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Henry Ossian Flipper, The Colored Cadet at West Point by Henry Ossian Flipper

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'philosophy' was hit upon.

"In vain did Smith appeal to the Secretary of War for
an opportunity to be re-examined; in vain did he ask
permission to go back and join the class below--all
appeals were in vain. 'Gentlemen,' says the secretary,
'I don't wish to be misquoted as saying that I can't
give Mr. Smith a re-examination, for I say I won't do
it.' The victim of the army has since published a three-
column card in Fred Douglass's paper, in which he says
he was dropped for politico-military reasons, and in
the course of which he makes an almost unanswerable case
for himself, but the Radicals have dropped him in his
hour of necessity, and he must submit."

(From the New York Sun.)


"James W. Smith, the first colored cadet appointed to
the Military Academy of West Point, was dismissed
after the June examination, having failed to pass an
examination in some other studies. Recently the Sun
received letters from South Carolina charging that the
prejudices of the officers of the Academy led to the
dismissal; and to ascertain the truth a Sun reporter
went to West Point to investigate the matter. He accosted
a soldier thus:

"'Were you here before Smith was dismissed?'

"'Yes, sir; I've been here many years.'

"'Can you tell me why he was dismissed?'

"'Well, I believe he didn't pass in philosophy and some
other studies.'

"'What kind of a fellow was he?'

"'The soldiers thought well of him, but the cadets
didn't. They used to laugh and poke fun at him in
Riding Hall, and in the artillery drill all of them
refused to join hands with him when the cannoneers
were ordered to mount. This is dangerous once in a
while, for sometimes they mount when the horses are
on a fast trot. But he used to run on as plucky as
you please, and always got into his seat without help.
Some of the officers used to try to make them carry out
the drill, but it was no use. I never saw one of the
young fellows give him a hand to make a mount. He was
a proud negro, and had good pluck. I never heard him
complain, but his black eyes used to flash when he was
insulted, and you could see easy enough that he was in
a killin' humor. But after the first year he kept his
temper pretty well, though he fought hard to do it.'

"Captain Robert H. Hall, the post adjutant, said:
'Young Smith was a bad boy.'


His temper was hot, and his disposition not honorable. I
can assure you that the officers at this post did every
thing in their power to help him along in his studies,
as well as to improve his standing with his comrades.
But his temper interfered with their efforts in the
latter direction, while his dulness precluded his
passing through the course of studies prescribed.

"REPORTER--'He was always spoken of as a very bright

"CAPTAIN HALL--'He was not bright or ready. He lacked
comprehension. In his first year he was very troublesome.
First came his assault upon, or affray with, another
young gentleman (Cadet Wilson), but the Court of Inquiry
deemed it inadvisable to court-martial either of them.
Then he was insolent to his superior on drill, and being
called upon for an explanation he wrote a deliberate
falsehood. For this he was court-martialled and sentenced
to dismissal, but subsequently the findings of the
committee were reversed, and Cadet Smith was put back one
year. This fact accounts for his good standing on the
examination next before the last. You see he went over the
same studies twice.'

"REPORTER--'What was Cadet Smith found deficient in?'

"CAPTAIN HALL--'HIS worst failure was in natural and
experimental philosophy, which embraces the higher
mathematics, dynamics, optics, mechanics, and other
studies. He missed a very simple question in optics,
and the examiners, who were extremely lenient with him,
chiefly, I believe, because he was colored and not white,
tried him with another, which was also missed.'

"REPORTER--'Is optical science deemed an absolutely
essential branch of learning for an officer in the


"CAPTAIN HALL--'It is useful to engineers, for instance.
But that is not the question. In most educational
institutions of the grade of West Point, the standing
of a student in his studies is decided by a general
average of all studies in which he is examined. Here
each branch is considered separately, and if the cadet
fails in any one he cannot pass. I will assure you once
more that in my opinion Cadet Smith received as fair an
examination as was ever given to any student. If anything,
he was a little more favored.'

"REPORTER--'What was his conduct in the last year of his
stay at the Academy?'

"CAPTAIN HALL--'Good. He ranked twenty in a class of
forty in discipline. Discipline is decided by the number
of marks a cadet receives in the term. If he goes beyond
a certain number he is expelled.'

"REPORTER--'This record seems hardly consistent with
his previous turbulent career.'

