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Hygienic Physiology by Joel Dorman Steele

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frequent shampooing inadvisable? One probable reason why women are less
frequently bald than men? What is the best general treatment for the hair
and scalp? Upon what does the color of the hair mainly depend?

287. In cases of sudden blanching of the hair what is the effect upon the
pigment? Give an illustration. How do the extra air bubbles find their way
into the hair? Does air naturally exist in the hair? What relation do the
nails bear to the scarfskin?

288. What causes the horny appearance of the nails? Describe the root of
the nail in its relation to the sensitive and the scarfskin. Upon what
does the nail rest? What is its appearance? What is the lunula? Why is it
lighter than the rest of the nail? How does the nail increase in length?
In thickness? Where is the greatest thickness? How does the growth of the
nail during disease compare with its growth in health?

289. How long does it take the thumb nail to grow from its root to its
free extremity? The great toe? Give general rules for the care of the
nails. How does physical cleanliness promote moral purity? What does its
neglect indicate?

290. What especial care should be taken in regard to the feet? Why? Are
baths a modern refinement? What can you say about the ancient Greek and
Roman baths? What constitutes the value of the Turkish bath?

291. What class of people should never use this bath? To what class of
invalids is it particularly beneficial? Is sea bathing advisable for
persons of all ages? How should an inexperienced sea bather begin? When
should the sea bath be taken?

292. How long should a delicate person remain in the water? State the
danger of bathing when overheated. Under what conditions of body and of
temperature should sea or river bathing be avoided? Why? Give illustration
of the English soldier. How should the temperature of the water, in
bathing, compare with that of the air? Of the body?

293. Describe the bathers' cramp. What are its causes? What precaution
should be used by bathers in regard to the mouth and ears? Why?

294. How can a person who does not know how to swim, save himself from

295. What are the advantages of woolen clothing? Why is it particularly
desirable in malarial countries? What double purpose does woolen clothing
serve in semitropical climates?

296. Does the warmth of clothing depend on its weight? What errors are
often made and with what effect? State what is said in regard to poisonous
dyes in wearing apparel. Give illustration.

297. What effect has uncleanly attire on the health? Does this apply to
outer as well as under garments?


73. Name the organs of respiration and the voice. Describe the larynx. The
epiglottis. The œsophagus. What is meant by food "going the wrong way"?

74. Describe the vocal cords. Their use. How is sound produced?

75. How are the higher tones of the voice produced? The lower? Upon what
does loudness depend? A falsetto voice? What is the cause of the voice
"changing"? What is speech? Is the tongue necessary to speech? Illustrate.
(See also page 298.)

76. What is vocalization? How are talking machines made?

77. How is _a_ formed by the voice? What is _h_? Difference
between a sigh and a groan? What vowel sounds are made in laughing? Does
whistling depend on the voice? Tell how the various consonants are formed.
What are the labials? The dentals? The linguals? What vowels does a child
pronounce first?

78. Describe the windpipe. The bronchi. The bronchial tubes. Why is the
trachea so called? Describe the structure of the lungs. What are the lungs
of slaughtered animals called? Why will a piece of the lungs float on

79. Name the wrappings of the lungs. Describe the pleura. How is friction
prevented? What are the cilia? Their use?

80. What two acts constitute respiration? In what two ways may the
position of the ribs change the capacity of the chest? Describe the
process of inspiration. Describe the diaphragm.

81. What is the process of expiration? How often do we breathe? What is
sighing? Coughing? Sneezing? Snoring? Laughing? Crying?

82. Describe hiccough. Yawning. Its value? What is meant by the breathing
capacity? How does it vary? How much, in addition, can the lungs expel
forcibly? How much of the breathing capacity is available only through
practice? Value of this extra supply? Can we expel all the air from our
lungs? Value of this constant supply?

83. How constant is the need of air? What is the vital element of the air?
Describe the action of the oxygen in our lungs. What does the blood give
up? Gain? What are the constituents of the air? What are the peculiar
properties and uses of each?

84. How can we test the air we exhale? What does its analysis reveal?
Which is the most dangerous constituent? What occurs when we rebreathe
exhaled air?

85. Describe its evil effects. What is denoted by the "Black Hole of
Calcutta"? Give other illustrations of the dangers of bad air. Describe
the need of ventilation. Will a single breath pollute the air?

86-95. How can we detect the floating impurities in the air? What is the
influence of a fire or a light? Of a hot stove? When is the ventilation
perfect? What diseases are largely owing to bad air? Should the windows
and doors be tightly closed, if we have no other means of ventilation? Is
not a draught of air dangerous? How can we prevent this, and yet secure
fresh air? What is the general principle of ventilation? Must pure air
necessarily be cold air? Are schoolrooms always properly ventilated? What
is the effect? Are churches? Are our bedrooms? Should children or delicate
people sleep in cold rooms? Can we, at night, breathe anything but night
air? Is the night air out of doors ever injurious? _Ans_. In times
and places of malaria, and also in very damp weather, it should be
avoided, even at the risk of bad air in doors. Describe some of the
wonders of respiration.

96. How is constriction of the lungs produced? When may clothing be
considered tight? What are the dangers of tight lacing? Which would make
the stronger, more vigorous, and longer-lived person, the form shown in
_A_ or _B_, Fig. 33? Is it safe to run any risk in this
dangerous direction?

97. What is Bronchitis? Pleurisy? Pneumonia? Consumption? What is one
great cause of Consumption? How may a constitutional tendency to this
disease be warded off in youth? _Ans_. Besides plenty of fresh air
and exercise, care should be taken in the diet. Rich pastry, unripe fruit,
salted meat, and acid drinks should be avoided, and a certain quantity of
fat should be eaten at each meal.--BENNETT. What is asphyxia? Describe the
process for restoring such a person. (See p. 264.)

98. What is diphtheria? Its peculiarities? Danger? The croup? Its
characteristics? Remedy? (See p. 260.) Causes of stammering? How cured?

297. How does the singing voice differ from the speaking voice? How can
you prove the effect of duration of sound in speaking and singing? How do
the intonations of the voice affect the meaning of words?

