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History of Negro Soldiers in the Spanish-American War, and Other Items of Interest by Edward A. Johnson

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of the Negro as a soldier is no longer a debatable question.

It has been proven fully in one of the sharpest fights of the past
three years.

* * * * *


"What Army Officers and Others Have to Say of the Negroes Conduct in
War"--"Give Honor to Whom Honor is Due"--"Acme of Bravery."

It has been said, "Give honor to whom honor is due," and while it is
just and right that it should be so, there are times, however, when
the "honor" due is withheld. Ever since the battle of San Juan Hill at
Santiago de Cuba nearly every paper in the land has had nothing but
praise for the bravery shown by the "Rough Riders," and to the extent
that, not knowing the truth, one would naturally arrive at the
conclusion that the "Rough Riders" were "the whole thing." Although
sometimes delayed, the truth, like murder, "will out." It is well
enough to praise the "Rough Riders" for all they did, but why not
divide honors with the other fellows who made it possible for them,
the "Rough Riders," to receive praise, and be honored by a generous
and valorous loving nation?

After the battles of El Caney and San Juan Hill, many wounded American
soldiers who were able to travel were given furloughs to their
respective homes in the United States, and Lieutenant Thomas Roberts,
of this city, was one of them. Shortly after Lieutenant Roberts
arrived in the city he was interviewed by a representative of the
_Illinois State Register_, to whom he gave a description of the battle
of July 1st. He said: "On the night of June 30th the second squadron
of the Tenth Cavalry did outpost duty. Daylight opened on the
soon-to-be blood-sodden field on July 1st, and the Tenth was ordered
to the front. First went the first squadron, followed soon after by
the second, composed of Troops G, I, B and A. The Tenth Cavalry is
composed of Negroes, commanded by white officers, and I have naught
but the highest praise for the swarthy warriors on the field of
carnage. Led by brave men, they will go into the thickest of the
fight, even to the wicked mouths of deadly cannon, unflinchingly."

Lieutenant Roberts says further that "at 9 o'clock on the morning of
July 1st the order came to move. Forward we went, until we struck a
road between two groves, which road was swept by a hail of shot and
shell from Spanish guns. The men stood their ground as if on dress
parade. Single file, every man ready to obey any command, they bade
defiance to the fiercest storm of leaden hail that ever hurtled over a
troop of United States cavalry. The order came, 'Get under cover,' and
the Seventy-first New York and the Tenth Cavalry took opposite sides
of the road and lay down in the bushes. For a short time no orders
came, and feeling a misapprehension of the issue, I hastened forward
to consult with the first lieutenant of the company. We found that
through a misinterpreted order the captain of the troop and eight
men had gone forward. Hastening back to my post I consulted with the
captain in the rear of Troop G, and the quartermaster appeared upon
the scene asking the whereabouts of the Tenth Cavalry. They made known
their presence, and the quartermaster told them to go on, showing the
path, the quartermaster led them forward until the bend in the
San Juan River was reached. Here the first bloodshed in the Tenth
occurred, a young-volunteer named Baldwin fell, pierced by a Spanish

An aide hastened up and gave the colonel of the regiment orders to
move forward. The summit of the hill was crowned by two block-houses,
and from these came an unceasing fire. Lieutenant Roberts said he had
been lying on the ground but rose to his knees to repeat an order,
"Move forward," when a mauser ball struck him in the abdomen and
passed entirely through his body. Being wounded, he was carried off of
the field, but after all was over, Lieutenant Roberts says it was said
(on the quiet, of course) that "the heroic charge of the Tenth Cavalry
saved the 'Rough Riders' from destruction." Lieutenant Roberts says
he left Cuba on the 12th of July for Fort Monroe, and that a wounded
Rough Rider told him while coming over that "had it not been for the
Tenth Cavalry the Rough Riders would never passed through the seething
cauldron of Spanish missiles." Such is the statement of one of
Springfield's best citizens, a member of the Tenth Cavalry, United
States regulars.


Some days later, Lieutenant Roberts had occasion to visit Chicago and
Fort Sheridan, and while there he was interviewed by a representative
of the Chicago Chronicle, to whom he related practically the same
story as above stated, "You probably know my regiment is made up
exclusively of Negroes except for the commissioned officers, and I
want to say right here that those men performed deeds of heroism on
that day which have no parallel in the history of warfare. They were
under fire from six in the morning until 1:30 in the afternoon, with
strict orders not to return the hail of lead, and not a man in those
dusky ranks flinched. Our brigade was instructed to move forward
soon after 1 o'clock to assault the series of blockhouses which was
regarded as impregnable by the foreign attaches. As the aide dashed
down our lines with orders from headquarters the boys realized the
prayed-for charge was about to take place and cheered lustily. Such a
charge! Will I ever forget that sublime spectacle? There was a river
called San Juan, from the hill hard by, but which historians will term
the pool of blood. Our brigade had to follow the course of that creek
fully half a mile to reach the point selected for the grand attack.
With what cheering did the boys go up that hill! Their naked bodies
seemed to present a perfect target to the fire of the dons, but they
never flinched. When the command reached the famous stone blockhouse
it was commanded by a second sergeant, who was promoted on the field
of battle for extraordinary bravery. San Juan fell many minutes before
El Caney, which was attacked first, and I think the Negro soldiers can
be thanked for the greater part of that glorious work. All honor to
the Negro soldiers! No white man, no matter what his ancestry may
be, should be ashamed to greet any of those Negro cavalrymen with
out-stretched hand. The swellest of the Rough Riders counted our
troopers among their best friends and asked them to their places in
New York when they returned, and I believe the wealthy fellows will
prove their admiration had a true inspiration."

Thus we see that while the various newspapers of the country
are striving to give the Rough Riders first honors, an honest,
straightforward army officer who was there and took an active part in
the fight, does not hesitate to give honor to whom honor is due, for
he says, "All honor to the Negro soldiers," and that it was they who
"saved the Rough Riders from destruction." And right here I wish to
call the reader's attention to another very important matter and that
is, while it has been said heretofore that the Negro soldier was not
competent to command, does not the facts in the case prove, beyond a
doubt, that there is no truth in the statement whatever? If a white
colonel was "competent" to lead his command into the fight, it seems
that a colored sergeant was competent extraordinary, for he not only
went into the fight, but he, and his command, "done something,"
done the enemy out of the trenches, "saved the Rough Riders from
destruction," and planted the Stars and Stripes on the blockhouse.

Just before the charge, one of the foreign attaches, an Englishman,
was heard to say that he did not see how the blockhouse was to be
reached without the aid of cannon; but after the feat had been
accomplished, a colored soldier said, "We showed him how."

Now that the colored soldier has proven to this nation, and the
representatives of others, that he can, and does fight, as well as the
"other fellow," and that he is also "competent" to command, it remains
to be seen if the national government will give honor to whom honor is
due, by honoring those deserving, with commissions.

Under the second call for volunteers by the President, the State of
Illinois raised a regiment of colored soldiers, and Governor Tanner
officered that regiment with colored officers from colonel down; and
that, as you might say, before they had earned their "rank." Now the
question is, can the national government afford to do less by those,
who have earned, and are justly entitled to, a place in the higher
ranks? We shall see.


Springfield, Ill.

* * * * *


Testimony is multiplying of the bravery of the colored troops at
Santiago de Cuba July 1st and 2d, 1898.

Testimony is adduced to show that these "marvels of warfare" actually
fought without officers and executed movements under a galling fire
which would have puzzled a recruit on parade ground. The Boston
Journal of the 31st, in its account, gives the following
interview-Mason Mitchell (white) said:

"We were in a valley when we started, but made at once for a trail
running near the top of a ridge called La Quasina, several hundred
feet high, which, with several others parallel to it, extended in the
direction of Santiago. By a similar trail near the top of the ridge to
our right several companies of Negro troopers of the Ninth and Tenth
United States Cavalry marched in scout formation, as we did. We had an
idea about where the Spaniards were and depended upon Cuban scouts to
warn us but they did not do it. At about 8:30 o'clock in the morning
we met a volley from the enemy, who were ambushed, not only on our
ridge, but on the one to the right, beyond the Negro troops, and the
Negro soldiers were under a cross fire. That is how Capt. Capron and
Hamilton Fish were killed."

It says: "Handsome young Sergt. Stewart, the Rough Rider protege of
Henry W. Maxwell, when he was telling of the fight in the ambush, gave
it as his opinion that the Rough Riders would have been whipped out if
the Tenth Cavalry (colored) had not come up just in time to drive
the Spaniards back. 'I'm a Southerner, from New Mexico, and I never
thought much of the 'nigger' before. Now I know what they are made of.
I respect them. They certainly can fight like the devil and they don't
care for bullets any more than they do for the leaves that shower down
on them. I've changed my opinion of the colored folks, for all of the
men that I saw fighting, there were none to beat the Tenth Cavalry and
the colored infantry at Santiago, and I don't mind saying so.'"

The description which follows is interesting: "It was simply grand to
see how those young fellows, and old fellows, too, men who were rich
and had been the petted of society in the city, walk up and down the
lines while their clothes were powdered by the dust from exploding
shells and torn by broken fragments cool as could be and yelling to
the men to lay low and take good aim, or directing some squad to take
care of a poor devil who was wounded. Why, at times there when the
bullets were so thick they mowed the grass down like grass cutters in
places, the officers stood looking at the enemy through glasses as if
they were enjoying the scene, and now and then you'd see a Captain or
a Lieutenant pick up a gun from a wounded or dead man and blaze
away himself at some good shot that he had caught sight of from his
advantage point. Those sights kind of bring men together and make
them think more of each other. And when a white man strayed from his
regiment and falls wounded it rather affects him to have a Negro, shot
himself a couple of times, take his carbine and make a splint of it
to keep a torn limb together for the white soldier, and then, after
lifting him to one side, pick up the wounded man's rifle and go back
to the fight with as much vigor as ever. Yes, sir, we boys have
learned something down there, even if some of us were pretty badly
torn for it."

