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Hygienic Physiology by Joel Dorman Steele

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death, and out of the decay of our bodies they, day by day, spring afresh.
At last the vital force which has held death and decay in bondage, and
compelled them to minister to our growth, and to serve the needs of our
life, faints and yields the struggle. These powers which have so long time
been our servants, gather about our dying couch, and their last offices
usher us into the new life and the grander possibilities of the world to
come. This last birth, we who see the fading, not the dawning, life, call

"O Father! grant Thy love divine,
To make these mystic temples Thine,
When wasting age and wearying strife
Have sapp'd the leaning walls of life;
When darkness gathers over all,
And the last tottering pillars fall,
Take the poor dust Thy mercy warms,
And mold it into heavenly forms."



A SICK ROOM should be the lightest and cheeriest in the house. A small,
close, dark bedroom or a recess is bad enough for one in health, but
unendurable for a sick person. In a case of fever, and in many acute
diseases, it should be remote from the noise of the family; but when one
is recovering from an accident, and in all attacks where quiet is not
needed, the patient may be where he can amuse himself by watching the
movements of the household, or looking out upon the street.

_The ventilation must be thorough._ Bad air will poison both the sick
and the well. A fireplace is, therefore, desirable. Windows should open
easily. By carefully protecting the patient with extra blankets, the room
may be frequently aired. If there be no direct draught, much may be done
to change the air, by simply swinging an outer door to and fro many times.

A bare floor, with strips of carpet here and there to deaden noise, is
cleanest, and keeps the air freest from dust. Cane-bottomed chairs are
preferable to upholstered ones. All unnecessary furniture should be
removed out of the way. A straw bed or a mattress is better than feathers.
The bed hangings, lace curtains, etc., should be taken down. Creaking
hinges should be oiled. Sperm candles are better than kerosene lamps.

_Never whisper in a sick room._ All necessary conversation should be
carried on in the usual tone of voice. Do not call a physician
unnecessarily, but if one be employed, _obey his directions
implicitly_. Never give nostrums overofficious friends may suggest. Do
not allow visitors to see the patient, except it be necessary. Never
bustle about the room, nor go on tiptoe, but move in a quiet, ordinary
way. Do not keep the bottles in the continued sight of the sick person.
Never let drinking water stand in the room.

Do not raise the patient's head to drink, but have a cup with a long
spout, or use a bent tube, or even a straw. Do not tempt the appetite when
it craves no food. Bathe frequently, but let the physician prescribe the
method. Give written directions to the watchers. Have all medicines
carefully marked. Remove all soiled clothing, etc., at once from the room.
Change the linen much oftener than in health. When you wish to change the
sheets, and the patient is unable to rise, roll the under sheet tightly
lengthwise to the middle of the bed; put on the clean sheet, with half its
width folded up, closely to the other roll; lift the patient on to the
newly-made part, remove the soiled sheet, and then spread oat the clean


Remember, first, that deodorizers and disinfectants are not the same. A
bad smell, for instance, may be smothered by some more powerful odor,
while its cause remains uninfluenced. Bear also in mind the fact that no
deodorizer and no disinfectant can take the place of perfect cleanliness
and thorough ventilation. No purifyer can rival the oxygen contained in
strong and continued currents of fresh, cold air, and every disinfectant
finds an indispensable ally in floods of scalding water.

An excellent disinfectant may be made by dissolving in a pail of water
either of the following: (1), a quarter of a pound of sulphate of zinc and
two ounces of common salt for each gallon of water; (2), a pound and a
half of copperas, for each gallon of water. Towels, bed linen,
handkerchiefs, etc., should be soaked at least an hour, in a solution of
the first kind, and then be boiled, before washing. [Footnote: It is
_best_ to burn all articles which have been in contact with persons
sick with contagious or infectious diseases.

In using the zinc solution, place the articles in it as soon as they are
removed from the patient, and before they are taken from the room; if
practicable, have the solution boiling hot at the time. In fumigating
apartments, all the openings should be made as nearly air-tight as
possible. The articles to be included in the fumigation should be so
exposed and spread out that the sulphurous vapor may penetrate every
portion of them. For a room about ten feet square, at least two pounds of
sulphur should be used; for larger rooms, proportionally increased
quantities. Put the sulphur in iron pans supported upon bricks placed in
washtubs containing a little water, set it on fire by hot coals or with
the aid of a spoonful of alcohol, or by a long fuse set on train as the
last opening to the room is closed. Allow the apartment to remain sealed
for twenty-four hours. Great care should be taken not to inhale the
poisonous fumes in firing the sulphur. After the fumigation, allow free
currents of air to pass through the apartment; expose all movable articles
for as long time as may be to the sun and the wind out of doors; beat and
shake the carpets, hangings, pillows, etc.

The disinfectants and the instructions for using them, as given above, are
mainly those recommended by the National Board of Health.] Vaults, drains,
vessels used in the sick room, etc., should be disinfected by a solution
of the second kind; chloride of lime may also be used for the same
purpose. Rooms, furniture, and articles that can not be treated with the
solution of the first kind, should be thoroughly fumigated with burning
sulphur. Where walls are unpapered, re-whitewash with pure, freshly
slacked quicklime, adding one pint of the best fluid carbolic acid to
every gallon of the fluid whitewash. Powdered stone lime sprinkled on
foul, wet places, or placed in pans in damp rooms, will absorb the
moisture; and dry, fresh charcoal powder may be combined with it to absorb
noxious gases.


The following instructions are intended simply to aid in an emergency.
When accidents or a sudden severe illness occur, there is necessarily, in
most cases, a longer or shorter interval before a physician can arrive.
These moments are often very precious, and life may depend upon a little
knowledge and much self-possession. The instructions are therefore given
as briefly as possible, that they may be easily carried in the memory. A
few suggestions in regard to common ailments are included.

BURNS.--When a person's clothes catch fire, quickly lay him on the ground,
wrap him in a coat, mat, shawl, carpet, or in his own garments, as best
you can to extinguish the flame. Pour on plenty of water till the half-
burned clothing is cooled. Then carry the sufferer to a warm room, lay him
on a table or a carpeted floor, and with a sharp knife or scissors remove
his clothing.

The treatment of a burn consists in protecting from the air. [Footnote: It
is a great mistake to suppose that salves will "draw out the fire" of a
burn, or heal a bruise or cut. The vital force must unite the divided
tissue by the deposit of material and the formation of new cells.] An
excellent remedy is to apply soft cloths kept wet with sweet oil, or with
tepid water _which contains all the "cooking soda" that it will
dissolve_. Afterward dress the wound with carbolic acid salve. Wrap a
dry bandage upon the outside. Then remove the patient to a bed and cover
warmly. [Footnote: In case of a large burn, lose no delay in bringing a
physician. If a burn be near a joint or on the face, even if small, let a
doctor see it, and do not be in any hurry about having it healed. Remember
that with all the care and skill which can be used, contractions will
sometimes take place. The danger to life from a burn or scald is not in
proportion to its severity, but to its extent--that is, a small part, such
as a hand or a foot, may be burned so deeply as to cripple it for life,
and yet not much endanger the general health; but a slight amount of
burning, a mere scorching, over two thirds of the body, may prove fatal.--
HOPE.] Apply cool water to a small burn till the smart ceases, and then
cover with ointment. Do not remove the dressings until they become stiff
and irritating; then take them from a part at a time; dress and cover
again quickly.

CUTS, WOUNDS, ETC.--The method of stopping the bleeding has been described
on page 128. If an artery is severed, a physician should be called at
once. If the bleeding is not profuse, apply cold water until it ceases,
dry the skin, draw the edges of the wound together, and secure them by
strips of adhesive plaster. Protect with an outer bandage. This dressing
should remain for several days. In the meantime wet it frequently with
cool water to subdue inflammation. When suppuration begins, wash
occasionally with tepid water and Castile soap.

Dr. Woodbridge, of New York, in a recent address, gave the following
directions as to "What to do in case of a sudden wound when the surgeon is
not at hand." "An experienced person would naturally close the lips of the
wound as quickly as possible, and apply a bandage. If the wound is
bleeding freely, but no artery is spouting blood, the first thing to be
done is to wash it with water at an ordinary temperature. To every pint of
water add either five grains of corrosive sublimate, or two and a half
teaspoonfuls of carbolic acid. If the acid is used, add two tablespoonfuls
of glycerine, to prevent its irritating the wound. If there is neither of
these articles in the house, add four tablespoonfuls of borax to the
water. Wash the wound, close it, and apply a compress of a folded square
of cotton or linen. Wet it in the solution used for washing the wound and
bandage quickly and firmly. If the bleeding is profuse, a sponge dipped in
very hot water and wrung out in a dry cloth should be applied as quickly
as possible. If this is not available, use ice, or cloths wrung out in ice
water. If a large vein or artery is spouting, it must be stopped at once
by compression. This may be done by a rubber tube wound around the arm
tightly above the elbow or above the knee, where the pulse is felt to
beat; or an improvised 'tourniquet' may be used. A hard apple or a stone
is placed in a folded handkerchief, and rolled firmly in place. This
bandage is applied so that the hard object rests on the point where the
artery beats, and is then tied loosely around the arm. A stick is thrust
through the loose bandage and turned till the flow of blood ceases."

BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE is rarely dangerous, and often beneficial. When it
becomes necessary to stop it, sit upright and compress the nostrils
between the thumb and forefinger, or with the thumb press upward upon the
upper lip. A piece of ice, a snowball, or a compress wet with cold water
may be applied to the back of the neck.

A SPRAIN [Footnote: "A sprain," says Dr. Hope, in that admirable little
book entitled _Till the Doctor comes and How to help Him_, "is a very
painful and very serious thing. When you consider that from the tips of
the fingers to the wrist, or from the ends of the toes to the leg, there
are not less than thirty separate bones, all tied together with straps,
cords, and elastic bands, and about twenty hinges, all to be kept in good
working order, you will not wonder at sprains being frequent and sometimes
serious."] is often more painful and dangerous than a dislocation. Wrap
the injured part in flannels wrung out of hot water, and cover with a dry
bandage, or, better, with oiled silk. Liniments and stimulating
applications are injurious in the first stages, but useful when the
inflammation is subdued. _Do not let the limb hang down, keep the joint
still_. Without attention to these points, no remedies are likely to be
of much service. A sprained limb must be kept quiet, even after all pain
has ceased. If used too soon, dangerous consequences may ensue. Many
instances have been known in which, from premature use of an injured limb,
the inflammation has been renewed and made chronic, the bones at the joint
have become permanently diseased, and amputation has been necessitated.

DIARRHEA, CHOLERA MORBUS, ETC., are often caused by eating indigestible or
tainted food, such as unripe or decaying fruit, or stale vegetables; or by
drinking impure water or poisoned milk (see p. 321). Sometimes the
disturbance may be traced to a checking of the perspiration; but more
frequently to peculiar conditions of the atmosphere, especially in large
cities. Such diseases are most prevalent in humid weather, when the days
are hot and the nights cold and moist. Especial attention should at such
times be paid to the diet. If an attack comes on, ascertain, if possible,
its cause. You can thereby aid your physician, and, if the cause be
removable, can protect the rest of the household. If the limbs are cold,
take a hot bath, followed by a thorough rubbing. Then go to bed and lie
quietly on the back. In ordinary cases, rest is better than medicine. If
there be pain, have flannels wrung out of hot water applied to the
abdomen. [Footnote: If it be difficult to manage the foments, lay a hot
plate over the flannels and cover with some protection. By having a change
of hot plates, the foments can be kept at a uniform high temperature. This
plan will be found useful in all cases where foments are needed.] A
mustard poultice will serve the same purpose if more convenient. Eat no
fruit, vegetables, pastry, or pork. Use water sparingly. If much thirst
exist, give small pieces of ice, or limited quantities of cold tea or
toast water. Take particular pains with the diet for some days after the
bowel irritation has ceased.

CROUP.--There are two kinds of croup--true and false. True croup comes on
gradually, and is less likely to excite alarm than false croup, which
comes on suddenly. True croup is attended with fever and false membrane in
the throat; false croup is not attended with fever or false membrane. True
croup is almost always fatal in four or five days; false croup recovers,
but is liable to come on again. The great majority of cases of the so-
called croup are simply cases of spasm of the glottis. "Croupy children"
are those who are liable to these attacks of false croup, which are most
frequent during the period of teething.--DR. GEO. M. BEARD. Croup occurs
commonly in children between the ages of two and seven years. At this
period, if a child has a hollow cough, with more or less fever, flushed
face, red watery eyes, and especially _if it have a hoarse voice, and
show signs of uneasiness about the throat_, send at once for a doctor.
Induce mild vomiting by doses of syrup of ipecac. Put the feet in a hot
mustard-and-water bath. Apply hot fomentations, rapidly renewed, to the
chest and throat. A "croupy" child should be carefully shielded from all
physical excitation, sudden waking from sleep, and any punishment that
tends to awaken intense fear or terror. Irritation of the air passages
through faulty swallowing in drinking hastily, should be guarded against.
Good pure air, warm clothing, and a nourishing diet are indispensable.