298. Give illustrations of speech in persons without a tongue. What is the
effect of alcohol and tobacco on the throat? Do they have an influence on
the voice? Does the excessive use of tea and coffee ever affect the voice?
How? To what is the hoarse tone of an inebriate due?

299, 300. What was Adelina Patti's advice with regard to stimulants and
late hours? Does the respiration of woman differ from that of man? Give
experiments with Indian women. What lessons do we draw from these facts?
What rule should be observed in regard to the size of a bodice? What are
bacteria or microbes? How is their existence revealed? What does the Germ
Theory of Disease teach in regard to microbes?

301. What can you say about the microbe of putrefaction? How can you
obtain it for examination? What office in Nature do bacteria seem to
serve? Give the theory in regard to propagation of special disease germs.
Do they always cause disease when taken into the body? [Footnote: Of the
immense number and variety of microorganisms found in Nature, only very
few are disease producing. Dr. Austin Flint says in _The Forum_, for
December, 1888: "It is probable that future investigations into the
physiology of digestion, will show that bacteria play an important part in
this function. Pasteur has recently isolated no less than seventeen
different microorganisms in the mouth, which were not destroyed by the
gastric juice. Some of these dissolved albumen, gluten, and caseine, and
some transformed starch into sugar. Bacteria normally exist in great
number and variety in the intestines, although the part which they take in
intestinal digestion has not been accurately determined."--The number of
spores introduced into the human system by respiration, when the health is
perfectly sound, has been estimated at three hundred thousand a day.]

302. State some conditions which favor the growth of disease germs. Which
prevent or retard their growth. Relate the effect of vaccination,
according to the germ theory.

303. 304. If a drop of an infusion charged with bacteria be put in the
extract of beef or mutton, what is the result? What would be the effect
upon an open wound? Give Dr. Tyndall's personal experience. Name some
efficient antidote against the bacteria of putrefaction. _Ans_.
Carbolic acid solution is extensively used for this purpose. How are
disease germs often disseminated? State the necessity of disinfection in
regard to soiled clothing.

305. Illustrate how disease has been communicated by clothing. What is the
first necessary condition to a sanitary home? What is the meaning of the
word malaria? What are three active agents in the production of malaria? A
fourth? Describe a typical malarious locality. How does newly broken
ground induce malaria?

306. State the different ways in which running water can be contaminated.
What care should be taken in regard to the level of building site?

307. Give some of the results of a wet foundation. What rules should be
observed in regard to shade? What is the effect of too dense foliage about
a dwelling? In building a house, what precautions should be taken against
dampness? What about the cellar? Sewerage? Plumbing? Ventilation?
Fireplaces? Piazzas and balconies? Sleeping rooms?

308. What general purpose does a house serve? What care should be taken in
regard to the dust or ash heap? What is the effect if liquids or table
refuse be thrown upon it? Where should it be situated? How often should
refuse be carted away? If its frequent removal be inexpedient, what
precaution should be used? What are the best of all deodorizers? How
should the back premises be cared for? What is the best way to dispose of
household garbage?

309. How can this be done? With what additional advantage? Give Dr.
Derby's remarks in regard to sewers, their condition, and the results. How
should traps and drains be cared for? How should bad smells be treated? Is
a foul smell always the most dangerous? How do poisonous gases often find
entrance to a house? What rule should be observed in regard to ventilating
and soil pipes?

310. What precautions should be observed in digging about a dwelling? How
do waste pipes often become closed? How may they be cleared? What dangers
arise from unventilated waste pipes? How are washbasin pipes contaminated?
Tell what came from a neighbor's cesspool. Can you name similar instances
which have come under your own observation?

311, 312. Describe the condition and effects of a neglected cellar. Tell
what came from a crack in a cellar wall.

313. What effect have brick and mortar in keeping out gases? How do bed
coverings take the place of day garments? What kind of bed covering is
desirable? Is a comfortable bed necessary to perfect health? How often and
for how long time should a bed be ventilated?


105. Name the organs of the circulation. Does the blood permeate all parts
of the body? What is the average amount in each person? Its composition?
The plasma? The red corpuscles? The white?

106. What is the size of a red cell? Are the shape and size uniform? Value
of this? Illustrate. Are the disks permanent? What substances are
contained in the plasma? What is fibrin?

107. In what sense is the blood "liquid flesh"? What is the use of the red
disks? What is the office of the oxygen in the body? Where is the blood

108. What is transfusion? Is it of value?

109. Give some illustrations. What is the cause of coagulation of the
blood? Value of this property? Has the fibrin any other use?

110. What organ propels the blood? What is the location of the heart? How
large is it? Put your hand over it. What is the pericardium? Describe the

111. The diastole. How many chambers in the heart? What is their average
size? What is meant by the right and left heart? What are the auricles?
Why so called? The ventricles?

112. What is the use of the auricles? The ventricles? Which are made the
stronger? Show the need of valves in the ventricles. Why are there no
valves in the auricles? Draw on the board the form of the valves. Name

113. Describe the tricuspid valve. The bicuspid. How are these valves

114. What peculiarity in the attachment of these cords? Describe the
semilunar valves. What are the arteries? Why so named? What is their use?
Their structure? How does their elasticity act? What is meant by a
"collateral circulation"?

115. How are the arteries protected? Where are they located? Give a
general description of the arterial system. What is the aorta? What is the
pulse? On which arteries can we best feel it? What is the average number
of beats per minute? How and why does this vary?

116. Why does a physician feel a patient's pulse? What are the veins? What
blood do they carry? Describe the venous system. What vein does not lead
toward the heart? Describe the valves of the veins. What valves of the
heart do they resemble? What are varicose veins?

117. Where and how can we see the operation of these valves? What are the
capillaries? What is the function of the capillaries? [Footnote: The
distinctive function of the capillaries is to offer peripheral resistance
to the circulation of the blood. This insures "blood pressure," a
condition indispensable to the "heart beat," and also causes leakage
(transudation). This leakage brings the nutriment in contact with the
tissue cells, whereby they are renewed. In the same way the air passes
from the blood to the cells.] What changes take place in this system?

