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History Of Modern Philosophy by Richard Falckenberg

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G. Frege (_Begriffsschrift_, 1879; _The Foundations of Arithmetic_, 1884;
_Function and Concept_, 1891; "On Sense and Meaning" in the _Zeitschrift
für Philosophie,_ vol. c. 1892) has also chosen the region intermediate
between mathematics and philosophy for his field of work. We note, further,
E.G. Husserl, _Philosophy of Arithmetic_, vol. i., 1891.]

[Footnote 3: Ernst Haeckel of Jena (born 1834; _General Morphology_, 1866;
_Natural History of Creation_, 1868 [English, 1875] I _Anthropogeny_, 1874;
_Aims and Methods of the Development History of To-day_, 1875; _Popular
Lectures_, 1878 _seq_.--English, 1883), G. Jäger, A. Schleicher _(The
Darwinian Theory and the Science of Language_, 1865), Ernst Krause
(Carus Sterne, the editor of _Kosmos_) O. Caspari, Carneri (_Morals and
Darwinism_, 1871), O. Schmidt, Du Prel, Paul Rée (_The Origin of the Moral
Feelings_, 1877; _The Genesis of Conscience_, 1885; _The Illusion of Free
Will_, 1885); G.H. Schneider (_The Animal Will_, 1880; _The Human Will_,
1882; _The Good and III of the Human Race_, 1883).]

Besides the theory of knowledge, in the elaboration of which the most
eminent naturalists[1] participate with acuteness and success, psychology
and the practical disciplines also betray the influence of the scientific
spirit. While sociology and ethics, following the English model, seek an
empirical basis and begin to make philosophical use of statistical results
(E.F. Schäffle, _Frame and Life of the Social Body_, new ed., 1885; A. von
Oettingen, _Moral Statistic in its Significance for a Social Ethics_, 3d
ed., 1882), psychology endeavors to attain exact results in regard to
psychical life and its relation to its physical basis--besides Fechner and
the Herbartians, W. Wundt and A. Horwicz should be mentioned here. Wundt
and, of late, Haeckel go back to the Spinozistic parallelism of material
and psychical existence, only that the latter emphasizes merely the
inseparability _(Nichtohneeinander)_ of the two sides (the cell-body and
the cell-soul) with a real difference between them and a metaphysical
preponderance of the material side, while the former emphasizes the
essential unity of body and soul, and the higher reality of the spiritual

[Footnote 1: Helmholtz, Virchow (born 1821), Zöllner (1834-82; _On the
Nature of Comets_, 1872), and Du Bois-Reymond (born 1818), who, in his
lectures _On the Limits of the Knowledge of Nature_, 1872, and _The Seven
World-riddles_, 1880 (both together in 1882, and reprinted in the first
series of his _Addresses_, 1886), looks on the origin of life, the
purposive order of nature, and thought as problems soluble in the future,
but declares, on the other hand, that the nature of matter (atoms)
and force _(actio in distant)_, the origin of motion, the genesis of
consciousness (of sensation, together with pleasure and pain) from the
knowable conditions of psychical life, and the freedom of the will, are
absolute limits to our knowledge of nature.]

%(b) Idealistic Reaction against the Scientific Spirit.%--In opposition to
the preponderance of natural science and the empirico-skeptical tendency of
the philosophy of the day conditioned by it, an idealistic counter-movement
is making itself increasingly felt as the years go on. Wilhelm Dilthey[1]
abandons metaphysics as a basis, it is true, but (with the assent of
Gierke, _Preussische Jahrbücher_, vol. liii. 1884) declares against the
transfer of the method of natural science to the mental sciences, which
require a special foundation. In spite of his critical rejection of
metaphysics, Wilhelm Windelband in Strasburg (born 1848; _Preludes_, 1884)
is, like Dilthey, to be counted among the idealists. In opposition to the
individualism of the positivists, the folk-psychologists--at their head
Steinthal and Lazarus (p. 536); Gustav Glogau[2] in Kiel (born 1844) is
an adherent of the same movement--defend the power of the universal over
individual spirits. The spirit of the people is not a phrase, an empty
name, but a real force, not the sum of the individuals belonging to the
people, but an encompassing and controlling power, which brings forth
in the whole body processes (_e.g._, language) which could not occur in
individuals as such. It is only as a member of society that anyone becomes
truly man; the community is the subject of the higher life of spirit.

[Footnote 1: Dilthey: _Introduction to the Mental Sciences_, part i.,
1883; _Poetic Creation_ in the Zeller _Aufsätze_, 1887; "Contributions to
the Solution of the Question of the Origin of our Belief in the Reality of
the External World, and its Validity," _Sitzungsberichte_ of the Berlin
Academy of Sciences, 1890; "Conception and Analysis of Man in the
Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries" in the _Archiv für Geschichte der
Philosophie_, vols. iv., v., 1891-92.]

[Footnote 2: Glogau: _Sketch of the Fundamental Philosophical Sciences_
(part i., _The Form and the Laws of Motion of the Spirit_, 1880; part
ii., _The Nature and the Fundamental Forms of Conscious Spirit_, 1888);
_Outlines of Psychology_; 1884.]

If folk-psychology, whose title but imperfectly expresses the comprehensive
endeavor to construct a psychology of society or of the universal spirit,
is, as it were, an empirical confirmation of Hegel's theory of Objective
Spirit, Rudolf Eucken[1] (born 1846), pressing on in the Fichtean manner
from the secondary facts of consciousness to an original real-life,
endeavors to solve the question of a universal becoming, of an
all-pervasive force, of a supporting unity ("totality") in the life of
spirit (neither in a purely noëtical nor a purely metaphysical, but) in a
noölogical way, and demands that the fundamental science or doctrine of
principles direct its attention not to cognition by itself, but to the
activity of psychical life as a whole.

[Footnote 1: Eucken: _The Unity of Spiritual Life in the Consciousness and
Deeds of Humanity_, 1888; _Prolegomena_ to this, 1885. A detailed analysis
of the latter by Falckenberg is given in the _Zeitschrift für Philosophie_,
vol. xc, 1887; cf. above, pp. 17 and 610.]