Another witness testifies: "Trooper Lewis Bowman, another of the brave
Tenth Cavalry, had two ribs broken by a Spanish shell while before San
Juan. He told of the battle as follows:"

"'The Rough Riders had gone off in great glee, bantering up and
good-naturedly boasting that they were going ahead to lick the
Spaniards without any trouble, and advising us to remain where we were
until they returned, and they would bring back some Spanish heads as
trophies. When we heard firing in the distance, our Captain remarked
that some one ahead was doing good work. The firing became so heavy
and regular that our officers, without orders, decided to move forward
and reconnoitre When we got where we could see what was going on we
found that the Rough Riders had marched down a sort of canon between
the mountains. The Spaniards had men posted at the entrance, and as
soon as the Rough Riders had gone in had about closed up the rear
and were firing upon the Rough Riders from both the front and rear.
Immediately the Spaniards in the rear received a volley from our men
of the Tenth Cavalry (colored) without command. The Spaniards were
afraid we were going to flank them, and rushed out of ambush, in front
of the Rough Riders, throwing up their hands and shouting, 'Don't
shoot; we are Cubans.'"

"The Rough Riders thus let them escape, and gave them a chance to take
a better position ahead. During all this time the men were in all the
tall grass and could not see even each other and I feared the Rough
Riders in the rear shot many of their men in the front, mistaking them
for Spanish soldiers. By this time the Tenth Cavalry had fully taken
in the situation, and, adopting the method employed in fighting
the Indians, were able to turn the tide of battle and repulse the

He speaks plainly when he says:

"I don't think it an exaggeration to say that if it had not been for
the timely aid of the Tenth Cavalry (colored) the Rough Riders would
have been exterminated. This is the unanimous opinion, at least, of
the men of the Tenth Cavalry. I was in the fight of July 1, and it was
in that fight that I received my wound. We were under fire in that
fight about forty-eight hours, and were without food and with but
little water. We had been cut off from our pack train, as the Spanish
sharpshooters shot our mules as soon as they came anywhere near the
lines, and it was impossible to move supplies. Very soon after the
firing began our Colonel was killed, and the most of our other
officers were killed or wounded, so that the greater part of that
desperate battle was fought by some of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry
without officers; or, at least, if there were any officers around, we
neither saw them nor heard their commands. The last command I heard
our Captain give was:"

"'Boys, when you hear my whistle, lie flat down on the ground.'"

"Whether he ever whistled or not I do not know. The next move we made
was when, with a terrific yell, we charged up to the Spanish trenches
and bayoneted and clubbed them out of their places in a jiffy. Some of
the men of our regiment say that the last command they heard was: 'To
the rear!' But this command they utterly disregarded and charged to
the front until the day was won, and the Spaniards, those not dead in
the trenches, fled back to the city."


But a colored man, Wm. H. Brown, a member of the Tenth Cavalry, said:

"A foreign officer, standing near our position when we started out to
make that charge, was heard to say; 'Men, for heaven's sake, don't
go up that hill! It will be impossible for human beings to take that
position! You can't stand the fire!' Notwithstanding this, with a
terrific yell we rushed up the enemy's works, and you know the result.
Men who saw him say that when this officer saw us make the charge he
turned his back upon us and wept."

"And the odd thing about it all is that these wounded heroes never
will admit that they did anything out of the common. They will
talk all right about those 'other fellows,' but they don't about
themselves, and were immensely surprised when such a fuss was made
over them on their arrival and since. They simply believed they had a
duty to perform and performed it."--Planet.

* * * * *



"The Ninth and Tenth Cavalry are composed of the bravest lot of
soldiers I ever saw. They held the ground that Roosevelt retreated
from and saved them from annihilation."

To a Massachusetts soldier in another group of interviewers, the same
question was put: "How about the colored soldiers?"

"They fought like demons," came the answer.

"Before El Caney was taken the Spaniards were on the heights of San
Juan with heavy guns. All along our line an assault was made and the
enemy was holding us off with terrible effect. From their blockhouse
on the hill came a magazine of shot. Shrapnell shells fell in our
ranks, doing great damage. Something had to be done or the day would
have been lost. The Ninth and part of the Tenth Cavalry moved across
into a thicket near by. The Spaniards rained shot upon them. They
collected and like a flash swept across the plains and charged up the
hill. The enemy's guns were used with deadly effect. On and on they
went, charging with the fury of madness. The blockhouse was captured,
the enemy fled and we went into El Caney."

In another group a trooper from an Illinois regiment was explaining
the character of the country and the effect of the daily rains upon
the troops. Said he:

"Very few colored troops are sick. They stood the climate better and
even thrived on the severity of army life."

Said he: "I never had much use for a 'nigger' and didn't want him
in the fight. He is all right, though. He makes a good soldier and
deserves great credit."

Another comrade near by related the story as told by a cavalry
lieutenant, who with a party reconnoitered a distance from camp. The
thick growth of grass and vines made ambuscading a favorite pastime
with the Spaniards. With smokeless powder they lay concealed in the
grass. As the party rode along the sharp eye of a colored cavalryman
noticed the movement of grass ahead. Leaning over his horse with sword
in hand he plucked up an enemy whose gun was levelled at the officer.
The Spaniard was killed by the Negro who himself fell dead, shot by
another. He had saved the life of his lieutenant and lost his own.

A comrade of the Seventeenth Infantry gave his testimony. Said he:

"I shall never forget the 1st of July. At one time in the engagement
of that day the Twenty-first Infantry had faced a superior force of
Spaniards and were almost completely surrounded. The Twenty-fourth
Infantry, of colored troops, seeing the perilous position of the
Twenty-first, rushed to the rescue, charged and routed the enemy,
thereby saving the ill-fated regiment."

Col. Joseph Haskett, of the Seventeenth regular Infantry, testifies to
the meritorious conduct of the Negro troops. Said he:

"Our colored soldiers are 100 percent superior to the Cuban. He is a
good scout, brave soldier, and not only that, but is everywhere to be
seen building roads for the movement of heavy guns."

Among the trophies of war brought to Old Point were a machete, the
captured property of a colored trooper, a fine Spanish sword, taken
from an officer and a little Cuban lad about nine years old, whose
parents had bled for Cuba. His language and appearance made him the
cynosure of all eyes. He was dressed in a little United States uniform
and had pinned to his clothing a tag which read: "Santiago buck, care
of Col. C.L. Wilson, Manhattan Club, New York." His name is Vairrames
y Pillero.

He seemed to enjoy the shower of small coin that fell upon him from
the hotels. His first and only English words were "Moocha Moona."

These fragments were gathered while visiting at Old Point Comfort
recently. They serve to show the true feeling of the whites for their
brave black brother.

A.E. MEYZEEK, in the Freeman.

Louisville, Ky.


The following is what the New York Mail and Express says respecting
the good services being rendered by our black soldier boys:

"All honors to the black troopers of the gallant Tenth! No more
striking example of bravery and coolness has been shown since the
destruction of the Maine than by the colored veterans of the Tenth
Cavalry during the attack upon Caney on Saturday. By the side of the
intrepid Rough Riders they followed their leader up the terrible hill
from whose crest the desperate Spaniards poured down a deadly fire of
shell and musketry. They never faltered. The tents in their ranks
were filled as soon as made. Firing as they marched, their aim was
splendid, their coolness was superb, and their courage aroused the
admiration of their comrades. Their advance was greeted with wild
cheers from the white regiment's, and with an answering shout they
pressed onward over the trenches they had taken close in the pursuit
of the retreating enemy. The war has not shown greater heroism. The
men whose own freedom was baptized with blood have proved themselves
capable of giving up their lives that others may be free. To-day is a
glorious Fourth for all races 'of people in this great land."

* * * * *


The test of the Negro soldier has been applied and today the whole
world stands amazed at the valor and distinctive bravery shown by the
men, who, in the face of a most galling fire, rushed onward while
shot and shell tore fearful gaps in their ranks. These men, the Tenth
Cavalry, did not stop to ask was it worth while for them to lay down
their lives for the honor of a country that has silently allowed her
citizens to be killed and maltreated in almost every conceivable way;
they did not stop to ask would their death bring deliverance to their
race from mob violence and lynching. They saw their duty and did it!
The New York Journal catches inspiration from the wonderful courage of
the Tenth Cavalry and writes these words:

"The two most picturesque and most characteristically American
commands in General Shafter's army bore off the great honors of a day
in which all won honor."

"No man can read the story in to-day's Journal of the 'Rough Riders'
charge on the blockhouse at El Caney of Theodore Roosevelt's mad
daring in the face of what seemed certain death without having his
pulses beat faster and some reflected light of the fire of battle
gleam from his eyes."

"And over against this scene of the cowboy and the college graduate,
the New York man about town and the Arizona bad man united in one
coherent war machine, set the picture of the Tenth United States
Cavalry-the famous colored regiment. Side by side with Roosevelt's men
they fought-these black men. Scarce used to freedom themselves, they
are dying that Cuba may be free. Their marksmanship was magnificent,
say the eye witnesses. Their courage was superb. They bore themselves
like veterans, and gave proof positive that out of nature's naturally
peaceful, careless and playful military discipline and an inspiring
cause can make soldiers worthy to rank with Caesar's legions or
Cromwell's army."

"The Rough Riders and the Black Regiment. In those two commands is an
epitome of almost our whole national character."



The good nature of the Negro soldier is remarkable. He is always fond
of a joke and never too tired to enjoy one. Officers have wondered to
see a whole company of them, at the close of a long practice march,
made with heavy baggage, chasing a rabbit which some one may have
started. They will run for several hundred yards whooping and yelling
and laughing, and come back to camp feeling as if they had had lots of
fun, the white soldier, even if not tired, would never see any joke in
rushing after a rabbit. To the colored man the diversion is a delight.

In caring for the sick, the Negro's tenderheartedness is conspicuous.
On one of the transports loaded with sick men a white soldier asked
to be helped to his bunk below. No one of his color stirred, but two
Negro convalescents at once went to his assistance. When volunteers
were called for to cook for the sick, only Negroes responded. They
were pleased to be of service to their officers. If the Captain's
child is ill, every man in the company is solicitous; half of them
want to act as nurse. They feel honored to be hired to look after an
officer's horse and clothing. The "striker" as he is called, soon gets
to look on himself as a part of his master; it is no "Captain has been
ordered away," but "We have been ordered away." Every concern of his
employer about which he knows interests him, and a slight to his
superior is vastly more of an offence than if offered to himself.
Indeed, if the army knew how well officers of the colored regiments
are looked after by their men, there would be less disinclination to
serve in such commands. After years with a Negro company, officers
find it difficult to get along with white soldiers. They must be much
more careful to avoid hurting sensibilities, and must do without many
little services to which they have been accustomed.

