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History of Louisisana by Le Page Du Pratz

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are not so warm as the others, and it is only when the negroes are
warm that they send forth a disagreeable smell.

The negroes that have the worst smell are those that are the least
black; and what I have said of their bad smell, ought to warn you to
keep always on the windward side of them when you visit them at their
work; never to suffer them to come near your children, who, exclusive
of the bad smell, can learn nothing good from them, either as to
morals, education, or language.

From what I have said, I conclude that a French father and his wife
are great enemies to their posterity when they give their children
such nurses. For the milk being the purest blood of the woman, one
must be a step-mother indeed to give her child to a negro nurse in
such a country as Louisiana, where the mother has all conveniences of
being served, of accommodating and carrying their children, who by
that means may be always under their eyes. The mother then has nothing
else to do but to give the breast to her child.

I have no inclination to employ my pen in censuring the over-delicacy
and selfishness of the women, who thus sacrifice their children; it
may, without further illustration, be easily perceived how much
society is interested in this affair. I shall only say, that for any
kind of service whatever about the house, I would advise no other kind
of negroes, either young or old, but Senegals, called among themselves
Diolaufs, because of all {363} the negroes I have known, these have
the purest blood; they have more fidelity and a better understanding
than the rest, and are consequently fitter for learning a trade, or
for menial services. It is true they are not so strong as the others
for the labours of the field, and for bearing the great heats.

The Senegals however are the blackest, and I never saw any who had a
bad smell. They are very grateful; and when one knows how to attach
them to him, they have been found to sacrifice their own life to save
that of their master. They are good commanders over other negroes,
both on account of their fidelity and gratitude, and because they seem
to be born for commanding. As they are high-minded, they may be easily
encouraged to learn a trade, or to serve in the house, by the
distinction they will thereby acquire over the other negroes, and the
neatness of dress which that condition will entitle them to.

When a settler wants to make a fortune, and manage his plantation with
oeconomy, he ought to prefer his interest to his pleasure, and only
take the last by snatches. He ought to be the first up and the last
a-bed, that he may have an eye over every thing that passes in his
plantation. It is certainly his interest that his negroes labour a
good deal: but it ought to be an equal and moderate labour, for
violent and continual labours would soon exhaust and ruin them;
whereas by keeping them always moderately employed, they neither
exhaust their strength nor ruin their constitution. By this they are
kept in good health, and labour longer, and with more good will:
besides it must be allowed that the day is long enough for an
assiduous labourer to deserve the repose of the evening.

To accustom them to labour in this manner I observed the following
method: I took care to provide one piece of work for them before
another was done, and I informed their commander or driver in their
presence, that they might not lose time, some in coming to ask what
they were to do, and others in waiting for an answer. Besides I went
several times a day to view them, by roads which they did not expect,
pretending to be going a hunting or coming from it. If I observed them
idle, I reprimanded them, and if when they saw me coming, they wrought
too hard, I told them that they fatigued themselves, {364} and that
they could not continue at such hard labour during the whole day,
without being harassed, which I did not want.

When I surprised them singing at their work, and perceived that they
had discovered me, I said to them chearfully, Courage, my boys, I love
to see you merry at your work; but do not sing so loud, that you may
not fatigue yourselves, and at night you shall have a cup of Tafia (or
rum) to give you strength and spirits. One cannot believe the effect
such a discourse would have upon their spirits, which was easily
discernible from the chearfulness upon their countenances, and their
ardour at work.

If it be necessary not to pass over any essential fault in the
negroes, it is no less necessary never to punish them but when they
have deserved it, after a serious enquiry and examination supported by
an absolute certainty, unless you happen to catch them in the fact.
But when you are fully convinced of the crime, by no means pardon them
upon any assurances or protestations of theirs, or upon the
solicitations of others; but punish them in proportion to the fault
they have done, yet always with humanity, that they may themselves be
brought to confess that they have deserved the punishment they have
received. A Christian is unworthy of that name when he punishes with
cruelty, as is done to my knowledge in a certain colony, to such a
degree that they entertain their guests with such spectacles, which
have more of barbarity than humanity in them. When a negro comes from
being whipped, cause the sore parts to be washed with vinegar mixed
with salt, Jamaica pepper, which grows in the garden, and even a
little gun-powder.

