way to their
sons, or some ages the world sould not hold them all, for I suppose all
that hes lived in the world since Adam ware on the world at present, wt
them that are living on it even now, I am inclinable to think that we would
be put to seik some other new world besyde Americk to hold them. To think
on the other hand that he sould have died is as absurd, since its confessed
that the trie of Life was given him as a sacrament and signe he sould not
lay under the strock of death, for as death comes from that contrariety and
discord of the elements of whilk our bodies are composed, so the fruit of
this trie, at least typicaly, had the wertue of maintaining the contrary
elements in a parfait concord and by consequence of vindicating a man from

I demand in what season of the year the world was created. I find a great
rable of the Scolasticks, as testifies Lerees[229] in his physical
_disputa. de mundo_, teaching that it was in the spring tyme; and that the
sun began his course in the first degree of Aries; that it is from this
that the Astrologians begines their calculations, at Aries as the first
signe of the Zodiack; that it was at this tyme that Christ suffered,
restauring the world at that same season wheirin it fell. But who sies not
the emptinesse of their reasons. Theirs another rank who think it was
created in the Automne, since that Moses mentioned rip apples, which in the
spring tyme are only virtually in their cause. Others wt greater reason
condamne al thir autheurs as temerare and rash, since that Spring in our
Hemispbere is Automne in the other.

[229] Lery or Leri, Jean de, was a traveller and Protestant divine,
but I do not find trace of such a work as this.

About the Bi-location of bodies, I would demand the Popelings, in the case
wheirin a army is made up of one man replicate in 1000 places, whither he
shall have the strenth of one man or 1000: if one be wounded or slain, if
all the rest shal be wounded or slain: also whither he can be hot at Paris
and cold at Edin'r, headed at Paris, hanged at Edin'r, dy at Paris, live in
good health at Edin'r, wt infinite other alleaged by Lerees and others.

When he was at Poictiers a Gentleman accused of seweral murders and
imprisoned escaped in womens cloaths about the gloaming, whom we saw passe
thorow the street, giveng al ground of suspicion by the terror and
amazement he was in; letting a scarf fal in on part, his napkin in another,
his goun taille fell doune in a thrid. Yet none seazed on him. At the port
of the toune he had a horse waiting for him on which he escaped.

A litle after that a Mareschal, or ferrier, or Smith felled on of his boyes
at the Scotes Walk because he demanded money of him, escaped to Lusignan,
wheir he was taken.

Just about the same tyme on a stormy, vindy night a rich Candlemakers
(which office is not so dishonorable heir as wt us, their daughters wil be
going in their satins) booth was broken up, 40 pistols, which he had
receaved in payment just the day before, and which he had left in a box of
the table, stollen. Persones wil do weill then to keip quiet any mony they
have as weill as they can: according the tenor of my fathers letter.

On the day after _Toussaint_ is a feste til noon called _les
Trespassez_[230]. The papists prayes for their dead ancestres, over their
graves mumbling so many paters and so many ave'es.

[230] _Trepasses_, All Souls.

They have a apple in France called _pomme de Calvile_, its all rid thorow
to the wery heart, _pomme blanche_.

In case of fire in a toune the neirest bel, or the bel of that paroiche
wheir it is, ringes.

In Octobre heir, tho reasonably sharp, they have upright[231] Summer
weather, its so fair.

[231] Equivalent to 'downright.'

Our peirs that growes at home are all out as delicious, vitness the
carnock, as any we have eaten in France, tho they grow their in greater
abondance. As to the Apples we most not conteste wt them, since beseids
many brave sorts they have the pipin, which I conceive most be that they
call Reynett, brought unto France from Italy by Queen Blanche, mother of
St. Louis: it was first fund in Africk. The _pomme Minion_ is better then
any of ours: our Marican seimes to be a degenerat sort of it.

The silver hat-strings are much in use at present: they sell them by the
weight. The tabby doublets wt the silk [called wats][232] furring wtin are
also in faschion: wery warm in winter, cost 20 franks. Men and women from
the least to the greatest, yea not the wery keel wifes and fruit wifes, but
they have manchon muffes. A man cannot get a good one under a pistol: some
of a meiner size are sold for 6 or 4 francks. Our best furrings comes out
of Musco'e. Chamois gloves and linnens mad of goats skines, which are found
better in Poictou then in any other province of France, are not in so great
cont[233] wt them as wt us; yet they find them wondrously warm; some
thinkes them strenthning and corroborative of a feeble hand. We have sein
som buy them to lay swallings of their handes. Perruvicks, besydes they are
most faschious, they are destructive both to the body, since they are wery
unwholsome, engendring humeurs; as also to the purse, they being
extravagantly dear thorow all France, especially at Paris, wheir its a wery
mean one a man will get for 4 pistols; and a man can have no fewer then 2
at a tyme, on to change another.