We have elsewhere discussed the more recent attempts to establish a
metaphysic which shall be empirically well grounded and shall cautiously
rise from facts.[1] In regard to the possibility of metaphysics three
parties are to be distinguished: On the left, the positivists, the
neo-Kantians, and the monists of consciousness, who deny it out of hand. On
the right, a series of philosophers--e.g., adherents of Hegel, Herbart, and
Schopenhauer--who, without making any concessions to the modern theory of
knowledge, hold fast to the possibility of a speculative metaphysics of the
old type. In the center, a group of thinkers who are willing to renounce
neither a solid noëtical foundation nor the attainment of metaphysical
conclusions--so Eduard von Hartmann, Wundt,[2] Eucken, Volkelt (pp. 590,
617). Otto Liebmann (born 1840; _On the Analysis of Reality_, 1876, 2d
ed., 1880; _Thoughts and Facts_, Heft i. 1882) demands a sharp separation
between the certain and the uncertain and an exact estimation of the degree
of probability which theories possess; puts the principles of metaphysics
under the rubric of logical hypothesis; and, in his _Climax of the
Theories_, 1884, calls attention to the fact that experiential science, in
addition to axioms necessarily or apodictically certain and empeiremes
possessing actual or assertory certainty, needs, further, a number of
"interpolation maxims," which form an attribute of our type of intellectual
organization _(i.e._, principles, according to the standard of which we
supplement the fragmentary and discrete series of single perceptions and
isolated observations by the interpolation of the needed intermediate
links, so that they form a connected experience). The most important of
these maxims are the principles of real identity, of the continuity of
existence, of causality, and of the continuity of becoming. Experience is
a gift of the understanding; the premises, as a rule, latent in ordinary
consciousness, on whose anticipatory application our experience is based
throughout, assert something absolutely incapable of being experienced.
If, in order to the production of a "pure experience," we eliminate all
subjective additions of the understanding contained in experiential thought
(all that cannot be present at the moment or locally at hand, in short, all
that cannot be the direct object and content of actual observation),
this breaks up into an unordered, unconnected aggregate of discontinuous
perceptual fragments; in order that a complete and articulated condition
of experience may result, these fragments (the purely factual content of
observation, the incoherent matter of perception) must be supplemented and
connected by very much that is not observed.

[Footnote 1: R. Falckenberg, _Ueber die gegenwärtige Lage der deutschen
Philosophie_, inaugural address at Erlangen, Leipsic, 1890.]

[Footnote 2: Wundt: _Essays_, 1885, including "Philosophy and Science";
_System of Philosophy_, 1889. On the latter cf. Volkelt's paper in the
_Philosophische Monatshefte_, vol. xxvii. 1891; and on the _Essays_ a
notice by the same author in the same review, vol. xxiii. 1887.]

Further, a reaction against crude naturalism is observable in the practical
field, though political economists (Roscher) and jurists take a more active
part in it than the philosophers. Personally R. von Jhering (1818-92;
_Purpose in Law_, 2 vols., 1877-83, 2d ed., 1884-86) stands on idealistic
ground, although, rejecting the nativistic and formalistic theory, he is in
principle an adherent of "realism," of the principle of interest and social
utility (the moral is that Which is permanently useful to society).

Finally, similar motives underlie the growing interest in the history
of philosophy. The idealistic impulse seeks the nourishment which the
un-metaphysical present denies to it from the great works of the past, and
hopes, by keeping alive the classical achievements of previous times, to
enhance the consciousness of the urgency and irrepressibleness of the
highest questions, and to awaken courage for renewed attempts at their
solution. Thus the study of history enters the service of systematic

%(c) The Special Philosophical Sciences.%--The more the courage to attack
the central problems of philosophy has been paralyzed by the neo-Kantian
theory of knowledge and the coming-in of the positivistic spirit, the more
lively has been the work of the last decades in the special departments:
the transfer of the center of gravity from metaphysics to the particular
sciences is the most prominent characteristic of the philosophy of the
time. Logic sees century-old convictions shattered and new foundations
arising. Psychology has entered into competition with physiology in regard
to the discovery of the laws of the psychical functions which depend
on bodily processes, while metaphysical questions are forced into the
background and there is a growing distrust of the reliability of inner
observation. The philosophy of religion is favored with undiminished
interest and aesthetics, after long neglect, with a renewal of attention;
the philosophy of history is about to reconquer its former rights.
There is, moreover, an especially lively interest in ethics; and the
investigation of the history of philosophy is more widely extended than
ever before. We will close our sketch with a short survey of the particular

In the department of _logic_ the following should be mentioned as classical
achievements: the works of Christoph Sigwart of Tübingen (vol. i. 1873,
2d ed., 1889; vol. ii. 1878), of Lotze (p. 605), and of Wundt (vol. i.
_Erkenntnisslehre_, 1880; vol. ii. _Methodenlehre_, 1883). Besides these,
Bergmann (p. 620), Schuppe (p. 619), and Benno Erdmann (_Logik_, vol. i.
1892) deserve notice.

In _psychology_ the following writers have made themselves prominent:
Wilhelm Wundt at Leipsic (born 1832), _Grundzüge der physiologischen
Psychologie_, 1874, 3d ed., 1887; A. Horwicz, _Psychologische Analysen auf
physiologischer Grundlage_, 1872 _seq_.; Franz Brentano in Vienna (born
1838), _Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte_, vol. i. 1874; Carl
Stumpf of Munich (born 1848), _Ueber den psychologischen Ursprung der
Raumvorstellung_, 1873, _Tonpsychologie_, vol. i. 1883, vol. ii. 1890;
Theodor Lipps of Breslau (born 1851), _Grundthatsachen des Seelenlebens_,
1883. The following may be mentioned in the same connection: J.H. Witte,
_Das Wesen der Seele_, 1888; H. Münsterberg, _Die Willenshandlung_, 1888,
_Beiträge zur experimentellen Psychologie_, 1889 _seq_,; Goswin K. Uphues
at Halle, _Wahrnehmung und Empfindung_, 1888, _Ueber die Erinnerung_, 1889;
H. Schmidkunz, _Psychologie der Suggestion_, 1892; H. Ebbinghaus, the
co-editor of the _Zeitschrift für Psychologie una Physiologie der
Sinnesorgane_, 1890 _seq_.; H. Spitta; Max Dessoir, _Der Hautsinn_, in
the _Archiv für Anatomie una Physiologie_, 1892. The following works are
psychological contributions to the theory of knowledge: E.L. Fischer,
_Theorie der Gesichtswahrnehmung_, 1891; Hermann Schwarz, _Das
Wahrnehmungsproblem_, 1892. Finally we may add A. Dorner in Königsberg,
_Das menschliche Erkennen_, 1887; and E.L. Fischer, _Die Grundfragen der
Erkenntnisstheorie_, 1887.

The literature of _moral philosophy_ has been substantially enriched by
Wundt, _Ethik_, 1886, 2d ed., 1892; and Friedrich Paulsen, _System der
Ethik_, 1889, 2d ed., 1891. We may mention, further, Baumann (p. 601);
Schuppe, _Grundzüge der Ethik und Rechtsphilosophie_, 1882; Witte,
_Freiheit des Willens_, 1882; G. Class in Erlangen, _Ideale und Güter_,
1886; Richard Wallaschek, _Ideen zur praktischen Philosophic_, 1886;
F. Tönnies in Kiel, _Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft_, 1887; A. Döring,
_Philosophische Güterlehre_, 1888; Th. Ziegler, _Sittliches Sein und
Werden_, 2d ed., 1890; G. Simmel, _Einleitung in die Moralwissenschaft_,
vol. i. 1892.

Of the newer works in the field of _aesthetics_, in addition to A.
Zeising's _Aesthetische Forschungen_, 1855, C. Hermann's _Aesthetik_,
1875, and Hartmann's _Philosophie des Schönen_, 1887, we may mention the
_Einleitung in die Aesthetik_ of Karl Groos, 1892, and the following by
Lipps: _Der Streit über die Tragödie_, 1890; _Aesthetische Faktoren der
Raumanschauung_, 1891; the essay _Psychologie der Komik (Philosophische
Monatshefte_, vols. xxiv.-xxv. 1888-89), and _Aesthetische
Litteraturberichte_, (in the same review, vol. xxvi. 1890 _seq_.).