COMMON SORE THROAT.--Wrap the neck in a wet bandage, and cover with
flannel or a clean woolen stocking. Gargle the throat frequently with a
solution of a teaspoonful of salt in a pint of water, or thirty grains of
chlorate of potash in a wineglass of water.

FITS, APOPLEXY, EPILEPSY, ETC.--These call for immediate action and prompt
medical attendance. Children who are teething, or troubled with intestinal
worms, or from various causes, are sometimes suddenly seized with
convulsions. Apply cloths wet in cold water--or, better still, ice wrapped
in oiled silk--to the head, and _especially to the back of the neck_,
taking care, however, that the ice or wet cloths do not remain too long.
Apply mustard plasters to the stomach and legs. A full hot bath is
excellent if the cold applications fail. Endeavor to induce vomiting. Seek
to determine the cause, and consult with your physician for further

Apoplexy may be distinguished from a fainting fit by the red face, hot
skin, and labored breathing; whereas, in a faint, the face and lips lose
color, and the skin becomes cold. In many cases, death follows so quickly
upon an apoplectic seizure, that little effectual service can be given.
Call the nearest physician, loosen the clothing, and raise the head and
shoulders, taking care not to bend the head forward on the neck. Keep the
head cool. Do not move the patient unnecessarily.

In a common fainting fit, give the patient as much air as possible. Lay
him flat upon the floor or ground, and keep the crowd away.

All that can be done in a fit of epilepsy is to prevent the patient from
injuring himself; especially put something in his mouth to keep him from
biting his tongue. A cork, a piece of India rubber, or even a tightly-
rolled handkerchief, placed between the teeth will answer this purpose.
Give the sufferer fresh air; loosen his clothing, and place him in a
comfortable position. Epilepsy may be due to various causes,--improper
diet, overexcitement, etc. Consult with a physician, and study to avoid
the occasion.

CONCUSSION OF THE BRAIN generally arises from some contusion of the head,
from violent blows, or from a shock received by the whole body in
consequence of falling from a height. In any case of injury to the head
where insensibility ensues, a doctor should be called at once. Remove the
patient to a quiet room; loosen his clothing; strive to restore
circulation by gentle friction, using the hand or a cloth for this
purpose; apply cold water to the head, and, if the patient's body be cold
and his skin clammy, put hot bottles at his feet. Ammonia may be
cautiously held to the nose. Beyond this, it is not safe for a non-
professional to go, in case of a severe injury to the head. Concussion is
more or less serious, according to the injury which the brain has
sustained; but even in slight cases, when a temporary dizziness appears to
be the only result, careful treatment should be observed both at the time
of the injury and afterward. Cases of head injury are often more grave in
their consequences than in their immediate symptoms. Sometimes the patient
appears to be getting better when really he is worse. Rest and quiet
should be observed for several weeks after an accident which has in any
way affected the brain.

TOOTHACHE AND EARACHE.--Insert in the hollow tooth cotton wet with
laudanum, spirits of camphor, or chloroform. When the nerve is exposed,
wet it with creosote or carbolic acid. Hot cloths or a hot brick wrapped
in cloth and held to the face will often relieve the toothache. In a
similar manner treat the ear, wetting the cloth in hot water, and letting
the vapor pass into the ear.

CHOKING.--Ordinarily a smart blow between the shoulders, causing a
compression of the chest and a sudden expulsion of the air from the lungs,
will throw out the offending substance. If the person can swallow, and the
object be small, give plenty of bread or potato, and water to wash it
down. Press upon the tongue with a spoon, when, perhaps, you may see the
object, and draw it out with your thumb and finger, or a blunt pair of
scissors. If neither of these remedies avail, give an emetic of syrup of
ipecac or mustard and warm water.

FROSTBITES are frequently so sudden that one is not aware when they occur.
In Canada it is not uncommon for persons meeting in the street to say,
"Mind, sir, your nose looks whitish." The blood cools and runs slowly, and
the blood vessels become choked and swollen. _Keep from the heat_.
Rub the part quickly with snow, if necessary for hours, till the natural
color is restored. If one is benumbed with cold, take him into a cold
room, remove the wet clothes, rub the body dry, cover with blankets, and
give a little warm tea or other suitable drink. On recovering, let him be
brought to a fire gradually. [Footnote: If you are caught in a snowstorm,
look for a snow bank in the lee of a hill, or a wood out of the wind, or a
hollow in the plain filled with snow. Scrape out a hole big enough to
creep into, and the drifting snow will keep you warm. Men and animals have
been preserved after days of such imprisonment. Remember that if you give
way to sleep in the open field, you will never awake.]

FEVERS, and many acute diseases, are often preceded by a loss of appetite,
headache, shivering, "pains in the bones," indisposition to work, etc. In
such cases, sponge with tepid water, and rub the body till all aglow. Go
to bed, place hot bricks to the feet, take nothing but a little gruel or
beef tea, and drink moderately of warm, cream-of-tartar water. If you do
not feel better the next morning, call a physician. If that be impossible,
take a dose of castor oil or Epsom salts.

SUNSTROKE is a sudden prostration caused by intense heat. The same effect
is produced by the burning rays of the sun and the fierce fire of a
furnace. When a person falls under such circumstance, place your hand on
his chest. If the skin be cool and moist, it is not a sunstroke; but if it
be dry and "biting hot," there can be no mistake. Time is now precious. At
once carry the sufferer to the nearest pump or hydrant, and dash cold
water on the head and chest until consciousness is restored.--DR. H. C.

To prevent sunstroke, wear a porous hat, and in the top of it place a wet
handkerchief; also drink freely of water, not ice cold, to induce abundant

ASPHYXIA, or apparent death, whether produced by drowning, suffocation,
bad air, or coal gas, requires very similar treatment. Send immediately
for blankets, dry clothing, and a physician. Treat upon the spot, if the
weather be not too unfavorable.

1. Loosen the clothing about the neck and chest, separate the jaws, and
place between them a cork or bit of wood.

2. Turn the patient on his face, place his arm under his forehead to raise
the head, and press heavily with both hands upon the ribs to squeeze out
the water.

3. Place the patient on his back, wipe out the mouth and nostrils, and
secure the tongue from falling backward over the throat. Kneel at his
head, grasp his arms firmly above the elbows, and pull them gently upward
until they meet over the head, in order to draw air into the lungs;
reverse this movement to expel the air. Repeat the process about fifteen
times per minute. Alternate pressure upon the chest, and blowing air into
the mouth through a quill or with a pair of bellows, may aid your efforts.
Use snuff or smelling salts, or pass hartshorn under the nose. Do not lose
hope quickly. Life has been restored after five hours of suspended
animation. [Footnote: Another simple method of artificial respiration is
described in the _British Medical Journal_. The body of the patient
is laid on the back, with clothes loosened, and the mouth and nose wiped;
two bystanders pass their right hands under the body at the level of the
waist, and grasp each other's hand, then raise the body until the tips of
the fingers and the toes of the subject alone touch the ground; count
fifteen rapidly; then lower the body flat to the ground, and press the
elbows to the side hard; count fifteen again; then raise the body again
for the same length of time; and so on, alternately raising and lowering.
The head, arms, and legs are to be allowed to dangle down freely when the
body is raised.]

4. When respiration is established, wrap the patient in dry, warm clothes,
and rub the limbs under the blankets or over the dry clothing
energetically _toward the heart_. Apply heated flannels, bottles of
hot water, etc., to the limbs, and mustard plasters [Footnote: The best
mustard poultice is the paper plaster now sold by every druggist. It is
always ready, and can be carried by a traveler. It has only to be dipped
in water, and applied at once.] to the chest.

FOREIGN BODIES IN THE EAR.--Insects may be killed by dropping a little
sweet oil into the ear. Beans peas, etc., may generally be removed by so
holding the head that the affected ear will be toward the ground, and then
_cautiously_ syringing tepid water into it from below. Do not use
much force lest the tympanum be injured. If this fail, dry the ear, stick
the end of a little linen swab into thick glue, let the patient lie on one
side, put this into the ear until it touches the substance, keep it there
three quarters of an hour while it hardens, and then draw them all out
together. Be careful that the glue does not touch the skin at any point,
and that you are at work upon the right ear. Children often deceive one as
to the ear which is affected.

FOREIGN BODIES IN THE NOSE, such as beans, cherry pits, etc., may
frequently be removed by closing the opposite nostril, and then blowing
into the child's mouth forcibly. The air, unable to escape except through
the affected nostril, will sweep the obstruction before it.


ACIDS: _Nitric_ (aqua fortis), _hydrochloric_ (muriatic),
_sulphuric_ (oil of vitriol), _oxalic_, etc.--Drink a little
water to weaken the acid, or, still better, take strong soapsuds. Stir
some magnesia in water, and drink freely. If the magnesia be not at hand,
use chalk, soda, lime, whiting, soap, or even knock a piece of plaster
from the wall, and scraping off the white outside coat pound it fine, mix
with milk or water, and drink at once. Follow with warm water, or flaxseed

ALKALIES: _Potash, soda, lye, ammonia_ (hartshorn).--Drink weak
vinegar or lemon juice. Follow with castor or linseed oil, or thick cream.

ANTIMONY: _Antimonial wine, tartar emetic_, etc.--Drink strong, green
tea, and in the meantime chew the dry leaves. The direct antidote is a
solution of nutgall or oak bark.

ARSENIC: _Cobalt, Scheele's green, fly powder, ratsbane_, etc.--Give
_plenty of milk, whites of eggs_, or induce vomiting by mustard and
warm water; [Footnote: See that the mustard is well mixed with the water,
in the proportion of about half an ounce of the former to a pint of the
latter.] or even soapsuds.

BITE OF A SNAKE OR A MAD DOG.--Tie a bandage above the wound, if on a
limb. Wash the bite thoroughly, and, if possible, let the person suck it
strongly. Rub some lunar caustic or potash in the wound, or heat the point
of a small poker or a steel sharpener white hot, and press it into the
bite for a moment. It will scarcely cause pain, and will be effectual in
arresting the absorption of the poison, unless a vein has been struck.

COPPER: _Sulphate of copper_ (blue vitriol), _acetate of copper_
(verdigris).--Take whites of eggs or soda. Use milk freely.

LAUDANUM: _Opium, paregoric, soothing cordial, soothing syrup_, etc.
--Give an emetic at once of syrup of ipecac, or mustard and warm water,
etc. After vomiting, use strong coffee freely. _Keep the patient
awake_ by pinching, pulling the hair, walking about, dashing water in
the face, and any expedient possible.

LEAD: _White lead, acetate of lead_ (sugar of lead), _red
lead_.--Give an emetic of syrup of ipecac, or mustard and warm water,
or salt and water. Follow with a dose of Epsom salts.

MATCHES: _Phosphorus_.--Give magnesia, chalk, whiting, or even flour
in water, and follow with mucilaginous drinks.

MERCURY: _Calomel, chloride of mercury_ (corrosive sublimate, bug
poison), _red precipitate_.--Drink milk copiously. Take the whites of
eggs, or stir flour in water, and use freely.

NITRATE OF SILVER (lunar caustic).--Give salt and water, and follow with
castor oil.

NITRATE OF POTASH (saltpeter, niter).--Give mustard and warm water, or
syrup of ipecac. Follow with flour and water, and cream or sweet oil.

PRUSSIC ACID (oil of bitter almonds), _cyanide of potassium_.--Take a
teaspoonful of hartshorn in a pint of water. Apply smelling salts to the
nose, and dash cold water in the face.

STING OF AN INSECT.--Apply a little hartshorn or spirits of camphor, or
soda moistened with water, or a paste of clean earth and saliva.

SULPHATE OF IRON (green vitriol).--Give syrup of ipecac, or mustard and
warm water, or any convenient emetic; then magnesia and water.




_Arranged in order of the subjects to which they refer_.

"Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted,
nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh, and consider."


"He who learns the rules of wisdom without conforming to them in his life,
is like a man who labored in his fields but did not sow."