As we know from experience that most men of a low extraction, and
without education, are subject to thieving in their necessities, it is
not at all surprising to see negroes thieves, when they are in want of
every thing, as I have seen many badly fed, badly cloathed, and having
nothing to lie upon but the ground. I shall make but one reflection.
If they are slaves, it is also true that they are men, and capable of
becoming Christians: besides, it is your intention to draw advantage
from them, is it not therefore reasonable to take all the care of
{365} them that you can? We see all those who understand the
government of horses give an extraordinary attention to them, whether
they be intended for the saddle or the draught. In the cold season
they are well covered and kept in warm stables. In the summer they
have a cloth thrown over them, to keep them from the dust, and at all
times good litter to lie upon. Every morning their dung is carried
away, and they are well curried and combed. If you ask those masters,
why they bestow so much pains upon beasts? they will tell you, that,
to make a horse serviceable to you, you must take a good deal of care
of him, and that it is for the interest of the person to whom a horse
belongs, so to do. After this example, can one hope for labour from
negroes, who very often are in want of necessaries? Can one expect
fidelity from a man, who is denied what he stands most in need of?
When one sees a negro, who labours hard and with much assiduity, it is
common to say to him, by way of encouragement, that they are well
pleased with him, and that he is a good negro. But when any of them,
who understand our language, are so complimented, they very properly
reply, _Masser, when negre be much fed, negre work much; when negre has
good masser, negre be good._

If I advise the planters to take great care of their negroes, I at the
same time shew them that their interest is connected in that with
their humanity. But I do no less advise them always to distrust them,
without seeming to fear them, because it is as dangerous to shew a
concealed enemy that you fear him, as to do him an injury.

Therefore make it your constant custom to shut your doors securely,
and not to suffer any negro to sleep in the house with you, and have
it in their power to open your door. Visit your negroes from time to
time, at night and on days and hours when they least expect you, in
order to keep them always in fear of being found absent from their
huts. Endeavour to assign each of them a wife, to keep clear of
debauchery and its bad consequences. It is necessary that the negroes
have wives, and you ought to know that nothing attaches them so much
to a plantation as children. But above all do not suffer any of them
to abandon his wife, when he has once made choice of one {366} in your
presence. Prohibit all fighting under pain of the lash, otherwise the
women will often raise squabbles among the men.

Do not suffer your negroes to carry their children to the field with
them, when they begin to walk, as they only spoil the plants and take
off the mothers from their work. If you have a few negro children, it
is better to employ an old negro woman to keep them in the camp, with
whom the mothers may leave something for their children to eat. This
you will find to be the most profitable way. Above all do not suffer
the mothers ever to carry them to the edge of the water, where there
is too much to be feared.

For the better subsistence of your negroes, you ought every week to
give them a small quantity of salt and of herbs of your garden, to
give a better relish to their Couscou, which is a dish made of the
meal of rice or maiz soaked in broth.

If you have any old negro, or one in weak health, employ him in
fishing both for yourself and your negroes. His labour will be well
worth his subsistence.

It is moreover for your own interest to give your negroes a small
piece of waste ground to improve at the end of your own, and to engage
them to cultivate it for their own profit, that they may be able to
dress a little better, by selling the produce of it, which you ought
to buy from them upon fair and just terms. It were better that they
should employ themselves in cultivating that field on Sundays, when
they are not Christians, than do worse. In a word, nothing is more to
be dreaded than to see the negroes assemble together on Sundays,
since, under pretence of Calinda or the dance, they sometimes get
together to the number of three or four hundred, and make a kind of
Sabbath, which it is always prudent to avoid; for it is in those
tumultuous meetings that they sell what they have stolen to one
another, and commit many crimes. In these likewise they plot their

To conclude, one may, by attention and humanity, easily manage
negroes; and, as an inducement, one has the satisfaction to draw great
advantage from their labours.