[232] Interlined. Wats, _ouates_.

[233] Estimation.

We have spoken wt some Catolicks that have bein at Geneve. The disciplin is
very strick their yet. A Catholick if a craftsman they suffer him to
excerce his trade 3 moneth: they'le let him stay no longer. If a man swear
their, he'el be layd in prison, lay their 24 howers wtout meat or drink. A
man cannot speak wt a woman on the Street wtout giving scandal. The Sabath
is keipt as we do, nothing to be sold their on it, as thorow France its the
greatest market day of the week, the peasants bringing in al they have to
sell in abondance. Its the resort of al the banished Germans, Italians and
other strangers that would enjoy the excercise of their Religion freely and

In shaving a man, its impossible for a Frenchman to cut a man; they have
such a net way of baging the flech: also it would do a man good to be
washen wt their water, whiles rose water, whiles smelling of musck: tho
their fingers stinkes whiles, the French dighting their staille[234] wt
their fingers, thinking it prodigality to do it wt paper: yett ther Kings
of old did so, to teach their peaple frugality: hence it is that the
Frenchman wil not eat til he wash: wil not eat wt ye til ye wash: for my
oune part I would not eat wt a Frenchman til he wash.

[234] Foundation, breech.

Fresch egges are wery dear wairs in France. At Paris they are 5 pence a
peice, at Poictiers a shiling a dozen. They fry their egges differently
from us: they break them first in a plate: in the meantym they fry a
considerable lump of butter, then pours in the egges salting and spicing
them. Their hens are not so fertile as ours.

Our speaking of egges mindes me of Christophorus Colomba Lusitanian, a
experienced skiper, first discowrer of the new world, tho he had gotten
some encouradgements and conclusions about it from on Vespucius Americus
Florentin, from whom it gets its denomination of America. Colomba on a tyme
walking on the harbory of Lisbon, a toune knowen for the emporium of the
east, such a boystrous wind blow to him iust of the sea that he could not
get his feet holden; on this he began to reason that the wind could not
come of the Sea, but that of necessity their bit to[235] be land beyond
that sea, tho unknoun, of whilk[236] that wind bit to[235] blow, for the
vapors or exhalations drawen of the sea are not so grosse as thess that
montes of the land: and be consequence cannot produce such boystrous
vindes. This his opinion he imparted to sewerall: at lenth it came to
Ferdinando'es ears, who at the persuasions of Isabella his queen, a woman
of greater spirit and more action then hir husband, equippes Columba a
fleet, wt which after he had born out many stormes he gained his point,
returning wt some few of his shipes that ware left him loadened wt the gold
of the country.

[235] Must.

[236] i.e. though unknown, off which.

The King accepted him wery kindly, as he had reason, but his courtiers out
of that enwious nature of detracting from the merites of others, thinking
that theirs no way of gaining themselfes credit unless they backhit at
others, each most passe their seweral werdict on his attempt, al
concluding that it was nothing, that any man might have done it. The
honest, silly man hears them at this tyme patiently, when they have al done
he calles for a egge: desires them al to try if the could make it stand on
the end of it: they, not knowing his designe, try it all: it goes round
about al the table, not one of them can make it stand so. Then he takes the
egge, brakes the bottome of it, and so it standes upright, they being al
most ashamed, else further he addes, As now after I have let you sie whow
to do it, ye think nothing to make a egge stand upright: tho none of you
could do it before: sikelike after I have found you the gate to the new
world ye think nothing of it tho ye could not have done it yourselfes. They
thought themselfes wery far out.

Horrid and unchristian was the outrages the Spaniards committed on the poor
natives. They slow them like beasts. Further they carried over whole
shipeful of mastives which they hunted the naked Indians with; and I know
not how many millions ware torn this way.

The sogers ware so beastly that they could not refrain from laying and
abusing the Indian women, which gave them the _verole picot_ or French pox,
surely the just iudgement of god, wt a iudgement not knowen to former ages,
punishing men wt shame in this world. The Spaniards brought it from America
to Naples, infected some Napolitan women wt it, whence called _Morbus
Napolitanus_; thir women gave it to some French sogers who brought it unto
France, whence called wt us French pox, now its become universall. Philip
of Spaine who died August 1665 was owergoon wt it, they say.