_The figures indicate the pages in the text upon which the corresponding
subjects will be found_.


the animal kingdom, is constructed after the same type as the cat that
purrs at his feet, the ox that he eats, the horse that bears his burden,
the bird that sings in his cage, the snake that crawls across his pathway,
the toad that hides in his garden, and the fish that swims in his
aquarium. All these are but modifications of one creative thought, showing
how the Almighty Worker delights in repeating the same chord, with
infinite variations. There are marked physical peculiarities, however,
which distinguish man from the other mammals. Thus, the position of the
spinal opening in the middle third of the base of the skull, thereby
balancing the head and admitting an upright posture; the sigmoid S-curve
of the vertebral column; the ability of opposing the well-developed thumb
to the fingers; the shortened foot, the sole resting flat on the ground;
the size and position of the great toe; the length of the arms, reaching
halfway from the hip to the knees; the relatively great development of the
brain; the freedom of the anterior extremities from use in locomotion, and
the consequent erect and biped position. In addition, man is the only
mammal that truly walks; that is endowed with the power of speech; and
that is cosmopolitan, readily adapting himself to extremes of heat and
cold, and making his home in all parts of the globe.--STEELE'S _Popular

FIG. 68.

[Illustration: _Skeleton of Orang, Chimpanzee, and Man._]

UNION OF FRACTURES (p. 8).--In the course of a week after a fracture,
there is a soft yet firm substance, something between ligament and
cartilage in consistence, which surrounds the broken extremities of the
bone, and adheres to it above and below. The neighboring muscles and
tendons are closely attached to its surface, and the fractured extremities
of the bone lie, as it were, loose in a cavity in the center, with a small
quantity of vascular albumen, resembling a semitransparent jelly.

Here, then, is a kind of splint which nature contrives, and which is
nearly completed within a week from the date of the accident. We call this
new formation the _callus_. This process goes on, the surrounding
substance becoming thicker and of still firmer consistence. In the course
of a few days more, the thin jelly which lay in contact with the broken
ends of the bone has disappeared, and its place is supplied by a callus
continuous with that which formed the original capsule. This is the
termination of the first stage of curative progress. The broken ends of
the bones are now completely imbedded in a mass of vascular organized
substance or callus, something between gristle and cartilage in
consistence; and as yet there are no traces of bony matter in it. At this
time, if you remove the adventitious substance, you will find the broken
ends of bone retaining exactly their original figure and presenting the
same appearance as immediately after the fracture took place.

At the end of about three weeks, if you make a section of the callus,
minute specks of earthy matter are visible, deposited in it here and
there, and at the same time some of the callus, appears to disappear on
the outside, so that the neighboring muscles and tendons no longer adhere
to it. The specks of bone become larger and more numerous until they
extend into each other; and thus by degrees the whole of the callus is
converted into bone. Even at this period, however, there is not absolute
bony union, for although the whole of the callus has become bone, it is
not yet identified with the old bone, and you might still pick it off with
a penknife, leaving the broken extremities not materially altered from
what they were immediately after the injury. This may be regarded as the
end of the second stage of the process by which a fracture is repaired.
Now a third series of changes begins to take place. The broken extremities
of the bones become intimately united by bony matter passing from one to
the other. The mass of new bone on the outside, formed by the ossification
of the callus, being no longer wanted, is absorbed; by degrees the whole
of it disappears, and the bone is left having the same dimensions which it
had before the occurrence of the accident.

The process of union is completed in young persons sooner than in those
advanced in life; in the upper extremities sooner than in the lower; and
in smaller animals more speedily than in man. In human subjects a broken
arm or forearm will be healed in from six to eight weeks, while a leg or
thigh will occupy nine or ten weeks.--SIR B. C. BRODIE.

FIG. 69.

[Illustration: FIG. 69. a. _Monkey's Hand and Foot._ b. _Human Hand
and Foot._]

THE HAND AND THE FOOT (p. 2l).--_Man Compared with the_ _Ape_.--
The peculiar prehensible power possessed by the hand of man is chiefly
dependent upon the size and power of the thumb, which is more developed in
him than it is in the highest apes. The thumb of the human hand can be
brought into exact opposition to the extremities of all the fingers,
whether singly or in combination; while in those quadrumana which most
nearly approach man, the thumb is so short, and the fingers so much
elongated, that their tips can scarcely be brought into opposition; and
the thumb and the fingers are so weak that they can never be opposed to
each other with any degree of force. Hence, though well suited to cling
round bodies of a certain size, such as the small branches of trees, the
anterior extremities of the quadrumana can neither seize very minute
objects with such precision nor support large ones with such firmness as
are essential to the dexterous performance of a variety of operations for
which the hand of man is admirably adapted.

The human foot is, in proportion to the size of the whole body, larger,
broader, and stronger than that of any other mammal, save the kangaroo.
The surface of the astragalus (ankle bone) which articulates with the
tibia, looks almost vertically upward, and hardly at all inward, when the
sole is flat upon the ground; and the lateral facets are more nearly at
right angles to this surface than in any ape. The plane of the foot is
directed at right angles to that of the leg; and its sole is concave, so
that the weight of the body falls on the summit of an arch, of which the
os calcis (heel bone) and the metatarsal bones form the two points of
support. This arched form of the foot, and the contact of the whole
plantar surface with the ground, are particularly noticeable in man, most
of the apes having the os calcis small, straight, and more or less raised
from the ground, while they touch, when standing erect, with the outer
side only of the foot. The function of the _hallux_, or great toe,
moreover, is strikingly contrasted in man and the ape; for, while in the
latter it is nearly as opposable as the thumb, and can be used to almost
the same extent as an instrument of prehension, it chiefly serves in the
former to extend the basis of support, and to advance the body in
progression.--DR. W. B. CARPENTER.

FIG. 70.

[Illustration: _The Leg in standing._]

_The Natural Flexibility of the Toes, and How it is Destroyed_.--We
often admire the suppleness of the fingers by means of which we can
perform such a variety of acts with swiftness and delicacy. Did it ever
occur to you that the toes, which in most feet seem incapable of a free
and graceful motion, even when they are not stiffened and absolutely
deformed by the compression of the modern shoe, are also provided by
Nature with a considerable degree of flexibility? The phalanges of the
toes, though more feebly developed, have really the same movements among
themselves as those of the fingers, and, in case of necessity, their
powers can be strengthened and educated to a surprising degree. There are
well-known instances of persons who, born without hands, or having lost
them by accident, have successfully supplied the deficiency by a
cultivated use of their feet. Some of these have distinguished themselves
in the world of art. Who that has been so fortunate as to visit the
Picture Gallery in Antwerp on some fine morning when the armless artist,
M. Felu, was working at his easel, can forget the wonderful dexterity with
which he wielded his brushes, mixed the oils on his palette, and shaded
the colors on his canvas, all with his agile feet? The writer well
remembers the ease and grace with which, at the close of a pleasant
interview, this cultured man put the tip of his foot into his coat pocket,
drew out a visiting card, wrote his name and address upon it, and
presented it to her between his toes!

Contrast this intelligent adaptation of a delicate physical mechanism with
the barbarous treatment it too commonly receives. The Chinese are at least
consistent. They cripple and distort the feet of their highborn daughters
until they crush out all the power and gracefulness of nature in the
artificial formation of what they term a "golden lily"; but they never
expect these golden-lilied women to make their withered feet useful. With
us, on the contrary, every girl would like to walk well, to display in her
general movements something of the "poetry of motion"; yet the absurd and
arbitrary fashion of our foot gear not only makes an elastic step one of
the rarest of accomplishments, but renders oftentimes the simple act of
walking a painful burden. The calluses, corns, bunions, ingrowing nails,
and repulsive deformities that are caused by and hidden under the narrow-
toed, high-heeled instruments of torture we often wear for fashion's sake
are uncomfortable suggestions that our practices are not greatly in
advance of those of our Celestial sisters. Dowie, a sensible Scotch
shoemaker, satirizes the shape of a fashionable boot as suited only to
"the foot of a goose with the great toe in the middle." The error which
may have led to the adoption of this conventional shape appears to lie in
a misconception of the natural formation of the foot, and of the relation
of the two feet to each other. It is true, that when the toes are covered
with their soft parts, the second toe appears a little longer than the
first, and this appearance, emphasized and exaggerated, is perhaps
responsible for a practical assumption that Nature intended an even-sided,
tapering foot. On the contrary, the natural foot gradually expands in
breadth from the instep to the toes and, in the skeleton itself, the great
toe is the longest.

"There is no law of beauty," says Dr. Ellis, "which makes it necessary to
reduce the foot to even-sided symmetry. An architect required to provide
more space on one than on the other side of a building would not seek to
conceal or even to minimize the difference; he would seek rather to
accentuate it, and give the two sides of the structure distinctive
features....Moreover, the sense of symmetry is, or ought to be, satisfied
by the exact correspondence of the two feet, which, taken jointly, may be
described as the two halves of an unequally expanded dome."--E. B. S.


ATTACHMENT OF THE MUSCLES TO THE BONES (p. 30).--One of the two bones to
which a muscle is attached is usually less mobile than the other, so that
when the muscle shortens, the latter is drawn down against the former. In
such a case, the point of attachment of the muscle to the less mobile bone
is called its origin, while the point to which it is fixed on the more
mobile bone is called its attachment....A muscle is not always extended
between two contiguous bones. Occasionally, passing over one bone it
attaches itself to the next. This is the case with several muscles which,
originating from the pelvic bone, pass across the upper thigh bone, and
attach themselves to the lower thigh bone. In such cases the muscle is
capable of two different movements: it can either stretch the knee,
previously bent, so that the upper and the lower thigh bones are in a
straight line; or it can raise the whole extended leg yet higher, and
bring it nearer to the pelvis. But the points of origin and of attachment
of muscles may exchange offices. When both legs stand firmly on the
ground, the above-mentioned muscles are unable to raise the thigh;
instead, on shortening, they draw down the pelvis, which now presents the
more mobile point, and thus bend forward the whole upper part of the body.

One important consequence of the attachment of the muscles to the bones is
the extension thus effected. If the limb of a dead body is placed in the
position which it ordinarily occupied during life, and if one end of a
muscle is then separated from its point of attachment, it draws itself
back, and becomes shorter. The same thing happens during life, as is
observable in the operation of cutting the tendons, as practiced by
surgeons to cure curvatures. The result being the same during life and
after death this phenomenon is evidently due to the action of elasticity.
It thus appears that the muscles are stretched by reason of their
attachment to the skeleton, and that, on account of their elasticity, they
are continually striving to shorten. Now, when several muscles are
attached to one bone in such a way that they pull in opposite directions,
the bone must assume a position in which the tension of all the muscles is
balanced, and all these tensions must combine to press together the
socketed parts with a certain force, thus evidently contributing to the
strength of the socket connection....This balanced position of all the
limbs, which thus depends on the elasticity of the muscles, may be
observed during sleep, for then all active muscular action ceases. It will
be observed that the limbs are then generally slightly bent, so that they
form very obtuse angles to each other.

Not all muscles are, however, extended between bones. The tendons of some
pass into soft structures, such as the muscles of the face. In this case,
also, the different muscles exercise a mutual power of extension, though
it is but slight, and they thus effect a definite balanced position of the
soft parts, as may be observed in the position of the mouth opening in the
face.--ROSENTHAL, _Muscles and Nerves_.

MUSCULAR FIBERS (p. 3l).--The anatomical composition of flesh is very
similar in every kind of creature, whether it be the muscle of the ox or
of the fly; that is to say, there are certain tubes which are filled with
minute parts or elements, and the adhesion of the tubes together makes up
the substance of the flesh. These tubes may be represented grossly by
imagining the finger of a glove, to be called the sarcolemma, or muscle-
fiber pouch, and this to be so small as not to be apparent to the naked
eye, but filled with nuclei and the juices peculiar to each animal.
Hundreds of such fingers attached together would represent a bundle of
muscular fibers. The tubes are of fine tissue, but are tolerably
permanent; whilst the contents are in direct communication with the
circulating blood and pursue an incessant course of chemical change and
physical renewal.--EDWARD SMITH, _Foods_.

FIG. 71.