* * * * *


For many years she has known and admired Miss Barton and against the
advice of her friends had resolved to help Miss Barton in her task of
succoring the sufferers in Cuba.

During the second day's fighting Mrs. Porter, escorted by a general
whom she has known for many years, rode almost to the firing line.
Bullets whistled about her head, but she rode bravely on until her
curiosity was satisfied. Then she rode leisurely back to safety. She
came back filled with admiration of the colored troops. She
described them as being "brave in battle, obedient under orders and
philosophical under privations."

Thanks to Mrs. Porter, the wife of the President's private secretary.
Mrs. Porter is one of heaven's blessings, sent as a messenger of "The
Ship" earth, to testify in America what she saw of the Negro troops in

* * * * *


(As Presented in the N.Y. World.)

General Shafter put a human rope of 22,400 men around Santiago, with
its 26,000 Spanish soldiers, and then Spain succumbed in despair. In
a semi-circle extending around Santiago, from Daliquiri on the east
clear around to Cobre on the west, our troops were stretched a cordon
of almost impenetrable thickness and strength. First came General
Bates, with the Ninth, Tenth, Third, Thirteenth, Twenty-first and
Twenty-fourth U.S. Infantry. On his right crouched General Sumner,
commanding the Third, Sixth and Ninth U.S. Cavalry. Next along the arc
were the Seventh, Twelfth and Seventeenth U.S. Infantry under General
Chaffee. Then, advantageously posted, there were six batteries of
artillery prepared to sweep the horizon under direction of General
Randolph. General Jacob Kent, with the Seventy-first New York
Volunteers and the Sixth and Sixteenth U.S. Infantry, held the centre.
They were flanked by General Wheeler and the Rough Riders, dismounted;
eight troops of the First U.S. Volunteers, four troops of the Second
U.S. Cavalry, four light batteries, two heavy batteries and then four
more troops of the Second U.S. Cavalry.

Santiago's Killed and Wounded Compared With Historic Battles.

Battle; Men Engaged.; Killed and Wounded.; Per Ct. Lost.

Agincourt; 62,000; 11,400; .18
Alma; 103,000; 8,400; .08
Bannockburn; 135,000; 38,000; .28
Borodino; 250,000; 78,000; .31
Cannae; 146,000; 52,000; .34
Cressy; 117,000; 31,000; .27
Gravelotte; 396,000; 52,000; .16
Sadowa; 291,000; 33,000; .11
Waterloo; 221,000; 51,000; .23
Antietam; 87,000; 31,000; .29
Austerlitz; 154,000; 38,000; .48
Gettysburg; 185,000; 34,000; .44
Sedan; 314,000; 47,000; .36
Santiago; 22,400; 1,457; .07
El Caney; 3,300; 650; .19
San Juan; 6,000; 745; .12
Aguadores; 2,400; 62; .02


General Lawton, with the Second Massachusetts and the Eighth and
Twenty-second U.S. Infantry, came next. Then General Duffield's
command, comprising the volunteers from Michigan (Thirty-third and
Third Regiments), and the Ninth Massachusetts, stretched along until
Gen. Ludlow's men were reached. These comprised the First Illinois,
First District of Columbia, Eighth Ohio, running up to the Eighth and
Twenty-second Regulars and the Bay State men. Down by the shore across
from Morro and a little way inland Generals Henry and Garretson had
posted the Sixth Illinois and the crack Sixth Massachusetts, flanking
the railroad line to Cobre.


When reveille sounded Sunday morning half the great semi-lunar
camp was awake and eager for the triumphal entrance into the city.
Speculation ran rife as to which detachment would accompany the
General and his staff into Santiago. The choice fell upon the
Ninth Infantry. Shortly before 9 o'clock General Shafter left his
headquarters, accompanied by Generals Lawton and Wheeler, Colonels
Ludlow, Ames and Kent, and eighty other officers. The party walked
slowly down the hill to the road leading to Santiago, along which they
advanced until they reached the now famous tree outside the walls,
under which all negotiations for the surrender of the city had taken
place. As they reached this spot the cannon on every hillside and in
the city itself boomed forth a salute of twenty-one guns, which was
echoed at Siboney and Aserradero.

The soldiers knew what the salute meant, and cheer upon cheer arose
and ran from end to end of the eight miles of the American lines. A
troop of colored cavalry and the Twenty-fifth colored infantry then
started to join General Shafter and his party.

The Americans waited under the tree as usual, when General Shafter
sent word to General Toral that he was ready to take possession of the
town. General Toral, in full uniform, accompanied by his whole staff,
fully caparisoned, shortly afterward left the city and walked to where
the American officers were waiting their coming. When they reached the
tree General Shafter and General Toral saluted each other gravely and
courteously. Salutes were also exchanged by other American and Spanish
officers. The officers were then introduced to each other. After this
little ceremony the two commanding generals faced each other and
General Toral, speaking in Spanish, said:

"Through fate I am forced to surrender to General Shafter, of the
American Army, the city and the strongholds of Santiago."

General Toral's voice grew husky as he spoke, giving up the town
and the surrounding country to his victorious enemy. As he finished
speaking the Spanish officers presented arms.

General Shafter, in reply, said:

"I receive the city in the name of the government of the United

General Toral addressed an order to his officers in Spanish and they
wheeled about, still presenting arms, and General Shafter and the
other American officers with the cavalry and infantry followed them,
walked by the Spaniards and proceeded into the city proper.

The soldiers on the American line could see quite plainly all the
proceedings. As their commander entered the city they gave voice to
cheer after cheer.

Although no attempt was made to humiliate them the Spanish soldiers
seemed at first to feel downcast and scarcely glanced at their
conquerors as they passed by, but this apparent depth of feeling was
not displayed very long. Without being sullen they appeared to be
utterly indifferent to the reverses of the Spanish arms, but it was
not long ere the prospect of regulation rations and a chance to go to
their homes made them almost cheerful. All about the filthy streets
of the city the starving refugees: could be seen, gaunt, hollow-eyed,
weak and trembling.

The squalor in the streets was dreadful. The bones of dead horses and
other animals were bleaching in the streets and buzzards almost as
tame as sparrows hopped aside as passers-by disturbed them. There
was a fetid smell everywhere and evidences of a pitiless siege and
starvation on every hand.

The palace was reached soon after 10 o'clock. Then, General Toral
introduced General Shafter and the other officials to various local
dignitaries and a scanty luncheon, was brought. Coffee, rice, wine and
toasted cake were the main condiments.

Then came the stirring scene in the balcony which every one felt was
destined to become notably historic in our annals of warfare, and the
ceremony over, General Shafter withdrew to our own lines and left the
city to General McKibbin and his police force of guards and sentries.
The end had come. Spain's haughty ensign trailed in the dust; Old
Glory, typifying liberty and the pursuit of happiness untrammelled
floated over the official buildings from Fort Morro to the Plaza de
Armas--the investment of Santiago de Cuba was accomplished.




The article we reprint from the New York Sun touching the status of
the Colored man in Cuba was shown to Rev. Father Walter R. Yates,
Assistant pastor of St. Joseph's Colored Church.

A Planet reporter was informed that Father Yates had resided in that
climate for several years and wished his views.

"The Sun correspondent is substantially correct," said the Reverend
gentleman. "Of course, the article is very incomplete, there are many
omissions, but that is to be expected in a newspaper article."

It would take volumes to describe the achievements of men of the
Negro, or as I prefer to call it, the Aethiopic Race, not only in
Cuba, but in all the West Indies, Central and South America, and in
Europe especially in Sicily, Spain and France.

"By achievements I mean success in military, political, social,
religious and literary walks of life. The only thing I see to
correct in the Sun's article, continued the Father, is in regard to
population. 'A Spanish official told me that the census figures were
notoriously misleading. The census shows less than one-third colored.
That is said not to be true. As soon as a man with African blood,
whether light or dark, acquires property and education, he returns
himself in the census as white. The officials humor them in this
petty vanity. In fact it's the most difficult thing in the world to
distinguish between races in Cuba. Many Spaniards from Murcia,
for instance, of undoubted noble lineage are darker than Richmond


May I ask you, Father Yates, to what do you ascribe the absence of
Race prejudice in Cuba?

"Certainly. In my humble opinion it is due to Church influence. We all
know the effect on our social life of our churches. Among Catholics
all men have always been on equal footing at the Communion rail.
Catholics would be unworthy of their name, i.e. Catholic or universal
were it not so."

"Even in the days when slavery was practised this religious equality
and fellowship was fully recognized among Catholics."

Did you know there is an American Negro Saint? He was born in Colon,
Central America, and is called Blessed Martin De Porres. His name is
much honored in Cuba, Peru, Mexico and elsewhere. He wore the white
habit of a Dominican Brother. The Dominicans are called the Order of

Christ Died for All. Father Donovan has those words painted in large
letters over the Sanctuary in St. Joseph's Church. It is simply
horrible to think that some self-styled Christian sectarians act as if
Christ died for white men only.

Matanzas, Cuba, Jan. 20.--Not least among the problems of
reconstruction in Cuba is the social and political status of the
colored "man and brother." In Cuba the shade of a man's complexion has
never been greatly considered, and one finds dusky Othellos in every
walk of life. The present dispute arose when a restaurant keeper from
Alabama refused a seat at his public table to the mulatto Colonel of
a Cuban regiment. The Southerner was perfectly sincere in the
declaration that he would see himself in a warmer climate than Cuba
before he would insult his American guests "by seating a 'nigger'
among them!" To the Colonel it was a novel and astonishing experience,
and is of course deeply resented by all his kind in Cuba, where
African blood may be found, in greater or less degree, in some of the
richest and most influential families of the island.