118. Describe the circulation of the blood as seen in the web of a frog's

119. Who discovered the circulation of the blood? How was the discovery
received? What remark did Harvey make? What does that show? Name the two
divisions of the circulation. Describe the route of the blood by the
diagram. 1. The lesser circulation. 2. The greater circulation.

120. What is the velocity of the blood? How long does it require for all
the blood to pass through the heart? How long does it take the blood to
make the tour of the body? What is the average temperature of the body?
How much does this vary in health? _Ans_. Not more than 2°, even in
the greatest extremes of temperature.--FLINT.

121. How and where is the heat of the body generated? How is it
distributed? In what diseases is the variation of temperature marked? How
is the temperature of the body regulated?

122. In what way does life exist through death? Is not this as true in the
moral as in the physical world? What does it teach? How rapidly do our
bodies change? What are the three vital organs?

123. Name some of the wonders of the heart.

124-126. What is the lymphatic circulation? What is the thoracic duct? The
lymph? The glands? What is the office of the lymphatics? What are the
lacteals? Give some illustrations of the action of the lymphatics of the
different organs. Should we use care in selecting wall paper? What is
meant by the subcutaneous insertion of morphine? How do hibernating
animals live during the winter? What is a congestion? Its cause?

127. What is blushing? Why does terror cause one to grow cold and pale?
How is an inflammation caused? Name its four characteristics.

128. How may severe bleeding be stopped? How can you tell whether the
blood comes from an artery or a vein? Why should you know this? What is
the scrofula? What are "kernels"?

129, 130. How may a scrofulous tendency of the system be counteracted?
What kinds of food stimulate this disease? What is the cause of a "cold"?
Why does exposure sometimes cause a cold in the head, sometimes on the
lungs, and at others bring on a rheumatic attack? Why is a cold dangerous?
_Ans_. It weakens the system and paves the way for other diseases.
What is the theory of treating a cold? Describe the method. What is
catarrh? Cause?

131, 132. How is alcohol produced? Is alcohol present in domestic wines
and home-brewed ales? Are they, then, harmless drinks? What is a ferment?
(See also pp. 300, 301.) What is the difference between ferments,
bacteria, microbes, and fungi? _Ans_. A few investigators still look
upon the microorganisms known as bacteria and microbes as animal
existences, but the larger part now concede them to be vegetable.

133. What is the effect of fermentation? What can you say concerning

134. Explain the process of making beer. Wine. What is distillation?

135, 136. Is there more than one kind of alcohol? What can you say of
methyl alcohol? Amyl? Ethyl? Which is the ordinary alcohol of commerce?
What is the peculiar effect of fusel oil? Is it often found in wines and
spirits? Has alcohol any beneficial properties?

137, 138. Describe one of the striking effects of alcohol. What is the
effect of alcohol on plant and animal life?

139, 140. What is the difference between the alcohol present in beer and
cider, and that in gin and whiskey? Name another dangerous effect of
alcoholic drinks. What business consideration should deter young men from
liquor drinking?

141-143. Illustrate the general effect of alcohol upon the circulation.
Upon the heart. Is alcohol a stimulant or a narcotic? Describe how alcohol
becomes the "Genius of Degeneration." Explain what is meant by "Vascular

144, 145. Describe the effect of alcohol upon the membranes. Upon the
blood. Does it render the blood thin or heavy? What is the difference
between pure and alcoholized blood?

145-147. Describe the effect of alcohol upon the lungs. What form of
consumption does it induce? Are liquor drinkers more or less liable to
epidemic diseases?

314. How does the pulse felt by the finger correspond with the beat of the
heart? Name some agencies that influence the pulse beat? Which part of the
body has the most varied form of pulsation?

315. Compare the pulses of the wrist and brain in the sleeping and the
waking states. How do catarrhal colds generally arise? How are they best

316. What is said of the vitality of catarrh germs? What is a popular
fallacy with regard to the care of sick rooms? Give Dr. Austin Flint's
remarks in this connection.


151. Why do we need food? Why will a person starve without food? Are the
current stories of people who live without food to be relied upon? How
much food is needed per day by an adult in active exercise?

152. How much in a year? How does this amount vary? Describe the body as a
mold. As an eddy. What does food do for us? What does food contain?

153. How is this force set free? What force is this? How can it be turned
into muscular motion, mental vigor, etc.? Do we then draw all our power
from nature? What becomes of these forces when we are done with them? Do
we destroy the force we use? _Ans_. No matter has been destroyed, so
far as we know, since the creation, and force is equally indestructible.
Compare our food to a tense spring.

154. What three kinds of food do we need? What is nitrogenous food? Name
the common forms. What is the characteristic of nitrogenous food? Why
called albuminous? What is carbonaceous food? Its two kinds? Constituents
of sugar? Where are starch and gum ranked? Why? Use of carbonaceous food?
What becomes of this heat? Composition of fat? How does fat compare with
sugar in producing heat?

155. Name the other uses of carbonaceous food. From what kind of food does
the body derive the greatest strength? Name the mineral matters which
should be contained in our food. What can you say of the abundance and
necessity of water? Ought we not to exercise great care in selecting the
water we drink? [Footnote: Water which has passed through lead pipes is
apt to contain salts of that metal, and is therefore open to suspicion.
Metallic lined ice pitchers, galvanized-iron reservoirs, and many soda-
water fountains, are liable to the same objection. (See pp. 317, 318.)]
Does the character of our food influence the quantity of water we need?

156. What are the uses of the different minerals contained in food?
Illustrate the importance of salt. Could a person live on one kind of food
alone? Illustrate.

157. Describe the effect of living on lean meat. Show the necessity of a
mixed diet. Illustrate. Show the need of digestion. Illustrate.

158. What is assimilation? Describe the general plan of digestion. What
did Berzelius call digestion? Why? What amount of liquid is daily secreted
by the alimentary canal? What is the alimentary canal? How is it lined?
How does the amœba digest its food?

159. The hydra? Define secretion. Describe the saliva. How is it secreted?
What is the amount? Its organic principle? Its use? How soon does it act?
How long? What tends to check or increase the flow of saliva?