"CAPTAIN HALL--'Oh! in the last years of his service
he learned to control his temper, but he never seemed
happy unless in some trouble.'

"REPORTER--'Have you any more colored cadets?'

"CAPTAIN HALL--'Only one--Henry O. Flipper, of Georgia.
He is a well-built lad, a mulatto, and is bright,
intelligent, and studious.'

"REPORTER--'Do the cadets dislike him as much as they
did Smith?'

"CAPTAIN HALL--'No, Sir, I am told that he is more
popular. I have heard of no doubt he will get through
all right. And here I will say, that had Mr. Smith been
white he would not have gone so far as he did.'

"Other officers of the post concur with Captain Hall,
but the enlisted men seem to sympathize with Smith. One
of them said, 'I don't believe the officers will ever
let a negro get through. They don't want them in the

"Cadet Smith's career for the three years of his
service was indeed a most unhappy one, but whether
that unhappiness arose from


or from the persistent persecutions of his comrades
cannot be authoritatively said. One officer attributed
much of the pugnacity which Smith exhibited early in
his course to the injudicious letters sent him by his
friends. In some of these he was advised to 'fight for
the honor of his race,' and others urged him to brook
no insult at the hands of the white cadets. The menial
duties which the 'plebes' are called upon to do in
their first summer encampment were looked upon by Smith
as personal insults thrust upon him, althought his
comrades made no complaint. Then the social ostracism
to a lad of his sensitive nature was almost unbearable,
and an occasional outbreak is not to be wondered at.

"Before he had been in the Academy a week he wrote to a
friend complaining of the treatment he received from his
fellows, and this letter being published intensified the
hostility of the other cadets. Soon after this he had a
fight with Cadet Wilson and cut his face with a dipper.
Then followed the breach of discipline on drill, the
court-martial and sentence, and finally the Congressional
investigation, which did not effect any good. Smith says
that frequently on squad drill he was detached from the
squad by the cadet corporal, and told that he was not to
stand side by side with white men.

"WEST POINT, June 19."



To the Editor of the Daily Graphic:

About the 20th of May, 1870, I saw the colored Cadet,
James W. Smith land at the West Point Dock. He was
appointed by a personal friend of mine, Judge Hoge,
Member of Congress from Columbia, South Carolina.
The mulatto boy was about five feet eight inches high,
with olive complexion and freckles. Being hungry he
tipped his hat to a cadet as he jumped from the ferry
-boat and asked him the way to the hotel.

"'Over there, boy,' replied the cadet, pointing to
the Rose Hotel owned by the government.

"On arriving there the colored boy laid down his carpet-
bag, registered his name, and asked for something to eat.

"'What! A meal of victuals for a nigger?' asked the clerk.

"'Yes, Sir, I'm hungry and I should like to buy something
to eat.'

"'Well, you'll have to be hungry a good while if you
wait to get something to eat here,' and the clerk of
the government hotel pushed the colored boy's carpet
-bag off upon the floor.

"Jimmy Smith's father, who fought with General Sherman,
and came back to become an alderman in Columbia, had
told the boy that when he got to West Point among soldiers
he would be treated justly, and you can imagine how the
hungry boy felt when he trudged back over the hot campus
to see Colonel Black and General Schriver, who was then
Superintendent of the Academy.

"The black boy came and stood before the commandant and
handed him his appointment papers and asked him to read
them. Colonel Black, Colonel Boynton, and other officers
looked around inquiringly. Then they got up to take a
good look at, the first colored cadet. The colonel, red
in the face, waved the boy away with his hand, and, one
by one, the officers departed, speechless with amazement.

"In a few moments the news spread through the Academy.
The white cadets seemed paralyzed.

"Several cadets threatened to resign, some advocated
maiming him for life, and a Democratic 'pleb' from
Illinois exclaimed, 'I'd rather die than drill with
the black devil.' But wiser counsels prevailed, and
the cadets consented to tolerate Jimmy Smith and not
drown or kill him for four weeks, when it was thought
the examiners would 'bilge' him.

"On the 16th of June, 1870, I saw Jimmy Smith again at
West Point and wrote out my experiences. He was the
victim of great annoyance.