In Havana you need not be surprised to see Creole belles on
the fashionable Prado--perhaps Cuban-Spanish. Cuban-English or
Cuban-German blondes--promenading with Negro officers in gorgeous
uniforms; or octoroon beauties with hair in natural crimp, riding in
carriages beside white husbands or lighting up an opera box with the
splendor of their diamonds. There was a wedding in the old cathedral
the other day, attended by the elite of the city, the bride being the
lovely young daughter of a Cuban planter, the groom a burly Negro.
Nobody to the manor born has ever dreamed of objecting to this
mingling of colors; therefore when some newly arrived foreigner
declares that nobody but those of his own complexion shall eat in a
public dining room, there is likely to be trouble.


When the war began the population of Cuba was a little more than
one-third black; now the proportion is officially reckoned as 525,684
colored, against 1,631,600 white. In 1898 two Negroes were serving as
secretaries in the Autonomist Cabinet. The last regiment that Blanco
formed was of Negro volunteers, to whom he paid--or, rather, promised
to pay, which is quite another matter, considering Blanco's habit--the
unusual hire of $20 a month, showing his appreciation of the colored
man as a soldier. If General Weyler evinced any partiality in Cuba,
it was for the black Creole. During the ten years' war, his cavalry
escort was composed entirely of colored men. Throughout his latest
reign in the island he kept black soldiers constantly on guard at the
gates of the government palace. While the illustrated papers of Spain
were caricaturing: the insurgents as coal-black demons with horns
and forked toe nails, burning canefields and butchering innocent
Spaniards, the Spanish General chose them for his bodyguards.

[Illustration: CUBAN WOMAN CAVALRY.]


One of the greatest Generals of the day, considering the environment,
was Antonio Maceo, the Cuban mulatto hero, who, for two years, kept
the Spanish army at bay or led them a lively quickstep through the
western provinces to the very gates of Havana. As swift on the march
as Sheridan or Stonewall Jackson, as wary and prudent as Grant
himself, he had inspirations of military genius whenever a crisis
arose. It is not generally known that Martinez Campos, who owed his
final defeat at Colisea to Maceo, was a second cousin of this black
man. Maceo's mother, whose family name was Grinan, came from the town
of Mayari where all the people have Indian blood in their veins. Col.
Martinez del Campos, father of General Martinez Campos, was once
Military Governor of Mayari. While there he loved a beautiful girl of
Indian and Negro blood, who belonged to the Grinan family, and was
first cousin to Maceo's mother. Martinez Campos, Jr., the future
General and child of the Indian girl was born in Mayari. The Governor
could not marry his sweetheart, having a wife and children in Spain,
but when he returned to the mother country he took the boy along.
According to Spanish law, the town in which one is baptized is
recognized as his legal birthplace, so it was easy enough to
legitimatize the infant Campos. He grew up in Spain, and when sent to
Cuba as Captain-General, to his everlasting credit be it said, that
one of his first acts was to hunt up his mother. Having found her, old
and poor, he bought a fine house in Campo Florida, the aristocratic
suburb of Havana, established her there and cared for her tenderly
till she died. The cousins, though on opposite sides of the war,
befriended each other in many instances, and it is said that more
than once Captain-General Campos owed his life to his unacknowledged


The latter's half brother, Jose Maceo, was captured early in the war
and sent to the African prison, Centa; whence he escaped later on with
Quintin Bandera and others of his staff. The last named Negro Colonel
is to-day a prominent figure. "Quintin Bandera" means "fifteen flags,"
and the appellation was bestowed upon him by his grateful countrymen
after he had captured fifteen Spanish ensigns. Everybody seems to
have forgotten his real name, and Quintin Bandera he will remain in
history. While in the African penal settlement the daughter of a
Spanish officer fell in love with him. She assisted in his escape and
fled with him to Gibraltar. There he married his rescuer. She is of
Spanish and Moorish descent, and is said to be a lady of education
and refinement. She taught her husband to read and write and feels
unbounded pride in his achievements.

The noted General Jesus Rabi, of the Cuban Army, is of the same mixed
blood as the Maceos. Another well-known Negro commander is General
Flor Crombet, whose patriotic deeds have been dimmed by his atrocious
cruelties. Among all the officers now swarming Havana none attracts
more admiring attention than General Ducasse, a tall, fine-looking
mulatto, who was educated at the fine military school of St. Cyr. He
is of extremely polished manners and undeniable force of character,
can make a brilliant address and has great influence among the masses.
To eject such a man as he from a third rate foreign restaurant in his
own land would be ridiculous. His equally celebrated brother, Col.
Juan Ducasse, was killed last year in the Pinar del Rio insurrection.


Besides these sons of Mars, Cuba has considered her history enriched
by the achievements of colored men in peaceful walks of life. The
memory of Gabriel Concepcion de la Valdez the mulatto poet, is
cherished as that of a saint. He was accused by the Spanish government
of complicity in the slave insurrection of 1844 and condemned to be
shot in his native town, Matanzas. One bright morning in May he stood
by the old statue of Ferdinand VII. in the Plaza d'Armas, calmly
facing a row of muskets, along whose shining barrels the sun glinted.
The first volley failed to touch a vital spot. Bleeding from several
wounds, he still stood erect, and, pointing to his heart, said in a
clear voice, "Aim here!" Another mulatto author, educator and profound
thinker was Antonio Medina, a priest and professor of San Basilio
the Greater. He acquired wide reputation as a poet, novelist and
ecclesiastic, both in Spain and Cuba, and was selected by the Spanish
Academy to deliver the oration on the anniversary of Cerantes' death
in Madrid. His favorite Cuban pupil was Juan Gaulberto Gomez, the
mulatto journalist, who has been imprisoned time and again for
offences against the Spanish press laws. Senor Gomez, whose home is in
Matanzas, is now on the shady side of 40, a spectacled and scholarly
looking man. After the peace of Zanjon he collaborated in the
periodicals published by the Marquis of Sterling. In '79 he founded in
Havana, the newspaper La Fraternidad, devoted to the interest of the
colored race. For a certain fiery editorial he was deported to Centa
and kept there two years. Then he went to Madrid and assumed the
management of La Tribuna and in 1890 returned to Havana and resumed
the publication of La Fraternidad.


Another beloved exile from the land of his birth is Senor Jose White.
His mother was a colored woman of Matanzas. At the age of 16 Jose
wrote a mass for the Matanzas orchestra and gave his first concert.
With the proceeds he entered the Conservatory of Paris, and in the
following year won the first prize as violinist among thirty-nine
contestants. He soon gained an enviable reputation among the most
celebrated European violinists, and, covered with honors, returned to
Havana in January of '75. But his songs were sometimes of liberty, and
in June of the same year the Spanish government drove him out of
the country. Then he went to Brazil, and is now President of the
Conservatory of Music of Rio Janeiro.

One might go on multiplying similar incidents. Some of the most
eminent doctors, lawyers and college professors in Cuba are more or
less darkly "colored." In the humble walks of life one finds them
everywhere, as carpenters, masons, shoemakers and plumbers. In the few
manufacturies of Cuba a large proportion of the workmen are Negroes
especially in the cigar factories. In the tanneries of Pinar del Rio
most of the workmen are colored, also in the saddle factories of
Havana, Guanabacoa, Cardenas and other places. Although the insurgent
army is not yet disbanded, the sugar-planters get plenty of help from
their ranks by offering fair wages.--New York Sun.


Porto Rico, the beautiful island which General Miles is taking under
the American flag, has an area of 3,530 square miles. It is 107 miles
in length and 37 miles across. It has a good telegraph line and a
railroad only partially completed.

The population, which is not made up of so many Negroes and mulattoes
as that of the neighboring islands, is about 900,000. Almost all of
the inhabitants are Roman Catholics.

It is a mountainous island, and contains forty seven navigable streams.
The roads are merely paths beaten down by cattle.

Exports in 1887 were valued at $10,181,291; imports, $10,198,006.

Gold, copper, salt, coal and iron abound.

The poorer classes live almost entirely on a variety of highland rice,
which is easily cultivated, as it requires no flooding.

One of the principal industries is grazing. St. Thomas is the market
for fresh meat.

Corn, tobacco, sugar, coffee, cotton and potatoes constitute the
principal crops.

There are no snakes, no beasts of prey, no noxious birds nor insects
in the island.

The trees and grass are always green.

Rats are the great foe of the crops.

The natives often live to be one hundred years old.

The most beautiful flower on the island is the ortegon, which has
purple blossoms a yard long.

Hurricanes are frequent on the north coast and very destructive.

Mosquitoes art the pest of the island.

Spanish is the language spoken, and education is but little esteemed.

Every man, no matter how poor, owns a horse and three or four

The small planter is called "Xivaro." He is the proud possessor of
a sweet-heart, a gamecock, a horse, a hammock, a guitar and a large
supply of tobacco. He is quick tempered but not revengeful, and he is
proverbially lazy.

Hospitality is the rule of the island. The peasants are astonished and
hurt when offered money by travellers. San Juan Harbor is one of the
best in the West Indies, and is said to be the third most strongly
fortified town in the world, Halifax being the strongest and
Cartagena, Spain, the second.

Ponce de Leon, between 1509 and 1518 killed off the natives.

The De Leon palace, built in 1511, is of great interest to tourists.

The climate is warm but pleasant. At night thick clothing is found

All visiting and shopping are done after sundown.

Slavery was abolished in 1873.

The women are rather small and delicately formed. Many of them are
pretty and they are all given to flirtation.

Men and women ride horseback alike. Wicker baskets to carry clothes or
provisions, are hung on either side of the horse's shoulders. Back of
these baskets the rider sits.

It is the custom of travellers on horseback to carry a basket handled
sword a yard and a quarter long, more as an ornament than as a means
of defense.

The observance of birthdays is an island fashion that is followed by
every one.

A Governor, appointed by the Crown, manages affairs. His palace is at
San Juan, the capital, a town that has 24,000 inhabitants.

Upon the Rio Grande are prehistoric monuments that have attracted the
attention of archaeologists.

Following the Spanish custom, men are imprisoned for debt.

In the towns houses are built with flat roofs, both to catch water and
to afford the family a small roof garden.

All planters have town houses where they bring their families during
the carnival season.

San Juan is filled with adventurers, gamblers, speculators and
fugitives from justice.--New York World.