The Indians calles the Spaniards Veracochie, which in their language
signifies scume of the sea. Out of contempt and because they assaulted them
first from the sea, they curse the sea always that vomited out sick
monstres. Some chances to tel them of heaven and hell: wheiron they have
demanded wheir the Spaniards would go to: they hearing that they would go
to heaven, they sayed they would not go their then, for the Spaniards ware
to bloody and cruell to stay wt.

To informe our selfes fully of the singularites of America and other
things it will be fitting for us to buy _Pancerollas[237] Vetera deperdita_
and his _Nova reperta_, as also Howels[238] Letters, Osburnes[239] advices
to his sone, etc.

[237] Panceroli, Guido, 1523-1599, Italian jurist. The work referred
to is _Kerum memorabilium jam olim deperditarum at contra recens
atque ingeniose inventarum_. Hamburg, 1599.

[238] Howell, James, 1594-1666, Historiographer Royal to Charles II.,
published several series of _Familiar Letters_.

[239] Osborne, Francis, 1589-1659, author. _The Advice to a Son_
was written for his son when at Oxford.

Its a custome in Pictou that if a gentlewomen would have hir galland passe
his gates[240] or any other to a other they have no more ado but to set the
wood on one of the ends of it in the chemly and they wil not readily stay.

[240] Go away.

In France the father of the bride, if on life, accompany'es his daughter to
the church; the worthiest of the company leading hir home, as wt us: yet at
Saumur the bridegrome leds home his oune spouse.

In France they observe that they have usually great rains about Martimess,
which we saw werified. When a great rain hath fallen we have sein al sortes
of peaple, prentises wt others, wt racks and shovles cume furth to cleange
the gutters and make the passage clear that it may not damme before their
doores; for the streets are but narrow at Poictiers and none of the
neitest. Orleans hath wery neit streets, amongs others on that goes from
the end of toune to the other.

A woman laying in child birth they call _commair_.

Our curds and whey (which they make not so oft as we) they call _caill
botte_.[241] Milk is a great delicat in France. I never hard it cried up
and doune the streits, as its wt us, tho they have many cries we have not.

[241] _Caillebotte_, curds,

They report of their sorciers and sorciares victches that they have their
assembles and dances wt the Dewill, especially the evening of _Marde gras_.
They look on the _corbique_ or raven as a bad prognostick of death; the pie
tells that some strangers's to come.

The Jesuites whipes their scollers wery cruelly, yea they whipt on to death
at Poictiers: yet the father could obtaine nothing against them. The
greatest affront that can be done to a woman is to cut the tayle of hir
goune from hir, or even to cast ink in her face, since that a lovely face
is the principal thing that commends a woman, hence as the greatest
reproach a man can be upraided wt is _bougre_ or _j'en foute_; so the
greatest of their railings against a woman is to say, _vous avez eu la robe
coupe au queue_. It hath bein practicat on some.

A man would take good heed that he never desire a woman a drink in company,
for the Frenchwomen take it in very il part, and some hath gotten on the
cheak for it.

They think a man does them honour in making them go before him; so that a
Frenchman wil never readily steep in before any woman of faschion, tho it
be just contraire in our country.

The 11 of November is St. Martins day, a very merry day in France. They
passe it in eating, drinking and singing excesivelie. Every one tasts his
new wine that day, and in tasting it takes to much; their be wery few but
they are full. The Suisses and Alemmands (who drink like fisches, as we
know in Mr. le Baron and his creatures at Orleans, each man each night
could not sleip wt out his broll[242] or pot, which the Frenches their
_L'abbe Flacour_ and _Brittoil_ mockt at) findes only 3 good festes in
France, Mr. St. Martin,[243] Mr. les trois Rois, and Mr. marde gras,
because al drinkes bitch full thess dayes.

[242] I have not found this word elsewhere.

[243] It was customary to speak of saints as Monsieur St. Martin,
Mme. Ste. Catherine, etc. Lauder extends the usage (whether
correctly or not) to Mardi Gras.

On the morrow after opened the Palais, which sits neir 10 moneth togither,
whither we went to sie the faschion. First their massers have not silver
masses as ours have, only litle battons, yea the massers to the parliament
at Paris have no more. Next none most bring nether swords nor spurs wtin
any of the bars: the reason whey swords have bein discharged is because
that judges and conseillers have bein several tymes assasinate on the bench
be desperate persons poussed forward be revenge; whence a man bringing on
wtin the bar wil be made prisoner: yet we had ours the first day.