160. Describe the process of swallowing. The stomach. Its size. Its
construction. What is the peristaltic movement?

162. What is the pylorus? For what does this open? What is the gastric
juice? How abundant is it? To what is its acidity due? What organic
principle does it contain? How is pepsin prepared? How is the flow of
gastric juice influenced?

163. What is its use? Appearance of the food as it passes through the
pylorus? Why is not the stomach itself digested? What is the construction
of the intestines? How are the intestines divided? What is the duodenum?
Why so called? What juices are secreted here?

164. What is the bile? Describe the liver. What is its weight? Its
construction? _Ans_. It consists of a mass of polyhedral cells only
1/100 to 1/2000 of an inch in diameter, filling a mesh of capillaries. The
capillaries carry the blood to and fro, and the cells secrete the bile.
What is the cyst? What does the liver secrete from the blood besides the
bile? Is the bile necessary to life? Illustrate. What is its use?

165. What is the pancreatic juice? Its organic principle? Its use?
Appearance of the food when it leaves the duodenum? Describe the small
intestine. What is absorption? In what two ways is the food absorbed?

166. Where does the process commence? How long does it last? Describe the
lacteals. Of what general system do they form a part? What do the veins
absorb? Where do they carry the food? How is it modified?

167. What is glycogen? Describe the complexity of the process of
digestion. What length of time is required for digestion in the stomach?

168. May not food which requires little time in the stomach need more in
the other organs, and _vice versa_? Tell the story of Alexis St.
Martin. What time was required to digest an ordinary meal? Apples? Eggs,
raw and cooked? Roast beef? Pork? Which is the king of the meats? What is
the nutritive value of mutton? Lamb? How should it be cooked? Objection to
pork? What is the trichina?

169. Should ham ever be eaten raw? Value of fish? Oysters? Milk? Cheese?
Eggs? Bread? Brown bread? Are warm biscuit and bread healthful? Nutritive
value of corn?

170. Of the potato? Of ripe fruits? Of coffee? To what is its stimulating
property due? Its influence on the system? When should it be discarded?
Should children use any stimulants?

171. Effects of tea? Influence of strong tea? What is the active principle
of tea? Nutritive value of chocolate? What is its active principle? Story
of Linnęus? How should tea be made? What is the effect of cooking food?
What precaution in boiling meat? In roasting? Object of this high
temperature? What precaution in making soup? Why is frying an unhealthful
mode of cooking?

172. State the five evil results of rapid eating. What disease grows out
of it? If one is compelled to eat a meal rapidly, as at a railroad
station, what should he take? Why? Why does a child need more food
proportionately than an old person? State the relation of waste to repair
in youth, in middle, and in old age. What kind and quantity of food does a
sedentary occupation require? What caution should students who have been
accustomed to manual labor observe? Must a student starve himself?

173. Is there not danger of overeating? Would not an occasional abstinence
from a meal be beneficial? Do not most people eat more than is for their
good? How should the season regulate our diet? The climate? Illustrate.
What does a natural appetite indicate? How are we to judge between a
natural and an artificial longing? What does the craving of childhood for
sugar indicate? [Footnote: It does not follow from this, however, that the
free use of sugar in its separate form is desirable. The ordinary articles
of vegetable food contain sugar (or starch, which in the body is converted
into sugar), in large proportion; and there is good reason to believe that
in its naturally combined form it is both more easily digested, and more
available for the purposes of nutrition, than when crystallized. The
ordinary sugar of commerce, moreover, derived from the sugar cane, is not
capable of being directly applied to physiological purposes. Cane sugar is
converted within the body into another kind of sugar, identical with that
derived from the grape, before it can enter into the circuit of the vital

174. What is the effect upon the circulation of taking food? Should we
labor or study just before or after a meal? Why not? What time should
intervene between our meals? Is "lunching" a healthful practice? Eating
heartily just before retiring? Is it never wise to eat at this time? (See
p. 337.) Why should care be banished from the table? Will a regular
routine of food be beneficial?

175, 176. Describe some of the wonders of digestion. What are the
principal causes of dyspepsia? How may we avoid that disease?

177. What are the mumps? What care should be taken? Is alcohol a food?

178-187. Compare the action of alcohol with that of water. Is the alcohol
taken into the stomach eliminated unchanged? Does alcohol contain any
element needed by the body? What is the effect of alcohol upon the
digestion? Will pepsin act in the presence of alcohol? What is the effect
of alcohol upon the liver? What is "Fatty Degeneration"? What is the
effect of alcohol upon the kidneys? Does alcohol impart heat to the body?
Does it confer strength? What does Dr. Kane say? Describe Richardson's
experiments. Tell what peculiar influence alcohol exerts. What is
alcoholism? What is heredity?

317. What characteristics should good drinking water possess? Are these
always proof of its purity? Will filters remove all danger of
contamination? How may a river infect the entire population of a town?
State how well water may become a dangerous drink.

318. Relate how cases of fever have been caused by carelessness in
dairies. How should suspected water be treated? Describe a convenient
portable filter. Tell how water is affected by foul air.

319. Tell how ice may breed disease. What caution should be observed in
engaging ice for our summer supply? Illustrate the structure of the
glandular coat of the stomach.

320. What is the office of the cells? Describe the life history of a cell.
How does the stomach weep, and what is the character of its tears?

321. What is tyrotoxicon? Give Dr. Vaughan's experiments with cheese,
milk, and ice cream. Tell how milk may be poisoned.

322. Compare the vigor of exclusively fish-eating with flesh-eating
people. What is the peculiar value of fish as a diet? To what class of
people is it best suited? Name examples. Describe the principles contained
in coffee. What is the effect of caffeone? Of caffeine? Give some of the
specific effects of coffee. How does tea differ from coffee? Describe the
injurious effects of excessive tea drinking.

324. Compare theine and cocaine. Should children drink tea and coffee?

325. Give some causes of indigestion. Why are nervous people prone to
dyspepsia? Give the comparative digestibility of various meats.

326. Describe how our food sustains our bodies. Illustrate the energy
contained in one gramme of beef fat. Why is there danger in a "high-
pressure" style of living? Illustrate.

