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Final Report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission by Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission

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or any other Western State.

Exhibit of tobacco leaf and the continuous and frequent favorable
comment demonstrated clearly that its reputation as a State growing fine
quality of wrapper leaf is confined to no small area.

Connecticut has the credit of being the only New England State which
made any dairy exhibit, and in this exposition Connecticut did what she
has never before attempted. An entry was made for the permanent exhibit
as well as for the butter sent for scoring. The lower part of this space
was filled with packages of butter, both tubs and prints, handsomely
arranged so as to make an artistic display.

This was surmounted with a form like a large open book, on one page of
which was the coat of arms, and the other the Charter Oak, both made
from the butter from Connecticut and from true models.

The coat of arms and the Charter Oak were exact reproductions.

These spaces were kept at low temperature by refrigeration, and the
exhibit lasted until the end of the fair.

Connecticut was the first State to have her exhibit completed.

About 775 square feet was assigned to Connecticut in Horticultural
Building, and some time before the opening of the exposition, this space
was fitted with tables and other needed appliances. The space assigned
came within the section where only low installation was allowed. As a
result, those in charge were enabled to install the exhibit at much less
expense than anticipated, which accounts for much of the unexpended
portion of the appropriation set apart for this display. The location
was very desirable, being open, airy, and very accessible from all parts
of the hall.

The exhibit was opened the first day of the fair and was one of the very
few that had the tables fully occupied the opening day of the
exposition. The display, mostly of apples, but including pears and
cranberries, was kept up from stock in storage, using from 5 to 10
barrels per week until about July 15, when the first apples of 1904 and
some small fruits were available. Soon after that regular supplies were
sent forward, but not until September 15 was the storage stock fully
disposed of and the tables wholly filled with fruit of 1904 and kept in
that condition until the close of the exposition, making the exhibit of
great credit to the State, and the only one from New England.

During the season all cultivated fruits grown in the State, except
blackberries and raspberries, were shown, even the so-called tender or
perishable fruits being sent in large lots, and usually arriving in very
satisfactory condition. It was expected, at first, that apples and pears
would constitute the exhibit, but a trial shipment convinced the
committee that it was perfectly feasible to send the finer fruits, and
this was continued as long as they were to be obtained.

In horticulture, Connecticut, after careful consideration, decided to
make only so much of the exhibit of living plants as was needed for the
decoration of the grounds around the Connecticut Building. This was done
apparently to the satisfaction of those interested in the fair and to
the pleasure of people who visited the exposition, for uniformly it was
spoken of as being one of the best planted and decorated grounds around
any State building.

The collection of the herbarium was most successful. The botanists of
the State gave a great deal of gratuitous labor that it might be
completed. It was exhibited on revolving screens, the first attempt ever
made to so exhibit the flora of a State. It was so arranged that every
specimen was readily available for examination and study. This exhibit,
after the close of the fair, was presented to Trinity College, Hartford,
at the request of the college authorities, they paying all expenses of
its return and agreeing to give it suitable location for exhibition in
their Natural Science Building, where it can be seen and studied by all

The parks and public grounds of the State were well represented by
photographs, as were also the private grounds. These photographs have
been returned to Hartford and are now stored in the capitol, awaiting
final disposition.

In school-garden work Connecticut was a leader, having one of the best
equipped school gardens in the country. Believing that a knowledge of
what this State has done in this work should be known and recognized at
the fair, a committee was created to arrange for a school garden and
conduct the same during the World's Fair, and their work was most


_Members of Georgia commission_.--Governor J.M. Terrell, ex officio
chairman; O.B. Stevens, commissioner of agriculture; Col. Dudley M.
Hughes, commissioner-general; Glascock Barrett, assistant
commissioner-general; Hugh V. Washington, vice-commissioner-general; F.
B. Gordon, commissioner; H.H. Tift, commissioner. Advisory board: John
M. Egan, Col. P.A. Stovall, E.L. Rainey, I.P. Cocke, Dr. L.H.
Chappell, Harry Fisher, Oliver Porter, Dr. J.H. Turner, W.J. Kinkaid,
A.H. Shaver, W.J. Neal, Dr. T.H. Baker, McAlpine Thornton, James M.
Smith, Dr. J.F. Erwin, H.M. Franklin, E.B. Hook, Col. J.F. De Lacy,
W.S. Humphries, John A. Cobb, R.C. McIntosh, James B. Gaston.

Situated on one of the main avenues of the exposition, known as "The
Trail," and immediately north of Virginia and opposite Tennessee and
Ohio, was a replica of the home of the late Gen. John B. Gordon at
Kirkwood, near Atlanta, erected by the Georgia State commission as the
official headquarters of Georgia. The building was paid for by a fund
raised by public subscription, at an approximate cost of $16,000. The
house was furnished entirely with Georgian manufactures. The cost of
furnishing the building was approximately $3,000.