[Illustration: _Smooth Muscle Fibers (300 times enlarged)._]

THE SMOOTH MUSCLE FIBERS consist of long, spindle-shaped cells, the ends
of which are frequently spirally twisted, and in the center of which
exists a long, rod-shaped kernel or nucleus. Unlike striated muscle, they
do not form separate muscular masses, but occur scattered, or arranged in
more or less dense layers or strata, in almost all organs. [Footnote: An
instance of a considerable accumulation of smooth, muscle fibers is
afforded by the muscle pouch of birds, which, with the exception of the
outer and inner skin coverings, consists solely of these fibers collected
in extensive layers.] Arranged in regular order, they very frequently form
widely extending membranes, especially in such tube-shaped structures as
the blood vessels, the intestine, etc., the walls of which are composed of
these smooth muscle fibers. In such cases they are usually arranged in two
layers, one of which consists of ring-shaped fibers surrounding the tube,
while the other consists of fibers arranged parallel to the tube. When,
therefore, these muscle fibers contract, they are able both to reduce the
circumference and to shorten the length of the walls of the tube in which
they occur. This is of great importance in the case of the smaller
arteries, in which the smooth muscle fibers, arranged in the form of a
ring, are able greatly to contract, or even entirely to close the vessels,
thus regulating the current of blood through the capillaries. In other
cases, as in the intestine, they serve to set the contents of the tubes in
motion. In the latter cases the contraction does not take place
simultaneously throughout the length of the tube; but, commencing at one
point, it continually propagates itself along fresh lengths of the tube,
so that the contents are slowly driven forward.

As a rule, such parts as are provided only with smooth muscle fibers are
not voluntarily movable, while striated muscle fibers are subject to the
will. The latter have, therefore, been also distinguished as voluntary,
the former as involuntary muscles. The heart, however, exhibits an
exception, for, though it is provided with striated muscle fibers, the
will has no direct influence upon it, its motions being exerted and
regulated independently of the will. Moreover, the muscle fibers of the
heart are peculiar in that they are destitute of sarcolemma, the naked
muscle fibers directly touching each other. This is so far interesting
that direct irritations, if applied to some point of the heart, are
transferred to all the other muscle fibers. In addition to this, the
muscle fibers of the heart are branched, but such branched fibers occur
also in other places; for example, in the tongue of the frog, where they
are branched like a tree. Smooth muscle fibers being, therefore, not
subject to the will, are caused to contract, either by local irritation,
such as the pressure of the matter contained within the tubes, or by the
nervous system. The contractions of striated muscle fibers are effected,
in the natural course of organic life, only by the influence of the

OVEREXERTION AND PERSONAL IMPRUDENCE (p. 40).--Among children there is
little danger of overexertion. When a little child reaches the point of
healthy fatigue, he usually collapses into rest and sleep. But with youth
comes the spirit of ambition and emulation. A lad, for instance, is
determined to win a race, to throw his opponent in a football scramble, to
lift a heavier weight than his strength will warrant; or a girl is
stimulated by the passion she may possess for piano playing, painting,
dancing, or tennis. The moment of exhaustion comes, but the end is not
accomplished, and the will goads on the weary muscles, perhaps to one
supreme effort which terminates in a sharp and sudden illness, perhaps to
days and weeks of continued and incessant application, during which the
whole system is undermined. Thus is laid the foundation for a feeble and
suffering maturity.

To elderly people, overexertion has peculiar dangers, dependent largely
upon the changes which gradually take place in the tissues of the body.
The walls of the blood vessels become less and less elastic, and more and
more brittle, as life advances, until at last they are ready to give way
from any severe or unusual pressure. We constantly see old people
hastening their death by personal imprudence. An old gentleman running to
catch the morning train; an old farmer hastening to turn the strayed sheep
out of a cornfield; the old sportsman having a last run with the hounds;
the last pull at the oars; the last attempt of old age to play at vigorous

A prominent American physician has said that between the ages of forty and
fifty every wise man will have ceased to run to "catch" trains or street
cars; and that between fifty and sixty he will have permanently discarded
haste of all kinds. Equal precautions should be observed by both young and
old, but especially by those advanced in life, in regard to extremes of
heat, cold, or storm. William Cullen Bryant, by exposing himself to a
scorching sun and refusing to permit a friend to protect him with an
umbrella while delivering an address in Central Park, received injuries to
his system that carried him to his grave. Ralph Waldo Emerson, by standing
in a chilling wind, contracted a cold and died. George Dawson, by going
thoughtlessly into a freezing atmosphere from the sweltering rooms of a
crowded reception, took cold which resulted in pneumonia and death.
Matthew Arnold, for years a sufferer from heart difficulty, in a single
instance neglected the advice of his physician not to indulge in any
violent exercise, made repeated attempts and finally succeeded in jumping
a fence, and in a few hours was a dead man. Roscoe Conkling braved the
most terrible blizzard ever known in the east and sacrificed his life. And
yet, these were all men of exceptional prudence. Probably no other five
persons in the world of like surroundings and vocations were more careful
of their health. In an unguarded moment their prudence left them, and they
paid the terrible penalty.--_Compiled_.

deprived of adequate outdoor exercise are always delicate, pale, and
tender; or, in a figurative sense, they are like the sprig of vegetation
in a dark, dank hole,--bleached and spindling....An inactive indoor life
is one of the most effectual ways of weakening the young body. It renders
the growth unnaturally soft and tender, and thus susceptible to harm from
the slightest causes. It hinders the garnering of strength necessary for a
long life, and gives to the germs of disease a resistless power over an
organization so weak and deficient....Measles, scarlet fever, and
diphtheria find among such a congenial soil, and run riot among the
elements of the body held together by so frail a thread....Such children
are always at the mercy of the weather. Colds and coughs are standard
disorders in winter, headaches and habitual languor in summer....The
scapegoat for this result is the climate: if that was only better, mothers
are sure their children's health would also be better. No, it would not be
better: no earthly climate is good enough to preserve health and strength
under such unnatural training....Children of the laboring classes, often
dirty and imperfectly clad, seldom have colds, simply for the reason that,
for the greater part of the day, they have the freedom of the streets. It
is not the dirt, it is not the rags, _but the life-giving force of an
active outdoor life_ that renders such children so strong and healthy.
--BLACK, _Ten Laws of Health_.

POPULAR MODES OF OUTDOOR EXERCISE (p. 42).--_Walking_.--Every person
has his own particular step, caused by the conformity, shape, and length
of his bones, and the height of his body. Such a thing, then, as a
regulation step is unnatural, and any attempt at equalizing the step of
individuals of different heights must result in a loss of power.

The moment, also, that walking comes to be _uphill_, fatigue is
sensibly increased. The center of gravity of the body is changed, and the
muscular force necessary to provide for the change causes the fixing of
the diaphragm, and a rigid condition of many muscles. Respiration is
interfered with, owing to the fixing of the diaphragm, and the heart
becomes affected thereby. A person with a sensitive or diseased heart can,
during a walk, tell when the slightest rise in the ground occurs. We make
climbing more exhausting from the habit we have of suspending the breath.
Let the reader _hold his breath_ and run up twenty-four steps of a
stair, and then perform the same act _breathing freely_ and deeply.
It will be found that by the first act marked breathlessness will be
induced, whereas by the latter the effect is much less. This management of
the breath constitutes the difference between the beginner and the
experienced athlete. The enormous increase of the quantity of air consumed
during exercise will at once bring home a number of lessons. One is, that
exercise is best taken in the open air, and not in gymnasia; another, that
free play to act for the regions of the chest and abdomen must be given.
On no account must a tight belt be worn around the soft-walled abdomen. If
a belt is preferred to braces, let it be applied below the top of the
haunch bone, where the bones can resist the pressure.

Whatever may be the pastimes indulged in by young men, walking should
never be neglected. The oarsman will become "stale" unless the method of
exercise is varied; the gymnast will develop the upper part of his body,
while his lower extremities will remain spindleshanks. So with all other
forms of exercise; success, in any form of game, sport, or gymnastic
training, can not be attained unless walking be freely taken.

_Skating_ is simply an exaggerated swinging walk, with this
difference, that the foot on which one rests is not stationary, but moves
along at a rapid rate. The benefit to the circulation, respiration, and
digestion is even greater in skating than in walking. The dangers from
skating are:

1. The giving way of the ice. Great caution should be used in regard to
the safety of a frozen pond or river.

2. Taking cold from becoming overheated, and from subsequent inactive
exposure. Physiological knowledge will teach people that, when they begin
to skate, outer wraps should be laid aside, and again put on when skating
is finished.

3. Sprains, especially of the ankle, and other minor accidents arising
from falls. Ankle boots with strong uppers should be worn during skating.
Those who have weak ankles ought to wear skates with ankle straps and
buckles, acme skates being relegated to those who are not afraid of going
"over their foot."

_Rowing_.--The muscles employed in rowing may be summed up under two
heads--those that are used in the forward swing, and those used in the
backward. In the _forward_ swing all the joints of the lower
extremity, the hip, knee, and ankle, are flexed; the shoulder is brought
forward; the elbow is straightened; and the wrist is first extended and
then flexed, in feathering the oar. The body is bent forward by the
muscles in front of the abdomen and spinal column. In the _backward_
movement the reverse takes place; the lower extremity, the hip, knee, and
ankle are straightened; the shoulder is pulled back; the elbow is flexed;
and the wrist is held straight. The body is bent backward by the muscles
at the lower part of the back, and by those of the spine in general. It
will be seen that the enormous number of joints put into use, and the
varying positions employed, call into play nearly every muscle of the
limbs and trunk. Rowing gives more work to the muscles of the back than
any other kind of exercise. This is of the first importance to both men
and women, but especially to women. The chief work of the muscles of the
back is to support the body in the erect position, and the better they are
developed the better will the carriage be, and the less likelihood of
stooping shoulders, contracted chests, and the like. Now, the work of the
muscles in supporting the body is largely relegated in women to the stays,
and, in consequence, the muscles undergo wasting and fatty degeneration,
in fact, atrophy; so that when the stays are left off, the muscles are
unfit to support the body. Rowing exercises these muscles condemned to
waste, and imparts a natural carriage to the girl's frame. In rowing, as
in horseback riding, the clothing should be loose, stays left off, and
flannels worn next the skin. The dress itself should be of woolen, and
there should always be in the boat a large wrap to use when one stops
rowing. The following practical rules should be observed by rowers:

1. Never row after a full meal.

2. Stop when fatigue comes on.

3. _Allow the breath to escape while the oar is in the water_. A
novice usually holds his breath at each stroke, and pulls so rapidly that
in a few minutes he becomes breathless, and is forced to stop. Not only is
this uncomfortable, but it is dangerous. In the case of both young and
old, it may give rise to an abdominal rupture (hernia), dilation of the
cavities of the heart, rupture of a heart valve, varicose veins, etc.
Instead of fixing the diaphragm and holding the breath during the time of
pulling, as novices are apt to do, _do exactly the opposite_. Let the
diaphragm go loose, and allow the breath to escape.

4. Change the clothing from the skin outward as soon as the day's rowing
is finished.

5. Before retiring for the night, have a warm bath, temperature 92° Fahr.
This is a specific against the aches and muscular stiffness which often
follow a long pull on the water.

_Swimming_.--A word of warning is necessary in regard to those
learning to swim in rivers. Boys at school, when they take to river
bathing, often carry it to a dangerous extent. They get into the water,
and now in, now out on the bank, sometimes remain for hours. This may take
place day after day, and if the weather continues warm and the holidays
last long enough, the boy may reduce himself to the lowest ebb of
feebleness, and possibly develop the seeds of latent disease. He may even
die from the effects of this prolonged immersion and madcap exposure.

The muscular exertion undergone during swimming, especially by those who
swim only occasionally, is very great. The experienced swimmer conserves
his strength, as do proficients at all feats, but the occasional swimmer,
like the occasional rower, puts forth treble the energy required, and soon
becomes exhausted. In the first place, it is a new act for the muscles to
perform; they are taken off from the beaten tracks, and are grouped
together in new associations; hence they lack adjustment and adaptation.
Again, as in other feats for which one is untrained, the heart and lungs
do not work in time. Ease and speed in swimming depend upon the attainment
of harmony in the working of the muscles, heart, and lungs.

Diving is an accomplishment attached to swimming, which involves many
dangers, and is well-nigh useless. The customary dive off a springboard
into the shallow water of a swimming bath is dangerous in the extreme. The
only place where diving should be attempted is into deep water, at least
fifteen or twenty feet, where there is no danger of striking the bottom.

_Lawn Tennis_.--Of all modern inventions in the way of games, lawn
tennis is the best.

The dangers attendant on lawn tennis are:--

1. Overexertion, causing rupture and deranged circulation, especially in
the case of those with weak hearts, or those who, being out of condition,
or too fat, suddenly engage in the game too long or too violently.

2. Rupture of the _tendon of Achilles_, from taking a sudden bound.
In such an accident the subject falls down, with a sensation as if struck
with a club on the leg.

3. Rupture of one of the heads of the biceps in the arm. Here the arm
drops helplessly, and a muscular knob rises up on the inner and upper part
of the arm.