327. State the effects of gluttony. Why is it unkindness to indulge
inordinate appetites in children? What should be the rule in regard to
their food? What effects would follow its observance?


191. What are the organs of the nervous system? What is the general use of
this system? How does it distinguish animals from plants? What are the
vegetative functions? What is the gray matter? Its use? The white matter?
Its use?

193. Describe the brain. What is its office? Its size? How does it vary?
Illustrate. Name its two divisions.

194, 195. Describe the cerebrum. The convolutions. The membranes which
bind the brain together. What can you say of the quantity of blood which
goes to the brain? What does it show? What do the convolutions indicate?
What is the use of the two halves of the brain? What theories have been
advanced concerning it? Is every injury to the brain fatal? Illustrate.
Compare the human brain with the brains of some animals.

196. What is the effect of removing the cerebrum? Describe the cerebellum.
What is the arbor vitę? What does this part of the brain control? What are
the peculiar functions of the cerebellum? Give Dr. Bastian's remarks.

197. What is the effect of an injury to the cerebellum? Describe the
spinal cord. What is the medulla oblongata? Describe the nerves. Is each
part of the body supplied with its own nerve? Prove it.

198. What are the motory nerves? The sensory? When will motion be lost and
feeling remain, and _vice versa?_ What is meant by a transfer of
pain? Illustrate.

199. Name the three classes of nerves. What are the spinal nerves?
Describe the origin of the spinal nerve.

199-201. What are the cranial nerves? How many pairs are there? Describe

201, 202. Describe the sympathetic system. What is its use? How does the
brain control all the vital processes? What is meant by the crossing of
the cords? What is the effect? What exception in the seventh pair of
cranial nerves?

203, 204. What is reflex action? Give illustrations. Give instances of the
unconscious action of the brain. [Footnote: The cerebellum has its
unconscious action in the processes of respiration and in the involuntary
movements which are made in response to the senses, as in winking,
starting back at a sound, etc. The cerebrum acts automatically in oases
familiar to all. A large part of our mental activity consists of this
unconscious brain work. There are many cases in which the mind has
obviously reasoned more clearly and more successfully in this automatic
condition, when left entirely to itself, than when we have been cudgeling
our brains, so to speak, to get the solution. Oliver Wendell Holmes has
aptly expressed this fact. "We wish," he says, "to remember something in
the course of conversation. No effort of the will can reach it; but we
say, 'Wait a minute, and it will come to me,' and we go on talking. Some
minutes later, the idea we are in search of comes all at once into the
mind, delivered like a prepaid parcel, or like a foundling in a basket,
laid at the door of consciousness. How it came there, we know not. The
mind must have been at work, groping and feeling for it in the dark; it
can not have come of itself. Yet, all the while, our consciousness, _so
far as we are conscious of our consciousness_, was busy with other

Some interesting personal experiences upon this point are given in an
article entitled "The Antechamber of Consciousness," by Francis Speir,
Jr., in the _Popular Science Monthly_ for March, 1888.] Can there be
feeling or motion in the lower limbs when the spinal cord is destroyed?
What does the story told by Dr. John Hunter show? Give illustrations of
the independent action of the spinal cord in animals. What are the uses of
reflex action?

205. State its value in the formation of habits. How does the brain grow?
What laws govern it? What must be the effect of constant light reading? Of
overstudy or mental labor?

206. State the relation of sleep to repair and waste. How many hours does
each person need? What kind of work requires most sleep?

206-208. What is the influence of sunlight on the body? Illustrate. Name
some of the wonders of the brain.

208-213. What four stages are there in the effect of alcohol on the
nervous system? Describe each. Does alcohol confer any permanent strength?
What is the physiological effect of alcohol on the brain? On the mental
and moral powers? What is the Delirium Tremens? Should a man be punished
for a crime he commits while drunk?

214-218. What are the principal constituents of tobacco? What are its
physiological effects? Who are most likely to escape injury? Is tobacco a
food? What is its influence upon youth? Why are cigarettes specially
injurious? What effect does tobacco have on the sensibilities? Name
illustrations of the injurious effect of tobacco on young men.

219-221. How is opium obtained? What is its physiological effect? Which
form of using it is most injurious? Can one give up the use of opium when
he pleases? How do people sometimes take opium without knowing it?

221. What is the harmful influence of chloral hydrate? Describe its
different physiological effects.

222. Compare its influence with that of alcohol. How is chloroform
obtained? Does its use require great caution? Illustrate its effects.

223, 224. What is cocaine? What is its value? Its physiological effect?
Its dangers?

331-333. What is the effect of extreme anger? Give the physiological
explanation of this deterioration. What two organs particularly suffer?
Illustrate. To what cause are many suicides referable? How can one secure
a calm and tranquil life? What is the effect of forcing the brain in

334. Illustrate. How should a child be taught?

334, 335. Why should we not exhaust our energies to the last degree? What
warnings does Nature give us? Do stimulants supply force? What is the
effect of mental exhaustion? Which is the most common, overwork or worry?
Most dangerous? What is worry? Its effect? What other causes often induce

336-338. State some curiosities of sleep. Some conditions necessary to
sound and healthful slumber. How may we acquire the habit of early rising?

338, 339. Give some of the results of dungeon life.

339-347. What can you say of the growth and power of poison habits?
Illustrate. How does physiological ignorance often cause intemperance?
What is the usual result of a stimulant habit? In what virtue lies the
peril of narcotics? Balance the good and the evil in their use. Illustrate
how death often results from chloroform and chloral. What common result is
worse than death? Compare the demoralization in the cases of the opium
user and the alcohol drinker. What principle of heredity attaches to the
use of opium? Give instances of deaths from tobacco, opium, etc. What can
you say of cigarette smoking? Chloral hydrate? The bromides? Absinthe?