"At these insults the colored cadet showed a suppressed
emotion. He could not break the ranks to chastise his
assaulter. Then if he had fought with every cadet who
called him a '--black-hearted nigger,' he would have
fought with the whole Academy. Not the professors,
for they have been as truly gentlemen as they are good
officers. If they had feelings against the colored cadet
they suppressed them. I say now that the indignities
heaped upon Jimmy Smith would have been unbearable to
any white boy of spirit. Hundreds of times a day he was
publicly called names so mean that I dare not write them.

"Once I met Jimmy Smith after drill. He bore the
insulting remarks like a Christian.

"'I expected it,' he said; 'but it was not so at the
Hartford High School. There I had the second honors
of my class.' Then he showed me a catalogue of the
Hartford High School, and there was the name of James
W. Smith as he graduated with the next highest honor.

"On that occasion I asked Jimmy who his father was.

"'His name is Israel Smith. He used to belong to Sandres
Guignard, of Columbia.'

"'Then he was a slave?'

"'Yes, but when Sherman's army freed him he became a
Union soldier.'

"'And your mother?'

"'She is Catherine Smith, born free.' Here Jimmy showed
his mother's photograph. She looked like a mulatto
woman, with straight hair and regular features. She had
a serious, Miss-Siddons-looking face.

"'How did you come to "the Point?"' I asked.

"'Well, Mr. David Clark, of Hartford, promised to educate
me, and he got Congressman Hoge to appoint me.'

"'How came Mr. Clark to become interested in you?'

"'Well, a very kind white lady--Miss Loomis--came to
Columbia to teach the freedmen. I went to school to her
and studied so hard and learned so fast that she told
Mr. Clark about me. My father is able to support me,
but Mr. Clark is a great philanthropist and he has taken
a liking to me and he is going to stand by me.'

"'What does Mr. Clark say when you write about how the
cadets treat you?'

"The colored boy handed me this letter from his

"'HARTFORD, June 7, 1870.

"'DEAR JEMMY: Yours, 1st inst., is at hand and noted. I
herewith inclose stamps.

"'Let them call "nigger" as much as they please; they
will laugh out of the other corner of their mouth before
the term is over.

"'Your only way is to maintain your dignity. Go straight
ahead. If any personal insult is offered, resist it, and
then inform me; I will then see what I can do. But I think
you need have no fear on that score. Have been out to
Windham a few days. All well, and send kind regards. Mary
sails for Europe Saturday. President Grant is to be here
the 2d. He will be my guest or Governor Jewell's.

"'Yours, etc.,

"'D. CLARK.'

"'So Mr. Clark knows the President, does he?'

"'Why, yes; he knows everybody--all the great men. He's
a great man himself;' and this poor colored boy stood up,
I thought, the proudest champion David Clark ever had.

"'Yes, David Clark is a good man,' I mused, as I saw the
grateful tears standing in the colored cadet's eyes.

"When I got back to the hotel I heard a wishy-washy girl,
who came up year after year with a party to flirt with
the cadets say:

"'O dear! it is hawid to have this colod cadet--perfectly
dre'fful. I should die to see my George standing next to

"But Miss Schenck, the daughter of General Schenck, our
Minister to the Court of St. James, told Jimmy Smith
that she hoped he would graduate at the head of his
class, and when the colored boy told me about it he said:

"'Oh, sir, a splendid lady called to see me to-day. I
wish I knew her name. I want to tell David Clark.'

"Every white boy at West Point now agreed to cut the
colored boy. No one was to say a single word to him,
or even answer yes or no. At the same time they would
abuse him and swear at him in their own conversation
loud enough for him to hear. It is a lamentable fact
that every white cadet at the Point swears and chews
tobacco like the army in Flanders.

"Again I saw Jimmy Smith on the 9th of July. The officers
of the Academy had been changed. Old General Schriver had
given place to young General Upton. The young general is
a man of feeling and a lover of justice. He sent for the
colored boy, and taking his hand he said:

"'My boy, you say you want to resign, that you can stand
this persecution no longer. You must not do it. You are
here an officer of the army. You have stood a severe
examination. You have passed honorably and you shall not
be persecuted into resigning. I am your friend. Come to
me and you shall have justice.'

"Then General Upton addressed the cadets on dress parade.
He told them personal insults against their brother cadet,
whose only crime was color, must cease.

"One day a cadet came to Jimmy and said he would befriend
him if he dared to, 'but you know I would be ostracized
if I should speak to you.'

"'What was the cadet's name?' I asked.