4. The tennis arm. This trouble arises from the method of manipulating the
bat. The pain is felt over the upper end of the radius.

Many of the strains, ruptured tendons, and torn muscles in tennis players
are caused by the want of heels to tennis shoes. As, ordinarily, we walk
on heels which vary from half an inch to an inch, there must be a
considerable extra strain thrown on the muscles of the calf of the leg,
when the heels are left off. Especially during a sudden spring is this
apparent, when to rise from off the heels on to the toes requires a
greatly increased force. Tennis shoes should therefore have fairly deep,
broad heels.

_Horseback Riding_ is a mixed exercise, partly active and partly
passive, the lower parts of the body being in some measure employed, while
the upper parts in easy cantering are almost wholly relaxed. It is
peculiarly suited to dyspeptics, from its direct action upon the abdominal
viscera, the contents of which are stimulated by the continued agitation
and succussion, consequent on the motion in riding.

_Bicycling and Tricycling_.--While strongly recommending bicycling
and tricycling to both men and women in health, those suffering from heart
or lung affections, ruptures, scrofula, joint disease, or like maladies,
should not indulge in them without medical sanction. For abdominal
complaints, such as dyspepsia, congestion of the liver, constipation, and
the like, the exercise is excellent.

_Baseball_ is an essentially American game, which brings into play
nearly all the muscles of the body. Its chief danger lies in being hit by
the hard, forcibly pitched ball, and, for weak persons, in the violence of
the exercise.

_Football_ is a rough-and-tumble game, suited only to that class of
boys and men, who, brimming over with animal life, take small heed of the
accidents liable to occur.

_Light and Heavy Gymnastics_.--For wet weather, and when outdoor
exercise is not practicable, gymnastics are most advisable. Boys and
girls, at the age of fifteen or sixteen, often shoot up and become tall
and lanky; they want filling out, and are troubled with growing pains.
Even men, when tall and thin, are seldom very erect, their muscles are too
weak; and there is only one way of overcoming this weakness--by exercising
them. Nothing more is wanted than a pair of very light Indian clubs, a
pair of light wooden dumb bells, a long wooden rod, and a pair of wooden
rings,--the last for combined exercises. Indeed, a systematic motion of
the body itself, without any extra artificial resistance, is quite
sufficient for the purposes of physical education. In nearly all our large
cities are found gymnasia, provided with competent instructors, and every
facility for both light and heavy gymnastics. Exercise in a gymnasium is
open to the objection of being too brief and too severe, and of simply
causing an increase of muscular development. Besides, it is generally
unequal in its results, being better adapted to the cultivation of
strength in the upper extremities and portion of the body than in the
lower. Nevertheless, during inclement weather, or with persons in whom the
muscles of the arms and chest are defective, moderate gymnastic exercise
is far better than no exercise.--_Compiled_. (_Mostly from "The
Influence of Exercise" in The Book of Health_.)


THE HAIR (p. 52).--_Baldness, and its Causes_.--Various reasons are
assigned for the baldness which is so prevalent among comparatively young
men in our country. One writer says: "The premature baldness and grayness
of the Americans as a people is in great measure owing to the
nonobservance of hygienic rules, and to excess of mental and physical
labor in a climate foreign to the race." Others attribute it to the close
unventilated hats commonly worn by men. Dr. Nichols, in the _Popular
Science News_, gives his opinion thus:

"In our view, it is largely due to modern methods of treatment of the hair
and scalp. The erroneous idea prevails, that the skin which holds the hair
follicles and the delicate secretory organs of the scalp must be kept as
'clean,' so to speak, as the face or hands; consequently young men
patronize barbers or hairdressers, and once or twice a week they have what
is called a 'shampoo' operation performed. This consists in a thorough
scouring of the hair and scalp with dilute ammonia, water, and soap, so
that a heavy 'lather' is produced, and the glandular secretions, which are
the natural protection of the hair, and promotive of its growth, are
saponified and removed. No act could be more directly destructive of a
healthy growth of hair than this....Women do not shampoo or wash the hair
as often as the other sex, and consequently they are in a large degree
exempt from baldness in middle life. It is true, however, that many women
in cities make frequent visits to the hairdressers, and subject their
tresses to the 'scouring' process. If this becomes common, it will not be
long before baldness will overtake the young mothers as well as the
fathers, and the time will be hastened when even children will have no
hair to destroy with ammonia or other caustic cosmetics.

"The advice we have to offer to young men and maidens is,--let your hair
alone; keep at a safe distance from hair-dressing rooms and drug shops,
where are sold oils, alkaline substances, alcoholic mixtures, etc., for
use upon the hair. They are all pernicious, and will do you harm. The head
and hair may be washed occasionally with soft, tepid water, without soap
of any kind. As a rule, the only appliances needed in the care of the hair
are good combs and brushes: and they should not be used harshly, so as to
wound the scalp. Avoid all 'electric' and wire-made brushes. No
electricity can be stored in a hairbrush: if it could be, it is not

_Sudden Blanching of the Hair from Violent Emotions_.--The color of
the hair depends mainly upon the presence of pigment granules, which range
in tint from a light yellow to an intense black. A recent investigator has
succeeded in extracting the coloring matter of the hair, and has found
that all the different shades are produced by the mixture of three primary
colors--red, yellow, and black. "In the pure golden yellow hair there is
only the yellow pigment; in red hair the red pigment is mixed with more or
less yellow, producing the various shades of red and orange; in dark hair
the black is always mixed with yellow and red, but the latter are
overpowered by the black; and it seems that even the blackest hair, such
as that of the negro, contains as much red pigment as the very reddest
hair." Hence, "if in the negro the black pigment had not been developed,
the hair of all negroes would be a fiery red."--DR. C. H. LEONARD. _The
Hair: Its Diseases and Treatment_.

The gradual disappearance of this pigment causes the gray or white hair of
old age. This natural change in color does not necessarily denote loss of
vitality in the hair, as it often continues to grow as vigorously as
before it began to whiten. Cases of sudden blanching of the hair from
extreme grief or terror are often quoted,--those of Sir Thomas More and of
Marie Antoinette being well-known instances in point. An interesting
circumstance has been discovered with regard to such cases, namely, that
the change of color is not dependent upon the disappearance of the pigment
of the hair, which always takes place slowly, but upon the sudden
development in its interior of a number of air bubbles, that hide and
destroy the effect of the pigment, which itself remains unaltered. Dr.
Landois mentions the case of a German printer whom he attended, at a
hospital, in the summer of 1865.

This man had long been intemperate in his habits, in consequence of which
he was seized with delirium tremens. The delirium, as is usual in such
cases, was of an extremely terrifying nature, and lasted four days. On the
evening of the fourth day the hair was unaltered, but on the morning of
the fifth the delirium had disappeared, and his hair, which previously was
fair, had become gray. It was examined with the microscope, when it was
found that the pigment was still present, but that the central streak of
each was filled with air bubbles.

How this superabundance of air finds its way into the hair in these cases
of sudden blanching, physiologists have not yet been able satisfactorily
to explain.--In this connection, however, it may be observed that air
bubbles exist, more or less, in all hair, mingled with the pigment

The feathers of birds owe their bright colors to an oily secretion
corresponding to the pigment in hair, and microscopical observation has
revealed the fact that when these colors fade the oily secretion
disappears, and is replaced by air. That extreme terror may blanch
feathers as well as hair is shown in the case of a poor little starling,
which upon being rescued from the claws of a cat became suddenly white.

THE NAILS (p. 54).--The nails are mere modifications of the scarfskin,
their horny appearance and feeling being due to the fact that the scales
or plates of which they are composed are much harder and more closely
packed. The root of the nail lies embedded, to the extent of about the
twelfth part of an inch, in a fold of the sensitive skin, and, as may be
observed from an inspection of the part, the scarfskin is not exactly
continuous with the nail, but projects a little above it, forming a narrow

The nail, like the scarfskin, rests upon, and is intimately connected
with, a structure almost identical with the sensitive skin; this is,
however, thrown into ridges, which run parallel to one another, except at
the back part, where they radiate from the center of the root. On
examining the surface of the nail, a semicircular whitish portion is
detected near its root; its color is dependent upon the fact that the
ridges there contain fewer blood vessels, and therefore less blood, and on
account of its half-moon shape it is called the _lunula_.

The nail is constantly increasing in length, owing to the formation of new
cells at the root, which push it forward, while the increase in its
thickness is due to the secretion of new cells from the sensitive layer
beneath, so that the farther the nail grows from the root, the thicker it
becomes. Its nutrition, and consequently its growth, suffers in disease,
the portion growing during disease being thinner than that growing in
health; and accordingly a transverse groove is seen upon the nail,
corresponding to the time of an illness. It will thus be seen that by a
mere examination of the nail we can astonish our friends by telling them
when they have been ill; and it has been estimated that the nail of the
thumb grows from its root to its free extremity in five months, that of
the great toe in twenty months, so that a transverse groove in the middle
of the former indicates an illness about two and a half months before, and
in the middle of the latter, about ten months.

The culture of the nails, which when perfect constitute so great a beauty,
is of much importance; but the tendency is to injure them by too much
attention. The scissors should never be used except to pare the free edges
when they have become ragged or too long, and the folds of scarfskin which
overlap the roots should not, as a rule, be touched, unless they be
frayed, when the torn edges may be snipped off, so as to prevent their
being torn further, which may cause much pain, and even inflammation. The
upper surfaces of the nails should on no account be touched with the
knife, as is so often done, the nailbrush being amply sufficient to keep
them clean, without impairing their smooth and polished surfaces.--HINTON.

BATHS AND BATHING (p. 65).--_Physical Cleanliness Promotes Moral
Purity_.--The old adage that cleanliness is next to godliness, must
have had its origin in the feeling of moral elevation which generally
accompanies scrupulous bodily purity. Frequent bathing promotes purity of
mind and morals. The man who is accustomed to be physically clean shrinks
instinctively from contact with all uncleanliness. Personal neatness, when
grown into a habit, draws after it so many excellences, that it may well
be called a social virtue. Without it, refined intercourse would be
impossible; for its neglect not only indicates a want of proper self-
respect, but a disrespect of the feelings of others which argues a low
tone of the moral sense. All nations, as they advance in civilization and
refinement of manners, pay increased attention to the purity of the

What, then, shall we say of people who, after all that has been said and
written upon the subject, seldom or never bathe, who allow the pores of
the skin to get blocked up with a combination of dust and perspired
matter, which is as effectual in its way as plaster to the walls of a
building? Could they but once be tempted to taste the delights which arise
from a perfectly clean and well-acting skin: the cheerfulness, nay, the
feeling of moral as well as physical elevation, which accompanies the
sense of that cleanliness, they would soon esteem the little time and
trouble spent in the bath, and in the proper care of the surface of the
body, as time and labor very well spent--DR. STRANGE.

The feet, particularly, should receive daily attention, if it be no more
than a vigorous rubbing with a wet cloth, followed by a dry one. After a
long walk, also, nothing is more refreshing, especially in summer, than a
generous footbath in cool or tepid water, followed by an entire change in
shoes and stockings. This is really a necessary precaution, if the feet
have become wet from the dampness of the ground; and if the walk has
heated the body so that the stockings are moist with perspiration, it is
not only an act of prudence, but an instinct of personal neatness.

_Ancient Greek and Roman Baths_.--From the earliest historic times
the necessity for frequent and thorough ablution has been recognized by
artificial provisions for this purpose. The Greeks had "steaming baths"
and "fragrant anointing oils," as far back as Homer's time, a thousand
years before Christ, but the Romans surpassed all preceding and subsequent
nations by their magnificent and luxuriously equipped Thermę, in which a
bath cost less than a cent, and was often free. A full Roman bath included
hot air, dry rubbing, hot, tepid, and cold water immersions, scraping with
bronze instruments, and anointing with precious perfumes.

_The Modern Russian_ and _Turkish baths_ are the nearest
approaches we have to the Roman bath. These are found in nearly all our
larger cities.