Among the writers and works on the _philosophy of history_ we may note
Conrad Hermann in Leipsic (born 1819), _Philosophie der Geschichte_, 1870;
Bernheim, _Geschichtsforschung und Geschichtsphilosophie_, 1880; Karl
Fischer, _Ist eine Philosophie der Geschichte wissenschaftlich erforderlich
bezw. möglich?_ Dillenburg Programme, 1889; Hinneberg, _Die philosophischen
Grundlagen der Geschichtswissenschaft_ in Sybel's _Historische
Zeitschrift_, vol. lxiii. 1889; A. Dippe, _Das Geschichtsstudium mit
seinen Zielen und Fragen_, 1891; Georg Simmel, _Die Probleme der
Geschichtsphilosophie_, 1892.

In the _philosophy of religion_, which is discussed especially by the
theologians, a neo-Kantian and a neo-Hegelian tendency confront each other.
The former, dividing in its turn, is represented, on the one hand, by
the Ritschlian school--W. Herrmann in Marburg (_Die Metaphysik in der
Theologie_, 1876, _Die Religion im Verhältniss zum Welterkennen und zur
Sittlichkeit_, 1889), J. Kaftan in Berlin (_Das Wesen der christlichen
Religion_, 1881)--and, on the other, by R.A. Lipsius in Jena (born 1830;
_Dogmatik_, 1876, 2d ed., 1879; _Philosophie und Religion_, 1885). The
latter is represented by A.E. Biedermann of Zurich (1819-85; _Christliche
Dogmatik_, 1868; 2d ed., 1884-85), a pupil of W. Vatke, and by Otto
Pfleiderer of Berlin (born 1839; _Religionsphilosophie_, 1879; 2d ed.,
1883-4). The neo-Kantians base religion exclusively on the practical side
of human nature, especially on the moral law, derive it from the contrast
between external dependence on nature and the inner freedom or supernatural
destination of the spirit, and wish it preserved from all intermixture
with metaphysics. According to the neo-Hegelians, on the contrary, the
theoretical element in religion is no less essential; and is capable of
being purified, of being elevated from the form of representation, which is
full of contradictions, into the adequate form of pure thought, capable,
therefore, of reconciliation with philosophy. Hugo Delff (_Ueber den Weg
zum Wissen und zur Gewissheit zu gelangen_, 1882; _Die Hauptprobleme der
Philosophie und Religion_, 1886) follows Jacobi's course.

Among the numerous works on the _history of philosophy_, besides the
masterpieces of Zeller, J.E. Erdmann, and Kuno Fischer, the following are
especially worthy of attention:

Cl. Bäumker in Breslau, _Das Problem der Materie in der griechischen
Philosophie_, 1890; H. Bonitz, _Platonische Studien_, 3d ed., 1886,
_Aristotelische Studien_, 1862 _seq., Index Aristotelicus_, 1870, _Kleine
Schriften_; P. Deussen (born 1845), _Das System der Vedanta_, 1883, H.
Diels in Berlin, _Doxographi Graeci_, 1879; Eucken in Jena (p. 17), _Die
Methode der aristotelischen Forschung_, 1872, Address _Ueber den Werth der
Geschichte der Philosophie_, 1874; J. Freudenthal in Breslau (born 1839,
pp. 63, 118), _Hellenistische Studien, 3 Hefte_, 1879, _Ueber die Theologie
des Xenophanes_, 1886; M. Heinze in Leipsic, _Die Lehre vom Logos in der
griechischen Philosophie_, 1872; G. Freiherr von Hertling in Munich (born
1843), _Materie und Form und die Definition der Seele bei Aristoteles_,
1871, _Albertus Magnus_, 1880; H. Heussler in Basle (p. 65 note),
_Der Rationalismus des XVII. Jahrhunderts in seinen Beziehungen zur
Eniwickelungslehre_, 1885; Fr. Jodl in Prague (born 1849; pp. 16, 221
note); A. Krohn (1840-89), _Sokrates und Xenophon_, 1874, _Der platonische
Staat_, 1876, _Die platonische Frage_, 1878--on Krohn, an obituary by
Falckenberg in the _Biographisches Jahrbuch für Alterthumskunde, Jahrg_.
12, 1889; P. Natorp (pp. 88 note, 598), _Forschungen zur Geschichte des
Erkenntnissproblems im Alterthum_, 1884; Edmund Pfleiderer in Tübingen
(born 1842; p. 113 note[1]), _Empirismus und Skepsis im D. Humes
Philosophie_, 1874, _Die Philosophie des Heraklit im Lichte der
Mysterienidee_, 1886; K. von Prantl (1820-88), _Geschichte der Logik im
Abendlande_, 4 vols., 1855-70; Carl Schaarschmidt (pp. 88 note, 117-118);
_Johannes Sarisberiensis_, 1862, _Die Sammlung der platonischen Schriften_,
1866; L. Schmidt in Marburg (born 1824), _Die Ethik der alten Griechen_,
1881; Gustav Schneider, _Die platonische Metaphysik_, 1884; H. Siebeck in
Giessen, _Untersuchungen zur Philosophie der Griechen_, 1873, 2d ed., 1888,
_Geschichte der Psychologie_, part i. 1880-84; Chr. von Sigwart (born 1830;
pp. 17, 118); Heinrich von Stein in Rostock (born 1833), _Sieben Bücher zur
Geschichte des Platonismus_, 1862-75; Ludwig Stein in Berne, editor of the
_Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie_, founded in 1877, _Die Psychologie
der Stoa_, I. _Metaphysisch-Anthropologischer Theil_, 1886, II.
_Erkenntnisstheorie_, 1888, _Leibniz und Spinoza_, 1890; L. Strümpell,
_Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie_, 1854, 1861; Susemihl in
Greifswald, _Die Politik des Aristoteles_, Greek and German with notes,
1879, further, a series of essays on Plato and Aristotle; Teichmüller (p.
601); Trendelenburg (pp. 600-601), _Aristotelis de Anima_, 2d ed., by
Belger. 1887; Th. Waitz, _Aristotelis Organon_, 1844-46; J. Walter in
Königsberg, _Die Lehre von der praktischen Vernunft in der griechischen
Philosophie_, 1874, _Geschichte der Aesthetik im Alterthum_, 1892; Tob.
Wildauer in Innsbruck, _Die Psychologie des Willens bei Sokrates, Platon,
und Aristoteles_, 1877, 1879; W. Windelbund in Strasburg (pp. 15-16),
_Geschichte der alten Philosophie_, 1888; Theob. Ziegler in Strasburg,
_Geschichte der christlichen Ethik_, 1886, 2d ed., with index, 1892; Rob.
Zimmermann (pp. 19 note, 331, 536), _Studien und Kritiken_, 1870.

