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Gardening for the Million by Alfred Pink

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pots, or rock-work. They produce an abundance of Lobelia-like flowers
in August. Sow the seed in the open in spring. Height, 6 in.

Clitoria.--A greenhouse climbing or trailing plant, which thrives in a
mixture of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings will strike in heat, but it
is more readily grown from seed.

Clivias (_Caffre Lilies_).--Most beautiful evergreen plants for
the greenhouse. The soil most suitable for them is a compost of
leaf-mould, loam, and sand. Give a liberal supply of water when in
full growth, but from September to February keep them only moderately
moist. Shade from strong sunshine, and keep the temperature at from 60
to 70 degrees. They will not bear much disturbance. Seed may be sown
in bottom-heat early in spring, or they may be increased by suckers.

Cobaea Scandens.--This rapid climber is well adapted for the
conservatory, but it will thrive in the open air if the root is
protected during the winter. If planted against a rough wall its
tendrils will catch in the crevices and support it without any
assistance. It requires plenty of room and a rather poor soil,
otherwise it runs to leaf instead of to bloom. The tops of the shoots
should be constantly pinched off, to induce thickness of growth.
Cuttings of firm side-shoots taken in summer will root under glass in
a little moist heat; but it is best raised from seed, sown sideways,
in a hotbed in March. Its blue and purple flowers are produced in
August. Height, 10 ft. to 20 ft.

Cob Nuts.--_See_ "Filberts."

Cockscomb.--These tender annuals should be sown on a moderate hotbed
in March or April, in pans of leaf-mould and sand, covering with 1/4
in. of soil. When a couple of inches high place them in small pots,
replace them on the hotbed, and give shade till they have taken fresh
root. When the weather is favourable let them have a moderate amount
of fresh air. Afterwards shift them into larger pots, and when the
combs are full grown place them in the greenhouse, taking care not to
allow any damp to lodge on them, at the same time supplying them
well with water and all the air possible. Height, 9 in. (_See also_

Codonopsis.--These hardy perennials are best grown in sandy peat and
loam. They are easily raised from seed or cuttings, and produce their
flowers in July and August. Height, 1 ft.

Coix Lachryma (_Job's Tears_).--A half-hardy, annual, ornamental grass
bearing clusters of beautiful pearl-like seeds. Sow in a warm spot in
April, barely covering the seed with fine soil, and keep the surface
of the ground moist till germination is ensured. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Colchicum (_Autumn-Flowering Crocus_).--Plant the bulbs in February in
light, loamy soil, placing them 2 in. deep and 3 in. apart. They
are readily increased by off-sets from the bulb. September is their
flowering season. Height, 3 in. (_See also_ "Bulbocodium.")

Coleus.--Tender perennial shrubs of some merit, requiring the
protection of a greenhouse. Keep the plants root-bound and near the
glass, with a good supply of heat and moisture. They succeed best in
a mixture of loam and peat. Cuttings of shoots 3 in. long planted in
sand, covered with a glass, and plunged in heat 60 to 70 degrees,
will strike. Pot off singly in loam and sand. Bloom in June or July.
Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Colletia.--Ornamental evergreen shrubs. A mixture of peat and loam,
with a sheltered position, is their delight. Cuttings will strike
in sand if covered with glass. They produce their flowers in July.
Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Collinsia.--Most elegant hardy annuals, doing well in any garden soil.
The seed is sown in autumn for early flowering, and in spring for a
later display. Bloom May to August. Height, 1 ft.

Collomia.--Hardy annuals, possessing little beauty. Treat as
Collinsia. Flower in July. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Colt's-foot.--This hardy perennial flowers before the leaves appear.
It grows best in a moist, clayey soil, and may be increased by pieces
of the running root.

Columbine.--_See_ "Aquilegia."

Colutea Arborescens (_Bladder Senna_).--A shrub with Acacia-like
leaves and producing yellow Pea-shaped flowers in July, followed with
bladder-shaped seed vessels. It will grow in any soil, and may be
raised either from seed or cuttings taken in autumn. Height, 10 ft.

Commelina Sellowina (_Blue Spider Wort, or Day Flower_).--A pretty
greenhouse climber, bearing cobalt-blue flowers. It should occupy a
sunny position, and be watered freely from March to September, after
which very little should be given.

Commelina Tuberosa.--Perfectly hardy plants, bearing in June blue or
white flowers the size of a shilling. The bulbs may be planted in
spring in any garden soil; the plants are increased by off-sets.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Compost Heap.--Get a heap of dead leaves and press and jam them down
as closely as possible. Then take as much manure, in appearance,
as you have dead leaves, and for each cartload have two bushels of
unslaked quicklime and some earth. Now spread upon the ground, in some
out-of-the-way corner, a layer of the dead leaves, upon which sprinkle
a layer of lime, and over that a thin layer of earth. Next lay on a
covering of manure, then a layer of leaves, and one of lime and earth
as before, and proceed in this way till all the materials are used up.
It will be well, however, to give the heap a good watering whenever
you come to the layer of leaves. This slakes the lime and hastens the
decomposition of the vegetable matter. After letting it stand for
about six weeks, begin at the top of the heap and turn it completely
over, so that what was at the bottom will be at the top. Repeat this
operation from time to time at intervals of six or seven weeks, until
it has become perfectly friable and will powder through a garden-fork
like dust. It will then be ready for use. This compost is invigorating
to flowers of all kinds, and is so ready for them to assimilate.

Comptonia Asplenifolia.--This ornamental deciduous shrub is quite
hardy, but requires a light, sandy loam or peat soil and a shady
situation. It is increased by layers. Blooms in April. Height, 4 ft.

Cone Flower.--_See_ "Echinacea."

Conifers.--Conifers (so called because they bear cones in place of
ordinary seed) are mostly of tall growth, yet among the class are many
low--growing evergreens well adapted for the lawn or border. Indeed,
any of the specimens may be utilised in this way, but of course must
be removed from the shrubbery or border before they attain undue
proportions. They are hardy, and, generally speaking, not particular
as to soil or situation. Firs, Pines, Cedars, etc., come under this
heading, and mention is made in other parts of this work of those most
suitable for the amateur's requirements.

Convallaria Prolificans.--This is one of the most beautiful hardy
perennials known. It has large, deep-green foliage, with erect and
much-branched flower-stems. The flowers are white, internally flushed
rose; are very fragrant, and are produced from May to September. The
plant will grow in any ordinary soil, and may be increased by dividing
the root. Height, 2-1/2 ft.

Convolvulus (_Morning Glory_).--Showy plants. The tender species are
well adapted for the stove or conservatory, and are best grown in loam
and peat: cuttings strike freely in sand under a glass. The half-hardy
annual kinds should be sown on a gentle hotbed in February, and when
large enough transferred to the open; or they may be sown in the open
in April. Hardy kinds merely require sowing in the open, early in
spring. The stove and greenhouse annuals and biennials require to be
sown in heat, and treated as other stove and greenhouse annuals and
biennials. Flowering season, May to July. Height, 6 in. to 15 ft.

Coral Plant.--_See_ "Erythrina."

Corchorus.--_See_ "Kerria."

Cordyline.--A stove evergreen shrub, which may be grown in any light,
vegetable mould or in peat and loam, and is easily increased by
suckers. It flowers in spring. Height, 3 ft.

Coreopsis.--Very pretty and long-flowering. They all like a light,
rich, and sandy soil. Cuttings of the stove kinds root freely under
glass. Hardy perennials may be divided at the roots. The annuals may
be sown either in the autumn or in March; they bear transplanting.
Longipes flowers in April; Grandiflora in August. Useful as cut
flowers. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 3 ft.

Cornel.--_See_ "Cornus."

Cornflower.--_See_ "Cyanus."

Corn Salad (_Lamb's Lettuce_).--Sow in drills--the plants to stand 6
in. apart--from March till August, in well-drained sandy loam. Autumn
sowings will stand the winter and prove useful in early spring. It
must be gathered young.

Cornus Canadensis (_Canadian Cornel_).--A pretty herbaceous plant,
suitable for moist parts of rock-work. It is very hardy, likes a light
soil, and produces flowers from June to August. The roots may be
divided in autumn, or in the early part of spring. Height, 8 in.

Cornus Mas (_Cornelian Cherry_).--This hardy deciduous shrub does
well in common soil if a fair amount of moisture be given. Its yellow
flowers are produced on bare stems from February to April. It may be
increased by seeds, cuttings, or layers, autumn being the time to

Coronilla.--The greenhouse shrubs should be grown in peat and loam.
They are raised by seeds and by cuttings. Most of the hardy perennials
need protection in winter, therefore they are best grown in pots.
These are propagated by seed or division. The annuals need no special

Coronilla Iberica.--A pretty creeping hardy perennial suitable for
rock-work, on which its bright yellow flowers are very attractive
during June and July. It thrives best in a mixture of peat and loam,
and may be increased by seeds or division of the roots. Height, 6 in.

Correa Cardinalis.--An evergreen greenhouse shrub. Place in equal
parts of sand and loam, and propagate by cuttings, which should have
plenty of room, as they are liable to damp off. July is its flowering
season. Height, 4 ft. C. Magnifica is also a capital plant.

Cortusa Matthioli.--This ornamental hardy herbaceous plant thrives
best in a mixture of peat and loam. It is advisable to give protection
to the roots in winter. It may be increased by seeds or by division of
the roots. It makes a good pot-plant, and produces flowers in May and
June. Height, 1 ft.

Corydalis (_Fumitory_).--These low-growing perennials are suitable for
dry positions on rock-work. They are not particular as to soil, and
may be increased by division of roots, while some scatter seed in
abundance. Their flowering period extends over many months. Height, 6
in. to 1 ft.

Cosmea Bipinnata.--A very pretty half-hardy annual which flowers in
July. Sow the seed early in spring on a slight hotbed covered with
glass, and transplant to the flower border at the end of May. Height,
2 ft.

Cosmos.--Pretty plants, the flowers resembling a single Dahlia. They
are mostly hardy, but some need protection. The annuals should
be raised on a hotbed in February and be planted out in May. The
perennials, too, are brought forward in heat. Some flower in June,
others in September. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Cotoneaster.--Evergreen shrubs which will grow in any soil and are
easily increased by layers. C. Hookeriana attains the dimensions of
small trees, and produces a profusion of white flowers and bright
crimson berries. C. Simonsii is largely used as a hedge. Height, 6 ft.
to 8 ft. C. Rupestris is a small-leaved, prostrate perennial species,
bearing white flowers from May to August, followed by red berries.
Height, 3 in.

Cotyledon Chrysantha (_Umbilicus)._--A choice Alpine succulent which
thrives in a sandy loam, or in well-drained pots of the same soil. It
flowers from May to August, and is multiplied by cuttings, which must
be left to dry for a few days in a sunny place. Flowers are produced
from May to August. Height, 3 in.

Cowslips.--Well-known hardy perennials. These require the same
treatment as Primulas. Plant in a mixture of loam and peat, and divide
as soon as the bloom has died off. Height, 6 in.

Cowslips, Cape.--_See_ "Lachenalia."

Crambe Cordifolia (_Tournefort, or Sea Cabbage_).--This hardy
herbaceous plant is suitable for a wild garden. It likes a good, rich
soil, and is easily increased by seed or division. August is its
flowering period. Height, 3 ft.

Crane's Bill.--_See_ "Geranium Argentium."

Crataegus Pyracantha (_Fire Thorn_).--This hardy, ornamental shrub
will grow in any soil. It should be planted early in spring on a south
or south-west wall, and may be increased by seeds, by budding, or by
grafting. The profuse brilliant orange-coloured berries of the C.
Lelandii (Mespilus) ensures it a place on walls and trellises. A sunny
position gives best results. Prune in March.