_The Turkish Bath_ is conducted in a modified form in this country,
generally with hot air instead of steam. Its frequent use not only tends
to keep the body in a state of perfect cleanliness, but it imparts a
clear, fresh color to the complexion which is hardly attained by other

"Its most important effect," says a writer in the _Popular Science
Monthly_, "is the stimulation of the emunctory action of the skin. By
this means we are enabled to wash as it were the solid and fluid tissues,
and especially the blood and skin, by passing water through them from
within outward to the surface of the body. Hence, in practice, one of the
most essential requisites is copious draughts of water during the

During the operation of a Turkish bath, the novice is often astonished at
the amount of effete matter eliminated from the pores of the skin. "A
surprising quantity of scarfskin, which no washing could remove, peels
off, especially if a glove of camel's-hair or goat's-hair be used, as they
are in the East, where also the soles of the feet are scraped with pumice.
The deposit of this skin of only a week's date, when collected, is often
as large as one's fist. Much more solid matter is contained in the
perspiration of those who take the bath for the first time, or after a
long interval. Nothing escapes through the skin, save what is noxious if
retained. This bath should never be used in case of advanced lung
diseases, great debility, acute inflammations, or persons who labor under
any form of heart disease; but I think its influence is directly curative
in rheumatic, gouty, and scrofulous affections, some skin diseases, and
the earlier stages of feverish colds and ague. It is said to have calming
effects in the treatment of insanity, and the use of it was suggested from
the heavy smell the skin of persons thus afflicted often has."--MAPOTHER'S
_Lectures on Public Health_.

A somewhat heroic bath, used in Siberia to drive away a threatened fever,
consists of a thorough parboiling, within an inch or two of a steaming
furnace, after which the subject is "drubbed and flogged for about half an
hour with a bundle of birch twigs, leaf and all." A douche of cold water
is then dashed over the exhausted bather, when he is ready to be put into

_Sea Bathing_.--Before the age of seven years, and after fifty-five,
sea baths should be used with the greatest caution. All persons
unaccustomed to sea bathing should begin with a warm or tepid bath, in
doors, proceeding by degrees to the cold indoor bath, and then to the open

The sea bath should be taken, if possible, when the sun is shining, when
the water has been warmed by contact with the heated sands, and never
during the digestion of the principal meal, or late in the evening.
Immediately on plunging into the water, which need not, except in persons
of full habit, cover the head, brisk motion of some kind should be used.
Those who can swim should do so; those who can not, should make as much
exertion of the limbs as possible, or rub the body with their hands. The
delicate, and particularly those who are recovering from illness, should
remove from the bath _as soon as the glow arrives;_ or, if that be
not felt at all, then after _one_ plunge.

_Danger in Bathing when Overheated_.--It is unwise to bathe when
copious perspiration has continued for an hour or more, unless the heat of
the weather be excessive, or the sweating has been induced by loading with
clothes, rather than by exertion. When much perspiration has been produced
by muscular exercise, it is unsafe to bathe, because the body is so
fatigued and exhausted, that the reaction can not be insured, and the
effect may be to congest the internal organs, and notably the nerve
centers. The latter gives cramp. If the weather be chilly, or there be a
cold wind, so that the body may be rapidly cooled at the surface while
undressing, it is not safe to bathe. Under such conditions, the further
chill of immersion in cold water will take place at the precise moment at
which the reaction consequent upon the chill of exposure by undressing
ought to take place, and this second chill will not only delay or
altogether prevent the reaction, but will convert the bath from a mere
stimulant to a depressant, ending in the abstraction of a large amount of
animal heat and congestion of the internal organs and nerve centers. The
aim must be to avoid two chills, and to make sure that the body is in such
a condition as to secure a quick reaction on emerging from the water,
without relying too much on the possible effect of friction by rubbing.
The actual temperature of the water does not affect the question so much
as its relative temperature in comparison with that of the surrounding
air. It ought to be much lower than that of the air. These maxims receive
a striking reenforcement from the case of a young soldier who a few days
ago plunged into the river near Manchester, England, after having heated
himself by rowing. He was immediately taken with cramps, and was drowned.
When taken out, his body was found "twisted," and the vessels of his head
showed every evidence of congestion.--_Popular Science Monthly,
September, 1883_.

_Bather's Cramp_.--Cramp is a painful and tonic muscular spasm. It
may occur in any part of the body, but it is especially apt to take place
in the lower extremities, and in its milder forms it is limited to a
single muscle. The pain is severe, and the contracted muscles are hard and
exquisitely tender. In a few minutes the spasm and pain cease, leaving a
local sensation of fatigue and soreness. When cramp affects only one
extremity, no swimmer or bather endowed with average presence of mind need
drown; but when cramp seizes the whole of the voluntary muscular system,
as it probably does in the worst cases, nothing in the absence of prompt
and efficient extraneous assistance can save the individual from drowning.
[Footnote: Even this is often unavailable, as in the case of the Cornell
University postgraduate drowned in Hall Creek, Ithaca, June 10, 1888. In
this instance the day was hot and oppressive, and the victim sank soon
after entering the water. "His companions at once hastened to his relief,
and recovered his body in a few minutes. Professor Wilder, of the
University, was hurriedly summoned, and every possible method was resorted
to in order to induce respiration, but the vital spark had fled. An attack
of cramps is supposed to have been the cause of drowning."] Prolongation
of muscular exertion, as in continued swimming, and forcible and sudden
muscular exertion, as in swimming with very vigorous and rapid strokes,
are efficient and frequent causes of cramp. These muscular conditions,
however, usually give rise only to the slighter and more localized forms.
Serious cramp is a peril which menaces most persons with highly developed
muscles. Its most powerful and most avoidable cause is the sudden
immersion of the body, when its surface is highly heated, in water of a
relatively low temperature.--_Popular Science News._

_Protection of the Ear in Sea Bathing_.--Special attention should be
paid by bathers to the exclusion of salt water from the mouth and ears.
Many cases of inflammation of the ear, followed by severe and lasting
trouble, even to deafness, are chargeable to the neglect of this
precaution. Incoming waves should never be received in the face or the
ears, and the sea water which enters the ears when floating or diving
should be wiped out by soft cotton; indeed, the best plan is to plug the
openings of the ears with cotton, which is to be kept there during the

_How one who Knows not how to Swim can Escape Drowning_.--It is well
for every one to learn the art of swimming, yet it is a knowledge
possessed by comparatively few people. Mr. Henry MacCormac, a writer in
_Nature_, gives some common sense instructions that, if heeded, may
be of great service to those persons who, not knowing how to swim, may
find themselves accidentally precipitated into the water. We condense from
his article, adding some directions, as follows:

In order to escape drowning, it is necessary only to do as the brute does,
namely, to walk or tread the water. The brute has no advantage over man in
regard to his relative weight, and yet the man perishes while the brute
survives. The ignorance of so simple a possibility as that of treading
water strikes me as one of the most singular things in the history of man.
Perhaps something is to be ascribed to the vague meaning which is attached
to the word _Swim_. The dog is wholly incapable of _swimming_ as
a man swims, but nothing is more certain than that a man, without previous
training or instruction, can swim just as a dog swims, and that by so
doing without fear or hesitancy, he will be just as safe as is the dog.
The brute thus circumstanced continues to go on all fours, as if he were
on land, _keeping his head well out of the water_. So with the man
who wishes to save his life and can not otherwise swim. He must strike
alternately, with hand and foot,--_one, two, one, two,_--without
hurry or precipitation, exactly as the brute does. Whether he be provided
with paw or hoof, the beast swims with perfect ease and buoyancy. So, too,
can the human being, if he will, with the further immense advantage of
having a paddle-formed hand, and of being able, when tired, to rest
himself by floating, an act of which the animal has no conception. The
printed direction should be pasted up in all boathouses, on every boat, at
every bathing place, and in every school: _Tread water when you find
yourself out of your depth_. This is all that need be said, unless,
indeed, we add: _Float when you are tired_. To float, one needs only
to turn upon his back, keeping--as always when in the water--the mouth and
chin well up and the lungs full of air.--Every one of us, of whatever age
and however encumbered with clothing, may tread water, even in a breaking
sea, with as much facility as a fourfooted animal. The position of the
water treader is, really, very much safer and better than the sprawling
attitude of the ordinary swimmer. But the chief advantage lies in the fact
that we can tread water without preliminary teaching, whereas, though we
recommend all to learn how to swim, it involves time and pains, entails
considerable fatigue, and is, after all, very seldom adequately acquired.

HINTS ON CLOTHING (p. 67).--_Advantages of Woolen Fabrics_.--Wool is
more irritating than cotton, on account of the stiffness of the hairs with
which it bristles; but the excitation it produces becomes a therapeutic
means whenever the skin needs a stimulant.

The use of wool is particularly desirable in some countries and under some
conditions of life. Professor Brocchi, a writer well known for his
investigations in malaria, attributes the good health and vigor of the
ancient Romans to their habit of wearing coarse woolen clothes; when they
began to disuse them, and to wear lighter goods and silks, they became
less vigorous and less able to resist the morbid influence of bad air. It
was at about the time the women began to dress in notably fine tissues
that the insalubrity of the Roman air began first to be complained of. "In
the English army and navy," says Dr. Balestra, "the soldiers of garrisons
in unhealthy places are obliged constantly to wear wool next to the skin,
and to cover themselves with sufficient clothing, for protection against
paludine fevers, dysentery, cholera, and other diseases." According to
Patissier, similar measures have been found effectual in preserving the
health of workmen employed on dikes, canals, and ditches, in marshy lands;
while, previous to the employment of these precautions, mortality from
fevers was considerable among them.

Dr. Balestra has proved by direct experiments in marshy regions that thick
and hairy woolen garments arrest in their down a portion of the germs
borne in by the air, which thus reaches the skin filtered and purified.
The ancient Romans wore ample over-garments over their tunics, and never
put them away. It is no less important to be well covered during the
night; and precautions of this kind should be recommended to all who live
in a swampy country. We are sometimes astonished when we see the natives
of particularly warm countries enveloped in woolen, as the Arab in his
burnoose, or the Spanish peasant in his tobacco-colored cloak. Such
materials protect both against the rays of the sun and against the
coolness of the night, and are excellent regulators of heat. It is
dangerously imprudent to travel in southern countries without provision of
warm clothing.--_Revue des Deux Mondes_.

_Weight is not Warmth_.--While speaking of the warmth of clothing for
inclement weather, it would be incorrect not to speak of weight in
relation to warmth. Many persons mistake weight for warmth, and thus
feeble people are actually borne down and weakened by the excess of heavy
clothing which is piled on them. Good woolen or fur fabrics retain the
heat, and yet are light. When fabrics intended for sustaining warmth are
made up of cotton, the mistake of accepting weight for warmth is made. The
same errors are often made in respect to bed coverings, and with the same

_Poisonously Dyed Clothing_.--The introduction of wearing apparel,
socks, stockings, and flannels which have been made, by new processes of
dyeing, to assume a rich red or yellow color, has led to a local disease
of the skin, attended, in rare cases, with slight constitutional symptoms.
This disease is due to the dyestuffs. The chief poisonous dyes are the red
and yellow coralline, substances derived from that series of chemical
bodies which have been obtained of late years from coal tar, and commonly
known as the aniline series.

The coloring principle is extremely active as a local poison. It induces
on the skin a reddish, slightly raised eruption of minute round pimples
which stud the reddened surface, and which, if the irritation be severe
and long-continued, pass into vesicles discharging a thin watery ichor and
producing a superficial sore. The disease is readily curable if the cause
of it be removed, and, as a general rule, it is purely local in character.
I have, however, once seen it pass beyond the local stage. A young
gentleman consulted me for what he considered was a rapidly developed
attack of erysipelas on the chest and back. He was, indeed, covered with
an intensely red rash, and he was affected with nervous symptoms, with
faintness and depression of pulse, of a singular and severe kind. I traced
both the local eruption and the general malady to the effect of the
organic dye in a red woolen chest and back "comforter." On removing the
"comforter" all the symptoms ceased. Similar and even fatal cases have
been known from the wearing of highly colored hose.

_Uncleanliness of Dress_.--Uncleanly attire creates conditions
favorable to disease. Clothing worn too long at a time becomes saturated
with the excretions and exhalations of the body, and, by preventing the
free transpiration from the surface of the skin, induces oppression of the
physical powers and mental inactivity. This observation will be accepted
by most persons as true in respect to underclothing; it is equally true in
regard to those outer garments which are often worn, unremittingly, until
the linings, torn and soiled, are unfit altogether for contact with the
cleaner garments beneath them. Health will not be clothed in dirty
raiment. They who wear such raiment suffer from trains of minor
complaints; from oppression, dullness, headache, nausea, which, though
trifling in themselves, taken one by one, when put together greatly reduce
that standard of perfect health by which the value of life is correctly
and effectively maintained.--RICHARDSON.