Regulars.--Section 1104 of the Revised Statutes of the United States
Congress provides that "the enlisted men of two regiments of Cavalry
shall be colored men," and in compliance with this section the War
Department maintains the organization of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry,
both composed of colored men with white officers.

Section 1108 of the Revised Statutes of Congress provides that "the
enlisted men of two regiments of Infantry shall be colored men;" and
in compliance with this section the War Department maintains the
organization of the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Infantry, both
composed of colored men with white officers.

The above regiments were the only colored troops that were engaged
in active service in Cuba. There is no statute requiring colored
artillery regiments to be organized, and there are therefore none in
the regular army.

* * * * *


Third North Carolina--All colored officers.

Sixth Virginia--White officers, finally, the colored officers resigned
"under pressure," after which there was much trouble with the men, as
they claimed to have enlisted with the understanding that they were to
have colored officers.


Blank Page

Ninth Ohio--All colored officers; Col. Chas. Young, graduate of West

Twenty-third Kansas--Colored officers.

Eighth Illinois--Under colored officers, and did police duty at San
Luis, Cuba.

Seventh U.S. Volunteers.

Tenth U.S. Volunteers.

Eighth U.S. Volunteers.

Ninth U.S. Volunteers.

The conduct of the colored volunteers has been harshly criticised, and
it is thought by some that the conduct of the volunteers has had some
influence in derrogation of the good record made by the regulars
around Santiago. This view, however, we think unjust, and ill-founded.
There was considerable shooting of pistols and drunkenness among some
regiments of volunteers, and it was not confined by any means to those
of the colored race. The white volunteers were as drunk and noisy as
the colored, and shot as many pistols.

The Charlotte Observer has the following editorial concerning some
white troops that passed through Charlotte, N.C.:

"Mustered-out West Virginia and New York volunteer soldiers who passed
through this city Saturday night, behaved on the train and here like
barbarians, disgracing their uniforms, their States and themselves.
They were drunk and disorderly, and their firing of pistols,
destruction of property and theft of edibles was not as bad as their
outrageous profanity and obscenity on the cars in the hearing of
ladies. Clearly they are brutes when sober and whiskey only developed
the vileness already in them."

By a careful comparison of the reports in the newspapers, we see a
slight excess of rowdyism on the part of the whites, but much less
fuss made about it. In traveling from place to place if a white
volunteer company fired a few shots in the air, robbed a fruit stand,
or fussed with the by standers at railroad stations or drank whiskey
at the car windows, the fact was simply mentioned in the morning
papers, but if a Negro company fired a pistol a telegram was sent
ahead to have mobs in readiness to "do up the niggers" at the next
station, and at one place in Georgia the militia was called out by a
telegram sent ahead, and discharged a volley into the car containing
white officers and their families, so eager were they to "do up the
nigger." At Nashville the city police are reported to have charged
through the train clubbing the colored volunteers who were returning
home, and taking anything in the shape of a weapon away from them by
force. In Texarcana or thereabouts it was reported that a train of
colored troopers was blown up by dynamite. The Southern mobs seemed to
pride themselves in assaulting the colored soldiers.

While the colored volunteers were not engaged in active warfare, yet
they attained a high degree of discipline and the CLEANEST AND MOST
ORDERLY CAMP among any of the volunteers was reported by the chief
sanitary officer of the government to be that of one of the colored
volunteer regiments stationed in Virginia. It is to be regretted that
the colored volunteers, especially those under Negro officers, did not
have an opportunity to show their powers on the battlefield, and thus
demonstrate their ability as soldiers, and so refreshing the memory
of the nation as to what Negro soldiers once did at Ft. Wagner and
Milikin's Bend. The volunteer boys were ready and willing and only
needed a chance to show what they could do.



Washington, D.C., August 17, 1898.

Editor Colored American: The Star of this city published the following
dispatch in its issue of the 16th inst. The Washington Post next
morning published the same dispatch, omitting the last paragraph;
and yet the Post claims to publish the news, whether pleasing or
otherwise. The selection of the 8th Illinois colored regiment for
this important duty, to replace a disorderly white regiment, is a
sufficient refutation of a recent editorial in the Post, discrediting
colored troops with colored officers. The Eighth Illinois is a colored
regiment from Colonel down. The Generals at the front know the value
of Negro troops, whether the quill-drivers in the rear do or not.


The following is the dispatch referred to by Major Douglass. The
headlines of the Star are retained.


Santiago de Cuba, Aug. 16.--General Shafter to-day ordered the Second
Volunteer Regiment of Immunes to leave the city and go into camp

The regiment had been placed here as a garrison, to preserve order and
protect property. There has been firing of arms inside of the town by
members of this regiment, without orders, so far as known. Some of
the men have indulged in liquor until they have verged upon acts of
license and disorder. The inhabitants in some quarters have alleged
loss of property by force and intimidation, and there has grown up a
feeling of uneasiness, if not alarm, concerning them. General Shafter
has, therefore, ordered this regiment into the hills, where discipline
can be more severely maintained.

In place of the Second Volunteer Immune Regiment, General Shafter
has ordered into the city the Eighth Illinois Volunteer Regiment of
colored troops, in whose sobriety and discipline he has confidence,
and of whose sturdy enforcement of order no doubt is felt by those in

* * * * *


The Sixth Virginia Volunteer Infantry, U.S.V., consisted of two
battalions, first and second Battalion Infantry Virginia Volunteers
(State militia), commanded respectively by Maj. J.B. Johnson and Maj.
W.H. Johnson. In April, 1898, the war cloud was hanging over the land.
Governor J. Hoge Tyler, of Virginia, under instructions from the War
Department, sent to all Virginia volunteers inquiring how many men in
the respective commands were willing to enlist in the United States
volunteer service in the war against Spain.

How many would go in or out of the United States.

* * * * *


Adjutant-General's Office, Richmond, Va., April 19th, 1898.

General Order No. 8.

I. Commanding officers of companies of Virginia Volunteers will,
immediately, upon the receipt by them of this order, assemble their
respective companies and proceed to ascertain and report direct to
this office, upon the form herewith sent and by letter, what officers
and enlisted men of their companies will volunteer for service in and
with the volunteer forces of the United States (not in the regular
army) with the distinct understanding that such volunteer forces, or
any portion thereof, may be ordered and required to perform service
either in or out of the United States, and that such officer or
enlisted man, so volunteering, agrees and binds himself to, without
question, promptly obey all orders emanating from the proper officers,
and to render such service as he may be required to perform, either
within or beyond the limits of the United States.


II. The Brigade Commander and the Regimental and Battalion Commanders
will, without delay, obtain like information and make, direct to this
office, similar reports, to those above required, with regard to
their respective field, staff and non-commissioned staff officers and
regimental or battalion bands, adopting the form herewith sent to the

III. By reason of the necessity in this matter, this order is sent
direct, with copies to intermediate commanders.

By order of the Governor and Commander-in-Chief. WM. NALLE,

* * * * *

The companies of the First Battalion of Richmond and Second Battalion
of Petersburg and Norfolk were the first to respond to the call and
express a readiness to go anywhere in or out of the States with their
own officers, upon these conditions they were immediately accepted,
and the following order was issued:

COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA, Adjutant-General's Office, Richmond, Va.,
April 23, 1898. General Orders No. 9.

The commanding officers of such companies as will volunteer for
service in the volunteer army of the United States will at once
proceed to recruit their respective companies to at least eighty-four
enlisted men. Any company volunteering as a body, for such service,
will be mustered in with its own officers.

By order of the Governor and Commander-in-Chief. (Signed) W. NALLE,

* * * * *

Under date of June 1, 1898, S.O. 59, A.G.O., Richmond, Va., was
issued directly to the commanding officers of the First and Second
Battalion (colored), who had been specially designated by the
President in his call, ordering them to take the necessary steps to
recruit the companies of the respective battalions to eighty-three men
per company, directing that care be taken, to accept only men of good
repute and able-bodied, and that as soon as recruited the fact should
be reported by telegraph to the Adjutant-General of the State.

July 15th, 1898, Company "A," Attucks Guard, was the first company to
arrive at Camp Corbin, Va., ten miles below Richmond. The company
had three officers; Capt. W.A. Hawkins, First Lieutenant J.C. Smith,
Lieutenant John Parham.

The other companies followed in rapid succession. Company "B" (Carney
Guard), Capt. C.B. Nicholas; First Lieutenant L.J. Wyche, Second
Lieutenant J.W. Gilpin. Company "C" (State Guard), Capt. B.A.
Graves; First Lieutenant S.B. Randolph, Second Lieutenant W.H.

Anderson. Company "D" (Langston Guard), Capt. E.W. Gould; First
Lieutenant Chas. H. Robinson, Second Lieutenant Geo. W. Foreman.
Company "E" (Petersburg Guard), Capt. J.E. Hill; First Lieutenant
J.H. Hill, Second Lieutenant Fred. E. Manggrum. Company "F"
(Petersburg), Capt. Pleasant Webb; First Lieutenant Jno. K. Rice,
Second Lieutenant Richard Hill. Company "G," Capt. J.A. Stevens;
First Lieutenant E. Thomas Walker, Second Lieutenant David Worrell.
Company "H," Capt. Peter Shepperd, Jr.; First Lieutenant Jas. M.
Collins, Second Lieutenant Geo. T. Wright. The regiment consisted of
only eight companies, two battalions, commanded respectively by Major
J.B. Johnson and Maj. W.H. Johnson, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel
Rich'd C. Croxton, of the First United States Infantry. First
Lieutenant Chas. R. Alexander was Surgeon. Second Lieutenant Allen J.
Black, Assist Subsistence.

Lieutenant W.H. Anderson, Company "C," was detailed as Adjutant,
Ordinance Officer and Mustering Officer.

Lieutenant J.H. Gilpin, Company "B," was detailed as Quartermaster
and Commissary of Subsistance.

On Monday, September 12, 1898, the command left Camp Corbin, Va., and
embarked for Knoxville, Tenn., about 10 o'clock, the men traveling in
day coaches and the officers in Pullman sleepers. The train was in
two sections. Upon arrival at Knoxville the command was sent to Camp
Poland, near the Fourteenth Michigan Regiment, who were soon mustered
out. A few days after the arrival of the Sixth Virginia the Third
North Carolina arrived, a full regiment with every officer a Negro.
While here in order to get to the city our officers, wagons and men
had to pass the camp of the First Georgia Regiment, and it was quite
annoying to have to suffer from unnecessary delays in stores and other
things to which the men were subject.