The judges being sit doune on the bench, the Kings Advocat began a
harangue, reading it of his papers, wery elegantly extolling the lily or
_fleur de lis_ above al other flowers, and then France and its Kings above
all other nations, alleging that the whitnese and brightnese of the lily
denotated the purity and integrity of justice thats don in France. He
ending, the president in his scarlat robes (for they war al so that day wt
their 4 nooked black bonnets lined wt scarlet) began a very weill conceaved
harangue in the commendation of justice and vertu. That being done they
gave their oath wt the Advocats and procureurs or Agents (for they swear
anew every sitting doune of the Palais, when we give but one oath for all
wt us and that at the entry vnto to the office); the judges that they sal
passe no sentence contrare to ther conscience, but that they sal judge
_2dum allegata et probata_; the Advocats that they shal never patronize a
false cause; and if any cause they have taken in hand appeir after to them
false, that they sall immediatly forsake it: that they shal plead the
causes of the widow and orpheling, etc.

The Praesidial of Poitou at Poictiers is the greatest of France: yea it
consistes of mo conseillers or judges (to wit, about 30 wt 2 Kings
Advocats, 2 Kings procureurs), is of greater extent then several
parliaments: their be not so many membres in the parliament of Grenoble,
which is for Dauphine, etc. The parliament of Dijon for Burguiogne hath not
so great extent.

The song they sing at St. Martins is thus:

'Pour celebrer la St. Martins,
Il nous fault tous chantre et boire
Celuy quy a converty L'eau au Vin
Pour luy que ne doibt on point faire
A[244] le bon vein, bon vein, bon vein,
Chasse de la melancolie
Je te boire[245] Jusque a la lie.'

[244] Probably for Ah!

[245] For _boirai_.

My host after his drinking of his glasse of wine, usually lifting up his
eyes to heaven in admiration, shakt his head (as we remember Charles his
nurse did at the seck),[246] crying, oh but win is a good thing (tho poor
man I never saw him drunk), protesting that he would not live in our
country because he could not drink ordinarly win so cheap.

[246] Sack.

Its a little strange to sie what alteration a sad accident may procure in a
man: befor that scandal he fel under by his wife wt Mr. Douglas, to wit, in
the tyme of Mr. Hope and my cousin Mr. Elies (as he and his wife
confesses), he was one of gailliardest, merriest fellows that one could
find amongs 100, ever since that, tho' he reteans something of his former
gailliardness, taking it by fits, yet he is not like the man he was, as
Madame hath told me. I seeing him mo jalous then a dog of his wife because
she loved so weill to play at the carts and wandring from hir house to hir
commorads, likt better their houses then hir oune. Oh, but she was blith
when he went to the country upon any affair, she minding him of his affairs
at Partenay or elsewheir to have him away; and in the interim from the
morning to 12 howers at even, even whiles at midnight, she would not have
bein wtin a hower.

There ware only 5 or 6 of the women of the Religion that ware players at
carts (as Mr. Dailly reproached sewerall tymes his wife, that she bit be on
of them) all thir, when he was goon, come branking[247] ay to hir house,
collationing togither. The first 3 moneth I was their she used all the
persuasions she could to draw me to be on of their society, or at least to
bear hir halfe in the gaine and the losse (whiles she would loss 2 crounes,
tho she made hir husband beleife she wan), but I would do none of them
(remembering my fathers expresse to beware of play, especially at carts and
wt sick creatures), alleadging always that I knew nothing of the play. They
offered to learn me, for they came seweral tymes a purpose to draw me on,
but I sayd I had other thing ado. I am exceedingly weill satisfied at this
present I did not engage. She hath told me ay, O Mr. Hope have played wt
us: I replied Mr. Hope might do what he pleased. Return Mr Dailly when he
please he could never find his wife wtin: some tymes he would have come
home at 12 howers wheir she expected not: when she would come home and find
him their, oh whow coldly would she welcome him and the least thing would
that day put her out of hir patience, for she had ether in the afternoon
tristed to come again to them, or tristed them to come to hir.

[247] Prancing, tripping.

Thus shortly out of many things, Henry the 4't was a most galliard,
pleasant, and merry prince: his queens Marguerit (as we show else wheir)
was thought to play by him. On a tyme as he was making himselfe merry
dancing a ballat wt some of his nobility, each being obliged to make a
extemporary sonnet as it cam about to him to dance, the our-word[248]
being, _un cucou mene un autre_, it fel the Marquis of Aubigni (who was of
Scots progeny, his goodsire was Robert Stuart Mareschal of France under
Francois the first; it was this Aubigni who told Henry when he was wounded
by the Jesuists scoller in the mouth, God, sire, hath suffered you to be
stoobed in the mouth, etc.) to dance wt the King in his hand and make his
couplets, which I fand right quick:

[248] Ourword, overword, refrain, like ourcome and ourturn.