Creeping Jenny.--_See_ "Lysimachia Nummularia."

Crepis (_Hawkweed_).--An interesting hardy annual. It merely requires
sowing in spring, and will grow in any soil. The flowers are produced
in June. Height, 1 ft.

Cress.--Sow at intervals of a week from March to September in the open
ground, and during the winter months in frames. A shady position is
most suitable. By these frequent sowings, and by often cutting over
such as readily renew a bottom growth, a constant succession of tender
shoots is obtained.

Crocus.--Among our earliest spring flowers. These will grow in any
garden soil, but prefer rich, sandy earth. Plant in October or
November, 3 in. deep and 2 in. apart. Take the roots up every second
year, and plant the small off-sets in a nursery bed for two years,
when they will be fit for the beds or borders. Protect the bulbs from
mice, as they are very partial to them, especially in winter.

_Indoor Culture_.--Select strong bulbs of the seedling varieties, and
plant them in succession, commencing early in autumn, in good, rich,
sandy soil. A liberal supply of water is necessary during the blooming
season, but perfect drainage must be secured. They grow well in bowls
filled with wet moss or sand. Height, 6 in. (_See also_ "Colchicum.")

Crotons.--Fine-foliaged hothouse plants. A mixture of peat and sandy
loam suits their growth, and they require a good amount of light to
properly colour their leaves, with a night temperature of 70 degrees.

Crowea Saligna.--Charming greenhouse evergreen shrubs, which send
forth their purple flowers in September. They grow best in loam and
peat. Cuttings may be struck in sand under bell-glasses. Height, 3 ft.

Crown Imperials.--_See_ "Fritillarias."

Crucianella Stylosa.--A hardy perennial. Sow in August or September in
a sheltered spot to stand the winter. The seed may also be sown from
March to midsummer, and the plants moved in autumn to the place where
they are to bloom. Their delicate pink flowers are produced in July.
Height, 1 ft.

Cuckoo Flower.--_See_ "Cardamine."

Cucumbers.--A rich, loamy soil is most suitable for their growth. Sow
frame varieties in a heat of 75 degrees or 85 degrees during February
and March for summer use, and when the plants are of sufficient size
transplant to a well-prepared hotbed. Sow again in September for
winter use. The hardy or ridge cucumbers (which are not suited for
frame or hothouse culture) should be raised in a frame or hot-bed in
April, and planted out about the middle of May in a warm border on
strawed ridges prepared with good stable manure, placing a hand-glass
over each plant until it is well established.

Cunila Mariana (_Dittany_).--This hardy perennial produces heads of
pretty purple flowers from July to September. It is not particular as
to soil, and can easily be increased by division. Height, 1 ft.

Cuphea.--Shrubs of a rather pretty description. The stove varieties
require a sandy loam to grow in, and may be propagated by cuttings.
The annuals should be sown on a gentle hotbed, and when strong enough
potted off and kept in the greenhouse; they should not be moved into
the open before the end of May. The perennial species if sown early
make good bedding plants the first year; they need protection in the

Currants.--_Black._--A rich, deep soil and a moist situation, together
with partial shade, are most suitable for their growth. They succeed
better as bushes than as espaliers or trained to walls. Cuttings of
the previous year's growth are taken in autumn and planted firmly 1
ft. by 6 in. apart. In two years shift every alternate plant so as to
allow room for expansion, and plant out finally to a distance of 5 ft.
In pruning the bushes, remember that the fruit is borne on the young
wood, therefore only sufficient should be cut away to allow of
the admission of air and sunshine and the further growth of young
branches. A portion of the old wood should be removed each year. Mulch
the roots, and keep the plants supplied with water in dry seasons.
Baldwin's Black, Ogden's Black, Black Naples, Lee's Prolific, James'
Prolific, and Old Black are among the best.

_Red and White._--An open, sunny position is needed. The soil that
suits them best is a deeply-manured, stiff loam. They are readily
raised from cuttings--which should be as long and strong as
possible--taken in autumn. Cut away all the eyes except the three
uppermost ones, and plant firmly in rows 1 ft. by 6 in. apart.
Transplant at the end of the second year to a distance of 5 ft. apart.
While the plants are young cut out all the top centre branches,
cutting always to an outgrowing bud, so as to give a cylindrical form
to the bush. In further pruning leave the leading shoots untouched,
but shorten all others to 4 in. or 6 in., and cut out all old, mossy
wood. Towards the end of June is a good time for cutting the young
wood away. The fruit is produced on spurs. In the autumn of each year
carefully dig in a good dressing of half-rotted manure, in such a
manner as not to injure the roots. Among the leading red varieties are
the following:--Champagne, Cherry, Chiswick Red, Houghton Castle, Raby
Castle, and Red Dutch. Of the white fruit the White Dutch and the
Cut-leaved White are the leaders. In plantations they should stand
from 4 ft. to 6 ft. apart.

Currants, Flowering.--_See_ "Ribes."

Cyanthus Lobatus--A small, but very beautiful procumbent perennial,
well adapted to fill moist places on rock-work if the situation is
open and sunny. A mixture of vegetable mould and sand suits it, and it
is best increased by cuttings placed in moist peat. It flowers in the
autumn, the flower-stems being from 6 in. to 1 ft. in length.

Cyanus(_Cornflower_).--Very pretty and free-blooming hardy annuals.
Sow the seed in the open in autumn for an early display of flowers,
or in March for a later one. Thin out to 2 ft. apart. Bloom in July.
Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Cyclamen.--Charming winter and spring blooming bulbous greenhouse
plants, which thrive in a mixture of sandy loam and vegetable mould.
They require a moist atmosphere and a uniform temperature not lower
than 50 degrees. They may be increased by seed sown in slight heat as
soon as it is ripe. Plant the bulbs in October, also in February and
March, placing them so that the crown is level with the top of the
pots. One full-sized bulb is sufficient for a 6-in. pot, which must be
provided with good drainage and placed on a layer of coal ashes that
is kept constantly moist. Water moderately till growth begins, then
increase the supply. Give a little liquid manure, in a weak state, if
a large quantity of flower-buds appear. When the blooming season is
over, plunge the pots in a shady, well-drained border, and when the
leaves start afresh turn the plants carefully out of the pots, so
as not to injure their roots, and re-pot in fresh soil. C. Persicum
flowers in February, and C. Neapolitanum in April. C. Europeum is a
hard variety, thriving in any situation. It produces sweetly-scented
flowers throughout July and August. It does best when planted under
trees, or in partial shade on rock-work, in well-drained, good loamy
or peaty soil mixed with a fair proportion of brick rubble. Plant the
corms in September 3 in. apart, and 1-1/2 in. deep. Height, 6 in. to 9

Cydonia (_Pyrus_).--These hardy plants are well adapted for
trellis-work, but are more effective when grown as bushes, and flower
more freely than when trained to the wall, the bloom often lasting to
the winter. They will grow in any soil, and are increased by suckers.
Height, 4 ft. and upwards.

Cyperius Alternifolius.--A stove grass which will grow in any soil,
but requires a plentiful supply of water. It is increased by dividing
the roots. Height, 2 ft.

Cypress (_Cupressus_).--Among these useful conifers C. Lawsoniana has
no superior as a single specimen for the decoration of the lawn. Of
free growth and perfectly hardy, it succeeds in almost any soil or
situation. C. Fraserii is also hardy, of erect habit, and of a rich
glaucous hue. When it attains a good size it is very ornamental. The
beautiful silver variegated variety Argenteo Variegata deserves a
place in every shrubbery. Nana Alba Maculata is a dwarf globular
plant, the slender branches of which are tipped with white, giving it
the appearance of being partly covered with snow. Pygmea is a compact
dwarf-growing variety suitable for the centre of small beds and for
rock-work. Japan Cypresses are elegant little shrubs, one of the
finest being Retinospora Ericoides, whose peculiar violet-red leaves
contrast charmingly with light green plants. Any of the above may be
increased by cuttings. They succeed best in a rich, deep loam, and are
improved by thinning out the branches where too thick, and pinching
out the stronger shoots where too thin, so as to encourage new growth.

Cypripedium (_Hardy Ladies' Slipper Orchid_).--This plant is of
the simplest culture and is well adapted for pots, ferneries, or
rock-work. It is most at home in a well-drained yet moist peaty soil,
and kept in a frame or on a shady border, where it will bloom in June.
Protect from frost and heavy rains, but never allow the roots to get
dry. Height, 1 ft.

Cytisus.--Elegant hardy shrubs with finely-cut leaves and terminal
racemes of Pea-shaped flowers in July. They will grow in any soil, and
are readily raised from seed or layers. Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.


Daffodils.--These will grow in any good, cool, moist, well-drained
garden soil if sand be put round their roots, but thrive best in a
moderately rich loam. They may remain in the ground for years, for
large bulbs produce the finest flowers. When the flowering is over the
leaves must be allowed to die down, not cut off. Plant from September
to December. The top of the bulb should be about 3 in. below the
surface, according to its size; 10 in. apart is a good distance.
Daffodils are also suitable for pot culture. Plant three to six bulbs,
according to size, in a 4-in. or 5-in. pot, using a compost of two
parts fibrous loam, one part leaf-mould, and one part sand. Place the
pots on a bed of ashes, and cover with 4 in. of cocoa-nut fibre. As
soon as top growth has commenced, remove the plants indoors, and
give plenty of light and air to prevent them being drawn. Daffodils
likewise make a good display when planted on a lawn.

Dahlias.--These attractive plants require a deep, friable soil, not
over rich. They may be grown from seed sown on a hotbed in March and
lightly covered with fine mould. As soon as they are up give all the
air which can with safety be given. When the seedlings are large
enough pot them off singly in the smallest-sized pots or round the
edges of 6-in. ones. Plant them out at the end of May, 1 ft. apart;
they will flower at the end of August. Any that turn out very good had
better be propagated by cuttings from the young tops, to save the kind
in case the roots should die. When flowering is over take up the young
bulbs and treat them as directed afterwards for old tubers.

Another way to propagate them is to place the old tubers in soil over
a hotbed early in March. When the shoots are a couple of inches high
the tubers may be taken up and divided with a sharp knife. Pot off
separately. Water them occasionally with liquid manure, made from
guano and powdered charcoal, well mixed with rain water, and plant
them out early in May. Give them plenty of room, and tie the branches
securely to stakes firmly fixed in the soil. When they have become
good bushy plants put a layer of half-rotted manure round each plant.
As soon as frost turns their foliage brown take them up, cut off the
roots, leaving about 6 in. of stem attached, and plunge them into a
box of sand, chaff, or ashes, and preserve them from damp, frost, and
heat during the winter.

Daisies (_Bellis Perennis_).--These pretty, little hardy perennials
are very useful as edgings. To grow them to perfection the ground
should be highly manured, and the roots divided every year, planting
them out 6 in. apart in a cool, shady situation. October is a suitable
time for transplanting. They flower continuously from February to
July. Height, 6 in.

Dandelions.--Dandelions on lawns, etc., may be killed by cutting them
down as low as possible, and putting a little gas-tar or a pinch of
salt on the wound. Or they may be dug up and blanched for mixing with
salad. In this case plant six roots in an 8-in. pot, and place an
inverted flower-pot over the whole, in order to exclude the light; the
plants are sometimes blanched in the open by covering them with old
tan or fine ashes. The flowers must be kept picked off, for they soon
run to seed, and if unattended to become troublesome.

Daphne.--Beautiful shrubs, mostly evergreens, bearing elegant flowers
followed by bright-red poisonous berries. D. Mezereum is the most
common variety, and is very suitable for the front of shrubberies. The
Chinese variety D. Odorata is too tender for outdoors, but makes a
fine ornament for the greenhouse. The dwarf kinds, bearing fragrant
pink flowers, are rather tender, but are very useful for rockeries
occupying sheltered positions. They all need a peaty soil, and may
be increased by grafting on to the common Spurge Laurel. Different
varieties flower at various periods, from February to October. Height,
9 in. to 6 ft, but the majority are from 2 ft. to 3 ft. high.