%4. Retrospect.%

In order to avoid the appearance of arbitrary construction we have been
sparing with references of a philosophico-historical character. In
conclusion, looking back at the period passed over, we may give expression
to some convictions concerning the guiding threads in the development of
modern philosophy, though these here claim only the rights of subjective

A mirror of modern culture, and conscious of its sharp antithesis to
Scholasticism, modern philosophy in its pre-Kantian period is pre-eminently
characterized by naturalism. Nature, as a system of masses moved according
to law, forms not only the favorite object of investigation, but also
the standard by which psychical reality is judged and explained. The two
directions in which this naturalism expresses itself, the mechanical
view of the world, which endeavors to understand the universe from the
standpoint of nature and all becoming from the standpoint of motion,[1] and
the intellectualistic view, which seeks to understand the mind from the
standpoint of knowledge, are most intimately connected. Where the general
view of the All takes form and color from nature, a content and a mission
can come to the mind from no other source than the external world; whether
we (empirically) make it take up the material of representation from
without or (rationalistically) make it create an ideal reproduction of
the content of external reality from within, it is always the function of
knowledge, conceived as the reproduction of a completed reality, which,
since it brings us into contact with nature, advances into the foreground
and determines the nature of psychical activity. As is conceivable, along
with dogmatic faith in the power of the reason to possess itself of the
reality before it and to reconstrue it in the system of science, and with
triumphant references to the mathematical method as a guaranty for the
absolute certainty of philosophical knowledge, the noëtical question
emerges as to the means by which, and the limits within which, human
knowledge is able to do justice to this great problem. Descartes gave out
the programme for all these various tendencies--the mechanical explanation
of nature, the absolute separation of body and soul (despiritualization of
matter), thought the essence of the mind, the demand for certain knowledge,
armed against every doubt, and the question as to the origin of ideas. Its
execution by his successors shows not only a lateral extension in the
most various directions (the dualistic view of the world held by the
occasionalists, the monistic or pantheistic view of Spinoza, the
pluralistic or individualistic view of Leibnitz; similarly the antithesis
between the sensationalism of Locke and Condillac and the rationalism
of Spinoza and Leibnitz), but also a progressive deepening of problems,
mediated by party strife which puts every energy to the strain. What a
tremendous step from the empiricism of Bacon to the skepticism of Hume,
from the innate ideas of Descartes to the potential _a priori_ of Leibnitz!
From the moment when the negative and positive culminations of the
pre-Kantian movement in thought--Hume and Leibnitz--came together in
one mind, the conditions of the Kantian reform were given, just as the
preparation for the Socratic reform had been given in the skepticism of the
Sophists and the [Greek: nous] principle of Anaxagoras.

[Footnote 1: Even for Leibnitz the mind is a machine (_automaton
spirituale_), and psychical action a movement of ideas.]

Kant, who dominates the second period of modern philosophy down to the
present time, is related to his predecessors in a twofold way. In his
criticism he completes the noëtical tendency, and at the same time
overcomes naturalism, by limiting the mechanical explanation (and with
it certain knowledge, it is true) to phenomena and opposing moralism to
intellectualism. Nature must be conceived from the standpoint of the spirit
(as its product, for all conformity to law takes its origin in the spirit),
the spirit from the standpoint of the will. Metaphysics, as the theory of
the _a priori_ conditions of experience, is raised to the rank of a
science, while the suprasensible is removed from the region of proof and
refutation and based upon the rock of moral will. In the positive side of
the Kantian philosophy--the spirit the law-giver of nature, the will the
essence of spirit and the key to true reality--we find its kernel, that
in it which is forever valid. The conclusions on the absolute worth of
the moral disposition, on the ultimate moral aim of the world, on the
intelligible character, and on radical evil, reveal the energy with which
Kant took up the mission of furnishing the life-forces opened up by
Christianity--which the Middle Ages had hidden rather than conserved under
the crust of Aristotelian conceptions entirely alien to them, and the
pre-Kantian period of modern times had almost wholly ignored--an entrance
into philosophy, and of transforming and enriching the modern view of the
world from this standpoint. Kant's position is as opposite and superior to
the specifically modern, to the naturalistic temper of the new period, as
Plato stands out, a stranger and a prophet of the future, above the level
of Greek modes of thought. More fortunate, however, than Plato, he found
disciples who followed further in the direction pointed out by that face of
the Janus-head of his philosophy which looked toward the future: the
ethelism of Fichte and the historicism of Hegel have their roots in Kant's
doctrine of the practical reason. These are acquisitions which must never
be given up, which must ever be reconquered in face of attack from forces
hostile to spirit and to morals. In life, as in science, we must ever anew
"win" ethical idealism "in order to possess it." As yet the reconciliation
of the historical and the scientific, the Christian and the modern spirit
is not effected. For the inbred naturalism of the modern period has not
only asserted itself, amalgamated with Kantian elements, in the realistic
metaphysics and mechanical psychology of Herbart and in the system of
Schopenhauer, as a lateral current by the side of Fichte, Schelling, and
Hegel, but, under the influence of the new and powerful development of the
natural sciences, has once more confidently risen against the traditions of
the idealistic school, although now it is tempered by criticism and
concedes to the practical ideals at least a refuge in faith. The conviction
that the rule of neo-Kantianism is provisional does not rest merely on the
mutability of human affairs. The widespread active study of the philosophy
of the great Königsberger gives ground for the hope that also those
elements in it from which the systems of the idealists have proceeded as
necessary consequences will again find attention and appreciation. The
perception of the fact that the naturalistico-mechanical view represents
only a part, a subordinate part, of the truth will lead to the further
truth, that the lower can only be explained by the higher. We shall also
learn more and more to distinguish between the permanent import of the
position of fundamental idealism and the particular form which the
constructive thinkers have given it; the latter may fall before legitimate
assaults, but the former will not be affected by them. _The revival of the
Fichteo-Hegelian idealism by means of a method which shall do justice to
the demands of the time by a closer adherence to experience, by making
general use of both the natural and the mental sciences, and by an exact
and cautious mode of argument--this seems to us to be the task of the
future_. The most important of the post-Hegelian systems, the system of
Lotze, shows that the scientific spirit does not resist reconciliation with
idealistic convictions in regard to the highest questions, and the
consideration which it on all sides enjoys, that there exists a strong
yearning in this direction. But when a deeply founded need of the time
becomes active, it also rouses forces which dedicate themselves to its
service and which are equal to the work.


* * * * *


Absolute, the
Fichte on
Schelling on
F. Krause on
Schleiermacher on
Hegel on
Fortlage on
Spencer on
Böstrom on
Strauss on
Feuerbach on
the theistic school on
Lotze on
Hartmann on
See also
the Unconditioned
Adamson, R.
of Home (Lord Kames)
of Burke
of Baumgarten
of Herder
of Kant
of Schiller
of Schelling
of Hegel
of J.F. Fries
of Herbart
of Schopenhauer
Agnosticism, of Spencer
Agricola, R.
Agrippa of Nettesheim
Ahrens, H.
Angiulli, A.
Annet, P.
Antal, G. von
Antinomies, the
of Kant
his antinomy of aesthetic judgment
and of teleological judgment
Apelt, E.F.
_A priori_, the
in Kant
in Kant and the post-Kantians
nature, in Schelling
in J.F. Fries
Beneke on
Herbart on
J.S. Mill on
Spencer's doctrine of the racial origin of
Opzoomer on
_Cf_. Ideas
Aquinas, Thomas
Ardigò, R.
Aristotelians, the
opponents of
Arnoldt, E.
of Hartley and Priestley
of Hume
of the Mills
of Bain
Ast, G.A.F.
in modern physics
in Gassendi and Descartes
in Boyle
Leibnitz on
in Descartes
Spinoza's doctrine of
Avenarius, R.