'Si toutes les femmes vouloyent
les hommes cuco seroyent;
les Roys comme les autres,
un cuco mene un autre,'

Henry confessed he had win at him in his sonnet.

Follows some enigmes found in a Romance penned by Beroaldus,[249] named _le
voyage des princes fortunez_, wtout the explication, whence Mr Daille set
me on work to resolve them: resolved sewerall betuixt us.

[249] Beroalde de Verville, Francois, 1558-1612, philosopher,
mathematician, and author of lighter works. _The Voyage_ was
published in 1610. Paris.

Un pere a douze fils qui lui naissent sans femme,
Ces douze aussi sans femme engendrent des enfants;
Quand un meurt l'autre naist et tous vivent sans ame.
Noires les filles sont, et les males sont blancs.

(The Year.)

Un corp qui n'a point d'ame a une ame mouuante,
N'ayant point de raison il rend raison des temps;
Bien quil n'ait pas de vie une vie agissante
Sans vie se fait vivre marchant sur ses dents.

(A cloack.)

Their follows that of a coffin that none care for, then,

Voulant aller au ciel, si je suis empeschee,
Les ieuz des assistans en larmes couleront;
Si pleurent sans regret ie ne suis pas faschee
Car quaud j'iray au ciel leur larmes cesseront.

(Its rick.)[250]

[250] Reek, smoke.

Le vivant de moy vive sa nurriture amasse
Je recoy les vivans haut et bas se suivans
Lorsque ie suis tue sur les vivans je passe,
Et ie porte les vifs par dessus les vivans.

(A oak wt its fruit feiding swine,
then cut and made in a ship
cairyes men over fisches.)

Bienque ie sois petit i'ay une soeur geante
Qui me rends de grands coups qu'encore je lui rends;
Nous faisons ceste guerre entre nous bien seante.
Car c'est pour la beaute de nos propre parens.

(The hammer and smiths studie.)

Je n'ay sang, os, ny chair, nerfe, muscles ni artere,
Bien que i'en sois produit et n'en tien rien du toute
Propre a bien et a mal je fais effect contraire.
Sans voix parlant apres qu'on ne a trunche la bout.

(A pen.)

Non male, non femelle, ains tout oeill en substance
Sans cesser il produit des enfans differens.
De la mort des ses fils ses fills[251] ont naissance
Et d'icelles mourant d'autres fills sont naisant.

[251] For _filles_.

(The Sun wt the day and night.)

Selon mon naturel ie m'escoule legere.
Mais par fois mon voisin m'estraint de ses liens.
Adonque on me void la mere de ma mere
Et puis fille de ma fille en apres ie deviens.

(Ice reduced to water.)

Ma soeur est comme moy de grande bouche fournis.
Elle l'a contre bas et moy deuer les cieux
I'ayde aux conservateurs d'appetit et de vie--
Et ma soeur (as I friend to the sick, so she) aux coeur devotieux.

(A bel and the Apothecaries morter.)

D'une estoffe solide a point on me fait faire
Pour servir au endroits ou loge la soucy.
Mon maistre me cognoit lui estre necessaire,
Car ie lui garde tout, il me tien chere ausi.

(A key.)

Elle a le poill dedans et dehors est sa graisse
Et si peut elle ainsi au jour failly praevoir
Mesme en plein nuict les autres elle adresse
Faisant voir a plusieurs ce quelle ne peut voir.

(A candle.)

On cognoist au oiseau qui n'a point de plumage
Qui donne a ses petits de son teton le laict.
When it sies we sie not; when we sy it sies not.

(A batt.)

Ouvert de l'un des bouts une queue on me donne
Afin qu'avec le bec je la traine par tout,
Puis conduite au labeur que ma Dame ordonne
Je laisse a chasque pas de ma queue le bout.

(A neidle.)

Trois ames en un corps distinguees d'essence
Ensemble subsistoyent not knowing they ware so many,
Deux enfin ont pris l'air, puis de mesme apparence
En trois corps distinguez chacum les a peu voir.

(A woman wt tuines.)

We saw a book, originally written in Latin by a Spaniard,[252] translated
in French, entituled, Histoire du grand royaume de la Chine situe aux Indes
Orientales, contenant la situation, Antiquite, fertilite, Religion,
ceremonies, sacrifices, Rois, Magistrats Moeurs, us,[253] Loix, et autres
choses memorables du dit Royaume, etc., containing many things wery
remarkable and weill worth the reading. showing how its bounded on al
hands, having the Tartars for its neirest neibhours, whom it descrives
whow it was discovered first by the Portugais, and the Spaniards at Mexico
in Americk.