After the review by General Alger, Secretary of War, the Colonel of
the Sixth Virginia received permission from headquarters of Third
Brigade, Second Division, First Army Corps, General Rosser commanding,
to move the camp to a point nearer the city, which was granted. Soon
after the arrival of the Third North Carolina Regiment the First
Georgia seemed disposed to attack the colored soldiers, so on a
beautiful September evening some shots were fired into their camp by
the First Georgia men and received quick response. After the little
affair four Georgians were missing. The matter was investigated, the
First Georgia was placed under arrest.

After the removal to a new portion of Camp Poland orders were received
from the headquarters First Army Corps, Lexington, Ky., ordering a
board of examiners for the following officers of the Sixth Virginia:
Maj. W.H. Johnson; Second Battalion, Capt. C.B. Nicholas, Capt.
J.E. Hill, Capt. J.A.C. Stevens, Capt. E.W. Gould, Capt. Peter
Shepperd, Jr., Lieutenants S.B. Randolph, Geo. T. Wright and David
Worrell for examination September 20, 1898, each officer immediately
tendered his resignation, which was at once accepted by the Secretary
of War.


Under the rules governing the volunteer army, when vacancies occurred
by death, removal, resignation or otherwise, the Colonel of a regiment
had the power to recommend suitable officers or men to fill the
vacancies by promotions, and the Governor would make the appointment
with the approval of the Secretary of War. Many of the men had high
hopes of gaining a commission; many of the most worthy young men of
the State, who left their peaceful vocations for the rough service of
war, for they were, students, bookkeepers, real estate men, merchants,
clerks and artists who responded to their country's call--all looking
to a much desired promotion. But after many conflicting stories as to
what would be done and much parleying on the part of the recommending
power, who said that there was none in the regiment qualified for the
promotion. And thereupon the Governor appointed white officers to
fill the vacancies created. A copy of the following was sent to the
Governor of Virginia through "military channels" but never reached
him; also to the Adjutant General of the army through military

Sixth Virginia Volunteer Infantry, Second Battalion, Colored, Camp
Poland, Tenn., October 27th, 1898.

To the Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.

Sir--We, the undersigned officers of the Sixth Virginia Volunteer
Infantry, stationed at Camp Poland, Knoxville, Tenn., have the honor
to respectfully submit to you the following:

Nine officers of this command who had served the state militia for a
period ranging from five to twenty years were ordered examined. They
resigned for reasons best known to themselves. We the remaining
officers were sanguine that Negro officers would be appointed to fill
these vacancies, and believe they can be had from the rank and file,
as the men in the various companies enlisted with the distinct
understanding that they would be commanded by Negro officers. We now
understand through various sources that white officers have been, or
are to be, appointed to fill these vacancies, to which we seriously
and respectfully protest, because our men are dissatisfied. The men
feel that the policy inaugurated as to this command should remain, and
we fear if there is a change it will result disastrously to one of the
best disciplined commands in the volunteer service. They are unwilling
to be commanded by white officers and object to do what they did not
agree to at first. That is to be commanded by any other than officers
of the same color. We furthermore believe that should the appointments
be confirmed there will be a continual friction between the officers
and men of the two races as has been foretold by our present
commanding officer. We express the unanimous and sincere desire of
seven hundred and ninety-one men in the command to be mustered out
rather than submit to the change.

We therefore pray that the existing vacancies be filled from the rank
and file of the command or by men of color. To all of which we most
humbly pray.


J.B. JOHNSON, Major 6th Va. Vol. Inf. PLEASANT WEBB, Capt. 6th Va. Vol
Inf. BENJ. A. GRAVES, Capt. 6th Va. Vol. Inf. JAS. C. SMITH, 6th Va.
Vol. Inf., 1st Lt. L.J. WYCHE, 1st Lt. 6th Va. Vol. Inf. CHAS. H.
ROBINSON, 1st Lt. 6th Va. Vol. JOHN H. HILL, 1st Lt. 6th Va. Vol. Inf.
JNO. K. RICE, 1st Lt. 6th Va. Vol. Inf. EDWIN T. WALKER, 1st Lt. 6th
Va. Vol.. C.R. ALEXANDER, 1st. Lt. and Sarg. 6th Va. Vol. Inf. JOHN
PARHAM, 2nd Lt. 6th. Va. Vol. Inf. JAS. ST. GILPIN, 2nd Lt. 6th Va.
Vol. Inf. W.H. ANDERSON, 2nd Lt. 6th Va. Vol. Inf. GEORGE W. FOREMAN.
2nd Lt. 6th Va. Vol. Inf. FREDERICK E. MANGGRUM, 2nd Lt. 6th Va. Vol.
Inf. RICHARD HILL, 2nd Lt. 6th Va. Vol. Inf. JAMES M. COLLIN, 2nd Lt.
6th Va. Vol. Inf. FIRST ENDORSEMENT. Headquarters 6th Va. Vol.
Inf. Second Battalion, Colored, Camp Poland, Tenn., Oct. 28, if
Respectfully forwarded.

I have explained to the officers who signed this paper that their
application is absurd, but they seem unable to see the points

The statement within that 791 men prefer to be mustered out rather
than serve under white officers is based upon the alleged reports that
each First Sergeant stated to his Captain that all the men of the
company were of that opinion. The statement that the men "enlisted
with the understanding that they would be commanded entirely by Negro
officers," seems to be based upon the fact that when these companies
were called upon by the State authorities they volunteered for
service, etc., "with our present officers." These officers (9 of
them) have since resigned and their places filled by the Governor of
Virginia with white officers.

These latter have not yet reported for duty.

Further comment seems as unnecessary as the application itself is

(Signed) R.C. CROXTON,

Lt. Col. 6th Va. Vol. Inf. Com'd'g.

* * * * *


Headquarters Third Brigade, Second Division, First Army Corps, Camp
Poland, Tenn., Oct. 29, 1898.

Respectfully forwarded. Disapproved as under the law creating the
present volunteer forces the Governor of Virginia is the only
authority who can appoint the officers of the 6th Va. Vol. Inf.

(Signed) JAMES H. YOUNG.

Col. Third N.C. Vol. Inf. Com'd'g. Brigade.


Headquarters Second Division, First Army Corps,

Camp Poland, Knoxville, Tenn., Oct. 31, 1898.

Respectfully returned to the Commanding General, Third Brigade.

The enclosed communication is in form and substance so contrary to
all military practice and traditions that it is returned for file at
Regimental Headquarters, 6th Va. Vol. Infantry.

By command of Colonel KUERT.


Assistant Adjutant-General.

* * * * *

FOURTH ENDORSEMENT. Headquarters Third Brigade,
Second Division, First Army Corps.
Respectfully transmitted to C.O., 6th Virginia, inviting attention to
preceding Inst.

By order of Colonel YOUNG.

(Signed) A.B. COLLIER,

Captain Assistant Adjutant-General.

* * * * *


October 31st, 1898, the monthly muster was in progress. There appeared
in the camp a new Lieutenant--Lieut. Jno. W. Healey--formerly
Sergeant-Major in the regular army. This was the first positive
evidence that white officers would be assigned to this regiment. This
was about 9 o'clock in the morning, and at Knoxville later in the day,
there were more arrivals. Then it was published that the following
changes and appointments were made:

Company "D," First Battalion, was transferred to the Second Battalion;
Company "F," of the Second Battalion, transferred to the First
Battalion. Major E.E. Cobell, commanding Second Battalion. Captain
R.L.E. Masurier, commanding Company "D." Captain W. S. Faulkner,
commanding Company "E." Captain J. W. Bentley, commanding Company "G."
Captain S.T. Moore, commanding Company "H." First Lieutenant Jno. W.
Healey to Company "H." First Lieutenant A.L. Moncure to Company "G."
Second Lieutenant Geo. W. Richardson, Company "G." First Lieutenant
Edwin T. Walker transferred to Company "C." November 1st officers
attempted to take charge of the men who offered no violence at all,
but by their manner and conduct it appeared too unpleasant and unsafe
for these officers to remain, so tendered their resignations, but they
were withheld for a day.

The next day, November 2, 1898, it was thought best that the colored
Captains and Lieutenants would drill the companies at the 9 o'clock
drill. While on the field "recall" was sounded and the companies were
brought to the headquarters and formed a street column. General Bates,
commanding the Corps and his staff; Col. Kuert, commanding the Brigade
and Brigade staff; Maj. Louis V. Caziarc, Assistant Adjutant-General:
Lieut. Col. Croxton and Maj. Johnson were all there and spoke to the
men. Colonel Kuert said: "Gentlemen, as commanding officer of the
Brigade, I appear before you to-day asking you to do your duty; to be
good soldiers, to remember your oath of enlistment, and to be careful
as to the step you take, for it might cost you your life; that there
are enough soldiers at my command to force you into submission should
you resist. No, if you intend to accept the situation and submit to
these officers placed over you, at my command, you come to a right
shoulder, and if you have any grievance imaginary or otherwise
present through proper military channels, and if they are proper, your
wrongs will be adjusted."

"Right shoulder, Arms." Did not a man move. He then ordered them to be
taken back to their company street and to "stack arms."

Before going to the company streets Major Caziarc spoke to the men as
follows: "Forty years ago no Negro could bear arms or wear the blue.
You cannot disgrace the blue, but can make yourselves unworthy to wear

Then Maj. J.B. Johnson spoke to the men and urged upon them to keep
in mind the oath of enlistment (which he read to them), in which they
swore that they would "obey all officers placed over them;" that since
the appointments had been made there was nothing for them to do but to
accept the situation. At the conclusion of Maj. Johnson's talk to the
men, Private Badger, Regimental Tailor, stepped to the front and gave
the "rifle salute" and asked permission to say a word. It was granted.
He said: "When we enlisted we understood that we would go with
our colored officers anywhere in or out of this country, and when
vacancies occurred we expected and looked for promotion as was the
policy of the Governor of Virginia toward other Virginia Regiments."
He was told that if the men had any grievance they could present it
through military channels and it would be looked into. They never
accepted Maj. Johnson's advice--returned to their company streets and
were allowed to keep their guns. The Ordnance Officer was ordered to
take all ammunition to the camp of the Thirty-first Michigan and place
it in the guard-house.