Baader, F. (von),
and Schelling
system of
Bach, J.
Bacon, Francis
a beginner of modern philosophy,
doctrine of,
in relation to Locke

Bacon, Roger
Bahnsen, J.
Bain, Alexander
Barzellotti, G.
Bauer, Bruno
Bauer, Edgar
Baumann, J.
Baumgarten, Alex.
Baumgarten, Siegmund
Bäumker, Cl.
Baur, F.C.
Bayle, P.,
doctrine of,
and Leibnitz
Beattie, J.
Beck, Sigismund
Beckers, H.,
Bekker, Balthasar, III
Beneke, F.E.
Benoit, G. von
Bentham, J.
Bentley, Richard
Berger, J.E. von
Bergmann, J.
Berkeley, George,
position in modern philosophy,
view of mind and matter,
relation to Locke on perception,
on knowledge,
his system,
relation to Hume,
relation to Scottish School,
relation to Condillac,
his idealism criticised by Kant,
referred to
Bernard, Claude
Bezold, F. von,
Biedermann, A.E.
Biedermann, Fr. K.
Billewicz, J. von,
Biran, Maine de
Body and Mind, _see_ Mind and Body
Boëthius, D.
Böhme, Jacob,
system of,
and Schelling
Böhringer, A.
Bolin, W.
Bolzano, B.
Bonald, Victor de
Bonatelli, F.
Bonitz, H.
Boole, G.
Borelius, J.
Bosanquet, B.
Böstrom, C.J.
Botta, V.
Bourignon, Antoinette
Bowen, F.
Bowne, B.P.
Boyle, R.
Bradley, F.H.
Brahé, Tycho
Brandes, G.
Brandis, C.A.
Braniss, J.
Brasch, M.
Brentano, F.
Bröchner, H.
Brown, Thomas
Browne, Peter
Browne, Sir Thomas
Bruno, Giordano
system of
and Spinoza,
and Schelling
Brütt, M.
Buchanan, George
Büchner, L.
Burdach, K.F.
Burke, Edmund
Burt, B.C.
Busch, O.
Butler, Joseph
Butler, N.M.

Caird, Edward
Caird, John
Calker, F.V.
Campanella, Thomas
system of
Cantor, G.
Caporali, E.
Cardanus, Hieronymus
Carlyle, Thomas
Caro, E.
Carpenter, W.B.
Carrière, M.
Cartesians, the
Locke's relation to
Leibnitz's relation to
Carus, F.A.
Carus, K.G.
Carus, P.
Caspari, O.
Categories, the, Kant on
Hegel's doctrine of
Spinoza's view of
Locke on
Hume's skeptical analysis of
Kant on
Schopenhauer on
Lotze on
Hartmann on
_See also_ Sufficient Reason, Teleology
Cesca, Giovanni
Chandler, Samuel
Channing, W.E.
Character, the Intelligible
in Kant
in Schelling
in Schopenhauer
Charron, Pierre
Christ, P.
Chubb, Thomas
Cieszkowski, A. von
Clarke, Samuel
ethics of
Class, G.
Classen, A.
_Cogito ergo sum_
the Cartesian
Cohen, H.
Colecchi, A.
Coleridge, S.T.
Collard, Royer
Collier, Arthur
Collins, Anthony
Collins, F.H.
Collins, W.L.
Commer, E.
Common Sense, Scottish doctrine of
Comte, Auguste
doctrine of
Conn, H.W.
Conybeare, J.
Copernicus, N.
Cosmological Argument, the
in Locke
in Rousseau
in Leibnitz
in Kant
Cotes, Roger
Cousin, Victor
Crescas, Chasdai
Creuz, K. von
Critique of Reason, the
meaning of
the neo-Kantians on
its central position in modern thought
Crusius, C.A.
Cudworth, Ralph
ethics of
Cumberland, Richard
Czolbe, H.

Darwin, Charles
Darwin, Erasmus
Daub, K.
Da Vinci, Leonardo
naturalism of
in Herbert
in English thinkers of XVIII. century
in Hume
in Rousseau
of Reimarus
in Lessing
Kant's relation to
_See also_ Faith, Faith and Reason, Religion, Theology
Delff, H.
De Morgan, A.

Des Bosses
Descartes, René
system of
and occasionalism
and Spinoza
and Locke
and Leibnitz
_See also_ Spinoza
Dessoir, M.
in Hobbes
in Spinoza
of the early associationalists
of Hume
in Leibnitz
of Schleiermacher
of Herbart
of Schopenhauer
of J.S. Mill
of Jonathan Edwards
_See also_ Character, the Intelligible; Freedom of the Will
Deussen, P.
Deutinger, M.
De Wette
Dewey, J.
Diderot, Denis
Diels, H.
Dieterich, K.
Digby, Everard
Dilthey, W.
doctrine of,
Dippe, A.
Döring, A.
Dorner, A.
the Cartesian
in Bayle
Rousseau's reverential
Drobisch, M.W.
Druskowitz, Helene
Du Bois-Reymond, E
Dühring, E.
Dumont, E.
Duncan, G.M.

Ebbinghaus, H.
Eberhard, J.A.
Eclecticism, of the German Illumination
of Schleiermacher
of Cousin and his School
Edfeldt, H.
Locke on
Rousseau on
Edwards, Jonathan
Ego, the
certain knowledge of, in Campanella, and Descartes
the individual, and the transcendental consciousness in Kant
Fichte's doctrine of
a complex of representations in Beneke
Fortlage on
Herbart's doctrine of
the neo-Kantians on the individual, and the transcendental consciousness
_See also_ Soul
Emerson, R.W.
founded by Bacon
in Hobbes
and rationalism
of Locke
of J.S. Mill
of Opzoomer
Liebmann on
_See also_ Experience, Sensationalism
Encyclopedists, the
Engel, J.J.
Erasmus, Desiderius
Erdmann, Benno
works by
Erdmann, J.E.
works by
philosophy of
Erhardt, F.
Eschenmayer, K.A.
in Crusius
of Fichte
of Schopenhauer
in Hartmann
_See also_ Panthelism.
Bacon on
Hobbes's political theory of
Descartes on
Geulincx on
Spinoza on
Pascal on
Malebranche on
Locke on
English, of XVIII. century
Hume's empirical and mechanical
of French sensationalists
of French materialists
of Rousseau
of Leibnitz
of Herder
of Kant
of Fichte
of Schleiermacher
of Hegel
of J.F. Fries
of Beneke
of Herbart
of Schopenhauer
of Comte
of Bentham
of J.S. Mill,
of Spencer
of T.H. Green
of Lotze
of Hartmann
recent German interest in
Eucken, R.
works by
philosophy of
Everett, C.C.
Weigel on the origin of
Böhme on the origin of
Spinoza's doctrine of
Leibnitz's doctrine of
Schelling's theory of
Baader's theory of
Fechner's view of
_See also_ Optimism, Pessimism
in the sense of explication in Nicolas of Cusa
and involution in Leibnitz
cosmical, of Spencer
biological, of Darwin
_Cf_. also the systems of Schelling, Hegel, Hartmann
Exner, F.
the basis of science in Bacon
Kant on
Green on
Liebmann's view of
_See also_ Empiricism, Sensationalism
External World, the
reality of, in Descartes
knowledge and reality of, in Locke
Berkeley on
Kant on the reality of
the "material of duty in the form of sense" in Fichte