Datura.--Ornamental half-hardy annuals. The seeds of all the species
must be sown on a hotbed early in spring. When the plants are strong
enough transplant them in the border, where they will bloom more
freely than in pots. The seeds of D. Ceratocaula will sometimes remain
several years in the ground before they germinate. They flower in
July. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Day Flower.--_See_ "Commelina."

Day Lily.--_See_ "Hemerocallis."

Delphinium (_Larkspur_).--The gorgeous spikes of flowers produced by
these plants render them invaluable for the border. They like a deep
soil, highly enriched. The perennials may be divided at the root in
autumn, care being taken not to injure the young fleshy sprouts. The
annuals are readily raised from seed. The quickest way to grow the
perennial varieties from seed is to sow in a frame with a slight
bottom-heat, at any time from March to August; but sowings made in the
open from April to June will succeed. Keep the ground moist, and shade
from the sun till the plants are up, then transplant to nursery beds
for the summer, afterwards transferring them to their final quarters.
Flower in June and July. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 6 ft.

Dentaria Digitata (_Toothwort_).--This tuberous hardy perennial grows
well in old leaf-mould, and is very suitable for the base portion of
rock-work, where it can obtain both shade from the midday sun and
moisture. It is readily increased by cutting the roots into pieces
about 1-1/2 in. long, and replanting them where they are intended to
bloom, putting 1 in. or so of sand round them. They flower in May.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Desfontania Spinosa.--A fine, evergreen wall shrub with holly-like
leaves, and long, pendulous scarlet and orange flowers in June. It
grows best in a compost of loam, peat, and sand, with a south or west
aspect. It is propagated by cuttings under glass. Height, 10 ft.

Desmodium Canadense.--This is a fine border hardy perennial, producing
long racemes of rosy-purple flowers in June or July. It prefers a soil
of sandy loam and peat, and may be increased by seed or by cuttings
planted in sand and subjected to heat. Height, 4 ft.

Desmodium Pendulaeflorum.--A hardy evergreen shrub, flowering in July.
It thrives in sandy loam and peat. Cuttings planted in sand with a
little bottom-heat and under glass will strike. Height, 6 ft.

Deutzia.--A beautiful conservatory shrub, bearing in spring a large
quantity of flowers resembling the snowdrop. A peaty soil suits it. It
is pretty hardy. Height, 3 ft.

Devil-in-a-Bush.--_See_ "Nigella."

Dianthus.--Very beautiful and fragrant flowers. The genus embraces
Carnations, Pinks, Picotees, and Sweet Williams. The soil most
suitable for them is a light, loamy one, mixed with a little rotten
dung and sand. It is well to confine the rarer kind to pots, so as
the better to protect them in winter. They are propagated by layers,
cuttings, or division of roots. If the cuttings are taken about the
middle of June, and placed under glass on a gentle hotbed, they will
be ready in about three weeks to plant out in the open. The annuals
and biennials merely require sowing where they are intended to bloom.
Flower in July. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Dictamnus (_Burning Bush_).--_See_ "Fraxinella."

Dielytra Spectabilis (_Venus's Car, Bleeding Heart, or Lyre
Flower_).--One of the most elegant hardy perennials for forcing
for table decorations, or cutting for vases. The graceful, pendent
branches are laden with beautiful red or purple heart-shaped flowers;
these, combined with the delicate green of the foliage, give them a
conspicuous place among plants. Out of doors in summer, among shrubs
or herbaceous plants, they are exceedingly attractive. Let them be
planted in tufty groups in a warm, sheltered border of rich, light
soil. They may be increased by division of the root, as in the Dahlia,
or by cuttings. Height, 3 ft.

Digitalis (_Foxglove_).--Very showy, hardy, perennial border plants.
They will grow in any garden soil, and are readily raised from seed,
which, if sown in the autumn, will produce flowers the following June
and July. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Digitata.--_See_ "Callirhoe."

Dimorphantus _(Aralia Sinensis_).--The Dimorphantus Mandschuricus is
one of the noblest of deciduous shrubs, the foliage being very large
and much divided. Any soil is suitable for its growth, and it may be
propagated by cuttings of ripe wood, taken at a joint and planted on a
shaded site. It produces its flowers at midsummer. Height, 4 ft. to 6

Dimorphotheca Ecklonis.--This plant is not perhaps quite hardy, still
it may be grown out of doors in a sheltered, sunny situation. It
grows well in sandy loam and leaf-mould, and requires a good deal
of moisture in the summer months, though from autumn till spring it
should be kept on the dry side. During winter it is safest to afford
it protection. It is generally raised from cuttings late in summer,
which are kept through the winter in small pots in the greenhouse.

Diphylleia Cymosa.--A very pretty bog plant which blooms from June to
August. Plant in rich, light soil, and give plenty of water. It is
propagated by division. Height, 9 in.

Diplacus Glutinosus _(Hard-wooded Mimulus_).--This elegant greenhouse
shrub is an evergreen which delights in a rich, sandy loam. It flowers
in June, and is increased by cuttings. Height, 3 ft.

Diplopappus.--Dwarf-growing evergreen shrubs of pretty habit. The
golden stems and leaves of D. Chrysophylla render that variety
specially attractive. A sandy loam is most suitable for their growth.
They require the warmest situation the garden affords, and to be
protected during the winter. Cuttings strike readily. They flower in
August. Height, 2 ft.

Disbudding--The object of Disbudding is to prevent the growth of
branches which, from their position, would be useless to the tree, and
would consequently have to be cut away later on. The process is both
simple and expeditious. The trees are gone over once a week during the
spring, and the useless buds are rubbed off with the thumb, taking off
first those which are most unfavourably situated. The work should be
done gradually, so as not to give any check to the tree.

The term is also applied to the pinching out of flower-buds, such as
those of the Chrysanthemum, so as to give more room and strength to
the remaining blooms.

Disemma.--Splendid evergreen climbers, suitable either for the
greenhouse or in a sheltered position out of doors. Plant in rich,
loamy soil mixed with peat, and, if grown in the open, give protection
to the roots during the winter. They flower in July, and may be
increased by cuttings planted in sand under glass. Height, 20 ft. to
30 ft.

Dittany.--_See_ "Cunila."

Docks, to Kill.--Cut the weeds down to the ground, and run a skewer
dipped in vitriol through the roots.

Dodecatheon.--A hardy perennial, which is very ornamental when in
flower. It grows best in a loamy soil, and is easily increased by
dividing the roots. Blooms in May. Height, 1 ft.

Dog's-Tooth Violets.--_See_ "Violets."

Dolichos Lablab.--Half-hardy annuals. The seed should be sown in
spring in pots placed in heat, and kept in the hothouse till May, when
the plants may be set out in a sheltered position, placing sticks for
them to run up, in the like manner to Beans. Flower in July. Height, 6

Dondia Epipactis.--A very pretty and extremely hardy little perennial,
suitable for either pot culture or rock-work. It thrives in peat or
leaf-mould, and likes a moist position. Strong clumps may be divided
in February, but it is rather shy at being moved. It flowers in May.
Height, 6 in.

Doronicum (_Leopards Bane_).--An ornamental hardy perennial. It will
grow in any garden soil, and may be propagated from seed sown either
in the autumn or spring, or by dividing the root. It produces its
flowers in May. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Draba.--Pretty dwarf Alpine plants which bloom during April and May;
very suitable for rock-work. They flourish in a compost of loam and
peat, and may be propagated by seed or division. Height, 1-1/2 in. to
3 in.

Dracaena Indivisa.--A stove evergreen shrub much valued for its
foliage and as a table plant. It requires a light, loamy soil and
plenty of light. Cuttings stuck in tan or peat and sand, and provided
with strong heat, will strike. It flowers in June. Height, 3 ft.

Dracocephalum (_Dragon's Head_).--Ornamental plants, mostly bearing
lilac or blue flowers. Many of the half-hardy kinds are grown in pots,
so that they may the more readily be removed to the greenhouse in
winter. The perennials are propagated by dividing the roots. The
annuals are increased from seed sown in March or early in April. They
like a rich, light soil, and come into bloom in June and July. Height,
1 ft. to 2 ft.

Dracophyllum.--Greenhouse evergreen shrubs of an ornamental character.
The pots should be filled with an equal mixture of sand and peat. They
are propagated by planting the young shoots in sand, covering them
with a hand-glass, and plunging them in heat. They flower in June.
Height, 2 ft.

Dragon's Head.--_See_ "Dracocephalum."

Dryas Octopetala (_Mountain Avens_).--A prostrate, creeping perennial
which bears white Anemone-like flowers from July to September. It
thrives in peat, and is increased by seeds, cuttings, or division.
Not being quite hardy, protection should be afforded during winter.
Height, 6 in.

Dutchman's Pipe--_See_ "Aristolochia."


Earwigs, to Trap.--An inverted flower-pot, containing a little dry
moss or hay, placed on a stick, forms a good trap for these pests.
They will also congregate in any hollow stems of plants that may be
laid about. They may be destroyed by shaking them into boiling water.

Eccremocarpus (_Calampelis_).--These climbing half-hardy perennials
will grow in any garden soil, a light, loamy one being preferable.
Sow the seed in autumn on a slight hotbed, pot off, and winter in a
greenhouse. The plants will be ready to turn out on a warm south wall
in April or May. Cut them down in the autumn, and cover the roots with
dry leaves: they will shoot up again in the spring. The foliage
is dark and Clematis-like; the flowers are borne in clusters, are
tube-shaped, and bright orange-scarlet in colour. They are increased
by cuttings.

Echeveria.--Choice greenhouse evergreen shrubs. They grow best in a
sandy loam, with a little peat, mixed with pulverised brick rubbish.
Water must be given cautiously. Young plants may be taken off the
parent in October and pressed firmly, but without bruising them, in
light, rich soil. Cuttings should be left for a few days to dry before
planting. They flower in autumn. In winter keep them in a cold frame,
and as dry as possible. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Echinacea Purpurea (_Purple Cone Flower_).--A stately hardy perennial,
very pretty when in flower, but hardly suitable for cutting purposes.
It likes a rich, light, loam soil and plenty of sunshine. The roots
may be divided in spring, after growth has fairly started. It blooms
during September and October. Height, 2-1/2 ft.

Echinops (_Globe Thistle_).--Coarse perennial plants, of stiff growth.
Any soil suits them, and they may be increased by dividing the roots.
They bloom in July. Height, 4 ft.

Echium Creticum.--A scarlet-flowering hardy annual which should be
grown wherever bees are kept. Sow in spring in any garden soil.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Edelweiss.--_See_ "Gnaphalium."

Edraianthus Dalmaticus.--A charming little herbaceous perennial which
proves quite hardy in our climate, and well deserves a place in the
rockery. Plant in deep, rich loam, and cover the surface of the crown
with 1/2 in. of coarse sand. It may be propagated from off-sets, taken
with as much root as possible as soon as flowering ceases. Winter the
young plants in a cold frame, and do not give them too much water, or
they will rot. They will bloom in July and August. Height, 4 in.

Egg-Plant (_Aubergine_).--The fruit of the egg-plant is edible. The
seed is sown in March or April in pots of well-drained, light, rich
soil, and placed in a cucumber frame or on a hotbed with a temperature
of 75 degrees. When the plants are fairly up they are potted off
separately, and when they have started into growth the points are
pinched out, so as to induce a bushy habit. It is necessary to keep
the roots well supplied with water. When the fruit is set, the growth
is stopped at the first joint beyond it. They are mostly treated as
greenhouse pot-plants, but may be grown in the open if planted on a
south border, in ridges like those made for cucumbers, and covered
with hand-glasses till established. The Aubergine is a tender annual.
Height, 2 ft.