[252] Gonzalez de Mendoza.

[253] Usages.

To the wondrous fertility of the country, much of it laying to the same
climat wt Italy, the Inhabitants addes great industry: no vagabonds nor
idle persons being suffered amongs them but punished vigorously. They have
no cloath. The meanest of the natives are cloathed in silk: its so rife
their that its to be had almost for nothing.

France also hath some silk wormes wtin it selfe; but besydes the peins they
most be at to feid them wt fresch mulberry leaves, they have no great
abondance of them, whence they draw the most of their silk from Italy wheir
its in great abondance; as Florence, litle republic of Lucques, Messin, as
also from Grenade. Oranges of Chine are knowen for the best of the world.
Cannel[254] (which growes not in France) is in its excellency their.

[254] Cinamon.

In selling and buying all things solid they weight them, even their mony,
which hath no stamp, as in selling selks and other sick things, wheirin
ther cannot be so meikle knavery as in metting them by elles.

Great abondance of silk caddez[255] cotton produced by a trie (not growing
in france, but just as the tries distilles the pick)[256] as of musk, wt
the manner whow they make it.

[255] A kind of cloth.

[256] Pitch.

The realme is found some 1800 leagues in longitude; 3000 in circumference.
Its divided unto 15 great Provinces, each plenished wt wast cities, som of
them taking 2 dayes to compasse them.

Their follows a description of the natural disposition, traits of face,
sorts of cloaths wt the excercises the men and women are addicted to. They
are al Pagans, worshiping plurality of gods, seweral things in their
religion symbolizing wt the Christian, which may be imputed to some seeds
of the Gospel the Aposle Thomas sowed their in going to the Indians, wheir
he was martyred.

Divers good laws they have; one discharging expressely and prohibiting al
natives of going out wtout the Royaume, for fear of bringing in strange
customes, descharging any strangers to enter wtout express licence. The
rights of succession of children to parents are almost the same as wt us.
By infallible records to their admiration they fand that both the art of
artillery, invented as was thought in Germany, and printing, invented, as
is beleived, by Jean de Guttenberg, Allemand, not 200 years ago, ware
amongs them, and of al older standing. Infinite other things we remit to be
sought in the _Histoir_.

We are informed that a lardship of 5000 livres rent wil sell in France for
a 100,000 livres; and by consequence a place of 15,000 livres a year at a
100,000 crounes;[257] the prix being ay 20 years rents. It may wary in many
places of France. Location-conduction[258] of lands, called their ferming,
are wery usuall in France; yea, the most part of Gentlemens houses rises wt
that, having bein first fermier or goodmen[259] (as we calle them) of the
place. The ordinar tyme of the take is 5 or 7 year, not on of a 100, and
yea being wiser then we wt our 19 and doubled 19 year takes.[260] In the
contract they have many fin clauses by whilk the fermier is bound to
meliorat the ground in all points as by planting of hedges and fruit tries,
substituting by ingraftments young ones in the room of old ones decayed;
finaly he is tyed to do all things comme un bon pere de famille feroit.

[257] The crown is hero taken at 3 livres, or 5s. sterling (taking the
livre at 1s. 8d. sterling).

[258] _Locatio conductio_, the Roman contract of letting and

[259] According to Jamieson's _Dict_. goodman meant (1) a
proprietor or laird, (2)then a _small_ proprietor, (3)latterly, a

[260] Tacks, leases.

We have already exemplified the hatred thats betuixt the Castillan und
Portugaize, we'el only tel another. A Spaniard Bischop was once preaching
on that, Let brotherly love continue, he say'd the French are our brother,
the Italian our brother, Allemand, Scotes, English, etc., our brether; yea,
I durst almost say that the Portugaiz is our brother almost also.