Faber Stapulensis (Lefèvre of Etaples)
the reformers' view of
Deistic view of
Kant on
Kant on moral or practical
Paulsen on practical
_See also_ Deism
Faith and Reason,
the relation of, in modern philosophy
Bayle on
Locke on
Deistic view of
in Rousseau
Leibnitz on
Lessing on
Baader on
Schleiermacher on
_See also_ Deism
Faith Philosophy, the
of Hamann
of Herder
of Jacobi
elements of, in J.F. Fries
Falckenberg, R.
works by
Farrer, J.A.
Fechner, G.T.
system of
Fechner, H.A.
Feder, J.G.H.
the basis of knowledge in Pascal
the central doctrine of Rousseau
central to religion in Schleiermacher
_See also_ The Faith Philosophy
Ferguson, Adam
Ferrari, Giuseppe
Ferri, L.
Ferrier, D.
Ferrier, J.F.
Fester, R.
Feuerbach, L.
philosophy of
Fichte, I.H.
Fichte, J.G.
and Kant
system of
and Schelling
and Hegel
and Herbart
and Lotze
_See also_ Idealism, Jacobi, Kant
Final Causes, _see_ Teleology
Fiorentino, F.
Fischer, E.L.
Fischer, K. Ph.
Fischer, Karl
Fischer, Kuno
works by
on Spinoza
on Kant
his philosophy
and neo-Kantianism
Fiske, John
Flint, K.
Fludd, R.
Forge, L. de la
Fortlage, Karl
works by
system of
Fouillèe, A.
Fowler, Thos.
Fox Bourne
Franchi, A.
Franck, A.
Franck, Sebastian
Frantz, K.
Eraser, A.C.
Frauenstädt, J.
Frederichs, F.
Frederick the Great
Freedom of the Will, Hobbes's denial of
Descartes's unlimited affirmation of
denied by Spinoza
Locke on
denied by Hume
in Rousseau
Leibnitz on
Herder on
Kant on
Fichte on
Schelling on
Herbart on
Schopenhauer on
J-S. Mill on
_See also_ Character, the Intelligible; Determinism
Frege, G.
Freudenthal, J.
Fries, A. de
Fries, J.F., and Kant
an opponent of constructive idealism
his system
and Herbart
Fullerton, G.S.

Galileo (Galileo Galilei)
his work as a foundation for modern physics
his system
Galluppi, P.
Galton, Francis
Garve, C.
Gassendi, P.
Geijer, E.G.
Genovesi, A.
Gentilis, Albericus
George, L.
George of Trebizond
Georgius Scholarius (Gennadius)
Gerdil, S.
Geulincx, Arnold
Gierke, O.
Gilbert, William
Gioberti, V.
Gioja, M.
Gizycki, G. von
Glisson, Francis
Glogau, G.
God, doctrine of, in Nicolas of Cusa
in Taurellus
in Bruno
Campanella's argument for the existence of
Weigel's doctrine of
Böhme's doctrine of
Descartes's arguments for the existence of
Spinoza's doctrine of
Malebranche's view of
Locke's doctrine of
Berkeley ascribes ideas of sense-world to
Hume's doctrine of
Voltaire's doctrine of
Holbach's discussion of
Leibnitz's doctrine of
Reimarus's doctrine of
Lessing's doctrine of
Herder's doctrine of
Jacobi's doctrine of
Kant on the arguments for the existence of
Fichte's doctrine of
Schelling's doctrine of
F. Krause's doctrine of
Baader's doctrine of
Schleiermacher's doctrine of
Beneke's doctrine of
Herbart's doctrine of
Böstrom's doctrine of
the doctrine of, in Hegel's School
Strauss's doctrine of
Feuerbach's doctrine of
the doctrine of, in the Theistic School
Fechner on the relation of God and the world
Lotze's doctrine of
Hartmann's doctrine of
See also:
Cosmological Argument
Ontological Argument
Teleological Argument
Göhring, C.
Golther, L. von
Gracian, B.
Grazia, V. de
Green, T.H., works by
doctrine of
Grimm, E.
Grimm, F.M., Baron von
Groos, K.
Grot, N. von
Grote, John
Grotius, Hugo
Grubbe, S.
Gruber, H.
Grün, K.
Günther, A.
Gutberlet, C.
Guthrie, M.
Güttler, C.
Guyau, J.M.
Gwinner, W.

Haeckel, E.
Haeghen, V. van der
Hall, G.S.
Hamann, J.G.
Hamann, O.
Hamilton, Sir William
Harless, A. von
Leibnitz's pre-established
Wolff's development of Leibnitz's, pre-established
Harms, F.
Harris, W.T.
Harrison, Frederic
Hartenstein, G.
Hartley, David
Hartmann, E. von
works by
system of
Hase, K.A.
Haym, R.
Hazard, R.G.
Hebler, C.
Hegel, G.W.F.
and Schelling
system of
opponents of
influence and followers of
_See also_ J.G. Fichte, Kant, Schelling
Hegelians, the Old
the Young
_See also_ Semi-Hegelians
Hegler, A.
Heiland, K.
Heinze, M.
Helmholtz, H.
Helmont, F.M. van
Helmont, J.B. van
Helvetius, C.A.
Hemsterhuis, F.
Herbart, J.F.
system of
_See also_ J.G. Fichte
Herbert, Lord, of Cherbury
Herder, J.G.
system of
Schelling and
Hermann, C.
Hermann, W.
Hermes, G.
Herz, M.
Heusde, P.W. van
Heussler, H.
Heyder, Karl
Machiavelli on
Herder's philosophy of
Kant's view of
Fichte's view of
Schelling's view of
F. Krause's philosophy of
Hegel's philosophy of
Vico's philosophy of
History of Philosophy, the
importance of
method in
Hegel's view of
recent development of
Hobbes, Thomas
his system
and Descartes
and Spinoza
and Locke
and Hume
and Pufendorf
Höffding, H.
Hoffmann, Franz
Höijer, B.
Holbach, Baron von
Hölder, A.