"'Oh, I dare not tell?' replied the colored boy. 'He would
be ruined, too.'

"'Did your father write to you when you thought of

"'Yes; here is his letter,' replied the colored boy:

"'COLUMBIA, S.C., July 3, 1870.

"'My DEAR SON: I take great pleasure in answering your
kind letter received last night. I pray God that my
letter may find you in a better state of consolation
than when you wrote to me. I told you that you would
have trials and difficulties to endure. Do not mind them,
for they will go like chaff before the wind, and your
enemies will soon be glad to gain your friendship. They
do the same to all newcomers in every college. You are
elevated to a high position, and you must stand it like
a man. Do not let them run you away, for then they will
say, the "nigger" won't do. Show your spunk, and let
them see that you will fight. That is what you are sent
to West Point for. When they find you are determined to
stay, they will let you alone. You must not resign on any
account, for it is just what the Democrats want. They are
betting largely here that you won't get in. The rebels
say if you are admitted, they will devil you so much that
you can't stay. Be a man; don't think of leaving, and let
me know all about your troubles. The papers say you have
not been received. Do write me positively whether you are
received or not.

"'Times are lively here, for everybody is preparing for
the Fourth of July. There are five colored companies
here, all in uniform, and they are trying to see who shall
excel in drill.

"'Stand your ground; don't resign, and write me soon.

"'From your affectionate father,


"On the 11th of January I visited West Point again. I
found all the cadets still against the colored boy. A
system of terrorism reigned supreme. Every one who did
not take sides against the colored boy was ostracized.

"At drill one morning Cadet Anderson trod on the colored
boy's toes. When Smith expostulated Anderson replied,
'Keep your-- toes away.' When Smith told about it Anderson
got two other white cadets to say he never said so. This
brought the colored boy in a fix.

"Last July I saw the colored cadet again. He was still
ostracized. No cadet ever spoke to him. He lived a, hermit
life, isolated and alone.

"When I asked him how he got on with his studies he said:
'As well as I am able, roaming all alone, with no one to
help me and no one to clear up the knotty points. If there
is an obscure point in my lesson I must go to the class
with it. I cannot go to a brother cadet.'

"'If you should ask them to help you what would they say?'

"'They would call me a -- nigger, and tell me to go back
to the plantation.'

"Yesterday, after watching the colored cadet for three
years, I saw him again. He has grown tall and slender.
He talks slowly, as if he had lost the use of language.
Indeed many days and weeks he has gone without saying
twenty lines a day in a loud voice, and that in the

"When they were examining him the other day he spoke
slowly, but his answers were correct. His answers in
philosophy were correct. But they say he answered
slowly, and they will find him deficient for that.
Find him deficient for answering slowly when the boy
almost lost the use of language! When he knew four
hundred eyes were on him and two hundred malign arts
all praying for his failure!

"The colored cadet is now in his third year. The
great question at West Point is, Will he pass his
examination? No one will know till the 30th of June.
It is my impression that the young officers have
marked him so low that he will be found deficient.
The young officers hate him almost as bad as the
cadets, and whenever they could make a bad mark
against him they have done it.

"'Does anyone ever speak to you now?' I asked.

"'No. I dare not address a cadet. I do not want
to provoke them. I simply want to graduate. I am
satisfied if they do not strike or harm me; though
if I had a kind word now and then I should be
happier, and I could study better,' Then the colored
boy drew a long sigh.

"To-day I met General Howard, who was present at the
colored cadet's court-martial. I asked him to tell me
about it.

"'Well, Mr. Perkins,' said the General, 'they tried to
make out that the colored boy lied.'

"'Yes,' I interrupted, 'and they all say he did lie at
the Point now. How was it?'

"'It was this way: They accused him of talking on parade,
and, while trying to convict him out of his own mouth,
they asked him "If on a certain day he did not speak to
a certain cadet while on drill?" "I did not speak to this
cadet while on drill the day you mention," answered Cadet
Smith, "for the cadet was not in the parade that day."'

"This answer startled the prosecutors, and, looking over
the diary of parade days, they were astonished to find
Cadet Smith correct.

"'What then?' I asked.

"'Why they accuse him of telling a lie in spirit, though
not in form, for he had talked on a previous day. Just
as if he was obliged to say any thing to assist the
prosecutors except to answer their questions.'