Abeikas Indians--293
Acacia Tree--222
Adaies Indians--9;
Post of, 54
Agriculture, Indian--341
Aiaouez Indians--59, 62; 63; 66; 305
Alaron, Martin de--9, 10
Alibamous Indians--293
Alibamous River--135
slave girl kills, 19;
author kills large one, 22;
description of, 253-255
Amite River--113
Ants--272; 273
Aplaches Indians--293
Apples, wild--212
Aquelou-Pissas Indians--18; 297
German colonists there, 29; 88
Arkansas Indians--
mate with Canadians, 4; 57; 303
Arkansas River--
reached by Tonti, 4; 112; 113; 153-154
Ascension Bay--114; 139
Assinais Indians--5-9
Attakapas Indians--
cannibals, 302
Avoyelles Indians--149;
home of, 302-303
Ayac Shrub--226

Balers, Marquis of--9
Barbel, description of--274
Baton Rouge--52;
named after a cypress tree, 217
Bay of St. Bernard--3
Bay of St. Esprit--2
Bay of St. Louis--16; 17; 114;
lands around, 138
Bayou Choupic--17; 18
Bayou Goula--141
Bayou-Ogoulas Indians--52; 302
Bayou St. John--17; 18; 49; 52
cultivation in La., 204
Bears--132; 133;
description of, 245-249;
feast of, 324
description of, 127-131
becomes Gov. Gen. of La., 10-11;
founds New Orleans, 15;
breeds hogs, 16; 28; 38;
defeats Natchez Indians, 39; 42; 49; 71; 87; 88; 92; 93;
war against Chicasaws, 94-95; 109;
returns to La., 186
Biloxi--11; 16;
not suitable for settlement, 28;
distress of German colonists, 29;
country back of, 30; 47;
settlement destroyed, 137.
Birch Tree--231
Bishop (Bird)--270
Black River--113;
land around it, 148;
lands along, 151-154
Bon Homme--195
Bonita Fish--12
Bourgrnont, Commander de--
voyage to Missouri and Kansas, 59-68;
his journal, 69; 160; 305
how made, 340
hunt by author, 122; 132; 134; 146; 147; 152;
hunt in New Mexico, 155;
hides and tallow, 155-156; 162, 178;
description of, 240;
Indian hunt, 240;
feast of, 324
Burgo-Breaker (fish)--275
Burial customs--333-337
deseciption of, 258

Caouquias Indians--301
Caouitas Indians--293
Caddo Indians--151; 303
Cadillac, de la Motte--
arrives in La., 5; 6; 8; 9;
death of, 10;
his mine, 163
Calendar of Natchez--319
Calumet (Pipe of Peace)--35;
feathers for, 258
Campeachy wood--183
early voyagers to La., 4;
at Dauphin Island, 16;
at Mobile, 46; 58; 59;
get salt, 157;
Route to La., 161-163
Candlemas Islands--138
Cannes Brulee's--52
how made, 69
Canzas (see Kansas)
Cape Anthony--13
Cape Francois--11-13; 182
population, IX; 47
Carp--17; 146; 274
practised scalping, 283
Caskaquias (see Kaskasia)
Cassine Shrub--228
Castin Bayou--113
Castine Mine--133
Catamounts--134; 144
description of, 274
Cat Island--16; 138
Cedar Trees--215; 225
Celoron, Capt. de--93; 94
Chacchi-Oumas Indians--300
Chactaw Indians (see Choctaws)
Chaineau, M.--278
Champmelin, Commander--
captures Pensacola XXIV; 104; 105
Chandeleur Islands--13
Chaouachas Indians--140; 301
Chaouanous River--162
Charleville, M. de--109; 110
Charlevoix--I; III; IV; XXV; XXVI; 24; 30
Chatkas Indians--295;
language, 297
Chatots Indians--294
Cherokee River--162
Chestnut Trees--214
Chicasaw Cliffs--133
Chicasaw Indians--46;
murder French, 56-57;
war with, 87-90;
make peace, 94;
country of, 137;
destructive wars, 291;
language, 297;
destroy other tribes, 303-304;
fierce and arrogant, 332.
Chitimachas Indians--18;
war with, 71; 300;
home of, 302
Choctaws--46; 80; 84; 85; 113
Chopart, de--73; his death, 82
Choupichoul (buck wheat)-156-157
Clerac (Gascony)-27
of Gulf Coast, III; VIII;
severe weather, 36;
at Mobile, 46;
of the Miss. Valley, 57;
of La., 107-108
Clothing of Indians--344-346
Cockle-Island--17, 138
Coligni, Admiral de--2
Conchac Indians--293
Copper Mines--30, 145
Cormorant, 259
Coroas Indians--300
Cooking, Indian--342
description of, 164-165;
importance of.185;
its cultivation in La., 202;
feast of, 321-322; 347
Cotton--145; 158;
how cultivated, 174-175;
for export, 181
Cotton Tree--222
account of Carolina, VI; XIII; 47
Cranes--22; 126;
description of, 261
Creeper, bearded--232
La. ceded to, 5;
full store-houses, 8;
transfers to West India Co., 10; 107
cultivation in La., 206
Cypress Tree--IV;
at Baton Rouge, 52; 216; 217