THE VOCAL ORGANS.--_Musical Tones in Speaking_ (p. 76).--Voice is
divided into singing and speaking voice. One differs from the other almost
as much as noises do from musical sounds. In speaking, the sounds are too
short to be easily appreciable, and are not separated by fixed and regular
intervals, like those of singing; they are linked together, generally by
insensible transitions; they are not united by the fixed relations of the
gamut, and can only be noted with difficulty. That it is the short
duration of speaking sounds which distinguished them from those of
singing, is proved by this, that if we prolong the intonation of a
syllable, or utter it like a note, the musical sound becomes evident. So,
if we pronounce all the syllables of a phrase in the same tone, the
speaking voice closely resembles psalm singing. Every one must have
noticed this in hearing schoolboys recite or read in a monotone, and the
analogy is complete when the last two or three syllables are pronounced in
a different tone. Spoken voice is, moreover, always a chant more or less
marked, according to the individual and the sentiment which the words
express....It is related of Gretry, that he amused himself by noting as
exactly as possible the "Bonjour, monsieur!" (Good day, sir!) of the
persons who visited him; and these words expressed by their intonation, in
fact, the most opposite sentiments, in spite of the constant identity of
the literal sense.

_Speech without a Tongue_.--De Jussieu relates that he saw a girl
fifteen years old, in Lisbon, who was born without a tongue, and yet who
spoke so distinctly as not to excite in the minds of those who listened to
her the least suspicion of the absence of that organ.

The Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1742) contain an account
of a woman who had not the slightest vestige of a tongue, but who could,
notwithstanding, drink, eat, and speak as well and as distinctly as any
one, and even articulate the words in singing. Other instances have been
known where individuals, after losing a portion of the tongue by accident
or disease, have again been able to speak after a longer or shorter
period.--LE PILEUR.

_Stimulants and the Voice_.--"The Drinker's Throat" is a recognized
pathological condition, and the Germans have a popular phrase, "He drinks
his throat away." Isambert has pointed out the directly local irritant
effect of both alcohol and tobacco on the throat, and also the mode by
which these agents, on absorption into the system, re-manifest their
presence by predisposing to local pharyngeal inflammations. Dr. Krishaber
affirms: "It is generally admitted that alcoholic beverages and tobacco
irritate the mucous membrane of the throat, directly affect the voice, and
leave on it ineffaceable traces. We hold with equal certainty that tea and
coffee, although not directly affecting the voice, do so indirectly by
acting on the nervous system, and through it the vocal organs, as well as
by, some general nervous derangement not very pronounced, but great enough
to deprive the singer of the full powers and capabilities of his voice."

Dr. Mackenzie says: "The influence of the general health upon the voice is
very marked. Alcohol and tobacco should never be used. The hoarse tones of
the confirmed votary of Bacchus are due to chronic inflammation of the
lining membrane of the larynx; the originally smooth surface being
roughened and thickened by the irritation of alcohol, the vocal cords have
less freedom of movement, and their vibrations are blurred, or rather
muffled, by the unevenness of their contiguous edges."

A young American lady of marked musical gifts once asked Adelina Patti's
advice upon preparing for the stage. She found the great singer wrapped in
furs, although the weather was not severe. After hearing her visitor,
Patti replied: "Are you willing to give up _everything_ for your art?
If you wish to succeed, you must learn to eat moderately, take no
stimulants--not even tea or coffee--keep as regular hours as possible
consistent with your public appearance, and even deny yourself the luxury
of friends. When you hear of a great vocalist giving extravagant wine
suppers, you may be sure that the singer herself takes nothing. To be a
successful _artiste_ you must be married, soul and body, to your
art." Like the young man to whom Christ spake, the young woman "went away
sorrowful," and, balancing the terms, concluded to forego the contest.

ABDOMINAL RESPIRATION (p. 8l).--It has often been stated that the
respiration of woman differs from that of man, in being limited almost
entirely to the chest. In order to investigate this subject
scientifically, Dr. Mays, of Philadelphia, devised an ingenious instrument
for examining the respiration of the native Indian girls in the Lincoln
Institution. The girls had not yet been subjected to the restrictions of
civilized dress. He says:

"In all, I examined the movements of eighty-two chests, and in each case
took an abdominal and a costal tracing. The girls were partly pure and
partly mixed with white blood, and their ages ranged from between ten and
twenty years. Thus there were thirty-three full-blooded Indians, five one
fourth, thirty-five one half, and two three fourths white. _Seventy-
five_ showed a _decided abdominal_ type of breathing, three a
costal type, and three in which both were about even. _Those who showed
the costal type, or a divergence from the abdominal type, came from the
more civilized tribes_, like the Mohawks and Chippewas, and were either
_one half_ or _three fourths white_; while in _no single
instance_ did a full-blooded Indian girl possess this type of

"From these observations it obviously follows that, so far as the Indian
is concerned, the abdominal is the original type of respiration in both
male and female, and that the costal type in the civilized female is
developed through the constricting influence of dress around the abdomen.
While these tracings were taken an incident occurred which demonstrated
that abdominal constriction could modify the movements of the thorax
during respiration. At my first visit to the institution I obtained an
exceptional costal type of respiration from a full-blooded Indian girl. At
my next visit I concluded to repeat this observation, and found that,
contrary to my instructions concerning loose clothing, etc., this girl at
my first visit had worn three tight belts around her abdomen. After these
were removed she gave the abdominal type of breathing, which is
characteristic of nearly all the Indian girls."

To us these facts are invaluable. It shows the faulty construction of
modern female dress, which restricts the motion of abdominal respiration.
It explains why, as experience has taught us, it is necessary to restore
this abdominal rhythm, by proper movements, in order permanently to cure
the affections of the lower portion of the trunk. It demonstrates
conclusively that woman's dress, to be injurious, needs only to interfere
with the proper motion of respiration, even though it exercises not the
slightest compression.--_Health Record_.

THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASE (p. 86).--_What are Disease Germs?_--
Microscopical investigation has revealed throughout Nature, in the air, in
water--especially when it contains organic matter, and even within the
bodies of persons and animals, myriads of infinitesimal active organisms
which live, multiply, and die in endless succession. These have been named
_bacteria_ (bacterium, a rod, so called from the general rod shape
first observed), and also _microbes_ (microbe, a small living
object). Some investigators apply the latter term as a general one,
limiting the former to such microbes as are believed to be special disease
producers. The "Germ Theory" teaches that the seeds or _spores_ of
bacteria, floating in the air we breathe or in the water we drink, are
taken into our bodies where, under conditions favorable to their growth,
they develop, multiply, and, each after its own species, produce
distinctive evil results.--Thus, according to this theory, there are
special varieties of microbes that cause, respectively, diphtheria,
erysipelas, scarlatina, cholera, etc.--One of the most common microbes in
nature is the bacterium of putrefaction, found everywhere in decaying
organic matter. [Footnote: This is the microbe found in impure water. If
we take half a glass of spring or river water, and leave it uncovered for
a few days, we shall observe upon it a thin coating of what appears to be
a fine dust. Place, now, a drop of this dusty water under a cover glass,
and examine it under a microscope with a magnifying power of about five
hundred diameters. The revelation is astonishing. "The whole field of the
microscope is in motion; hundreds of bacteria, resembling minute
transparent worms, are swimming in every direction with an undulatory
motion like that of an eel or snake. Some are detached, others united in
pairs, others in chains or chaplets or cylindrical rods....All these forms
represent the different transformations of _Bacterium termo_, or the
microbe of putrefaction. Those which are dead appear as small, rigid, and
immovable rods."--TROUESSART.]

By the species of microbes called ferments all fermented liquors are
artificially produced (see p. 132); these also cause the "rising" of
bread.--These wonderful little existences are thus made to perform an
important part in the economy of Nature. "Nourished at the expense of
putrefying organic matter, they reduce its complex constituents into
soluble mineral substances, which they return to the soil to serve afresh
for the nourishment of similar plants. Thus they clear the surface of the
earth from dead bodies and fecal matter, and from all the useless
substances which are the refuse of life; and thus they unite animals and
plants in an endless chain."--TROUESSART.

_How Disease Germs Grow_.--Experiments having shown that no life is
known to spring from inanimate matter, we may reasonably suppose that just
as wheat does not grow except from seed, so no disease occurs without some
disease germ to produce it. Then, again, we may logically assume that each
disease is due to the development of a particular kind of germ. If we
plant smallpox germs, we do not reap a crop of scarlatina or measles; but,
just as wheat springs from wheat, each disease has its own distinctive
germs. Each comes from a parent stock, and has existed somewhere
previously....Under ordinary circumstances, these germs, though nearly
always present, are comparatively few in number, and in an extremely dry
and indurated state. Hence, they may frequently enter our bodies without
meeting with the conditions essential to their growth; for experiments
have shown that it is very difficult to moisten them, and till they are
moistened, they do not begin to develop. In a healthy system they remain
inactive. But anything tending to weaken or impair the bodily organs,
furnishes favorable conditions, and thus epidemics almost always originate
and are most fatal in those quarters of our great cities where dirt,
squalor, and foul air render sound health almost an impossibility....
Having once got a beginning, epidemics rapidly spread. The germs are then
sent into the air in great numbers, and in a moist state; and the
probabilities of their entering, and of their establishing themselves
even in healthy bodies, are vastly increased....Climate and the weather
have also much influence on the vitality of these germs. Cold is a
preventive against some diseases, heat against others. Tyndall found that
sunlight greatly retarded and sometimes entirely prevented putrefaction;
while dirt is always favorable to the growth and development of germs.
_Sunshine and cleanliness are undoubtedly the best and cheapest
preventives against disease.--"Disease Germs" Chambers's Journal_.

You know the exquisitely truthful figures employed in the New Testament
regarding leaven. A particle hid in three measures of meal leavens it all.
A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. In a similar manner a particle
of contagium spreads through the human body, and may be so multiplied as
to strike down whole populations. Consider the effect produced upon the
system by a microscopic quantity of the virus of smallpox. That virus is
to all intents and purposes a seed. It is sown as leaven is sown, it grows
and multiplies as leaven grows and multiplies, and it always reproduces
itself....Contagia are living things, which demand certain elements of
life, just as inexorably as trees, or wheat, or barley; and it is not
difficult to see that a crop of a given parasite may so far use up a
constituent existing in small quantities in the body, but essential in the
growth of the parasite, as to render the body unfit for the production of
a second crop. The soil is exhausted; and until the lost constituent is
restored, the body is protected from any further attack from the same
disorder. To exhaust a soil, however, a parasite less vigorous and
destructive than the really virulent one may suffice; and if, after
having, by means of a feebler organism, exhausted the soil without fatal
result, the most highly virulent parasite be introduced into the system,
it will prove powerless. This, in the language of the germ theory, is the
whole secret of vaccination.--TYNDALL.

_Disease Germs Contained in Atmospheric Dust_.--Take the extracted
juice of beef or mutton, so prepared as to be perfectly transparent, and
entirely free from the living germs of bacteria. Into the clear liquid let
fall the tiniest drop of an infusion charged with the bacteria of
putrefaction. Twenty-four hours subsequently, the clear extract will be
found muddy throughout, the turbidity being due to swarms of bacteria
generated by the drop with which the infusion was inoculated. At the same
time the infusion will have passed from a state of sweetness to a state of
putridity. Let a drop similar to that which has produced this effect fall
into an open wound: the juices of the living body nourish the bacteria as
the beef or mutton juice nourished them, and you have putrefaction
produced within the system. The air, as I have said, is laden with
floating matter which, when it falls upon the wound, acts substantially
like the drop....A few years ago I was bathing in an Alpine stream, and,
returning to my clothes from the cascade which had been my shower bath, I
slipped upon a block of granite, the sharp crystals of which stamped
themselves into my naked shin. The wound was an awkward one, but, being in
vigorous health at the time, I hoped for a speedy recovery. Dipping a
clean pocket handkerchief into the stream, I wrapped it round the wound,
limped home, and remained for four or five days quietly in bed. There was
no pain, and at the end of this time I thought myself quite fit to quit my
room. The wound, when uncovered, was found perfectly clean, uninflamed,
and entirely free from pus. Placing over it a bit of gold beater's skin, I
walked about all day. Toward evening, itching and heat were felt; a large
accumulation of pus followed, and I was forced to go to bed again. The
water bandage was restored, but it was powerless to check the action now
set up; arnica was applied, but it made matters worse. The inflammation
increased alarmingly, until finally I was ignobly carried on men's
shoulders down the mountain, and transported to Geneva, where, thanks to
the kindness of friends, I was immediately placed in the best medical
hands. On the morning after my arrival in Geneva, Dr. Gautier discovered
an abscess in my instep, at a distance of five inches from the wound. The
two were connected by a channel, or _sinus_, as it is technically
called, through which he was able to empty the abscess without the
application of the lance.