Home, Henry, (Lord Kames)
Horwicz, A.
Huber, J.
Huber, U.
Huet(ius), P.D.
Hume, David
system of
and Scottish School
and Kant
_See also_ Berkeley, Locke
Hunt, J.
Husserl, E.G.
Hutcheson, Francis
Huxley, T.H.

phenomenal or individual of Berkeley
in Leibnitz
critical or transcendental, of Kant
post-Kantian, of Beck
subjective, of Fichte
objective, of Schelling
absolute or logical, of Hegel
the opposition to constructive
in Schopenhauer
German, in Great Britain
of Green
in America
ethical or ideological, of Lotze
idealistic reaction in Germany against the scientific spirit
Falckenberg on (ethical) idealism and the future
innate, in Descartes, Locke, Leibnitz, the rationalists and the empiricists
origin of, in Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, the rationalists and
empiricists, and Herbart
impressions and, in Hume
unconscious ideas or representations in Leibnitz
Ideas of reason in Kant
the logical Idea the subject of the world-process in Hegel
Identity, Locke on
Spinozism a system of
Schelling's philosophy or system of
the philosophy of, among Schelling's followers
Hegel's doctrine a system of
Fortlage's system of
philosophy of, in Schopenhauer
Hume on
Voltaire on
Rousseau on
Leibnitz on
Kant on
Schleiermacher on
Beneke on
Herbart on
Hegel's followers on
Strauss on
Fechner on
Imperative, the Categorical
in Kant
in Fichte
in Beneke
Kepler on
Galileo on
used before Bacon
Bacon's theory of
in Hobbes
J.S. Mill's theory of
Irwing, Von

Jacobi, F.H.
system of
and Fichte
and the anti-idealists
Jacobson, J.
Jäger, G.
James, William
Janet, Paul
Jastrow, J.
Jevons, W.S.
Jhering, R. von
Jodl, F.
Joël, M.
Jouffroy, T.
Descartes on
rationalists and empiricists both mistake nature of
Kant on synthetic judgments _a priori_
the categories and, in Kant
judgments of perception and of experience in Kant
Kant on aesthetic and teleological

Kaatz, H.
Kaftan, J.
Kaltenborn, C. von
Kant, I.

position in modern philosophy
and Locke
and the Illumination
system of
the development to Fichte
and Fichte
and Schelling
and Hegel
and Schopenhauer
his influence, followers, and opponents
_See also_ Berkeley, Critique of Reason, J.G. Fichte, Hume, Leibnitz,
Schopenhauer, Wolff
Kedney, J.S.
Kent, G.
Kepler, J.
philosophy of
Kierkegaard, S.
King, Lord
Kirchmann, J.H. von
Klein, G.M.
Knauer, V.
Knight, W.
Knoodt, P.
theory of, in modern thought
doctrine of, in Nicolas of Cusa
declared deceptive by Montaigne
mathematical basis of, in Kepler and Galileo
in Bacon
in Hobbes
in Herbart
the two views of
Geulincx on
Descartes on
Spinoza on
Malebranche on ("we see all things in God")
Locke's doctrine of
Berkeley on
Hume's skeptical doctrine of
Scottish doctrine of
sensationalistic doctrine of, in France
Leibnitz's theory of
Kant on
Fichte's Science of
Schelling's philosophy of
Baader on
Schleiermacher's doctrine of
Hegel on philosophical
J.F. Fries's doctrine of
Beneke on speculative
Schopenhauer's doctrine of
Comte's doctrine of
Sir Wm. Hamilton's doctrine of
J.S. Mill's doctrine of
Spencer's doctrine of
T.H. Green's doctrine of
Feuerbach's doctrine of
Lotze's doctrine of
Hartmann's doctrine of
the neo-Kantians on
the German positivists on
influence of recent science on the theory of
Liebmann's doctrine of
_See also_ Agnosticism, Critique of Reason, Empiricism, Faith,
Faith and Reason, Nominalism, Positivism, Rationalism and Empiricism,
Relativity, Sensationalism, Skepticism
Knutzen, M.
Koch, A.
Koeber, R. von
Koegel, F.
König, E.
Köstlin, Karl
Krause, A.
Krause, E.
Krause, F.
Krauth, C.P.
Krohn, A.
Kroman, K.
Krug, W.T.
Kuntze, J.E.
Kym, A.L.

Laas, E.
Laban, F.
La Bruyère
Ladd, G.T.
Laffitte, P.
Lambert, J.H.
Lamennais, F. de
La Mettrie, J.O. de
La Mothe la Vayer
Land, J.P.N.
Lange, F.A.
Lange, J.J.
La Rochefoucauld
Lasson, A.
Lasswitz, K.
Last, E.
Law (or Right)
early philosophy of
Montesquieu on
Pufendorf on
C. Thomasius on
Kant's theory of legal right
Fichte's theory of right
Schelling's view of
F. Krause's philosophy of right
Hegel's philosophy of right
Lazarus, M.
Leclair, A. von
Leibnitz, Friedrich (the father)
Leibnitz, G.W.
position in modern thought
and occasionalism
system of
and the Illumination (Wolff, Lessing)
and Kant
_See also_ Descartes, Locke, Spinoza
Leonhardi, H.K. von
Lessing, G.E.
system of
Lewes, G.H.
Liard, L.
Liberatore, M.
Liebmann, O.
Linde, A. van der
Lipps, T.
Lipsius, Justus
Lipsius, R.A.
Littré, E.
Locke, J.
position in modern philosophy
system of
and Berkeley
and Hume
and the French Illumination (and Rousseau)
and Leibnitz
and Kant
_See also_ Bacon, Berkeley, Descartes, Empiricism, Kant
Lombroso, C.
Lott, F.C.
Lotze, R.H.
system of
Löwe, J.H.
Lubbock, J.
Lülmann, C.
Lyng, G.V.

Macaulay, T.B.
Machiavelli, N.
Mackintosh, J.
Mahaffy, J.P.
Maimon, S.
Mainländer, P.
Mainzer, J.
Maistre, J, de
Malebranche, Nicolas
system of
Mamiani, T.
Mandeville, Bernard de
Mansel, H.L.
Mariana, Juan
Marion, H.
Marsh, James
Marsilius of Padua
Martin, B.
Martineau, Harriet
Martineau, James
Martini, Jacob
Masson, David
in Hobbes
Spinoza's tendency toward
in the early associationalists
in France in XVIII. century
Kant on
in Schopenhauer
and Spencer's philosophy
in Strauss
of Feuerbach
the controversy over, in Germany
Lange on
the philosophical use of, advocated by Nicolas of Cusa
by Kepler
scientific use of, ignored by Bacon
Hobbes's recognition of
method of, adopted by Spinoza
Kant on philosophy and
Kant on science and
applied to psychology by Herbart
and by Fechner
recent, and philosophy
Maudsley, Henry
Mayer, F.
Mayer, R.
McCosh, J.
in modern thought
in modern physical science
the central doctrine of Hobbes
fundamental in Spinoza
applied to mind by the associationalists
of J.F. Fries
of ideas in Herbart
in Lotze
in recent physical science
_See also_ Naturalism, Physical Science, Teleology
Meier, G.F.
Melville, Andrew
Merz, J.T.
Bacon on
of Descartes
of Spinoza
of Leibnitz
the Wolffian division of
Kant on
Hegel on
of Fortlage
of Herbart
Comte on
of Fechner
of Lotze
of Hartmann
recent German views on
Meyer, J.B.
Meyer, Ludwig
Michelet, C.L.
Mill, James
Mill, J.S.
Milton, John
Mind and Body
Descartes on
occasionalistic view of, in Geulincx
Spinoza on
Hartley and Priestley on
Leibnitz on
J.F. Fries on
Modern Philosophy
value of history of
characteristics of
relation to the church
relation to nationality
beginnings of
bibliography of
two main schools of
future of
Modes (of Substance)
in Descartes
in Spinoza
in Locke
Giordano Bruno's doctrine of
Leibnitz's doctrine of
Wolff's development of Leibnitz's doctrine of
Monchamp, G.
Monck, W.H.S.
Monrad, M.J.
Montaigne, M. de
More, H.
More, Thomas
Morgan, C.L.
Morgan, Thomas
Morley, J.
Morris, G.S.
Mueller, W.
Müller, F.A.
Müller, G.E.
Müller, H.
Müller, Johannes
Müller, Max
Münsterberg, H.
Münz, W.