Eggs of Insects, to Destroy.--Into 3 gallons of water stir 1/4 peck
of lime, 1/2 lb. of sulphur, and 1/2 lb. of tobacco. When settled,
syringe the trees and walls with the clear liquid. More water may be
added afterwards.

Eichhornia Crassipes Major.--A pretty and curious plant which may be
grown in bowls of water like the Chinese Lily. The stalks are bladders
about the size of a greengage, which enable the plant to float. The
flowers are soft lilac-rose in colour, and sparkle as if polished,
each one being about 2 in. in diameter. A little soil at the bottom of
the bowl is beneficial. It will flourish out of doors in summer.

Elder.--_See_ "Sambucus."

Eleagnus.--Effective variegated shrubs which prove perfectly hardy
in the south of England. They grow in any ordinary soil, and are
increased by cuttings. Height, 10 ft.

Elsholtzia Cristata.--Hardy annuals of great value where there are
bees, the flowers being very sweet. Sow in the open in spring. Height,
1 ft.

Empetrum.--Small hardy evergreen shrubs requiring an elevated and
exposed position, and a dry, barren soil. They flower in May, and are
propagated by layers. Height, 1 ft.

Endive.--Sow at intervals from May till the end of August, but the
principal sowing, to stand the winter, should be made the first week
in August, giving the plants the protection of a frame. When the early
sown ones are 2 in. high transplant them to a rich nursery bed. When 4
in. high lift them carefully, with the soil round the roots, and place
them in drills about 3 in. deep and 1 ft. apart each way. Water well
immediately after planting, and keep the soil moist.

Epacris.--Pretty Heath-like shrubs. They like a sandy peat soil, and
plenty of moisture. The pots in which they grow should be provided
with ample drainage and stood in a larger-sized pot, with wet moss
between the two. As soon they have done blooming cut them back freely,
and when the fresh shoots are 2 or 3 in. long, pot them off, placing
them in a close, cool pit for three or four weeks. Gradually harden
off, then place them in a sunny situation out of doors, and remove
them to the conservatory in October. They only need sufficient heat to
keep out the frost. Cuttings of the young wood placed in sand with a
little bottom-heat will strike.

Epigaea Repens (_Creeping Laurel_).--This creeper is hardy and
evergreen, and its flowers possess a delicious fragrance. It may be
grown in loam and sandy peat or in leaf-mould with a little sand
added, in a well-sheltered and moist situation; and may be propagated
by layers, in the same manner as Carnations. It flowers in April.
Height, 6 in.

Epilobium Angustifolium.--An ornamental herbaceous plant which may be
grown in any common soil from seed sown in autumn, or may be increased
by division of the roots. It puts forth its flowers in July. Height, 4

Epimedium.--An elegant hardy perennial, suitable for shaded borders
or rock-work. The best soil for it is sandy peat. It flowers between
April and June, and is increased by dividing the root. Height, 1 ft.

Eragrostis Elegans (_Love Grass_).--One of the best of our hardy,
annual, ornamental grasses. Sown in March, it will reach perfection in
August or September. Height, 1 ft.

Eranthis Hyemalis.--_See_ "Winter Aconite."

Eremurus Robustus.--This hardy perennial bears tall, handsome spikes
of sweetly-scented, peach-coloured flowers in May. It will grow in
any ordinary soil, and is easily propagated by young plants from the
roots. Height, I ft.

Ericas (_Heaths_).--It is useless to attempt to grow these beautiful
shrubs unless proper soil is provided. The free-growing kinds thrive
best in good black peat and require large pots. The dwarf and
hard-wooded kinds must be provided with sandy peat, and the pots
thoroughly well drained. They need less water than the free-growing
kinds. They all want a good deal of air, and must not be crowded too
closely together. Protect from frost and damp. Cuttings off the tender
tops of the shoots planted in sand under glass will strike. The
cuttings of the stronger-growing kinds should be somewhat longer. As
soon as rooted, pot off singly, place in a close frame, and harden off
by degrees. The hardy sorts grow in a sandy peat, and may be increased
by layers or by cuttings. They bloom at various times. Height, 6 in.
to 4 ft. (_See_ "Heaths, Greenhouse.")

Erigeron.--Very handsome hardy perennials, producing a copious display
of bloom. They will grow in any soil, and may be increased by division
or by seed sown between March and July, or in August or September.
They flower at the end of July. Height, 1 ft.

Erinus.--The hardy perennial kinds bloom in March, the greenhouse
varieties in May. The latter are very pretty. They all like a sandy
soil, and may be increased by seed or by division. Height, 6 in. to 9

Eriogonum.--These pretty, hardy, herbaceous plants bloom in June. They
grow best in a compost of loam and peat, and are easily raised from
seed. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Eriostemon.--Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Grow in sandy peat with a
little loam added. Cuttings will strike in sand. They flower in May
and June. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Erodium.--An extensive genus of very beautiful plants, mostly hardy.
They will grow in any soil, and merely require ordinary treatment. The
bloom is produced in June or July. Height, 4 in. to 1 ft.

Eryngium.--A very ornamental and beautiful kind of Thistle. They are
mostly quite hardy, and will grow in any garden soil, though they
thrive best in a light, sandy one. The greenhouse and frame varieties
should be grown in pots, so that they can be easily housed in winter.
They are readily increased by seed or division, and produce their
flowers in July. Height, 1 ft. to 4 ft.

Erysimum.--Flowers of little merit. The herbaceous kinds thrive in
common soil, but do best in a mixture of loam and peat. They may be
increased by cuttings placed under glass. The annuals and biennials
merely need sowing in the open during autumn. They bloom in June and
July. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Erythrina Crista Galli (_Coral Plant_).--A showy, summer-blooming
greenhouse plant. Place it in turfy loam enriched with old manure. It
may be transferred to the garden in the summer, and when the wood is
ripe cut it back and keep it dry till spring. Cuttings taken at a
joint, with the leaves left on, may be struck in sand.

Erythronium Dens-Canis _(Dog's Tooth Violets_).--_See_ "Violets."

Escallonia.--Handsome, half-hardy, evergreen shrubs, possessing rich
glaucous leaves and bunches of tubular flowers. A peat and sandy loam
soil suits them best. They may be planted against, and trained to, a
south wall, but need protection from frost. The laterals may be cut
back fairly close in March to encourage new growth. They may be
propagated by layering in the autumn, or by suckers taken in the
spring. Height, 3 ft.

Eschscholtzia.--Pretty hardy annuals, especially during August, when
they are in flower. Any rich soil suits them. Easily raised from seed
sown on a gentle hotbed in spring, and afterwards transplanted to the
border. They flower longest if sown in autumn, but the young plants
need protection through the winter. Height, 1 ft.

Eucalyptus Citriodora.--A useful window or greenhouse plant, with
small, oblong, bright green leaves, furnished with appendages that
emit an odour resembling the Lemon-scented Verbena. It is of easy
cultivation, growing freely from seed sown in slight heat. Height, 4

Eucalyptus Globulus.--A greenhouse everlasting tree, commonly known as
Blue Gum. It delights in a mixture of peat, loam, and sand. Cuttings,
which should not be too ripe, root in sand under glass. It may be
grown from seed sown, in a temperature of 65 degrees, from February to
April. It flowers in June.

Eucharidium.--Pretty little hardy annuals, nearly allied to the
Clarkia. The seed may be sown in autumn for early flowering, or in
spring for blooming in July. Height, 1 ft.

Eucomis Punctata.--A fine, autumn-blooming plant, bearing long spikes
of fragrant creamy-white flowers and curiously-spotted stems. It may
be grown in any rich soil. Height, 2 ft.

Eucryphia Pinnatifida.--A dwarf evergreen shrub with flowers
resembling a white St. John's Wort. It grows best in a compost of loam
and peat, and is propagated by cuttings planted in sand, and subjected
to heat.

Eugenia Ugni.--An evergreen shrub which produces white flowers in May,
succeeded by round, edible berries. It should be grown in loam and
peat. Ripened cuttings may be struck in sand under glass. Height, 4

Eulalia Japonica.--A hardy perennial Giant Grass. It is very handsome
as single specimens on lawns, or used in groups on the margins of
shrubberies. The flower panicles in their first stage have erect
branches, but as the flowers open these curl over gracefully,
resembling a Prince of Wales feather. Height, 6 ft.

Euonymus Radicans Variegata.--A hardy evergreen shrub which, given a
sunny situation, will grow in any soil, though a rich, sandy one is
preferable. It may be increased by layers, by seed, by cuttings of
ripe wood taken early in autumn and planted in the shade, or by
dividing strong roots. May is its time to flower. Height, 6 ft. Other
varieties of the Euonymus, or Spindle Tree, are equally hardy, and
easy to propagate.

Eupatorium Odoratum.--A greenhouse shrub which bears sweet-scented
white flowers in August, continuing in bloom for a long while. It may
be planted out at the end of May, but must be lifted before the frost
comes. When flowering ceases, give less water and prune hard back. It
grows well in peat and loam, and is increased by seed or by cuttings
of the young shoots in spring in bottom-heat. Pinch back freely until
the end of July, leaving all growth after that period. Height, 2-1/2

Euphorbia.--An elegant class of plants. The stove and greenhouse
varieties are generally succulent, and require but little water, while
the hardy kinds need plenty of moisture. Any rich, light soil suits
them, but for the tender, succulent plants it should be mixed with
brick rubbish. Best grown from seed, though the roots may be divided.
Height, 2 ft.

Eurya Latifolia Variegata.--A fine, variegated, large-leaved
evergreen, very suitable for covering a low wall, or for conservatory
decoration. It delights in a compost of loam and peat, and is
propagated by cuttings planted in a sandy soil on gentle heat. Height,
2 ft.

Eurybia.--Very pretty flowering shrubs for walls, borders, or
rockeries. They require a light, rich soil, and may be increased by
seeds sown early in spring on a gentle hotbed. Height, 2 ft.

Eutaxia Myrtifolia.--Pretty evergreen shrubs, suitable for the
greenhouse. They thrive best in a mixture of peat and loam, and
require the pots to be well drained. To have nice bushy plants they
must be pinched back well. Cuttings will strike in sand under glass.
They flower in August. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Eutoca.--Exceedingly pretty hardy annuals. Sow the seed in light soil
early in spring where it is to flower, and thin out so that the plants
have plenty of room. They bloom in July. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Evening Primrose.--_See_ "Oenothera."

Everlasting Peas.--_See_ "Peas, Everlasting."


Fabacea.--_See_ "Thermopsis."

Fatsia Japonica.--_See_ "Aralia."

Feather Grass.--_See_ "Stipa Pennata."

Fennel.--Sow the seed in April, cover lightly with fine mould, and
when the plants are strong enough set them out 1 ft. apart. Cut off
the flower-stalks as soon as they appear, to prevent them running to
seed. The bed will last for years. (_See also_ "Ferula.")

Fenzlia.--Elegant half-hardy annuals. Sow the seed on a peat soil. If
this be done in autumn, they will flower in April or May; if sown in
spring, they will bloom in autumn. Height, 6 in.

Ferns.--Most Ferns delight in a loose soil, an abundance of moisture,
and a warm, humid atmosphere. The stove and greenhouse kinds are best
cultivated in a mixture of sandy loam and peat. The hardy kinds grow
best among rock-work or in a shady border: a light, sandy soil suits
them. They may be increased by dividing the roots.