"General Howard believes Cadet Smith to be a good,
honest boy. I believe the same.


(From the Savannah (Ga.) Morning-News.)

"Lieutenant Flipper seems to have gone back on his
Atlanta friends. He came home from West Point with
a good Academy record, behaved himself with becoming
dignity. The officers at the barracks treated him--
not socially, but as an officer of the army--with
due respect, as did the citizens of Atlanta, who felt
that he had won credit by his good conduct and success.
But in an evil hour the colored friends (?) of Flipper
gave him a reception, and in full uniform he made them
a speech. Now speech-making is a dangerous thing, and
this colored warrior seems to have been made a victim
of it. He distorted the official courtesies of the
officers at the barracks into social courtesies, and
abused the white people of the South because they did
not give him and his race social equality. Not only
were sensible colored people displeased with his
remarks, but many white citizens who went to the
meeting friendly to Flipper left disgusted with his

*If a man walks on the streets with me, invites me
to his quarters, introduces me to his comrades,
and other like acts of courtesy, ought I to consider
him treating me socially or officially? I went to
the garrison in Atlanta to pay my respects to the
commanding officer. I expected nothing. I met an
officer, who, with four others, had introduced
himself to me on the cars. My official call had been
made. He took me around, introduced me to the officers,
and showed me all possible attention. I met another
officer in the city several days after this. He offered
cigars. We walked up and down the streets together.
Many times did we hear and comment upon the remarks we
overheard: "Is he walking with that nigger?" and the
like. He invited me into a druggist's to take some soda-
water. I went in and got it, although it was never sold
there before to a person of color. We rode out to the
garrison together, and every attention was shown me by
all. Another officer told me that before I came the
officers of the garrison assembled to consider whether
or not they should recognize me. The unanimous vote was
"yes." Was all this official? No. It is the white people,
the disappointed tyrants of Georgia, who try to distort
social courtesies in official ones. The "many white"
people were some half-dozen newspaper reporters, whose
articles doubtless were partly written when they came.
"Old Si" in his spectacles was prominently conspicuous
among them.

(From the Savannah (Ga.) Morning News.)


"Lieutenant Flipper is his name. He is a living
result of the policy of Radicalism which has
declared from the first its determination that,
under any circumstances, the American citizen of
African descent shall enjoy all the privileges of
his white brethren. Carrying out this determination,
and not dismayed at the fate of colored cadet Smith,
who figured so largely in West Point annals a few
years ago, cadet Flipper was sent to that institution
to try his hand. He has graduated, and now holds the
commission of Second Lieutenant of Cavalry in the
United States Army, the first of his race who has
ever attained such a position.

"It will be curious to watch young Flipper's career
as an officer. Time was when army officers were a
very aristocratic and exclusive set of gentlemen,
whether they still hold to their old ideas, or not,
we do not know. There seems to be enough of the old
feeling left, however, to justify the belief that
until some other descendants of African parents
graduate at the institution, Flipper will have a
lonely time. During his cadetship, we learn from no
less an authority than the New York Tribune, 'the
paper founded by Horace Greeley,' that he was let
severely alone by his fellow-students. According to
that paper, one of the cadets said, 'We have no
feeling against him, but we could not associate with
him. It may have been prejudice but still we couldn't
do it.' This shows very clearly the animus which will
exist in the army against the colored officer. If at
West Point, where he had to drill, recite, eat, and
perhaps sleep with his white brothers, they couldn't
associate with him (notwithstanding the fact that the
majority of these whites were Northern men and ardent
advocates of Radicalism, with its civil rights and
social equality record), how can it be expected that
they will overcome their prejudices any more readily
after they become officers. The Tribune thinks they
will, and that in time the army will not hesitate to
receive young Flipper, and all of his race who may
hereafter graduate at West Point, with open arms; but
the chances are that the Tribune is wrong. Your model
Yankee is very willing to use the negro as a hobby-
horse upon which to ride into place and power, but
when it comes to inviting him to his house and
embracing him as a brother he is very apt to be found
wanting. The only society Lieutenant of Cavalry Flipper
can ever hope to enjoy is that which will exist when
there are enough of his race in the army to form a
corps d'Afrique, and by that time he will be too old
to delight in social pleasures. Meanwhile he will be
doomed to a life of solitude and self-communings, and
be subjected to many such snubs as the venerable
Frederick Douglass has but recently received at the
hands of that champion mourner for the poor African--
Rutherford B, Hayes."