d'Artaguette--28; 52; 88; 92
Dauphin Isle--13; 15; 45; 46; 49; 101; 103
white, 124; 132; 134; 144; 152;
hunt, 242-244; feast of, 319
Deer Oil--249
De Lisle--279
de Meuse--
grant, 54
de Soto--2
de Ville, Father--26
Diodorus Siculus--
his description of lands west of Africa, 281-282
fatal to Indians--291;
of Negroes, 359-360
Dragon flies--272
Draught (Bird)--263
description of, 259-261
du Crenet--84
du Haye--198
Dumont (Historian)--I; V; VII; XXV; 46; 56; 66; 113; 135;
historical memoirs, 187; 225
Du Pratz--1eaves La., 187
du Tiffenet--88; 89
du Vernai, Paris--52

Elder Tree--231

skeletons found in Ohio--290
Elk--64, 132, 134, 144
extent of American possessions, XIV;
shipping, XVII;
at English Turn, 47-51;
on the Yazoo, 56; 57;
on the Miss. River, 140;
tobacco trade, 199
English Turn (Reach)--47; 51;
why its name, 139-140
Episingles Indians--93
Esquine--181, 233
Eye Inflammation--
treatment for, 43
from La. to Islands, 182

Feast of War--352-353
Feasts of Indians--320-322
Maiden hair, 234-235
Fig Trees--210-211
Fire, how made--340
plentiful in La., 274
Five Nations--294
Flamingo--22; 126;
description of, 261
Flat root--235
Flaucourt, Loire de, 24
Fleury, Cardinal--187
French settle there, 2;
Spanish attack them, 2;
French later attack Spanish, 2
Flying Fish--12
Food of Indians--348-350
description of, 263
Forant, M. de--85
Fort Assumption--57; 93; 95
Fort Balise--47; 48; 116; 118;
where built, 139
Fort Carolin (Fla.)--2
Fort Chartres--58
Fort Crevecoeur--3
Fort Louis--46; 294
Fort Mobile--88; 92
Fort Orleans--59; 61; 62; 69; 160
Fort Rosalie--23-24; 33; 34; 35
Fort St. Francis--92; 95
Fort St. John Baptist--6; 7; 9; 10
Fort St. Louis--136
Fox Indians--
home of, 301
shipping, XVII;
in Fla., 2, 18;
at Natchez, 32-33;
bad influence, 41;
massacre at Natchez, 82-83;
commerce with La., 177-182
Frigate (Bird)--263
Fur trade--178

Gar fish--
description of, 276-277
Gaillard--61-63; 65
Indian, 347
wild, 127; 259
in La., 29
Gold--145; plentiful in Mexico, 150
Gourges, Dominque de--2; 8
Grass Point--17
Great Sun--40; 42-43
burial, 333-336
Green flies--272
Grigas Indians--298
Gulf of Mexico Coast--1;
northern boundary, 13;
description of land bordering, 135-137