Ferns from Seed.--Collect the spore-fronds towards the end of summer,
just as the spore-cases begin to open. Place them on a sheet of paper
in a box for a few days, keeping it in a dry place. Most of the spores
will fall out, the others may be rubbed out with the hand. These
spores will keep good a long time, but are best sown within a year.
Fill the pots with good heavy loam, water freely, and apply a coating
of charcoal, coarse sand, and sphragnum moss, rubbed through a fine
sieve. Damp the surface, sow the spores thinly, and cover with glass.
Keep the soil moist by standing the pots for a time each day up to
their rim in water. No surface water should be given. Stand the pots
in a warm, light place in the greenhouse, but keep them shaded from
the sun. When the surface is covered with growth, prick out into pans
or boxes, using a rich, light soil. When they are large enough pot
them off singly in thumb-pots, re-potting as soon as these are filled
with roots.

Ferraria.--_See_ "Tigridia."

Ferula (_Giant Fennel_).--Strong-growing, hardy, herbaceous plants.
F. Gigantea has bright, glistening foliage, changing to a brilliant
orange, and attains a height of 8 ft or 10 ft. F. Tingitana is very
stately and graceful, growing 4 ft. high. They are easily raised
from seed, will grow in any garden soil, and flower in August and

Festuca.--An annual ornamental grass, which is grown best on a loamy
soil. Sow the seed in March, and keep moist till it germinates.
Height, 1 ft.

Feverfew.--This hardy perennial will grow in any soil and ripen its
seed freely. Young plants, obtained by sowing the seed early in
spring, are very useful for edgings; when planted alternately with, or
in proximity to, Lobelia a pretty effect is produced.

Ficaria Grandiflora.--A hardy perennial which thrives well when
planted under the shade of trees. It is increased by separating the
tubers in autumn, and produces its flowers in May. Height, 6 in.

Ficus Elastica (_India-rubber Plant_).--This thrives well in any
light, rich soil, or in loam and peat. Keep it moderately moist
throughout the winter, using tepid water. In summer any of the
artificial manures may be used. Sponge the leaves once a week to free
them from dust, and keep the plant well sheltered from draughts.
Cuttings with uninjured leaves will root in autumn in sand with a
bottom-heat of 65 or 75 degrees; or the cuttings may be taken in
spring, stem-rooting the slips. It flowers in May, and sometimes
attains the height of 20 ft.

Fig Palm.--_See_ "Aralia."

Figs.--Though in some parts of our country Figs are cropped on
standards, as a rule they require to be trained on a wall having a
southern exposure. The soil should be a fairly good loam mixed with
old mortar and crushed bones, but no manure is needed. The end of
March or the beginning of April is the most favourable time for
planting. The trees should be firmly set, and the surface of the soil
kept moist until they are established. Manure may be given--preferably
in a liquid state--when heavy crops of fruit are being borne. Old and
exhausted wood may be cut away in April, but the knife must be used
sparingly. The branches should be trained to a distance of 10 in.
apart, and the fruit-bearing shoots may be pinched back with the thumb
and finger at the end of August. The fruit is borne on the previous
year's growth. They may be increased by layers, by suckers, or by
cuttings of the young wood placed in sand and plunged in a bottom-heat
under glass. Brown Turkey, Black Ischia, Yellow Ischia, White
Marseilles, Brunswick, and St John's are all good varieties for
open-air cultivation, or for growing in houses.

When grown under glass, Figs may be trained on trellises near the roof
of the house, or may be planted in tubs or pots, not allowing too much
root-room. At starting the temperature in the day should be about 60
degrees, and at night 55 degrees. More heat can be given as the plants
advance, keeping up a moist atmosphere, but taking care not to give
too much water to the roots. By pinching off the points of the shoots
when they have made five or six leaves a second crop of fruit will
be obtained. Use the knife upon them as little as possible. When the
fruit begins to ripen admit air, and as soon as it is gathered give
liquid manure to the roots every other day to encourage a second crop.
When the plants are at rest they need hardly any water.

Filberts and Cob Nuts.--These Nuts will succeed on any soil that is
not cold or wet. The bushes should be planted in October, when the
leaves have nearly all fallen. Make the soil firm about the roots and
give a mulching of stable manure. At the beginning of April the old
and exhausted wood may be cut away, as well as any branches that
obstruct light and air. Encourage well-balanced heads to the bushes
by cutting back any branch that grows too vigorously, and remove all
suckers as they make an appearance, except they are required for
transplanting. The crop is produced on the small wood. The best method
of propagation is by layers in November or any time before the buds
swell in spring. The process is simple, it merely requiring a notch
to be made in a branch of two or three years' growth, which is then
pegged down 2 or 3 in. below the surface. The following autumn it may
be cut away from its parent, pruned, and planted. They may also be
grown from nuts sown in autumn and transplanted when two years old. In
Kent the bushes are kept low and wide-spreading, by which means the
harvest is more readily reaped. On a fairly good soil they should
stand from 10 to 14 ft. apart. Lambert's Filberts, Frizzled Filberts,
Purple Filberts are good varieties, the former two bearing abundantly.
Among the best of the Cobs may be mentioned the Great Cob and
Merveille de Bollwyller.

Fire Thorn.--_See_ "Crataegus."

Flea Bane.--_See_ "Inula" _and_ "Stenactis."

Flower-Pots, Sizes of.--Various practices prevail at different
potteries, but the appended names and sizes are generally adopted. In
every case the inside measurement is taken.

Inches Inches
SIZES. across Top. Deep.

Thimbles 2 2
Thumbs 2-1/2 2-1/2
Sixties (60's) 3 3-1/2
Fifty-fours (54's) 4 4
Forty-eights (48's) 4-1/2 5
Thirty-twos (32's) 6 6
Twenty-fours (24's) 8-1/2 8
Sixteens (16's) 9-1/2 9
Twelves (12's) 11-1/2 10
Eights (8's) 12 11
Sixes (6's) 13 11
Fours (4's) 15 13
Threes (3's) 17 13
Twos (2's) 18 14

Foam Flower.--_See_ "Tiarella."

Fontanesia Phillyraeoides.--This shrub will grow in any soil, but
needs protection in severe weather. It may be propagated by layers or
by cuttings planted under glass. August is its time for flowering.
Height, 10 ft.

Forget-me-not.--_See_ "Myosotis."

Forsythia.--Any good soil suits these pretty shrubs. F. Suspensa
thrives best under greenhouse treatment, but F. Viridissima is quite
hardy. The former flowers in March, the latter in February. They may
be increased by layers or cuttings. Height, 10 ft.

Foxglove.--_See_ "Digitalis."

Fragaria Indica (_Ornamental Strawberry_).--A rich or peaty mould
suits this half-hardy perennial. It may be saved through the winter by
protecting the roots, but seed sown in spring will generally fruit the
same year. It flowers in July. Height, 1 ft.

Francoa.--Hardy perennials bearing white flowers from June to
September. They like a good, warm soil. The only way of raising them
is from seed. They require a slight protection in winter. Height,
2-1/2 ft.

Fraxinella (_Dictamnus_).--This ornamental hardy perennial is commonly
known as the Burning Bush. It succeeds in any garden soil, and is
easily raised from seed, which ripens freely. If the flowers are
rubbed they emit a fine odour. It blooms in June. Height, 3 ft.

Freesia.--Remarkably pretty and graceful Cape flowers, possessing a
most agreeable perfume. The plants grow about 9 in. high and produce
six or eight tubular flowers on a stem. They are easily cultivated in
a cool greenhouse, frame, or window, and are invaluable for cutting,
the long sprays lasting from two to three weeks in water. The bulbs
should be planted early in the spring in rich, very sandy soil, and
given the protection of a cold frame in the winter. By successional
plantings they may be had in bloom from January to May. Put six to
twelve bulbs in a 4-in. or 8-in pot, place in a sunny position in
a cold frame, and cover with damp cinder ashes to keep them fairly
moist. When growth has begun and the pots are full of roots, remove
the covering of ashes, but keep the pots in the frame, giving a little
ventilation when the weather is mild, and watering carefully when the
soil appears dry. Protect from frost by a covering of mats. For early
flowering remove the plants to a warm greenhouse when the flower
spikes appear, keeping them as near the glass as possible. When the
buds are developed an occasional application of weak liquid manure
will prove beneficial.

Fremontia Californica.--A beautiful and somewhat singular wall shrub,
with large yellow flowers. Any soil is suitable for it, but a south or
west aspect is indispensable.

Fringe Tree.--_See_ "Chionanthus."

Fritillarias (_Crown Imperials, or Snake's Head Lilies_).--Soil, sandy
loam, or well-drained, deep, rich mould. Plant in the open ground in
autumn; take the bulbs up as soon as the leaves decay, and preserve
them in a rather moist place. Increased by off-sets taken from the old
roots every third year. They are not so suitable for pot culture
as for outdoor decoration. They are quite hardy, and flower in the
spring, bearing clusters of pendent bell-shaped flowers surrounded
with tufts of fresh green leaves.

F. Meleagris are of dwarf, slender growth, and bear in early spring
elegant pendent flowers of various shades netted and marked with
darker colours. These are suitable for either the border or pots.
Plant in autumn.

Fruit Trees, the Pruning of.--Cut away all growths that have an inward
tendency, and do not allow any shoot to cross over or come in contact
with another; also keep the centres of the trees or bushes open. The
fruit of trees thus treated is not so liable to be blown down by the
wind, and the sun can more readily ripen it. If the ground is poor a
dressing of rotted manure worked into the soil will be beneficial to
the roots.

Fuchsias.--These like a warm and moist atmosphere. The hardy sorts do
well out of doors in rich, light soil. On the approach of frost cut
them down and cover the roots with 3 or 4 in. of coal dust, ashes, or
moss. Remove the ashes in April and thin out the shoots in May. They
will also grow well from cuttings taken off the old wood as soon as
they are 1 in. long, inserted in sand and placed under glass, or
plunged in dung at a temperature of 60 degrees. Cuttings will also
strike in loam and leaf-mould. If grown in pots, take them indoors
before the frosty weather begins, and give them very little or no
water at all during the winter. Keep them in a cool place, yet free
from frost. Re-pot them in the spring, trimming the branches and
roots, and making a compost for them of one-half mellow yellow loam,
one quarter leaf-mould, and one quarter old manure. Place them in a
frame with bottom-heat, and water and syringe them moderately while
they are growing. When they are in full growth never give them plain
water, but always plenty of liquid manure.

Fumitory.--_See_ "Corydalis."

Funkia.--Ornamental plants which delight in a deep, light soil and a
warm, moist situation, without which they will not flower. They are
increased by division (which should not be too severe) and bloom in
July and August. Height, 1 1/2 ft.

Furze.--Enjoys a sandy soil. Increased by cuttings taken in spring
or autumn and placed in a shady border under hand-glasses. It is of
evergreen habit, and forms a dense and highly ornamental hedge. (_See
also_ "Ulex.")


Gages.--The cultivation of Gages is similar to that of Plums. In the
open they may be grown as dwarfs or pyramids, and in orchard-houses
as gridirons, cordons, or in pots. The chief points to observe are to
thin the branches in order to admit plenty of light into the middle of
the tree, thus inducing the production of a plentiful supply of fruit
spurs, and to occasionally lift and root-prune the tree if growing
too strong. Among the choicest sorts are: Bonne Bouche (producing its
fruit at the end of August), Coe's Golden Drop (end of September),
Old Green Gage (August), Guthrie's Late Green Gage (September),
M'Laughlin's Gage (end of August), Oullin's Golden Gage (end of
August), and Reine Claude de Bavay (beginning of October).

Gaillardia (_Blanket Flower_).--Very ornamental flowers, which will
grow in any common soil, but thrive most in a light, rich one. Seeds
of the annual kinds are sown in the spring. The perennials are
increased by dividing the roots. Bloom in July. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Galanthus.--_See_ "Snowdrops."