The New York Tribune is right. The army is officered
by men, not by West Point cadets, who are only students
and boys.

(From the Savannah (Ga.) Morning News.)


"The miscegenationists and social equality advocates
are making a great deal of noise over the facts, first,
that a negro has graduated at West Point, and holds
to-day a commission in the United States Army; and
second, that when he went up to receive his diploma,
he was, alone of all the members of his class, the
recipient of a round of applause. Great things are
augured from these two circumstances, especially the

"It is reasoned that now, that a negro has at last been
able to secure a commission in the military service of
the country, the first step towards the recognition of
his race on the basis of social equality is accomplished,
by degrees prejudice will wear away, and, in course of
time, black and white citizens of this republic will
mingle freely and without reserve; and this, it is
claimed, is shown by the applause with which the
reception into the army of this African pioneer was
greeted. For our part we don't see that these negro
devotees and miscegenationists have any reason to
rejoice. It is just as impossible to establish perfect
social equality between the Anglo-Saxon and African
races as it is to make oil and water unite. It is
against nature, and nowhere in the world is the
antipathy to such a mingling shown more than in the
North, and by no people so strongly as by the very
men who whine so incessantly and so pretentiously
about 'men and brethren.' The negro in the South has
always found the white man of the South to be his best
and truest friend, and such will always be the case,
notwithstanding that the Southern white will never
consent to social equality with his fellow-citizen of
African descent.

"As to the applause which greeted Flipper, that can
easily be accounted for. Nothing is more likely than
that at West Point there should have been gathered
together a lot of old-time South-haters, who were
ready to applaud, not so much to flatter Flipper as
to show that they were happy over what they felt to
be a still further humiliation of the South. That is
all there is in that.

"We have no objections to such demonstrations of
delight. As far as we are concerned they may be
indulged in to the heart's content by those who so
desire. But one piece of information we can give to
the young colored Georgia lieutenant. If he thinks
those who applauded him are going to invite him to
their houses he will be greatly disappointed. And
if he does not die of overeating until those invite
him to dine with them, he will live to a good old
age. Let him take the fate of the recognized leader
of his race, Fred Douglass, as an example, and steer
clear of his too demonstrative friends. Experience
shows that so long as they can use him, they will be
very profuse in their professions of friendship; but
when that is done all is done, and he will find
himself completely cast aside. If Flipper sees these
words, let him mark our prediction."

"And many false prophets shall arise, and deceive
many" (Matt. 24:11). Amen. That is all that article
is worth.

(From the Monmouth Inquirer, Freehold, N.J.)


"When Congress founded West Point, to be a training
school for those who were to be paid as public servants
and to wear the public livery, we do not think that it
was intended that the institution should serve as a
hotbed for the fostering of aristocratic prejudices and
the assumption of aristocratic airs. Nor do we think
that when Lincoln declared the negro a freeman, and
entitled to a freeman's rights, either he or the nation
designed that the dusky skin of the enfranchised slave
should serve as an excuse for ignominy, torture, and
disgrace. Yet here, this year, in the graduating class
from West Point, steps a young man among his white-
skinned fellows, fiftieth in a class of seventy-six
members, whose four years of academic life have been
one long martyrdom; who has stood utterly alone, ignored
and forsaken among his fellows; who has had not one
helping hand from professors or students to aid him in
fighting his hard battle, and whom only his own talents
and sturdy pluck have saved from entire oblivion. Yet in
spite of all, he was graduated; he has left twenty-six
white students behind him; he is a second lieutenant in
the regular army, and the story of his struggles and his
hard-won victory is known from Oregon to Florida. All
honor to the first of his race who has stemmed the tide
and won the prize.

"We do not think the faculty at West Point have done
their duty in this matter. One word, one example from
them, would have stopped the persecution, and it is to
their disgrace that no such word was spoken and no such
example set."

I have not a world to say against any of the professors
or instructors who were at West Point during the period
of my cadetship. I have every thing to say in their praise,
and many things to be thankful for. I have felt perfectly
free to go to any officer for assistance, whenever I have
wanted it, because their conduct toward me made me feel
that I would not be sent away without having received
whatever help I may have wanted. All I could say of the
professors and officers at the Academy would be
unqualifiedly in their favor.

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