Habitations of Indians--341
Hakluyt (Fla.)--2
description of, 263-264
Hennepin, Father--3
Herons--126; 261
cultivation, 180; 238
Hickory Trees--213
Horn Island--16
Hornbean Trees--226
Hops--177; 234
Howard, John--58
planter, 20; 22; 24; 25
Hubert, Mme.--136; 167
Humming Bird--270
Hurricane--30; 31; 32
how made, 341

Iapy, Commander--104
made Gov. Gen. of La., 4;
his death, 5; 8; 10
Iberville River--113
visited by Hennepin and LaSalle, 3;
hurricane, 30; 57; 58; 88; 162; 163
Illinois Indians--66;
home of, 300-301
Illinois River--110
travel, 60-61;
how to fight, 99-100;
origin of, 279;
descended from Europeans, 281
cultivation and processing, 168-171;
for export, 181;
Dumont's method of making, 191-193
destructive wars of, 291
ground, 237

Jesuits--51; 58

Kappas Indians--304
Kansas Indians--59; 60; 61; 62; 66; 68; 69; 305
Kansas River--63; 64; 110;
description of, 159
Kaskasia Indians--301
description of, 263

la Chaise, Director Gen.--44; 45
Lake Borgne--17; 138
Lake Erie--111; 161
Lake Maurepas--17; 113

Lake Pontchartrain--17
Lake St. Louis--17; 46; 49; 52; 113; 135
Lafourche (the Fork)--141
Language of Natchez--311
travels from Canada to the Gulf, 3;
is killed on second trip, 4; 116
Laudonviere, Rene de--2
Laurel Trees--217
Laval, Father--XXIII; XXV
Lavigne, Sieur--18
Law, John--29
Lead--132; 145; 158; 163
grant, 56; 88
LeSueur, Bayou--116
Liart Trees--226
Lime Trees--226
Linarez, Duke of--7-9
Lion's Mouth (flower) 239
Locust Tree--222
Longevity of Indians--329
Loubois, Lieut. de--83; 84
Louis XIV--3; 5; 107
poor colonization, XXVI;
named after Louis XIV, 3;
names, 15;
boundary of, 107;
description of soil, 117-118;
a fine country, 185;
fertility of, 197
Luchereau, M. de--4

Magnolia Trees--218-219
Maize--163-165; 202-203
Manchac River--111; 114
Maple Trees--220
Marameg Mine--158
Marameg River--58
Margat River--57; 93
Marriage customs--326-328
Massacre Island--
Now Dauphin Isle, 13;
how it was named, 14
Massacre of French at Natchez--73; 82
Medicines--44; 45; 181; 215
Medicine, Indian--26; 27; 43; 44
descent from Chinese or Japanese, 284
Mexico--6; 7; 10;
home of ancient Natchez tribe, 279;
natives kill themselves, 291
Mezieres, Marquis de--52
Miami River--111; 161; 162; 163
Michigamias Indians--304
Mines in Illinois--163;
in La., 195-196
Miragouine, Sieur--103
Mississippi River--
lands of lower basin, VI; VII;
commands continent, IX;
navigation of, XI-XII;
mouths of, XIII;
reached by Hennepin, 3; 15; 18; 24;
hurricane, 30; 47; 48; 49; 51;
inhabitants along, 52; 53; 55; 58; 59; 63; 107;
As names, 109;
attempts to find source, 109;
mouths of, 114-115;
the passes, 117; 133;
soil at mouth, 138-139;
on east bank, 141-142;
lands west of, 145; 161; 162; 163;
voyage to source by Indian, 289-290
Mississippi Scheme--II; 58
Missouri Indians--59; 60; 66;
home of, 304-305
Missouri River--
navigation of, XII; 60; 63; 69; 110;
description of, 159

barren lands, XX; 9; 11;
birth place of La., 15; 45; 49; 89;
native of land, 135-136;
fertility of animals and women, 136
Mobile Bay--114
Mobile Indians--294
Mobile River--
Canadians settle on, 4-5; 46; 135
Moingona River--110
Moncacht-ape, old wise man of Yazoo tribe--
his voyages, 285-290
Montplaisir, M. de--27
description of, 272-273;
how Indians fight, 333
Mulberry Trees--145; 158;
for silk growing, 167-168; 212;
feast of, 321
Muscadine Grapes--209
Myrtle Wax-tree--220