Galax Aphylla (_Wand Plant_).--The Heart-shaped Galax is a charming
little plant for rock-work. It is perennial, and does not lose the old
leaves till the new ones appear. A rich, light mould is required for
its growth, and its situation should be a somewhat shady one. Its
flowers are borne in July and August, on stalks 1 ft. or more high.
The plant may be increased by taking up a strong clump, shaking it
apart, and transplanting at once. (_See also_ "Shortia.")

Galega (_Goats Rue_).--Ornamental hardy perennials, requiring plenty
of room. They are readily increased by seed or division of the root,
and flower in July. Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.

Galium.--This hardy herbaceous plant blooms in July. It will grow in
any soil, and can be increased by division of the root. Height, 1 ft.

Gardenias.--Plant in a hothouse in fibrous peat mixed with a large
proportion of sand. Give plenty of heat and moisture during growth,
with a thin shade to keep off the sun's midday rays. Lower the
temperature as soon as growth is completed, and in the middle of
summer stand the plants out in the open for a week or two for the wood
to ripen. Height, 3 ft.

Garlic.--Plant small cloves from February to April in rows 9 in. apart
and 6 in. from each other in the row. Lift them when the leaves die
down, dry them in the sunshine, and store in an airy, cool shed.

Garrya Elliptica.--A hardy evergreen shrub, which is very suitable
in its early stages for pot-culture. A light, loamy soil is what it
likes. Cuttings taken in August and placed in sand under a hand-glass
will strike freely, but it is most readily increased by layers. In
October it bears graceful yellowish-green tassels of flowers from the
ends of its shoots. Height, 6 ft.

Gasteria Verrucosa.--This plant grows best in pots of turfy loam and
leaf-mould, to which has been added a little old mortar. Good drainage
is essential. Water freely in summer, and keep just moist in winter.
Keep the foliage clean by sponging. Give plenty of light, and during
warm weather turn the plants out of doors.

Gastrolobium.--Elegant evergreen shrubs which flower in April and May.
They are most suitable for adorning the greenhouse, and grow best in
a soil of loamy peat and sand. Cuttings of half-ripened wood planted
under glass will take root. Height, 2 ft.

Gaultheria.--Dwarf, creeping evergreen shrubs, having dark foliage
and producing white flowers in May, June, or July. They require to be
grown in peat, and are increased by layers. G. Procumbens is suitable
for rockeries, as it only grows to the height of 6 in. G. Shallon
attains the height of 2 ft.

Gaura Lindheimeri.--This free-flowering, hardy, herbaceous plant will
thrive in any light, rich soil. It bears elegant spikes of white
flowers from May onwards, followed by red bracts in September, and is
readily propagated by seeds. Height, 4 ft.

Gazania Splendens.--A showy greenhouse plant. It may be planted in the
open in warm positions, but will require protecting in winter. Grow it
in peat and loam. Cuttings will strike if placed in sand under glass.
It flowers in July. Height, 1 ft.

Genethyllis.--Greenhouse evergreen shrubs which thrive best in sandy
loam and peat. Cuttings of the young wood planted in the same soil and
plunged in heat will take root. Their flowering season is in August.
Height, 3 ft.

Genista (_Broom_).--G. Canariense is an exceedingly ornamental and
free-flowering greenhouse shrub. It should be planted in a mixture of
loam, peat, and sand. Young cuttings inserted in sand under a glass
take root readily. It blooms in June. Height, 2 ft. Hardy species of
Genista may be placed in the front of shrubberies. They are increased
by seeds or by layers.

Gentians.--The herbaceous kinds do best in a light, rich soil, such as
loam and peat mixed with vegetable mould. The annuals are raised from
seed sown as soon as it is ripe; if left till spring before it is sown
it will probably not come up till the second year. The perennials are
increased by dividing the roots. Both of the latter kinds do best in
a dry, sandy soil. Gentiana Acaulis, or Gentianella, is very suitable
for edgings, or for rock-work; it is an evergreen creeper, and bears
large trumpet-shaped flowers of rich ultramarine blue. All the
Gentians need plenty of free air, and some of them moisture at the
roots. Bloom in July. Height, 4 in. to 2 ft.

Geranium Argentium(_Silvery Crane's-Bill_).--This hardy perennial
alpine is very effective on rock-work, especially in front of dark
stones; but provision must be made for its long tap roots. A rich,
deep loam suits it well. Its seeds germinate freely when sown in peat
and sand. Flowers are borne from May to July. Height, 6 in.

Geraniums.--Take cuttings in July or August, and let them he to
partially dry for twenty-four hours before planting. When rooted pot
them off in 60's, and keep them under glass during the winter at a
temperature of 55 degrees. If the cuttings are taken in September put
three or four slips in a 48-size pot. In the spring they should be
re-potted singly and hardened off as early as possible. A suitable
soil for them is made by mixing two parts of good turfy loam, one of
leaf-mould, one of well-decomposed cow-dung, and a good proportion
of silver sand. Bone dust is an excellent addition to the soil. Old
plants stripped of their leaves may be packed in sand during the
winter, and re-potted in spring.

Gerardia.--These hardy perennials form pyramidal bushes bearing
Pentstemon-like flowers, thickly set and varying in colour from
light pink to dark purple. A peat soil suits them best. They may be
propagated by cuttings placed under glass, but are best grown from
seed. July is their flowering season. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

German Seeds.--These require to be sown in a cold frame in seed-pans,
in the greenhouse, or under a handglass, in good, rich compost,
composed of old turf, leaf-mould, some well-rotted manure, and silver
sand. The seeds should be sown thinly and watered sparingly. Sow early
in April, and transplant in the middle or end of May in rich soil.
Water occasionally with weak liquid manure.

Gesneria.--Handsome greenhouse perennials. They thrive in any light,
rich soil. Cuttings will strike readily either in sand or soil if
placed under glass in heat. They may also be raised from seed sown in
a temperature of 75 degrees in March or April. They flower in October.
Height, 18 in.

Geum.--Very handsome hardy perennials. They grow well in any light,
rich, loamy soil, and may be increased either by seeds or by dividing
the roots. G. Coccineum is extremely pretty. Flower in July. Height,
18 in.

Gherkins.--Sow the seed the first week in April in small pots, and
cover it lightly with fine soil. Plunge the pots in a hotbed covered
with a frame. When grown to nice little plants, remove them to a cold
frame to harden, and plant them out on a warm border towards the end
of May. When the fruit begins to form, give liquid manure twice a
week. For pickling they must be cut while small.

Gilia.--Extremely pretty and free-flowering hardy annuals, deserving
of a place in every garden. They are very suitable for small beds.
They should be sown in the open early in spring. G. Tricolour may be
sown in autumn. Bloom in July. Height, 1 ft.

Gillenia Trifoliata.--The Three-Leaved Gillenia is a hardy herbaceous
perennial which is very useful as a cut flower for the decoration of
vases, etc. It should be grown in large clumps, delights in a deep,
moist soil and partial shade, and may be propagated by dividing the
roots early in spring. It lasts in bloom from June to August. Height,
1 ft.

Gladiolus.--Dig the ground out to a depth of 1 ft. or 15 in.; put in
a layer of leaf-mould or rotted manure, and then 4 or 5 in. of earth
mixed with sand; insert the bulbs (6 in. from the surface and 9 in.
apart), cover them with 1 in. of sand, and fill up with earth. In
frosty weather cover with a thick layer of litter. Give plenty of
water when they begin to throw up their flower-stems. They may be
planted at any time between December and the end of March. If planted
late in the season, a depth of 3 or 4 in. is enough. The roots must
be kept dry in winter. They are increased by off-sets, taken when the
bulbs are removed from the ground after the leaves have turned yellow.
These should be planted at once in well-drained earth. If early
flowers are required, plant the old bulbs in pots (three to six bulbs
being placed in a 5-in. pot) any time between December and March. Give
them frame culture up to the second week in May, when they may be
transferred to the border. The flowers are invaluable for vase

Glaucium Flavum Tricolor (_Hardy Horn Poppy_).--The large, brilliant,
orange-red flowers of this plant are very effective in the border, and
the bloom is continuous during the greater part of the summer. The
seed is rather slow to germinate, but when sown in the open ground in
autumn, it blooms from June to August; when sown in early spring it
flowers from July to September. Height, 2 ft.

Glaux Maritima (_Sea Milkweed_).--A pretty little hardy trailing plant
bearing flesh-coloured flowers in June and July. It grows in sandy
loam, and is raised from seed sown in spring. Height, 3 in.

Globe Amaranthus (_Gomphrena_).--This tender annual is well known for
its clover-like heads of everlasting flowers. It will grow in any rich
soil, but to produce really fine plants, much attention must be given
to shifting, watering, etc. Increased by seed in the same manner as
other tender annuals. Blooms in July. Height, 1 ft.

Globe Flower.--_See_ "Trollius."

Globe Thistle.--_See_ "Echinops."

Globularia Trichosantha.--A pretty dwarf perennial rock-plant bearing
pale blue flowers in May and June. It is hardy, thrives in light,
sandy soil, and is increased by either seeds or cuttings planted in
sand. Height, 6 in. The greenhouse varieties of Globularia grow best
in loam and peat.

Glory of the Snow.--_See_ "Chionodoxa."

Gloxinias.--A very ornamental family of tuberous-rooted hothouse
plants. They are of two classes, the drooping and the erect. Pot at
any time during January and March in a mixture of equal quantities of
loam, peat, and sand, with the addition of a little vegetable soil,
and place in a warm (60 degrees), moist temperature, where they can be
favoured with a little shade. In summer supply the roots plentifully
with water, but give them very little in winter. Overhead watering
is likely to rot the leaves and flowers. G. Maculata is increased by
division. The leaves of most of the others, if taken off close to the
stem, and planted, will soon make young plants. They may be raised
from seed sown from March to July in a hothouse or frame having a
temperature of 65 to 75 degrees. They flower in June, and on into
September. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Glycine.--_See_ "Wistaria" _and_ "Apios."

Gnaphalium _(Edelweiss_).--Hardy everlasting flowers, which are
covered with a woolly substance. They may be grown in any light, rich
soil. The shrubby and herbaceous kinds may be increased by cuttings
or division. The annuals are easily raised from seed. They flower in
July. Height, 1 ft.

Goat's Rue.--_See_ "Galega."

Godetia.--Very pretty hardy annuals, that may be grown in any garden
soil. Sow in the autumn for early flowering, or in spring for later
blooms. July is their ordinary season of coming into flower. Height,
1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Golden Feather.--Hardy annual foliage plants. They are not particular
as to soil, and are easily raised from seed sown early in spring. They
bloom in July. Height, 1 ft.

Golden Rod.--_See_ "Solidago."

Gompholobium.--Delicate greenhouse evergreen shrubs requiring a soil
of sandy loam and peat and but little water. They flower in June, and
are propagated by cuttings planted in sand under glass. Height, 2 ft.

Gomphrena.--_See_ "Globe Amaranthus."