229, 230. What is a sense? Name the five senses. To what organ do all the
senses minister? If the nerve leading to any organ of sense be cut, what
would be the effect? [Footnote: Each, organ is adapted to receive a
peculiar kind of impression. Hence we can not smell with, the eyes nor see
with the nose. Thus, if the nerve communicating between the brain and any
organ be destroyed, that means of knowledge is cut off.] Sometimes persons
lose feeling in a limb, but retain motion; why is this? What is the sense
of touch sometimes called? Describe the organ of touch. What are the
papillę? Where are they most abundant? [Footnote: If we apply the points
of a compass blunted with cork to different parts of the body, we can
distinguish the two points at one twenty-fourth of an inch apart on the
tongue, one sixteenth, of an inch on the lips, one twelfth of an inch on
the tips of the fingers, and one half inch on the great toe; while, if
they are one inch on the cheek, and two inches on the back, they will
scarcely produce a separate sensation.--HUXLEY.] What are the uses of this
sense? What special knowledge do we obtain by it? Why do we always desire
to handle any curious object? Can the sense of touch always be relied
upon? Illustrate. What is the _tactus eruditus_? Tell how one sense
can take the place of another. Give illustrations of the delicacy of touch
possessed by the blind.

230-232. Describe the sense of taste. How can you see the papillę of
taste? What causes the velvety look of the tongue? Why do salt and bitter
flavors induce vomiting? Why does an acid "pucker" the face? What
substances are tasteless? Illustrate. Has sulphur any taste? Chalk? Sand?
What is the use of this sense? Does it not also add to the pleasures of
life? Why are the acts of eating, drinking, etc., thus made sources of

232, 233. Describe the organ of smell. State the intimate relation which
exists between the senses of smell and taste. Name some common mistakes
which occur in consequence. Must the object to be smelled touch the nose?
What is the theory of smell? How do you account for the statement made in
the note concerning musk and ambergris? What are the uses of this sense?
Are agreeable odors healthful, and disagreeable ones unhealthful?

234-236. Describe the organ of hearing. Describe the external ear. What is
the tympanum or drum of the ear? Describe the middle ear. Name the bones
of the ear. Describe their structure. Describe the internal ear. By what
other name is it known? What substances float in the liquid which fills
the labyrinth? What is their use? Describe the fibers of Corti. What do
they form? Use of this microscopic harp? Give the theory of sound. Where
is the sound, in the external object or in the mind? Can there be any
sound, then, where there is no mind? What advice is given concerning the
care of the ear? How can insects be removed? Which sense would you rather
lose, hearing or sight? Does not a blind person always excite more
sympathy than a deaf one? How does the sight assist the hearing?
[Footnote: In _hearing_, the attention is more or less characteristic.
If we wish to distinguish a distant noise, or perceive a sound, the
head inclines and turns in such a manner as to present the external
ear in the direction of the sound, at the same time the eyes are
fixed and partially closed. The movement of the lips of his interlocutor
is the usual means by which the deaf man supplies the want of hearing; the
eyes and the entire head, from its position, having a peculiar and painful
expression of attention. In looking at the portrait of La Condamine, it
was easily recognized as that of a deaf person. Even when hearing is
perfect, the eyes act sometimes as auxiliaries to it. In order to
understand an orator perfectly, it seems necessary to see him--the
gestures and the expression of the face seeming to add to the clearness of
the words. The lesson of a teacher can not be well understood if any
obstacle is interposed between him and the eyes of the listening pupil. So
that if a pupil's eyes wander, we know that he is not attentive.--
_Wonders of the Human Body_.]

236, 237. Describe the eye. Name the three coats of which it is composed.
Is it a perfect sphere? _Ans_. The cornea projects in front, and the
optic nerve at the back sticks out like a handle, while the ball itself
has its longest diameter from side to side. How is the interior divided?
Object of the crystalline lens? How is the crystalline lens kept in place?
Describe the liquids which fill the eye.

238. What is the pupil? Describe the eyelids. Why is the inner side of the
eyelid so sensitive? What is the cause of a black eye? Use of the
eyelashes? Where are the oil glands located? What is their use? Describe
the lachrymal gland. The lachrymal lake. What causes the overflow in old

239. Explain the structure of the retina. Use of the rods and cones. What
is the blind spot?

240. Illustrate. What is the theory of sight? Illustrate.

241, 242. State the action of the crystalline lens. Its power of
adaptation. Do children ever need spectacles?

243. What is the cataract? How cured? What is color blindness? Illustrate.
What care should be taken of the eyes? Should one constantly lean forward
over his book or work? What special care should nearsighted children take?
By what carelessness may we impair our sight?

244. How is squinting caused? Cured? What care should be used after an
illness? Should we ever read or write at twilight? Danger of reading upon
the ears? What course should we take when objects get into the eye? How
may they be removed?

245. Are "eyestones" useful? Why should we never use eyewashes except upon
the advice of a competent physician? What rule should be observed with
regard to the direction of the light when we are at work? Name some causes
of near-sightedness. Remedies.

346. Give the account of Laura Bridgman.

347-350. Describe the anatomy of the nose. In what part of the nose is the
function of smell performed? Why do we "sniff" when our attention is
attracted by an odor? Give some experiments which illustrate the
connection between smell, taste, and touch. Why should we retain our food
in the mouth as long as possible? Of what use are gastronomic odors?

350. Why should a child's ear never be boxed? Illustrate. How can we
detect inattention from deafness in a child? What should we consider in
this respect?

351. Why should we avoid direct draughts in the ear? Explain the use of
earwax. What common habit is very injurious? Why?

352, 353. What is the office of the Eustachian tube? Illustrate.

353, 354. Describe the action of the "eye curtain." Give experiments. What
are "Purkinje's Figures"? Describe experiment.


251-254. State some of the benefits of health. Contrast it with sickness.
How were diseases formerly supposed to be caused? What remedies were used?
What does modern science teach us to be the nature of disease? Give some
illustrations showing how diseases may be prevented. Is it probable that
the body was intended to give out in any one of its organs? What is the
first step to be taken in the cure of a disease? What should be the object
of medicine? What is now the chief dependence of the best physicians? What
do you think concerning the common use of patent nostrums? Ought we not to
use the greatest care in the selection of our physician?


Ab do' men (_abdo_, I conceal). The largest cavity in the body, in
which are hidden the intestines, stomach, etc.

Ab sorb' ent (_ab_, from _sorbeo_, I suck up).