Many other stories I could report heir, as that of the poor man who fand
himselfe marvelously filled wt the smell of meat in a cooks choop happened
at Paris, and how the cook was payed by the gingling the mony, related by
Cleark in his Exemples: that of the gentleman runing a race and giving the
last to the Dewil, and the Dewils depriving the last of his shaddow; tho I
can not conceive how the Dewil can hinder a body to cast a shaddow unless
he perpetually interpose himself betuixt that man and the sun: that of the
English to be married to a Scotsman, whom William Broun was admonishing of
hir duty, that the man was the head of the woman, she quickly replieing
that he bit to be her head, she bit to be the hat on his head above him,
William sayd, that he would take his hat then and fling it amongs his feet:
that of the tooth drawer and the lavement out of the History of
Francion:[261] that of him who playing at the bowls in John Tomsons greine
wt a English Captaine, casting out togither, wrong his nose so sore til it
bled againe; being pershued by the Englishman for the wrong done, and put
to his answers, being demanded of the fact, he replied he had only wipt his
nose a litle straiter than he used to do his oune: that of King James and
the collier, ye sould obey a man in his oune house: that apparition Henry
the 4t saw as he was hunting in his pare at Fontainbleau, crying, _Amendez
vous_: also that daughter of Brossier that feigned the Demoniack so weill
wt its circumstancies, to be found in Du Serres[262] History of Henry the
4t.: that of the Scotsman at Paris who wan so much be a slight promising
the peaple to let them sy a horse wt its taille wheir its head sould be:
that of on Martin Merry, who on a tyme pressing to win in to sie the King,
the great Tresorier of England was at the door, who seing him so pert
demanded him whither he would go; he replied, he would sie the King; the
Thersorer told him he could not sie the King; then, he replied, I know what
I'le do then; the thresorer thinking he was bravado'ing him, demanded him
what can ye do, Sir; he answered, I'le go back the way I came then, My
Lord; he finding the answer wery good, he immediatly went and told the King
what had passed, who commanded Martin to be brought in and fel to and
talked wt him. Also the story of the Baron de la Crasse, place, place,
etc. Also the comoedy intituled Les Visionnaires. Also the reply of a
excellent painter who had children wery deformed, on demanding whow it came
that he drow sick exquisite portraits and had such il made children, ye
neid not wonder at that, sayd he, since I make my portraits in the day and
my children in the night.

[261] See p. 82, note.

[262] Jean de Serres, 1540-1598, author of works on the history of
France and theology.

A man may get his portrait drawen in France, especially at Orleans, for a
Pistoll. J. Ogilvy'es hal is all hung about wt portrait's of Gentlemen, al
Scots, save only one Englishman (whom Lostis[263] alleadged to have the
manliest face of all the company; we on the contrare, that he had the
sheipest), one womans called Richeson, whom my L. Rutherfurd[264] was in
great conceit of; Johns oune portrait is tuise their, his eldest sones as a
litle boy, his daughters, My Lord [Bards],[265] Newbyths,[266] My Lord
Cinhoules[267] brother, wt whom J. Ogilvie came to France as page; Sir
Robert Flecher of Salton, who died the winter before I came to France;
David Ramsay, a brother of the Provests,[268] so like him that I took it
for the Provests at first. Mr. Hayes was the last that was drawen, who
parted from J.'s house to make the tour of France the March before I
arrived, wt divers other pictures. At Mr. Douls house we remarked the same
in his sale;[269] only they ware all Englishmen, save on Sword whose father
was Provest of Aberdeen, and who when King Charles the 1t was at Newcastle
chapt him on his shoulder and impudently told him, he had spent our meikle.

[263] Query, l'hostesse, l'hotesse, Mme Ogilvy.

[264] Probably Andrew Rutherfurd, first lord, a lieutenant-general in
the French service, created Lord Rutherfurd, 1661. Governor of
Dunkirk, Earl of Teviot, 1663, governor of Tangier, where he was
killed, 1664. His patent as Lord Rutherfurd entitled him to
bequeath the peerage to whom he pleased, and he left it to his
kinsman Sir Thomas Rutherfurd of Hunthill, served heir 1665, died

[265] Interlined.

[266] Sir John Baird, advocate, 1647, lord of Session (title Newbyth)
1667, superseded 1681, restored 1689, died 1698, aged seventy-

[267] Kinnoul's.

[268] Sir Andrew Ramsay, afterwards a lord of Session (title
Abbotshall). Lauder married his daughter.

[269] _Salle_, hall.

We most not forget the Capucin, who, gazing on a stage play, had his prick
stowed[270] from him instead of his purse. Also the good sport we have
made wt Spiny when we presented him the rose filled wt snuffe, dewil!
willain! ye most be hooled,[271] ye most, etc. I'm sorry for your case,
etc. Also that we made wt Dowy when on night in our Basseler[272] year at
night after the examination we put out the candles, I skein[273] brist him
til he farted; then he brought Mr. Hew on us, he crieng, Douglas, Doug.;
Lauder L., my hat amang you. Russel lay like a mart[274] in the midst of
the stair; wt many other sports.

[270] Stown, stolen.

[271] Husked, probably gelded.

[272] Bachelor.

[273] Possibly J. Skein (Skene); brist = squeezed.