The men had the freedom and pass privilege to and from the city.


November 19th the command was ordered to Macon, Ga., arriving at Camp
Haskell next day, with 820 men and 27 officers.

Near the camp of the Sixth Virginia was that of the Tenth Immune
Regiment, in which were many Virginia boys, some of whom had been
members of some of the companies of the Sixth.

Some irresponsible persons cut down a tree upon which several men had
been lynched. The blame naturally fell upon the Sixth Virginia. The
regiment was placed under arrest and remained so for nineteen days.
The first day the Third Engineers guarded the camp, but General
Wilson, the Corps commander, removed them and put colored soldiers to
guard them. On the night of November 20th, at a late hour, the camp
was surrounded by all the troops available while the men were asleep
and the regiment was disarmed.

While all this was going on the Thirty-first Michigan Regiment had
been deployed into line behind a hill on the north and the Fourth
Tennessee had been drawn up in line on the east side of the camp ready
to fire should any resistance be offered.

The men quietly submitted to this strange procedure, and did not know
that Gatling guns had been conveniently placed at hand to mow them
down had they shown any resistance. The Southern papers called them
the mutinous Sixth, and said and did every thing to place discredit
upon them.

They were reviewed by General Breckinridge, General Alger, Secretary
of War, and President McKinley, who applauded them for their fine and
soldierly appearance.


Of all the volunteer regiments the Third North Carolina seemed to be
picked out as the target for attack by the Georgia newspapers. The
Atlanta Journal, under large headlines, "A Happy Riddance," has the
following to say when the Third North Carolina left Macon. But
the Journal's article was evidently written in a somewhat of a
wish-it-was-so-manner, and while reading this article we ask our
readers to withhold judgment until they read Prof. C.F. Meserve on the
Third North Carolina, who wrote after investigation.

The Journal made no investigation to see what the facts were, but
dwells largely on rumors and imagination. It will be noted that
President Meserve took the pains to investigate the subject before
writing about it.

The Atlanta Journal says:


The army and the country are to be congratulated on the mustering out
of the Third North Carolina Regiment.

A tougher and more turbulent set of Negroes were probably never gotten
together before. Wherever this regiment went it caused trouble.

While stationed in Macon several of its members were killed, either by
their own comrades in drunken brawls or by citizens in self-defense.

Last night the mustered-out regiment passed through Atlanta on its way
home and during its brief stay here exhibited the same ruffianism and
brutality that characterized it while in the service. But for the
promptness and pluck of several Atlanta policemen these Negro
ex-soldiers would have done serious mischief at the depot. Those who
undertook to make trouble were very promptly clubbed into submission,
and one fellow more obstreperous than the rest, was lodged in the
station house.

With the exception of two or three regiments the Negro volunteers in
the recent war were worse than useless. The Negro regulars, on the
contrary, made a fine record, both for fighting and conduct in camp.


The mustering out of the Negro volunteers should have begun sooner and
have been completed long ago.

* * * * *


President Charles Francis Meserve, of Shaw University, says:

"I spent a part of two days the latter part of December at Camp
Haskell, near Macon, Ga., inspecting the Third North Carolina colored
regiment and its camp and surroundings. The fact that this regiment
has colored officers and the knowledge that the Colonel and quite
a number of officers, as well as many of the rank and file, were
graduates or former students of Shaw University, led me to make
a visit to this regiment, unheralded and unannounced. I was just
crossing the line into the camp when I was stopped by a guard, who
wanted to know who I was and what I wanted. I told him I was a very
small piece of Shaw University, and that I wanted to see Col. Young.
After that sentence was uttered, and he had directed me to the
headquarters of the colonel, the regiment and the camp might have been
called mine, for the freedom of everything was granted me."

The camp is admirably located on a sandy hillside, near pine woods,
and is dry and well-drained. It is well laid out, with a broad avenue
in the centre intersected by a number of side streets. On one side of
the avenue are the tents and quarters of the men and the canteen,
and on the opposite side the officers' quarters, the hospital, the
quartermasters stores, the Y.M.C.A. tent, etc.

Although the weather was unfavorable, the camp was in the best
condition, and from the standpoint of sanitation was well-nigh
perfect. I went everywhere and saw everything, even to the sinks and
corral. Part of the time I was alone and part of the time an officer
attended me. There was an abundant supply of water from the Macon
water works distributed in pipes throughout the camp. The clothing was
of good quality and well cared for. The food was excellent, abundant
in quantity and well prepared. The beef was fresh and sweet, for it
had not been "embalmed." The men were not obliged to get their fresh
meat by picking maggots out of dried apples and dried peaches as has
been the case sometimes in the past on our "Wild West Frontier." There
were potatoes, Irish and sweet, navy beans, onions, meat, stacks of
light bread, canned salmon, canned tomatoes, etc. These were not all
served at one meal, but all these articles and others go to make up
the army ration list.

The spirit and discipline of officers and men was admirable, and
reflected great credit upon the Old North State. There was an
enthusiastic spirit and buoyancy that made their discipline and
evolutions well nigh perfect. The secret of it all was confidence in
their leader. They believe in their colonel, and the colonel in turn
believes in his men. Col. James H. Young possesses in a marked degree
a quality of leadership as important as it is rare. He probably knows
by name at least three-quarters of his regiment, and is on pleasant
terms with his staff and the men in the ranks, and yet maintains a
proper dignity, such as befits his official rank.

N.C. (Who investigated and made report on the Third N.C. Volunteers.)]

On the last afternoon of my visit of inspection Col. Young ordered
the regiment drawn up in front of his headquarters, and invited me to
address them. The Colonel and his staff were mounted, and I was given
a position of honor on a dry goods box near the head of the beautiful
horse upon which the Colonel was mounted. Besides Colonel James
H. Young, of Raleigh, were near me Lieutenant Colonel Taylor, of
Charlotte; Major Walker, of Wilmington; Major Hayward, of Raleigh;
Chief Surgeon Dellinger, of Greensboro; Assistant Surgeons Pope, of
Charlotte, and Alston, of Asheville; Capt. Durham, of Winston; Capt.
Hamlin, of Raleigh; Capt. Hargraves, of Maxton; Capt. Mebane, of
Elizabeth City; Capt. Carpenter, of Rutherfordton; Capt. Alexander,
of Statesville; Capt. Smith, of Durham; Capt. Mason, of Kinston;
who served under Colonel Shaw at Fort Wagner; Capt. Leatherwood,
Asheville; Capt. Stitt, of Charlotte; Capt. York, of Newbern; and
Quartermaster Lane, of Raleigh. That highly respected citizen of
Fayetteville, Adjutant Smith, was in the hospital suffering from a
broken leg. I told them they were on trial, and the success or failure
of the experiment must be determined by themselves alone; that
godliness, moral character, prompt and implicit obedience, as well as
bravery and unflinching courage, were necessary attributes of the true

The Y.M.C.A. tent is a great blessing to the regiment, and is very
popular, and aids in every possible way the work of Chaplain Durham.

The way Col. Young manages the canteen cannot be too highly
recommended. Ordinarily the term canteen is another name for a
drinking saloon, though a great variety of articles, such as soldiers
need, are on sale and the profits go to the soldiers. But the canteen
of the Third North Carolina is a dry one. By that I mean that
spiritous or malt liquors are not sold. Col. Young puts into practice
the principles that have always characterized his personal habits, and
with the best results to his regiment.

I had the pleasure of meeting Capt. S. Babcock, Assistant Adjutant
General of the Brigade, who has known this regiment since it was
mustered into the service. He speaks of it in the highest terms. I
also met Major John A. Logan, the Provost Marshal, and had a
long interview with him. He said the Third North Carolina was a
well-behaved regiment and that he had not arrested a larger per cent
of men from this regiment than from any other regiment, and that I was
at liberty to publicly use this statement.

While in the sleeper on my way home I fell in with Capt. J.C. Gresham,
of the Seventh Cavalry. Capt. Gresham is a native of Virginia, a
graduate of Richmond College and West Point, and has served many years
in the regular army. He was with Colonel Forsyth in the battle with
the Sioux at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. I had met him previously,
when I was in the United States Indian service in Kansas. He informed
me that he mustered in the first four companies of the Third North
Carolina, and the Colonel and his staff, and that he had never met a
more capable man than Colonel Young.

The Third North Carolina has never seen active service at the front,
and, as the Hispano-American war is practically a closed chapter, it
will probably be mustered out of the service without any knowledge of
actual warfare. I thought, however, as I stood on the dry goods box
and gave them kindly advice, and looked down along the line, that if
I was a soldier in a white regiment and was pitted against them, my
regiment would have to do some mighty lively work to "clean them out."


Shaw University,

Raleigh, N.C., Jan. 25, 1899.




John C. Dancy, re-appointed Collector of Port Wilmington, N.C. Salary

The appointment of Prof. Richard T. Greener, of New York, as Consul to

Hon. H.P. Cheatham, appointed as Register of Deeds of the District of
Columbia. Salary $4,000.

Hon. George H. White elected to Congress from the Second Congressional
District of North Carolina, the only colored Representative in that

The Cotton Factory at Concord, N.C., built and operated by colored
people, capitalized at $50,000, and established a new line of industry
for colored labor, is one of the interesting items showing the
progress of the colored race in America.

B.K. Bruce re-appointed Register of the Treasury, and on his death Mr.
Judson W. Lyons, of Augusta, Georgia, became his successor, and now
has the honor of making genuine Uncle Sam's greenback by affixing
thereto his signature. Salary $4,500.