Ac' e tab' u lum (_acetum_, vinegar). The socket for holding the head
of the thigh bone, shaped like an ancient vinegar vessel.

A ce' tic (_acetum_, vinegar).

Ad' i pose. Fatty.

Al bu' men (_albus_, white). A substance resembling the white of egg.

Al bu' mi nous substances contain much albumen.

Al' i men' ta ry. Pertaining to food.

Al' ka line (-lin) substances neutralize acids.

An' ęs thet' ic. A substance that destroys the feeling of pain.

A or' ta. The largest artery of the body.

Ap' o plex y (pleks y). A disease marked by loss of sensation and
voluntary motion.

A' que ous (a'-kwe-us). Watery.

A rach' noid (_arachne_, a spider; _eidos_, form). A membrane
like a spider's web covering the brain.

Ar' bor vi'tę means "the tree of life."

Ar' tery (_aer_, air; _tereo_, I contain). So named because
after death the arteries contain air only, and hence the ancients supposed
them to be air tubes leading through the body.

Ar tic' u late (_articulo_, I form a joint).

Ar tic' u la tion. A joint.

As phyx' ia (-fix-i-a). Literally, no pulse; apparent death.

As sim' i la' tion is the process of changing food into flesh, etc.

At' las. So called because, as in ancient fable the god Atlas supported
the globe on his shoulders, so in the body this bone bears the head.

Au' di to ry Nerve. The nerve of hearing.

Au' ri cle (-kl) (_auris_, ear) of the heart. So named from its

Bi' ceps. A muscle with two heads, or origins.

Bi cus' pid. Tooth with two points; also a valve of the heart.

Bron' chi (-ki). The two branches of the windpipe.

Bron' chi al Tubes. Subdivisions of bronchi.

Bur sa (a purse). Small sac containing fluid near a joint.

Ca nine' (_canis_, a dog) teeth are like dog's teeth.

Cap' il la ries (_capillus_, a hair). A system of tiny blood vessels.

Car' bon. Pure charcoal.

Car bon' ic Acid. A deadly gas given off by the lungs and by fires.

Ca rot' ids (_karos_, lethargy). Arteries of the neck, so named
because the ancients supposed them to be the seat of sleep.

Car' pus. The wrist.

Car' ti lage. Gristle.

Cell. A minute sac, usually with soft walls and fluid contents.

Cel' lu lar (_cellula_, a little cell). Full of cells.

Cer' e bel' lum. The little brain.

Cer' e brum. A Latin word meaning brain.

Cer' vi cal. Relating to the neck.

Chlo' ral (klo) Hy' drate. A drug used to induce sleep.

Cho' roid. The second coat of the eye.

Chyle (kile). A milky juice formed in digestion.

Chyme (kime). From _chumos_, juice.

Cir' cu la' tion. The course of the blood through the body.

Cil' i a (the plural of _cilium_, an eyelash). Hair-like projections
in the air passages.

Clav' i cle (klav'-i-kl). From _clavis_, a key.

Co ag' u la'tion. A clotting of blood.

Coc' cyx (a cuckoo). A bony mass below the sacrum.

Coch' le a. A Latin word meaning snail shell. See Ear

Com' pound. A substance composed of two or more elements.

Con ta' gious diseases are those caught by contact, the breath, etc.

Con' trac til' i ty (_con_, together; _traho_, I draw).

Con' vo lu' tion (_con_, together; _volvo_, I roll).

Cor' ne a (_cornu_, a horn). A transparent, horn-like window in the

Cor' pus cle (kor'-pus-l). From a Latin word meaning a little body. It is
applied to the disks of the blood.

Cra' ni al. Relating to the skull.

Crys'tal line (_crystallum_, a crystal).

Cu ta' ne ous (_cutis_, skin). Pertaining to the skin.

Cu' ti cle (ku'-ti-kl). From a Latin word meaning little skin.

Cu' tis, the true skin.

Den' tal (_dens, dentis_, a tooth).

Di' a phragm (-fram). The muscle dividing the abdomen from the chest.

Di as' to le (_diastello_, I put asunder). Dilation of the heart.

Dis' lo ca' tion. A putting out of joint.

Dor' sal (_dorsum_, the back).

Duct. A small tube.

Du o de' num (_duodeni_, twelve each).

Du' ra Ma' ter (_durus_, hard; _mater_, mother). The outer
membrane of the brain.

Dys pep' si a is a difficulty of digestion

E lim' i nate. To expel.

Ep' idem' ic. A disease affecting a great number of persons at once.

Ep' i der' mis. The cuticle.

Ep' i glot' tis (_epi_, upon; _glottis_, the tongue). The lid of
the windpipe.

Ep' i the' li um. The outer surface of mucous or serous membranes.

Eu sta' chi an (u-sta'-ki-an) Tube. So named from its discoverer, an
Italian physician.

Ex cre' tion. Waste particles thrown off by the excretory organs.

Fer' men ta' tion. The process by which sugar is turned into alcohol.

Fi' brin (_fibra_, a fiber).

Fil' a ment (_filum_, a thread).

Func' tion. See Organ.

Gan' gli on (gang'-gli-on). From _ganglion_, a knot; plu. ganglia.

Gas' tric (_gaster_, stomach).

Glands (_glandz_). From _glans_, a Latin word meaning acorn.
Their object, is to secrete in their cells some liquid from the blood.

Glot' tis. The opening at the top of the larynx.

Hu' me rus. The arm bone.

Hu' mor. A Latin word meaning moisture.

Hy' dro gen. The lightest gas known, and one of the elements of water.

Hy' gi ene. From a Greek word meaning health.

Hyp' o glos' sal. Literally "under the tongue"; a nerve of the tongue.

In ci' sor (_incido_, I cut) teeth are cutting teeth.

In' spi ra' tion (_in_ and _spiro_, I breathe in).

In tes' tine (-tin). From _intus_, within.

Lach' ry mal (_lachryma_, a tear). Pertaining to tears.

Lac' te al (_lac_, _lactis_, milk). So called from the milky
look of the chyle during digestion.

La cu' na, plu. lacunę (_lakos_, a hole). Cavities in the bone

Lar' ynx (lar'-inx). The upper part of the windpipe.