Gooseberries.--From the middle of October to the end of November is
the best time for planting. To produce good crops the soil should be
rich, deep, and well drained. The position should be somewhat cool and
sheltered, and a liberal quantity of liquid manure is beneficial. In
dry seasons mulching may be resorted to with advantage. Cuttings are
taken in autumn as soon as the leaves begin to fall. Select strong
shoots about 1 ft. long. Cut the bottom end straight across, just
below a joint, and with a sharp knife remove all the buds or eyes from
the base to within a couple of inches of the top, so as to prevent the
formation of suckers. Plant the shoots firmly 3 in. deep, in rows 1
ft. apart and 6 in. apart in the rows, on a north border. At the end
of the second season cut back all leading shoots to two-thirds of
their length. In after years remove weak and superfluous branches, as
also any that are growing near the ground, but plenty of young wood
must always be left on the bushes. The pruning may be done either in
spring or autumn. The following varieties may be recommended:--Red,
White, and Yellow Champagne, Wilmot's Early Red, Golden Drop,
Ironmonger, and Warrington Red for dessert; while for preserving and
culinary purposes Old Rough Red, Conquering Hero, Favourite, Broom
Girl, British Crown, Ironsides, Lady Leicester, Thumper, Green Walnut,
Leader, and Moreton Hero may be classed among the leading varieties.
When grown in bush form ample room must be allowed between each to
enable one to get round the bushes to gather the fruit.

Gooseberry Caterpillar.--To prevent caterpillars attacking
Gooseberries syringe the bushes with a decoction of common foxglove
(Digitalis), or dust the leaves with Hellebore powder. If the
caterpillar has begun its attack, sprinkle some fresh lime below the
bushes, and shake the bushes vigorously, so that the insects are

Gorse.--_See_ "Ulex."

Gourds.--Sow at the end of March or the beginning of April on a
slight hotbed; pot off when the plants are sufficiently advanced,
and transplant to the open border in June. They are well adapted for
arbours, trellis-work, or sloping banks. The following are among the
most ornamental:--Abobra Viridiflora, Benincasa Cerifera (Wax Gourd),
Bryonopsis Erythrocarpa, Coccinea Indica (scarlet fruit), Cucumis
Anguinus (Serpent Gourd), Cucumis Dipsaceus (Teasel Gourd), Cucumis
Dudaim (Balloon Gourd), Cucumis Erinaceus (Hedgehog Gourd), Cucumis
Grossularoides (Gooseberry Gourd), Cucumis Perennis, Cucurbita
Argyrosperma, Cucurbita Melopepo, Cyclanthera Explodens (Bombshell
Gourd), Cyclanthera Pedata, Eopepon Aurantiacum, Eopepon Vitifolius,
Lagenaria Clavata (Club Gourd), Lagenaria Enormis, Lagenaria Leucantha
Depressa, Lagenaria Leucantha Longissima, Lagenaria Plate de Corse,
Lagenaria Poire a Poudre, Lagenaria Siphon, Luffa Cylindrica, Luffa
Solly Qua, Melothria Scabra, Momordica Balsamina, Momordica Charantia,
Momordica Elaterium, Mukia Scabrella, Scotanthus Tubiflorus,
Trichosanthes Anguina, Trichosanthes Coccinea, Trichosanthes
Colubrina, and Trichosanthes Palmata.

Grafting.--The objects of Grafting are to bring a bush or tree into an
earlier state of bearing than it would do naturally; to produce good
fruit from an inferior plant; and to save space by putting dwarf
scions on to rampant-growing trees. By the process of uniting
strong-growing trees to those of a weaker nature their exuberance is
checked, and weaker ones are improved by being worked on those of
a stronger growth. Whatever form of Grafting is adopted, the inner
layers of the bark of the stock or tree on which the operation is
performed, must be brought into direct contact with the inner layers
of the bark of the branch which is grafted, or, as it is called,
the scion. This scion should be a branch of the early growth of the
previous year's wood, and should be in the same state of vegetation as
the stock. If the scion is in a more advanced state than the stock,
its growth may be stopped by cutting it off and burying it in the
earth under a north wall until the stock has advanced sufficiently in
growth. Grafting of all kinds is best done in March, when the sap is
flowing freely. Many methods of Grafting are adopted, the following
being the principal:--

Whip or Tongue Grafting is suitable for almost any description of
trees. Saw the stock off level at any desired height, then make a deep
upward slanting cut through the bark at the top 2 or 3 in. in length,
and in the middle of the cut turn the knife downwards and cut out a
thin wedge-shaped socket. Next cut the scion in a similar manner so
that it will fit exactly into the incision of the stock, bringing the
bark of each into direct contact. Bind it firmly in position, and
cover it over, from the top of the stock to the bottom of the scion,
with grafting wax or clay. When the scion and the stock are united,
which is demonstrated by the former making growth, remove the wax and
cut away all shoots that may be produced on the stock.

In the French mode of Grafting known as the Bertemboise, the crown of
the stock is cut at a long level, about 1 in. at the top being left
square, and an angular piece is cut away in which the scion is
inserted. It is then bound and waxed over.

Theophrastes or Rind Grafting is used where a tree has strong roots
but inferior fruit. The branches are cut off about 1-1/2 or 2 ft. from
the main stem. A sharp cut 2 or 3 in. in length is made down the bark
of the branches, and the lower parts of the scion, selected from a
superior tree, having been cut into tongues resembling the mouth-piece
of a flageolet, the bark of the branches is lifted with a knife, and
the tongues of the scions are slipped in, bound, and waxed.

Side Grafting is useful where it is desired to replenish the tree
with a fresh branch. A T-shaped cut is made in the stem of the tree,
extending to the inner bark; the scion is prepared by a longitudinal
sloping cut of the same length as that in the stem, into which it
is inserted, and the two are bound together and treated like other

Approach Grafting is the most favourable method of obtaining choice
varieties of the vine, or of growing weak sorts on roots of a stronger
growth. The scion is generally grown in a pot. A portion of the bark
is cut from both scion and stock while the vine is in active growth,
and the two wounded parts brought into contact, so that they fit
exactly. They are then tied together, and moss (kept constantly wet)
is bound round the parts. The union may be completed by the following
spring, but it is safer to leave the cutting down of the stock to the
point of union and the separation of the scion from the potted plant
until the second spring.

Grafting Wax (_Cobbetts_), etc.--Pitch and resin four parts each,
beeswax two parts, tallow one part. Melt and mix the ingredients, and
use when just warm. It may be rolled into balls and stored in a dry

Clay bands are frequently employed for excluding the air from wounds
caused in the process of grafting. These are liable to crack, unless
the clay is well kneaded and mixed with wood ashes or dry horse

Grapes.--The cultivation of Grapes in the open in our cloudy and
changeable climate cannot be looked forward to with any certainty of
success. Two successive favourable seasons are indispensable--one to
ripen the wood, and the next to ripen the fruit. Nevertheless, the
highly ornamental foliage of the vine entitles it to a place on our
walls, and every facility should be afforded for the production of a
chance crop of fruit. The soil most suited to the growth of the vine
is a medium loam, with which is incorporated a quantity of crushed
chalk and half-inch bones. It should be given a south aspect, and be
liberally supplied with water in dry seasons. April is the best time
to plant it, spreading the roots out equally about 9 in. below the
surface of the soil, and mulching with 3 or 4 in. of manure. Should
mildew set in, syringe the vine with a mixture of soapsuds and
sulphur. To secure a continuance of fruit, cut out some of the old
rods each year as soon as the leaves fall, and train young shoots in
their places. Last year's shoots produce other shoots the ensuing
summer, and these are the fruit-bearers. One bunch of grapes is enough
for a spur to carry. Professional gardeners cast off the weight of the
bunches, and allow 1 ft. of rod to each pound of fruit. Tie or nail
the bunches to the trellis or wall, and remove all branches or leaves
that intercept light and air.

The vine may be increased by layers at the end of September. Cut a
notch at a bud, and bury it 4 or 5 in. deep, leaving two or three eyes
above ground. It may also be propagated by cuttings, about 1 ft. in
length, of the last year's growth, with 1 in. of old wood attached,
taken the latter end of February. Plant these deep in the ground,
leaving one eye only above the surface. Both the Black Hamburgh and
Royal Muscadine ripen as well as any in the open.

It is under glass only that Grapes can be brought to perfection.
Here a night temperature of 55 to 65 degrees, with a rise of 5 or 10
degrees in the day, should be maintained, the walls and paths damped
once or twice a day, and the vine syringed frequently until it comes
into bloom, when syringing must cease, and a drier atmosphere is
necessary; the moisture being reduced by degrees. As the grapes ripen,
admit more air, and reduce the heat, otherwise the fruit will shrivel.
After gathering the grapes syringe the vine frequently to clear it
from spiders or dust, and keep the house cool to induce rest to the
plant. The fruit may be preserved for a long while in a good condition
by cutting it with about 1 ft. of the rod attached, and inserting the
cuttings in bottles of water in which a piece of charcoal is placed:
the bottles to be placed in racks nailed on to an upright post in any
room or cellar where an equable temperature of 45 or 50 degrees can be
kept up. The system of pruning adopted is that known as spur pruning
(_see_ "Pruning"). Mrs. Pearson is a very fine variety, and produces
very sweet berries; the Frontignan Grizzly Black and White are also

Grasses, Natural--

_AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA_ (_Creeping Bent Grass_).--Useful for damp

_ALOPECURUS PRATENSIS_ (_Meadow Foxtail_).--Strong-growing and very

_ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM_ (_True Sweet Vernal_),--Hardy and gives
fragrance to hay.

_AVENA FLAVESCENS_ (_Yellow Oat Grass_).--Fine for sheep; grows freely
on light soils.

_CYNOSURUS CRISTATUS_ (_Crested Dogstail_).--Suitable for any soil.

_DACTYLIS GLOMERATA_ (_Cocksfoot_).--Strong and coarse-growing; cattle
are fond of it.

_FESTUCA DURIUSCULA_ (_Hard Fescue_).--Dwarf-growing; excellent for

_FESTUCA ELATIOR_ (_Tall Fescue_).--Useful for cold, strong soils.

_FESTUCA OVINA_ (_Sheep's Fescue_).--Fine for dry, sandy soils.

_FESTUCA OVINA TENUIFOLIA_ (_Slender Fescue_).--Suitable for mountain

_FESTUCA PRATENSIS_ (_Meadow Fescue_).--Good permanent grass for rich,
moist soil.

_PHLEUM PRATENSE_ (_Timothy, or Catstail_).--Suitable for strong
soils; nutritious and hardy.

_POA NEMORALIS_ (_Wood Meadow Grass_).--Good for poor soils.

_POA PRATENSIS_ (_Smooth-stalked Meadow Grass_).--Grows well on light,
dry soil, and also in water-meadows.

_POA TRIVIALIS_ (_Rough-stalked Meadow Grass_).--Fine for damp soil.

Grasses, Ornamental.--Fine for mixing in a green state with cut
flowers, or in a dried condition for the decoration of vases, winter
bouquets, etc. To have them in perfection gather them while quite
fresh, with the pollen on them. Cut with as long stems as possible,
arrange lightly in vases, and keep them in the dark till they are
dried and the stems become stiff. The Grasses may be divided into two
sections, viz., those for bouquets or edgings, and those grown in the
border or on lawns for specimen plants. The class is numerous, but
the following (which may be found described herein under alphabetical
classification) may be mentioned:--

For bouquets and edgings: Agrostis, Anthoxanthum, Avena, Briza, Coix
Lachryma, Eragrostis, Festuca, Hordeum Jubatum, Lagurus, and Stipa
Pennata. For specimen plants: Eulalia, Gynerium, Panicum, Phalaris,
and Zea.

Gratiola Officinalis.--This hardy herbaceous plant bears light blue
flowers in July. A rich, moist soil is its delight. It is propagated
by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Green Fly.--Fumigate the infected plants with tobacco, and afterwards
syringe them with clear water; or the plants may be washed with
tobacco water by means of a soft brush.

Grevillea.--Handsome greenhouse shrubs, which require a mould composed
of equal parts of peat, sand, and loam. Give plenty of water in
summer, a moderate amount at other seasons. Ripened cuttings may be
rooted in sand, under a glass. Young plants may also be obtained from
seed. They bloom in June. Their common height is from 3 to 4 ft.,
but G. Robusta attains a great height. Grevilleas will grow well in
windows facing south.