Bishop H.M. Turner visits Africa and ordains an African Bishop,
J.H. Dwane, Vicar of South Africa, with a conference composed of a
membership of 10,000 persons. This act of the Bishop is criticised by
some of the Bishops and members of the A.M.E. Church in America on the
grounds that Bishop Turner was acting without authority in making this

Mr. James Deveaux, Collector of Port, Brunswick, Ga.; H.A. Rucker,
Collector of Internal Revenue for Georgia, $4,500 (the best office in
the State); Morton, Postmaster at Athens, Ga., $2,400; Demas,
naval officer at New Orleans, $5,000; Lee, Collector of port at
Jacksonville, $4,000 (the best office in that State); Hill, Register
of the Land Office in Mississippi, $3,000; Leftwich, Register of the
Land Office in Alabama, $3,000; Casline, Receiver of Public Moneys in
Alabama, $2,000; Jackson, Consul at Calais, $2,500; Van Horn, Consul
in the West Indies, $2,500; Green, Chief Stamp Division, Postoffice
Department, $2,000.


Miss Alberta Scott is the first Negro girl to be graduated from the
Harvard annex. Her classmates and the professors of the institution
have congratulated her in the warmest terms and in the literary and
the language club of Boston her achievement of the M.A. degree has
been spoken of with high praise. Miss Scott is but the fifth student
of the Negro race to obtain this honor at the colleges for women in
Massachusetts. Two received diplomas from Wellsley, one from Smith
College and one from Vassar. Miss Scott is 20 years old. She was born
in Richmond, Va., having graduated from the common schools in Boston.
Miss Scott's teachers spoke so encouragingly of her work that the
girl was determined to have a college education. She paid particular
attention to the study of language and literature, and she is now a
fluent linguist and a member of the Idier and German clubs. She has
contributed considerably to college and New England journals.

[Illustration: THE GARNES FAMILY.]


A picture of which is herein placed, will do much to confound those
bumptious sociologists who make haste to rush into print with
statistics purporting to show that the Negro Race in America is "fast
dying out." The aim of this class of people seems to be to show that
the Negro Race withers under the influence of freedom, which is by no
means true. It is possibly true that filth and disease does its fatal
work in the Negro Race, the same as in other races among the filthy
and corrupt, but the filthy and corrupt in the Negro Race, as a class,
are growing fewer every year--for which we can thank the philanthropy
of the American people who are doing something to better the condition
of the Negro rather than hurling at him enernating criticisms and

"Their home is at Brodie, in the country, about twenty miles from
Henderson, N.C. The father's name is Gillis Garnes. He is about fifty
years of age, and the mother says she is about forty-eight. The oldest
child is a daughter, aged twenty-eight, and the youngest is also a
daughter, three years of age; that you see seated in her mother's
arms. They are all Baptists and thirteen of the family are members of
the church. I had this photograph taken at Henderson, on April 8th.
There are seventeen children, all living, of the same father and
mother. A.J. Garnes spends quite a part of the time in teaching in
his native county. When he is not teaching he is at home, and every
evening has a school made up of children of the family. A.J. Garnes
is the tall young man in the background at the right, who is a former
student of Shaw University, as well as one of the sisters represented
in the picture."--_Prof. Charles F. Meserve, in the Baptist Home
Mission Monthly._


New York, August 27.--Major Taylor, the colored cyclist, met and
defeated "Jimmy" Michael, the little Welshman, in a special match
race, best two out of three, one mile pace heats, from a standing
start at Manhattan Beach Cycle track this afternoon.

Michael won the first heat easily, as Taylor's pacing quint broke
down in the final lap, but on the next two heats Michael was so badly
beaten and distanced that he quit each time in the last lap.


Taylor's work was wonderful, both from a racing and time standpoint,
and he established a new world's record which was absolutely
phenomenal, covering the third heat in 1:41 2-5.

Michael was hissed by the spectators as he passed the stand,
dispirited and dejected by Taylor's overwhelming victory.

Immediately after the third heat was finished, and before the time was
announced, William A. Bradley, who championed the colored boy during
the entire season, issued a challenge to race Taylor against Michael
for $5,000 or $10,000 a side at any distance up to one hundred miles.


This declaration was received with tumultuous shouts by the
assemblage, and the colored victor was lionized when the time was made

Edouard Taylore, the French rider, held the world's record of 1:45 3-5
for the distance in a contest paced from a standing start.

[Illustration: COLEMAN COTTON MILL.]


The world's record against time from a standing start, made by Platt
Betts, of England, was 1:43 2-5. Michael beat Taylore's record by 1
2-5 seconds in the first heat, but Major Taylor wiped this out and
tied Betts' record against time in the second heat. As Taylor was on
the outside for nearly two and a half laps, it was easily seen that he
rode more than a mile in the time, and shrewd judges who watched the
race said that he would surely do better on the third attempt.


That he fully justified this belief goes without saying.

The Welsh rider was pale as a corpse when he jumped off his wheel and
had no excuse to make for his defeat. Taylor's performance undoubtedly
stamps him as the premier 'cycle sprinter of the world, and, judging
from the staying qualities he exhibited in his six days' ride in the
Madison Square Garden, the middle distance championship may be his
before the end of the present season.


After a search of many years, at last a Negro millionaire, yes, a
multi-millionaire has been found. He resides in the city of Guatemala,
and is known as Don Juan Knight. It is said he is to that country what
Huntington and other monied men are to this country. He was born a
slave in the State of Alabama. He owns gold mines, large coffee and
banana farms, is the second largest dealer in mahogany in the world,
owns a bank and pays his employees $200,000 a year. His wealth is
estimated at $70,000,000. He was the property of the Uptons, of
Dadeville, Ala. He contributes largely to educational institutions,
has erected hospitals, etc. He is sought for his advice by the
government whenever a bond issue, etc., is to be made. He lives in a
palace and has hosts of servants to wait on his family. He married a
native and has seven children. They have all been educated in this
country. Two of his sons are in a military academy in Mississippi and
one of his daughters is an accomplished portrait painter in Boston. He
visited the old plantation where he was born recently and employed the
son of his former master as foreman of his mines. Finding that the
wife of his former master was sick and without money, he gave her
enough money to live on the balance of her life. He employs more
men than any other man in Guatemala and is the wealthiest one
there.--Maxton Blade.


There is only one man in the United States who could steal $10,000,000
and not have the theft discovered for six months.

This man has a salary of $1,200 a year. He is a Negro and his name is
John R. Brown.

Mr. Brown's interesting duty is to be the packer of currency under
James F. Meline, the Assistant Treasurer of the United States, who,
says that his is a place where automatic safeguards and checks fail,
and where the government must trust to the honesty of the official.

All the currency printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing is
completed in the Treasury Building by having the red seal printed on
it there. It comes to the Treasury Building in sheets of four notes
each, and when the seal has been imprinted on the notes they are cut
apart and put into packages to dry. John Brown's duty is to put up the
packages of notes and seal them.


Brown does his work in a cage at the end of the room in which the
completion of the notes is accomplished--the room of the Division of

The notes are arranged in packages of one hundred before they are
brought into the cage. Each package has its paper strap, on which the
number and denomination is given in printed characters. Forty are put
together in two piles of twenty each and placed an a power press. This
press is worked by a lever, something like an old-style cotton press.
There are openings above and below through which strings can be
slipped after Brown has pulled the lever and compressed the package.

These strings hold the package together while stout manila paper is
drawn around it. This paper is folded as though about a pound of tea
and sealed with wax. Then a label is pasted on it, showing in plain
characters what is within.

The packages are of uniform size and any variation from the standard
would be noticed. But a dishonest man in Brown's position could slip a
wad of prepared paper into one of the packages and put the notes into
his pocket.

If he did this the crime might not be known for six months or a
year, or even longer. Some day there would come from the Treasurer
a requisition for a package of notes of a certain denomination. The
doctored package would be opened and the shortage would be found.
However, the Government has never had to meet this situation.

There have been only two men engaged in packing and sealing currency
since the Treasury Department was organized.

John T. Barnes began the work. He was a delegate to the Chicago
Convention which nominated Lincoln and he received his appointment
on the recommendation of Montgomery Blair in 1861. In 1862 he was
assigned to making up the currency packages and fulfilled that duty
until his death, in 1894. No mistake was ever discovered in his work,
though he handled every cent of currency issued by the government for
thirty-two years--so many millions of dollars that it would take a
week to figure them up.

Mr. Barnes' duties were filled temporarily until November 1, when John
R. Brown was appointed to the place.

Barnes at the time of his death was receiving only $1,400 a year and
Brown draws only $1,200.

Ordinarily the Bureau of Engraving and Printing delivers to the Issue
Division about fifty-six packages of paper money of 1,000 sheets each,
four notes on a sheet, making, when separated, 224,000 notes. These
notes range in value from $1 to $20, and their aggregate is usually
about $1,000,000. The government, however, issues currency in
denominations of $50, $100, $500, $1,000. The largest are not printed
often, because the amount issued is small.

If it could happen that 224,000 notes of $1,000 each were received
from the bureau in one day, the aggregate of value in the fifty-six
packages would be $224,000,000. As it is, a little more than 10 per
cent, of this sum represents the largest amount handled in one day.

That is, the packer has handled $25,000,000 in a single day, and not
one dollar has gone astray.

John R. Brown is a hereditary office-holder. His father was a trusted
employee of the Treasurer's office for ten year prior to his death, in
1874. The son was appointed assistant messenger in 1872. He became a
clerk through competitive examination and was gradually promoted.

[Illustration: GEN. PIO PILAR, In charge of the Insurgent forces
which attacked the American troops.]

The man who has the largest interest in John Brown's integrity and
care probably does not know Brown's name. Yet, if a thousand dollars
was missing from one of the packages in the storage vault, Ellis H.
Roberts, Treasurer of the United States, would have to make it good.
Mr. Roberts has given a bond to the government in the sum of $500,000.
Twenty years hence the sureties on that bond could be held for a
shortage in the Treasurer's office, if it could be traced back to Mr.
Roberts' term.

Not one of the employees under Mr. Roberts gives a bond, though they
handle millions every day. But the Treasurer's office is one which
every responsible employee has been weighed carefully. Its clerks have
been in service many years and have proved worthy of confidence.


Mr. Paul Lawrence Dunbar has been until recently an elevator-boy in
Dayton, Ohio. While engaged in the ups and downs of life in that
capacity he has cultivated his poetical talents so successfully that
his verse has found frequent admission into leading magazines. At last
a little collection of these verses reached William Dean Howells,

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