Lig' a ments (_ligo_, I bind) tie bones together.

Lu' bri cate. To oil in order to prevent friction.

Lum' bar (_lumbus_, a loin). Pertaining to the loins.

Lymph (limf). From _lympha_, pure water.

Lym phat' ic (lim-fat-ik).

Mas' ti ca' tion. The act of chewing.

Me dul' la Ob lon ga' ta. The upper part of the spinal cord.

Mam' brane. A thin skin, or tissue.

Mes' en tery. The membrane by which the intestines are fastened to the

Met' a car' pal (_meta_, after; _karpos_, wrist).

Met' a tar' sal (_meta_, after; _tarsos_, the instep).

Mi' cro scope (_mikros_, small; _skopeo_, I see).

Mo'lar (_mola_, a mill) teeth are the grinders.

Morp' hine (_Morpheus_, the Greek god of sleep).

Mo' tor. Giving motion.

Mu' cous (-kus) Membrane. A thin tissue, or skin, covering the open
cavities of the body. See Serous.

Mu' cous. A fluid secreted by a membrane and serving to lubricate it.

Mus' cle (mus-l). A bundle of fibers covered by a membrane.

My o' pi a (_muo_, I contract; _ops_, the eye).

Nar cot' ic. A drug producing sleep.

Na' sal (na'-zal). From _nasus_, the nose.

Nerve (neuron, a cord).

Ni' tro gen Gas is the passive element of the air.

Ni trog' e nous. Containing nitrogen.

Nu tri' tion. The process by which the body is nourished.

Πsoph' agus (e-sof'-a-gus). The gullet; literally, a "food-carrier."

Ol fac' to ry. Pertaining to the smell.

Or' gan. An organ is a portion of the body designed for a particular use,
which is called its _function_; thus the heart circulates the blood.

Os' se ous. Bone-like.

Os' si fy (_ossa_, bones; _facio_, I make).

Ox i da' tion. The process of combining with oxygen.

Ox' y gen. The active element of the air.

Pal' ate (_palatum_, the palate). Roof of the mouth.

Pan' cre as (_pas_, all; _kreas_, flesh). An organ of digestion.

Pa pil' la, plu. papillę. Tiny cone-like projections.

Pa ral' y sis. A disease in which one loses sensation, or the power of
motion, or both.

Pa rot' id (_para_, near; _ous_, _otos_, ear). One of the
salivary glands.

Pa tel' la (a little dish). The kneepan.

Pec' to ral. Pertaining to the chest.

Pep' sin (_pepto_, I digest). The chief constituent of the gastric

Per' i car' di um (_peri_, around; _kardia_, the heart). The
membrane wrapping the heart.

Per' i os' te um (_peri_, around; _osteon_, bone). The membrane
around the bone.

Per' i stal' tic (_peri_, round; _stallein_, to arrange).
Applied to the worm-like movement of the alimentary canal.

Phar' ynx (far'-inx). From _pharugx_, the throat.

Pi' a Ma' ter (tender mother). See Brain.

Pig' ment. A paint.

Plas' ma (plaz'-ma). The nutritious fluid of the blood.

Pleu' ra (plu'-ra). From _pleuar_, a rib. The membrane that lines the
chest and wraps the lungs.

Pres by o' pi a (_presbus_, old; _ops_, the eye). A defect in
the eye common to old age.

Proc' ess. A projection. Sometimes it retains its ordinary meaning of

Py lo' rus (a gate). The doorway through which the food passes from the

Pul' mo na ry (_pulmo_, the lungs). Pertaining to the lungs.

Ra' di us. A Latin word meaning the spoke of a wheel, a ray, etc.

Ram' i fy. To spread like the branches of a tree.

Res' pi ra“ tion (_re_, again; _spiro_, I breathe). Act of

Ret' i na (_rete_, a net). The expansion of the optic nerve in the

Sa' crum (sacred). So named, it is said, because this bone of the pelvis
was anciently offered in sacrifice.

Sa li' va. A Latin word meaning spittle; the fluid secreted by the
salivary glands.

Scap' u la. The shoulder blade.

Scav' en ger. A street sweeper.

Sele rot' ic (skie-rot'-ic). The outer coat of the eye.

Se cre' tion (_secretum_, to separate).

Sed' en ta ry persons are those who sit much.

Sen' so ry Nerves. The nerves of feeling.

Se' rous Membrane. A thin tissue, or skin, covering the cavities of the
body that are not open to the external air.

Se' rum. The thin part of the blood.

Sub cla' vi an. Located under the clavicle.

Sub lin' gual (_sub_, under: _lingua_, the tongue). The salivary
gland located under the tongue.

Sub max' il la ry (_sub_, under; _maxilla_, jawbone). The
salivary gland located under the jaw.

Syn o' vi a (_sun_, with; _oon_, egg). A fluid that lubricates
the joints.

Syn o' vi al Membrane packs the joints.

Sys' to le (_sustello_, I contract). Contraction of the heart.

Tem' po ral. An artery on the temple (_tempus_, time), so called
because, as is said, the hair whitens first at that point.

Ten' dons (_tendo_, I stretch). The cords conveying motion from the
muscle to the bone.

Tho' rax (a breastplate). The cavity containing the lungs, etc.

Tib' ia. The shin-bone.

Tis' sue. A general term applied to the textures of which the different
organs are composed; osseous tissue forms bones.

Tra' che a (tra'-ke-a). Means rough, alluding to the roughened surface of
the windpipe.

Tri' ceps. A muscle with three heads, or origins.

Tri' cus' pid (_tres_, three; _cuspis_, point). A valve of the

Tym' pa num (a drum) of the ear.

Vas' cu lar (_vasculum_, little vessel). Full of small blood vessels.

Ven' tri cle (-kl). A cavity of the heart.

Ver' te bra, plu. vertebrę (_verto_, I turn). A term applied to each
one of the bones of the spine.

Vil' lus (_villus_, tuft of hair), plu. villi.

Vi' ti ate. To taint. To spoil.

Vit' re ous (_vitrium_, glass). Glassy.

Vo' mer (plowshare). A bone of the nose.

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