[274] Carcass of an ox or cow killed about Martinmas for winter

The Laws of France permits, or at least forgives, a man to slay his wife if
he take hir in the wery act of adultery; but if he slay hir after a litle
interwall, as if he give hir lieve to pray a space, he is punished as a
murderer, since its to be praesumed that that iust fury which the willanous
act of his wife pouses him to, and which excuses his fact (since according
to Solomon even wery Jalousie is the fury of a man) is layd in that
interwal, so that he cannot be excused from murder. Both hath bein
practicat seweral tymes in France.

The punishment of women that beats their good men in Poictiers is that they
are monted on a asse wt their face to the taile, in this posture conveyed
ignominiously thorow all the toune: the hangman accompanieng them.

We most not forget the sport K. James made wt his fool who to chasse away
the axes[275] had flied[276] him, and whow the poor fellow was found dead.

[275] Ague.

[276] Frightened.

The K. of France drawes more then a 100 million a year as revenues out of
France besydes extraordinary taxations.

Theirs a wery observable difference betuixt on thats drunk wt win and on
drunk wt beir, the win perpetually causes to stagger and fall forward; the
beir and alle[277] backward.

[277] Ale.

A women drowen[278] is carried wt the water on her belly, a man on his

[278] Drowned.

Their ware 4 peasants in a French village on a tyme discoursing about the
King. They sayd it was a brave thing to be a King. If I ware King (said the
first) I would rest wt ease all the day on that hy stack wt my vomb up to
the sun: the 2nd, if I ware King I would eat my sup every day swimming wt
bacon: the 3d, I would feid my swine _a cheval_: the 4t, Alas, ye have left
me nothing to choose; ye have chosen all the best things.

Francois the 1t was a King that loved exceedingly to discourse and hear the
minds of al ranks of peaple, as even our James. For that effect he seweral
tymes disguised himselfe and all alone gon to discours wt common peaple. On
a tyme he fand a poor man digging a ditch: he demanded what he wan every
day by his peins. 5 pence at most, quothe he. What family have ye? I have
my wife, 4 bairns and my old mother whom I nourish; but, further, I most
divide my 5 pence into 3 parts every day: by on part I pay my debt, another
I lean, the thrid, nourishes us. Whow can that be, can 10 turners[279]
maintain you a whole day? Sir, 10 I give to my old mother every day as
payment of what she bestowed on me when I was young; 10 I lean[280] to my
children, that when I am old and cannot work they may pay me again; the
other 10 is betuixt my wife and me. The King proponed this to the courtiers
to resolve him, etc.

[279] Turner, a copper coin equal to two pennies Scots or one bodle.
Thus the 5 English pence, which the man got, are equal to 5 sous
or 5 shillings Scots, and so to 60 deniers or 60 pennies Scots, or
30 turners.

[280] Lend.

In France a man wil do weill to take heid what women he medles wt; for if
he get a woman of degre below himself wt child he most ether mary hir or
tocher hir: if his aequal, ether marry hir or be hanged (which few
chooses): if she be far above his condition (especially if a valet engrosse
his masters daughter or sister not married) he is hanged wtout al process
_brevi manu_; the maid is thrust unto a convent to lead repentance their
for hir lifetyme, since she hath prostrat hir honor so basely.

While I was at Poictiers a young fellow got a wanton cocquette, a cream
keiper, wt child. For fear he sould be put to marry hir he quietly went and
enrolled himselfe amongs the sogers whom the King was levieng at Poictiers.
She gets notice of it, causes clap him fast and lay him prisoner. The
Captain came to seik back his soger, since he was under the protection of
the King, but he could not praevaile: they replied, if he war their for
debt they would villingly release him, but since he was criminal they could

A soger may make his testament _quolibet modo_ in France: he may write it
on the sand, the dust as his paper, his sword he may make his pen and his
blood his ink, according to Justin. T. Institut.[281] _de Testam. Militis_.

[281] Justinian, _Inst_., 2. II.

Seweral tymes they have bein 3 moneth wtout a drop of rain in France, in
which cases they make a great deall of Processions to obtain rain, tho they
never do anything.

Some winters it freezes so hard wt us (as Mr. James [P. Ramsay][282] is
Author, to wit, that winter after the visitation in 1646 when the Colledge
was translated to Lighgow),[283] that in a basin of water after ye have
lift your hand out of the water ere ye dip it again it was al covered wt a
thin striphen[284] ice, and the 3d, 4t, etc. tymes.

[282] Interlined. It appears to be a correction. Patrick Ramsay was
'laureated' in 1646.

[283] The plague in Edinburgh, 1645-6, obliged the University to
remove to Linlithgow for a few months.--Waldie's _History of

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