By what agency was that channel formed--what was it that thus tore asunder
the sound tissue of my instep, and kept me for six weeks a prisoner in
bed? In the very room where the water dressing had been removed from my
wound and the gold beater's skin applied to it, I opened this year a
number of tubes, containing perfectly clear and sweet infusions of fish,
flesh, and vegetable. These hermetically sealed infusions had been exposed
for weeks, both to the sun of the Alps and to the warmth of a kitchen,
without showing the slightest turbidity or signs of life. But two days
after they were opened, the greater number of them swarmed with the
bacteria of putrefaction, the germs of which had been contracted from the
dust-laden air of the room. And, had the pus from my abscess been
examined, my memory of its appearance leads me to infer that it would have
been found equally swarming with these bacteria--that it was their germs
which got into my incautiously opened wound. They were the subtile workers
that burrowed down my shin, dug the abscess in my instep, and produced
effects which might well have proved fatal to me.--TYNDALL.

_Disease Germs Carried in Soiled Clothing_ (p. 89).--The conveyance
of cholera germs by bodies of men moving along the lines of human
communication, without necessarily affecting the individuals who transport
them, is now easy to understand; for it is well established that clothes
or linen soiled by cholera patients may not only impart the germs with
which they are contaminated to those who handle them when fresh, but that,
after having been dried and packed, they may infect persons at any
distance who incautiously unfold them. Thus, while the nurses of cholera
patients may, with proper precautions, enjoy an absolute immunity from
attack, the disease germs may be introduced into new localities without
any ostensible indication of their presence. It is obvious that the only
security against such introduction consists in the destruction or thorough
disinfection of every scrap of clothing or linen which has been about the
person of a cholera patient.--DR. CARPENTER.

I have known scarlet fever to be carried by the clothing of a nurse into a
healthy family, and communicate the disease to every member of the family.
I have known cholera to be communicated by the clothes of the affected
person to the women engaged in washing the clothes. I have known smallpox
conveyed by clothes that had been made in a room where the tailor had by
his side sufferers from the terrible malady. I have seen the new cloth,
out of which was to come the riding habit for some innocent child to
rejoice in as she first wore it, undergo the preliminary duty of forming
part of the bed clothing of another child stricken down with fever.
Lastly, I have known scarlet fever, smallpox, typhus, and cholera,
communicated by clothing contaminated in the laundry.--DR. RICHARDSON.

THE SANITARY HOME (see p. 94).--1. _The Site_.--First and foremost of
all the things you are to consider, is the healthfulness of a situation.
The brightest house and cheeriest outlook in nature will be made somber by
the constant presence of a doctor, and the wandering around of an unseen,
but ever felt, specter in the shape of miasm....Malaria-malus, bad; aria,
air--means, in its common definition, simply bad air. Miasma is its
synonym,--infecting effluvia floating in the air. Because, as everybody
knows, certain places have always chills and fever associated with them,
and other places have not, it follows that between such places there is
some fact of difference; this fact is the presence of miasm, a cause of
disease, having a signification associative with the locality....

Vegetation, heat, and moisture: these are the three active agents in the
production of miasma, to which a fourth is to be added, in the influence
of non-drainage, either by the way of the atmosphere or running water. The
strongest example of a malarious locality one might make would be in
suggesting a marshy valley in a tropical climate, so overrun with fixed
water as to destroy a prolific vegetation, yet not covering it enough to
protect the garbage from the putrefying influences of the sun; this
valley, in turn, so environed with hills as to shut off a circulation of
air....Ground newly broken is not unapt to generate miasm. This results
from the sudden exposure of long-buried vegetable matter to the influences
of moisture and heat....It may readily be conceived that malarious
situations exist where the miasm is not sufficient in quantity to produce
the effects of intermittent or bilious fever, yet where there is quite
enough of it to keep a man feeling good for nothing,--he is not sick, but
he is never well. I know of one country seat of this kind, where forty
thousand dollars would not pay for the improvements put upon it, and
where, I am free to declare, I would not think of living, even if, as an
inducement, a free gift were made to me of the place....Besides miasm,
there are other atmospheric associations to be considered. I recall this
moment a distillery, where attempt was made to get clear of the mash by
throwing it into a running stream, with the anticipation of its being
carried to the river, but where, on the contrary, it became a stagnant
putrescent mass, impregnating the air for miles with its unendurable odor,
and inducing such a typhoid tendency that half the countryside were down
with fever....There are, again, situations where the filth and debris of
sewage exercise a poisoning influence on the surrounding atmosphere. This
has its principal application to the neighborhood of cities and towns
drained into adjoining streams. London and the Thames furnish a notable
illustration. A cove, attractive as it is, may prove a receptacle for the
accumulation of dead fish and other offal, which shall make untenable the
charming cottage upon the bank. A deep cove has rarely healthy
surroundings, the circulation of its water being too sluggish to insure
freshness and vitality. Water, like blood, to be healthy, must be in a
state of continuous movement.

A nonobservant man, purchasing a beautiful stream, may be completely
disappointed by finding that the opacity of its water depends upon a
factory, of which he had never so much as heard; he may not let his
children bathe in it, for he may well fear for them the fate of the fish
he so plentifully finds lying dead upon the shore. A poisoned rural stream
is as sad a sight as it has grown to be a common one. Always, before
buying water, know what there is up stream, or what there is likely to be.

Never buy a country house without seeing to it that the foundation stands
upon a higher level than some channel which may drain it, and this, by the
way, is not to consider alone the dry summer day on which you go first to
visit the place; you are to think of the winter and spring. Look to it
that no excess of water shall be able to drown you out; some places, which
in dry weather are glorious, are, in winter and spring, ankle deep in
slush and mire, and everything about them is as wet as a soaked board.
Open the front door of such a house, and a chill strikes you instantly. A
fire must be kept the year round, or otherwise you live in the moisture of
a vault. Places there are of this class where the question of the water
from the kitchen pump comes to absorb the attention of the whole

No shade is an abomination. A bilious fever fattens in the sun as does
miasm in a marshy valley. Too much shade, on the contrary, and too near
the house, is equally of ill import; it keeps things damp, and dampness is
a breeder of pestilence. An atmosphere confined about a house by too dense
foliage is, like the air of an unventilated room, not fit for practical
purposes. The sporadic poisons have an intimate relationship with
dampness; miasm lives in it as does a snail in his shell. Besides this, it
shuts out the cool breath of the summer nights, and makes restless
swelterers where even a blanket might be enjoyed.--DR. JOHN DARBY, _Odd
Hours of a Physician_.

2. _The House_.--So construct the dwelling from foundation to roof
that no dampness can result. Give to the cellar dry walls, a cement floor,
and windows enough to insure constant currents of air. Insist upon such a
system of immediate and perfect sewerage as shall render contamination
impossible. If "modern improvements" are afforded, see that the plumbing
embraces the latest and most scientific sanitary inventions. Do not
economize on this point; health, perhaps life, depends upon the perfect
working of the various traps. Having employed the most skilled and
intelligent plumbers, overlook their work so that you may fully understand
the principle applied.

Provide for ample ventilation in every apartment, above and below. Let the
sleeping rooms be above stairs, and furnished with appliances for moderate
warmth in winter. Treat yourself and your family to as many fireplaces as
possible. Indulge in a spacious piazza, so placed that it will not cut off
the light from the family sitting room, and, if you can, include a balcony
or two, large enough to hold a chair and a table, or a workbasket.
Remember that a house is for convenience and protection _only when you
can not be in the open air_.

3. _The kitchen and the Dust Heap.--Removal of Household Refuse_.--It
has to be assumed, especially where servants are not carefully overlooked,
that the dust heap of most houses will contain more or less decomposing
organic matter, such as bits of meat, scales and refuse of fish, tea and
coffee grounds, and the peelings of vegetables, which, though quite out of
place in the ash heap, are apt surreptitiously to be thrown upon it. Such
matter soon becomes offensive and even dangerous, and a few days'
retention of it in warm weather constitutes a legal nuisance. Household
refuse should be carted away as often as once in two days; in extreme hot
weather, daily. Where it is inexpedient to remove it frequently, it should
be kept covered to the depth of two or three inches with a layer of
powdered charcoal, or freshly burnt lime, or, at least, of clear dry
earth. All soil which has become foul by the soakage of decaying or
vegetable matter should be similarly treated. The refuse heap should be
protected from rain, and liquids should never be thrown upon it. Where
obnoxious matter has been allowed to accumulate, its disturbance for
removal should be conducted with special precaution, both on account of
its temporary offensiveness of odor and the more serious results which may
follow. It can not be too distinctly understood that cleanliness,
ventilation, and dryness are the best of all deodorizers. One of the first
of household regulations should be to see that no unsanitary rubbish
remains in or about the dwelling. Keep the dust heap itself at the
farthest practicable remove from the house. Sow grass seed plentifully
upon the back premises, and induce tidiness in the domestics by having the
kitchen door open upon a well-kept lawn.

_Burning of Garbage_.--The easiest, quickest, and most sanitary
method of disposing of household garbage is to burn it This plan has been
officially recommended by the Boards of Health in various cities. Many
housekeepers have adopted it, and find it so practicable that in New York
City there has become a marked decrease in the amount of household refuse
collected by the scavengers. If, after every meal, the draughts of the
range be opened, and all waste matter be deposited within, a few moments,
or at most, a half hour, will effectually dispose of it, and prevent all
the dangers that arise from its retention and accumulation. In the
country, where there is plenty of ground, nearly all rubbish can be
destroyed in this way and by outside fires, with the additional advantage
that the--E. R. S.

4. _The Sewers and Drains.--How to Keep out Sewer Air_.--The most
perfectly flushed sewers that are made, under the latest and fullest
sanitary light, must, owing to the constant entrance of greasy and other
adhesive material, contain more or less of particles that "stick," and
also more or less of fungi and mold; so that here, shut away from light
and air, goes on the peculiar fermentation that fits it for the soil or
habitat of the malarial germ. These germs, the soil once ready, take
possession and multiply, whether that soil be a sewer or the blood of a
person who sits calmly unconscious in a gorgeous chamber above, with a
small continuation of the sewer extending untrapped up to his washbowl.--

Keep constant watch of your traps and drains. Cultivate the faculty of
detecting sewer gas in the house. Always fear a smell; trace it to its
source and provide a remedy. At the same time, bear in mind that it is not
always the foul smell that is most dangerous. There is a close, sweet odor
often present in bathrooms, and about drains, that is deadly as the Upas
tree. Bad air from neglected drains causes not only fevers, dysentery, and
diphtheria, but asthma and other chronic disorders. Illuminating gas,
escaping from pipes and prevented from exuding by frozen earth, has been
known to pass sidewise for some distance into houses. Thus also the air
from cesspools and porous or broken drains finds its way, when an
examination of the household entrance to the drain fails to reveal the
cause of an existing effluvia. But, however bad the drain may be outside
the house, there is little to fear provided the gas can escape externally.
Every main drain should have a ventilating pipe carried from it directly
outside the house to the top of the highest chimney. The soil pipe inside
the house should be carried up through the roof and be open at the top.

Digging for drains or other purposes should not be allowed when the
mercury stands above 60°; but if, as in repairs of pipes, it becomes
necessary to dig about the house in hot weather, let it be done in the
middle of the day, and replace the turf as speedily as possible. If the
soil be damp, or the district malarious, sprinkle quicklime upon the earth
as fast as it is turned.

_How to Clear Waste Pipes_.--The "sewer gas," about which so much has
been written, and which is so justly dreaded, is not, as many suppose, the
exclusive product of the sewer. Indeed, the foul and dangerous gases are
not only found in the sewers themselves, but in the unventilated waste
pipes, and those which are in process of being clogged by the foul matter
passing through them. Any obstruction in the soil or waste pipes is
therefore doubly dangerous, because it may produce an inflow of foul gas
into the pipe, even though the entrance to the sewer itself has been
entirely cut off.

In pipes leading from the house to the cesspool, there is a constant
accumulation of grease. This enters as a liquid, but hardens as the water
cools, and is deposited on the bottom and sides of the pipes. As these
accumulations increase, the water way is gradually contracted, till the
pipe is closed.

When the pipe is entirely stopped, or allows the water to fall away by
drops only, proceed thus: Empty the pipe down to the trap, as far as
practicable, by "mopping up" with a cloth. If the water flows very slowly,
begin when the pipe has at last emptied itself. Fill the pipe up with
potash, crowding it with a stick. Then allow hot water to trickle upon the
potash, or pour the hot water upon it in a small stream, stopping as soon
as the pipe appears to be filled. As the potash dissolves and disappears,

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