goodness of the country, 20-21;
commandment, 27-28;
terrible storm, 30-32;
settlement at, 38-39; 55-56
Natchez Indians--
DuPratz arrives among, 23-27;
first war with French, 32-36;
second war, 38-39; 55; 69;
council of war, 76-77; 84;
destroyed by French, 86-87; 153;
grow grain, 156;
origin of, 279-280; 297;
home of, 298;
power of, 299;
description of social habits--
birth and rearing children, 306-311;
language, government, religion, 311-320
French settle, 5;
St. Denis at, 6;
Spanish settle near, 8; 54;
quality of land, 148;
silver there, 195
Natchitoches Indians--112;
home of, 303
revolt, 71;
choice of for slaves, 357;
how to handle, 361;
odors of, 362
Nesunez, Pamphilo--1
New Orleans--V;
health good, IX;
settlement of, 11;
founded, 15; 17; 18; 22;
physicians and surgeons of, 26; 30; 45; 46;
forts below, 48;
description of, 49-52;
harbor of, 52; 58; 71;
climate, 108; 136;
nature of soil, 141;
distance from Canada, 162
New Mexico--6; 54; 55; 112;
nature of land, 147;
hunting there, 155
Niagara Falls--286
Natchez, 328
North America--
extent of, XV;
its products, XVI

Oak Trees--IV; V; 223-225
Ohio River--
navigation of, XII; 58; 111; 161; 162; 163;
skeleton of elephants found, 290
Olivarez, Friar--9
Olive Trees--213
Orange Trees--212
Opelousas Indians--302
Opossum (wood-rat)--251
Osage Indians--59-60; 66; 304; 305
Osage River--159
Othouez Indians--59; 60; 61; 62; 66; 305
Otter Indians--287-288
Ouachas Indians--140
Ouchitas Indains--
former home of, 303
Ouachita River--113
Oumas Indians--52; 80; home of, 297
Ouse-Ogoulas Indians--300
in La., 277;
on trees in St. Domingo, 278

Paducah Indians--59; 61; 62; 63; 65;
Customs and manners, 66-68
destructive wars of, 291; 305
Paillou, Major General--
at N. O., 15; 18; 39
Panimahas Indians--59; 63; 66; 305
Panis Indians--305
Partridges--144; 265
Paseagoulas River--114; 136
Pasca-Ogoulas Indians--15; 46; 295
Patassa (fish)--276
Pawpaws--158; 210
Peach Trees--210-211
Pearl River--114
description of, 259
description of, XXIII; 2;
Spanish settle, 8;
captured by French, 100-105
Perdido River--104; 116; 135
Gov. of La., 71; 73; 83; 85;
defeats Natchez Indians, 86-87; 153;
leaves La., 186
Perrier de Salvert--72; 86
natives killed themselves, 291
Petits Ecores--52; 53
ancestors of Natchez Indians, 283
alarming, 30;
at Natchez, 36-38;
extraordinary, 70
description of, 266-267
Pilchard--14; description of, 276
Pimiteouis Indians--301
for tar, 193-194; 217
Pipe of Peace--59; 60; 63; 65; 258
how to make, 194
Plaquemine Bayou--114
Pointe Coupee--52; 53; 54
Pole Cat--252
Pope (Bird)--269
Port de Paix--13
Puerto Rico--11
Potatoes (sweet)--
cultivation in La., 204-205
how made, 342
in La., 29
Prud'homme Cliffs--93
Prud'homme River--57

Quebec--3; 111

Raimond, Diego--6; 10
Rattle snake--
cure for bite, 237;
description of, 255
Rattle-snake herb--235-237
Red fish--14
Red River--54; 55; 112;
nature of land, 148; 151
Red Shoe, Prince of Chactaws--95
Religion of Natchez--312
how grown, 165;
how eaten, 166;
in La., 204-205
Richebourg, Captain--101; 102
Ring-skate (fish)--276
Rio del Norte--6
author leaves, 11;
returns to, 187
in Illinois, 162; 203