Natorp, P.
characteristic of modern philosophy
_See also_ Mechanism, Physical Science, Teleology
Nature, Philosophy of
early Italian
among Schelling's followers
J.F. Fries's
_See also_ Physical Science
Nees von Esenbeck
Nemes, E.
Nettleship, R.L.
Newton, Isaac
Nicolai, F.
Nicolas of Cusa
Nielsen, R.
Nietzsche, F.
Nizolius, Marius
Noack, L.
Noiré, L.
in Hobbes
in Locke
of Berkeley
of Hume
_See also_ Phenomena, Things in themselves
Nyblaeus, A.

Oken, L.
Ontological argument, the
in Descartes
in Spinoza
in Leibnitz
in Kant
Opel, J.O.
the unity of, in Nicolas of Cusa
in Schelling
the reconciliation and identity of, in Hegel
in Voltaire
of Leibnitz
of Schleiermacher
Opzoomer, C.W.
Oersted, H.C.
Oswald, James
Oettingen, A. von

Pabst, J.H.
Paley, W.
of Nicolas of Cusa
of Spinoza
Malebranche's "Christian"
in Toland
Berkeley's tendency to
of Holbach
in Fichte
in Schelling
in Schleiermacher
Fortlage's transcendent
of Strauss
the theistic school on
_See also_ Hegel, Panthelism
of Fichte
in Schelling
of Schopenhauer
_See also_ Ethelism
Pascal, Blaise
Patritius, Franciscus
Paulsen, F.
of Schopenhauer
of Hartmann
Pestalozzi, J.H.
Peters, K.
Pfleiderer, E.
Pfleiderer, O.
and things in themselves in Kant
and representation in Kant
and things in themselves in Herbart
in Schopenhauer
in Lotze
_See also_ Noumena, Things in themselves
Physical Science
concepts of modern
Newton's development of
its influence on philosophy in XIX century
Pico, Francis, of Mirandola
Pico, John, of Mirandola
Pietsch, T.
Planck, A.
Planck, K.C.
Pletho, G.G.
Plümacher, O.
Poiret, P.
Pollock, F.
Pomponatius, Petrus
Porter, N.
in Italy
of Comte
of Comte's followers
in England
in Sweden, Brazil, and Chili
in Germany
Prel, K. du
Price, Richard
Priestley, J.
Prowe, L.
the associational
the sensationalistic
of Leibnitz
of Wolff
of Tetens
Kant on rational
the basis of philosophy in J.F. Fries
and Beneke
of Beneke
of Fortlage
of Herbart
of Comte

of Spencer
_See also_ Ego, Mind and Body, Soul
Pufendorf, Samuel
Pünjer, B., works by

Quaebicker, R.
Primary and Secondary, so termed by Boyle
Locke's doctrine of
Kant's relation to
Berkeley's co-ordination of

Rabus, L.
Ramus (Pierre de la Ramée)
Rationalism and Empiricism
in Locke
in Leibnitz
in Tschirnhausen
in others of the German Illuminati
in relation to Kant
Ravaisson, F.
of Herbart
the "transfigured," of Spencer
the "transcendental realism" of Hartmann
Rée, P.
Regulative and constitutive principles, in Kant
Rehmke, J.
Reichlin-Meldegg, K.A. von
Reicke, R
Reid, Thomas
Reiff, J.F.
Reinhold, E.
Reinhold, K.L.
Relativity of Knowledge
in Comte
of Sir Wm. Hamilton
of Mansel
of Spencer
Bacon's view of
Hobbes on
Lord Herbert's doctrine of natural
Pascal on
deistic view of
Hume on
Voltaire on
Holbach on
Rousseau's view of
Leibnitz on
Reimarus on
Lessing's developmental theory of
Kant on
Fichte on
Schelling on
Schleiermacher's philosophy of
Hegel's philosophy of
Beneke on
Herbart's doctrine of
Schopenhauer's doctrine of
Comte's religion of humanity
Spencer's view of
Hegel's followers on
Strauss on
Feuerbach's doctrine of
Hartmann's philosophy of
_See also_ Deism, Faith, Faith and Reason, God, Theology
Rémusat, C. de
Renan, E.
Renouvier, C.
Reuchlin, H.
Reuchlin, J.
Reuter, H.
Reynaud, J.
Ribbing, S.
Ribot, Th.
Riedel, O.
Riehl, A.
Riezler, S.
Right, _see_ Law
Rio, J.S. del
Ritschl, A.
Ritter, H.
Robertson, G.C.
Robinet, J.B.
Rohmer, F.
Romagnosi, G.
Romanes, G.J.
Romanticists, the
Romundt, H.
Röse, F.
Rosenkrantz, W.
Rosenkranz, K.
Rosmini, A.
Rothe, R.
Rousseau, J.J.
system of
Royce, J.
Ruge, A.
Ruge, S.

St. Martin, L.C.
Saint Simon, H. de
Saisset, E.
Sanchez, Francis
Schaarschmidt, C.
Schäffle, E.F.
Schärer, E.
Schasler, M.
Schelling, F.W.J. (von)
system of
immediate followers of
and Hegel
_See also_ J.G. Fichte, Hegel, Kant, Spinoza
Schematism, Kant's
Schindler, C.
Schlegel, F.
Schleicher, A.
Schleiermacher, F.D.E.
system of
Schmid, E.
Schmid, Leopold
Schmidkunz, H.
Schmidt, K.
Schmidt, L.
Schmidt, O.
Schneider, C.M.
Schneider, G.
Schneider, G.H.
Schneider, O.
Schopenhauer, A.
and Kant
system of
followers of
Schoppe (Scioppius)
Schubert, F.W.
Schubert, G.H.
Schubert-Soldern, R. von
Schuller, H.
Schultze, Fritz
Schulz, J.
Schulze, G.E. (Aenesidemus-Schulze)
Schuppe, W.
Schurman, J.G.
Schwarz, H.
Schwarz, G.E.

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