Griselinia Littoralis.--A dwarf-growing, light-coloured evergreen
shrub, which will thrive near the sea. It requires a light, dry soil,
and may be increased by cuttings.

Guelder Rose.--_See_ "Viburnum."

Guernsey Lily (_Nerine Sarniense_).--Soil, strong, rich loam with
sand, well drained. Plant the bulbs deeply in a warm, sheltered
position, and let them remain undisturbed year by year. Keep the beds
dry in winter, and protect the roots from frost. They also make good
indoor plants, potted in moss or cocoa-nut fibre in September, or they
may be grown in vases of water.

Gumming of Trees.--Scrape the gum off, wash the place thoroughly with
clear water, and apply a compost of horse-dung, clay, and tar.

Gunnera Manicata (_Chilian Rhubarb_).--This hardy plant bears large
leaves on stout foot-stalks, and is very ornamental in the backs of
borders, etc. Planted in a rich, moist soil, it will flower in August.
It can be propagated by division. Height, 6 ft.

Gunnera Scabra.--Has gigantic leaves, 4 to 5 ft. in diameter, on
petioles 3 to 6 ft. in length. It prefers a moist, shady position, and
bears division. Makes a fine addition to a sub-tropical garden, where
it will flower in August. Height, 6 ft.

Gynerium (_Pampas Grass_).--This unquestionably is the grandest of all
grasses, and is sufficiently hardy to endure most of our winters. It
is, however, desirable to give it some protection. It requires a deep,
rich, alluvial soil, with plenty of room and a good supply of water.
Plants may be raised from seed sown thinly in pots during February or
March, barely covering it with very fine soil, and keeping the surface
damp. Plant out at end of May. They will flower when three or four
years old. The old leaves should be allowed to remain on till the
new ones appear, as they afford protection to the plant. It may be
increased by division of the root. Height, 7 ft.

Gypsophila.--Of value for table bouquets, etc. They will grow in any
soil, but prefer a chalky one. The herbaceous kinds are increased by
cuttings; the annuals are sown in the open either in autumn or spring.
They bloom during July and August. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.


Habrothamnus.--These beautiful evergreen shrubs require greenhouse
culture, and to be grown in sandy loam and leaf-mould. The majority of
them flower in spring. Height, 4 ft. to 6 ft.

Halesia Tetraptera (_Snowdrop Tree_).--This elegant shrub will grow in
any soil, and may be propagated by cuttings of the roots or by layers.
The pendent white flowers are produced close to the branches in June.
Height, 8 ft.

Hamamelis (_Witch Hazel_).--An ornamental shrub which will grow in
ordinary soil, but thrives best in a sandy one. It is increased by
layers. May is its season for flowering. Height, 12 ft. to 15 ft. H.
Arborea is a curious small tree, producing brownish-yellow flowers in

Harpalium Rigidum.--A hardy perennial, producing very fine yellow
flowers in the autumn. It will grow in any good garden soil, and may
be propagated by seed sown in early autumn, or by division of the
roots. Height, 3 ft.

Hawkweed.--_See_ "Crepis" _and_ "Hieracium."

Heartsease.--_See_ "Pansies."

Heaths, Greenhouse.--For their successful growth Heaths require a
well-drained soil, composed of three parts finely pulverised peat and
one part silver sand, free ventilation, and a careful supply of water,
so that the soil is always damp. If they suffer a check they are
hard to bring round, especially the hard-wooded kinds. Some of the
soft-wooded Heaths, such as the H. Hyemalis, are easier of management.
After they have flowered they may be cut hard back, re-potted, and
supplied with liquid manure. The stout shoots thus obtained will bloom
the following season. (_See also_ "Ericas.")

Hedera.--_See_ "Ivy."

Hedychium Gardnerianum.--A hothouse herbaceous plant, delighting in a
rich, light soil, plenty of room in the pots for the roots, and a good
amount of sunshine. In the spring a top-dressing of rich manure and
soot should be given. From the time the leaves begin to expand,
and all through its growing stage, it needs plenty water, and an
occasional application of liquid manure. The foliage should not be cut
off when it dies, but allowed to remain on all the winter. While the
plant is dormant keep it rather dry and quite free from frost. It
may be increased by dividing the roots, but it blooms best when
undisturbed. July is its flowering month. Height, 6 ft.

Hedysarum.--Hardy perennials, requiring a light, rich soil, or loam
and peat. They may be raised from seed, or increased by dividing the
roots in spring. H. Multijugum bears rich purple flowers. Height, 6
in. to 3 ft.

Heleniums.--The Pumilum is a very pretty hardy perennial that may be
grown in any soil, and increased by dividing the roots. It produces
its golden flowers in August. Height, 1-1/2 ft. H. Autumnale is also
easy to grow, but flowers a month later than the Pumilum, and attains
a height of 3 ft. H. Bigelowi is the best of the late autumn-flowering
species, producing an abundance of rich yellow flowers with purple
discs. Flowers in August. Height, 3-1/2 ft.

Helianthemum Alpinum (_Rock Roses_).--These hardy perennials are best
grown in sandy loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings placed
under glass in a sheltered situation. Bloom in June or July. Height, 1

Helianthus (_Sunflowers_).--The tall variety is a very stately plant,
suitable for the background or a corner of the border. Well-grown
flowers have measured 16 in. in diameter. The miniature kinds make
fine vase ornaments. They grow in any garden soil, and are easily
increased by seed raised on a hotbed in spring and afterwards
transplanted. The perennials may be propagated by division of the
root. They produce their flowers in August. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft.

Helichrysum.--Fine everlasting hardy annuals, that grow best in a
mixture of three parts peat and one part sandy loam. May be readily
raised from seed sown in a cold frame in March, or cuttings taken off
at a joint will strike in peat and sand. Bloom during July and August.
For winter decoration the flowers should be gathered in a young state,
as they continue to develop after being gathered. Height, 1 ft. to 6
ft, but most of them are 2 ft. high.

Heliophila.--Pretty little hardy annuals, thriving best in sandy loam
and peat. Sow the seed early in spring in pots placed in a gentle
hotbed, and plant out in May. They flower in June. Height, 9 in.

Heliopsis.--This hardy perennial is useful for cutting purposes, the
flowers being borne on long stalks, and lasting for two or three weeks
in water. It is not particular as to soil, and may be increased by
dividing the roots. Height, 5 ft.

Heliotrope.--Commonly called Cherry Pie. Sow the seed early in spring
in light, rich soil in a little heat, and plant out in May. The best
plants, however, are obtained from cuttings taken off when young,
in the same way as Verbenas and bedding Calceolarias. They are very
sensitive to frost. Flower in June. Height, 1 ft.

Helipterium.--A half-hardy annual, bearing everlasting flowers. It
should receive the same treatment as Helichrysum. Blooms in May or
June. Height, 2 ft.

Helleborus (_Christmas Rose_).--As its name implies, the Hellebore
flowers about Christmas, and that without any protection whatever. The
foliage is evergreen, and of a dark colour. When the plant is once
established it produces flowers in great abundance. The plants of the
white-flowered variety should be protected with a hand-light when the
flower-buds appear, in order to preserve the blossoms pure and clean.
Any deeply-dug rich garden soil suits it, and it is most at home under
the shade of a tree. It prefers a sheltered situation, and during the
summer months a mulching of litter and an occasional watering will be
beneficial. Readily increased by division in spring or seed. Height, 1

Helonias Bullata.--A pretty herbaceous plant, bearing dense racemes of
purple-rose flowers from June to August. It grows best in peat, in a
moist position. It can be raised from seed or increased by division of
the roots. Height 1-1/2 ft.

Hemerocallis (_Day Lily_).--Old-fashioned plants of great merit.
Planted in large clumps they produce a grand effect. They are easily
grown in any common garden soil, and bloom in July. Height, 3 ft. H.
Kwanso has handsome, variegated foliage.

Hemp.--_See_ "Canna" _and_ "Cannabis."

Hepatica.--This enjoys a rather light, sandy soil and a shady
situation. The roots should be taken up and divided every second year.
Well adapted for surrounding beds or clumps of Rhododendrons. Flowers
in March. Height, 4 in.

Heracleum.--Coarse hardy biennials, that may be grown in any kind of
soil, and are readily raised from seed. They flower at midsummer.
Height, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Herbs.--Thyme, Marjoram, Chervil, Basil, Burnet, Hyssop, Savory, etc.,
should be sown early in spring, in dry, mild weather, in narrow drills
about 1/2 in. deep and 8 or 9 in. apart, covered evenly with soil,
and transplanted when strong enough. Mint is quickly increased by
separating the roots in spring, and covering them with 1 in. of earth.
Sage is propagated by slips of the young shoots taken either in
spring or autumn. If planted in light soil and in a sunny position it
produces very fragrant flowers. Chives should be planted 6 or 8 in.
apart: they are increased by division in spring. Penny Royal, like
mint generally, will grow from very small pieces of the root; it needs
to be frequently transplanted, and to be kept from a damp condition.
Rosemary will grow from cuttings planted under glass in a shady spot.
Thyme likes a light, rich soil, and bears division. Sorrel will grow
in any soil, and the roots should be divided every two or three years.
Chamomile roots are divided and subdivided in spring. Herbs should be
harvested on a fine day, just before they are in full bloom. Tie them
up in small bunches and hang in the shade to dry, then wrap in paper
and store in air-tight vessels, or rub the leaves to a powder and keep
in tightly-corked bottles. They will retain their strength for a long

Herbs, the Uses of Sweet and Pot.--

_ANGELICA_.--A biennial. Leaves and stalks are eaten raw or boiled;
the seeds are aromatic, and used to flavour spirits.

_ANISE_.--Leaves used for garnishing, and for seasoning, like fennel;
the seeds are medicinal.

_BALM_.--A hardy perennial. Makes a useful tea and wine for fevers.

_BASIL_, Sweet and Bush.--Half-hardy annuals. The leaves and tops
of the shoots, on account of their clove-like flavour, are used for
seasoning soups and introduced into salads.

_BORAGE_.--Hardy annual. Used for salads and garnishing, and as an
ingredient in cool drinks; excellent also for bees.

_CHAMOMILE_.--A hardy perennial. Flowers used medicinally.

_CARAWAY_.--A biennial. Leaves used in soups, and the seeds in
confectionery and medicine.

_CHERVIL_.--An annual. Useful for salads.

_CHIVES_.--Hardy perennial. The young tops used to flavour soups, etc.

_CORIANDER_.--A hardy annual. Cultivated for garnishing.

_DILL_.--A hardy perennial. Leaves used in soups and sauces, also in

_FENNEL_.--Hardy perennial. Used in salads and in fish sauce, also for
garnishing dishes.

_HOREHOUND_.--Hardy perennial. Leaves and young shoots used for making
a beverage for coughs.

_HYSSOP_.--Hardy evergreen shrub. Leaves and young shoots used for
making tea; also as a pot herb.

_LAVENDER_.--Hardy perennial. Cultivated for its flowers, for the
distillation of lavender water, for flavouring sauces, and for
medicinal purposes.

_MARIGOLD_, Pot.--Hardy annual. Flowers used in soups.

_MARJORAM_, Sweet or Knotted, and Pot.--Hardy annuals. Aromatic and
sweet flavour. Used for stuffings and as a pot herb; leaves dried for
winter use.

_RAMPION_.--Hardy perennial. Roots used as a radish; they have a nutty

_ROSEMARY_.--Hardy ornamental shrub. Sprigs used for garnishing and
the leaves in drink.

_RUE_.--Hardy evergreen shrub. Leaves used for medicinal drinks;
useful for poultry with croup.

_SAGE_.--Hardy perennial. Decoction of leaves drank as tea; used also

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