Sagamity--348; 349
St. Anthony's Falls--109; 110
St. Augustin, Fla.--2
St. Bernard's Bay--116
St. Catherine's Creek--33; 34; 35; 38
St. Come--
Missionary, 71
St. Croix River--110
St. Denis--
journey to Mexico, 6-11; 54; 104;
popular with natives, 150
St. Domingo--4; 11; 13;
oysters on trees, 277
St. Francis River--57;

lands around, 157-158; 112
St. Hilaire, Surgeon--42
St. Laurent--93; 94
St. Lawrence River--111; 161; 286
St. Louis Church--51
St. Louis River--3; 4; 8
St. Rose Isle--101; 102
St. Peter River--110
Salmont, Com. Gen.--85
in lower La., 147;
spring near Natchitoches, 149;
mines, 153
Salt petre--147; 180
Santa Fe--112
Sarde (fish)--14
Sassafras--181; 220
Saw Bill--261
tobacco trade, 199
how to cure--360
Sea Snipe--263
Ship Island--16; 28
Siam distemper--13
growing experiments, 167-168
cultivation possible, 176;
worms, 271
Silver--145; 151; 158; 163; 195
Sioux Indians--109;
home of, 301-306
fatal to Indians, 291
claim La., 5; 54; 55;
on west of La., colony, 146;
near Natchitoches, 150;
how they hunt in Mexico, 155;
commerce with La., 183-184;
attempt to settle Missouri, 305
description of, 261; 276
description of, 257
Stink Wood Tree--226
feast of, 320
Stung Arm--79; 80; 81
Stung Serpent--35; 40;
death of, 335-336
Sun of the Apple Village--
negotiates with the French, 73-78
Swans--127; 162; 259
Sweet gum--181; 215

Tamarouas Indians--58; 162; 300; 301
Tangipahoa River--113
how to make--193-194
Tchefuncte River--113; 136
Temple, Indian--
description of, 333
Tensas Indians--
near Mobile, 294;
language, 297; 300;
former home of, 303
Tensas River--
lands along, 152
Thioux Indians--299
Thomez Indians--294
Thorn, Passion--229-230
Thornback (fish)--14
description of, 249-250
for shipbuilding, 179
trade, XVII;
plantation, 25; 145; 158;
in Illinois, 163;
how cultivated, 171-174;
for export, 181;
DuMont's description of cultivation, 187-191;
advantages of La. cultivation, 197-198;
British imports and exports, 199;
worm, 271
Tombigbee--46; 89
Tonicas Indians--23; 27; 44; 80; 84; 85;
language of, 298
Tonti, Chevalier de--3; 4
Topoussas Indians--300
Torture, Indian--354-355
Tooth-ache Tree--228
Turkeys, wild--120; 144;
description of, 264;
feast of, 324
Turkey Buzzard--258

Ursuline Nuns--51

Vasquez de Aillon, Lucas--1
Vaudreuil, Gov.--95; 96
Vinegar Tree--227

Wabash River--110; 111; 161; 162; 163
Walnut Tree--158; 213
with Natchez Indians, 32-36; 38-39;
causes of Indian wars, 96-97;
how they fight, 350;
war feast, 352-353
Water Melons--
how grown, 166;
cultivation of in La., 206-207;
feast of, 321
from Wax Tree, 220-222
Wax Tree--176; 220-222
West India Company--
Takes over La., 10;
sends colonists, 11; 18; 32; 44;
gives up colony, 85
in Illinois, 162;
in La., 203
White Apple Village--33; 39;
demanded by French, 73
Wild Cat--251
Wild Geese--22; 259
Wild Turkey--
description of, 264
(see turkey)
Willow Tree--226
Wolves--134; 144;
kill buffaloes, 156;
description of, 244-245
"fruitful" in La., 185
description of, 268-269

Yapon Shrub--228
Yazoo Indians--56;
kill the garrison at their Post, 83; 300
Yazoo River--56; 112
Ydalgo, Friar--5; 7; 9

[Illustration: A Map of Louisiana]

[Illustration: THE GULPH OF MEXICO]

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