Although the appropriation made by the State of Georgia was only
$30,000, the amount was largely increased by popular subscription from
counties and cities. The $30,000 appropriated by the legislature was
designated as a basis for increasing the State's museum.

Owing to the lateness of the date that the work of preparing for the
exposition was begun--October, 1903--Georgia did not make so complete
and comprehensive an exhibit of her natural, educational, and
manufacturing advantages as she would otherwise have made.

In the Forestry, Fish, and Game, Georgia contributed a very fine
exhibit, at a cost of $3,500, of which much the larger part was composed
of Georgia pine. In this department there was a complete exhibit of
naval stores, beginning at the pine tree, showing in detail the
different methods of boxing, gathering the crude products, tools used,
distillation, turpentine, different grades of resin, and its different
by-products. This was donated by the Board of Trade of Savannah, Ga., at
an approximate cost of $2,000.

In the Agricultural Building, one of the most interesting exhibits
contributed by Georgia was that of the manufacture of the celebrated
Georgia cane sirup, which was demonstrated by two negro women serving
waffles and sirup from a miniature log cabin. Sirup and cabin and
expenses were donated by the Georgia Sirup Growers' Association, and
cost approximately $1,700. There was also a complete display of
sea-island cotton in bales and types, together with threads and the
various cloths manufactured from same, the cost of installation and
maintenance being $2,400.

Possibly the most interesting and complete exhibit made by Georgia at
the fair was the display of its cotton industry. This consisted of a
pyramid containing cotton-seed hulls, meal linters, crude oil,
surrounded by commercial packages of meal and hulls, refined oils and
lard compounds manufactured from cotton seed. The material and
maintenance cost $12,000. An exhibit of cotton products showing in
detail cotton seed, cotton on the stalk and in bales, cotton-seed oils,
crude and refined, and oil products, lard compounds, food cooked with
cotton-seed oils, and cotton-seed hulls and meals for cattle feeding
showed some of the many uses to which the cotton plant can be put. The
most interesting display in this connection was that of a fountain
flowing cotton-seed oil and surrounded by illuminated columns containing
manufactured products of oils, such as soaps, etc. This display cost

Georgia being to a certain extent a tobacco State, samples of the "weed"
indigenous to the State and said to be equal to the very best Cuba and
Sumatra tobaccos were shown in the raw leaf and in cases. The exhibit
cost approximately $2,900.

In the block immediately adjoining the cotton exhibit were displayed 86
commercial packages of forage grasses donated by farmers throughout the
State, valued at $500; an exhibit of the silk industry, valued at $400;
wheat, oats, field peas of seventy-odd varieties, rye, rice, barley,
flour, bran, peanuts, pecan nuts, corn meal, and all of the varied
agricultural exhibits. These were donated by farmers of Georgia. The
freight, installation, and care of them was provided by public
subscription. The cost of installation, freights, and care, including
the proper show cases and glass containers, which belonged to the State
museum, was estimated, in addition to the amounts enumerated above, at
$12,000. Besides the above items, nearly every city of importance made
appropriations to cover expenses of having prepared for distribution
books and pamphlets calling the attention of the public to the many
advantages of their several localities, at an estimated cost of $10,000.

Subsequently the Georgia commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
donated the entire furnishings of the State building to the Georgia
Industrial Home at Macon, Ga., the only nonsectarian orphanage in the

The resolution creating the appropriation for the installation and
exhibit of Georgia products, which was approved August 17, 1903,

That the sum of thirty thousand dollars should be appropriated,
to be expended in collecting and permanently preserving
specimens of minerals, granite, clays, kaolin, marble, iron, and
such other minerals and precious stones as may abound in or are
found within the State; to further collect specimens of the
field and forest, mills and mines, orchards and vineyards of
this State, and such other matters and things pertaining to the
character and the productiveness of the soils of Georgia; that
when the specimens aforesaid were collected they should be
deposited in the State museum, there to be safely kept and
displayed; and that the exhibit thus collected should be
displayed at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis,


_Members of Idaho commission_.--Gov. J.T. Morrison; James E. Steele,
president; R.W. McBride, vice-president; Mrs. W.H. Mansfield, secretary;
Martin J. Wessels, Idaho section Forestry Building; Dr. Harold J. Read;
Clarence B. Hurtt, executive commissioner; Miss Anne Sonna; Miss
Genevieve Vollmer.

Idaho was represented by a State building and by exhibits in four of the
great exhibit palaces of the exposition. The building was situated upon
the elevated ground east of the Palace of Agriculture, and the
surroundings made it one of the most attractive spots of the exposition.
The Idaho Building was not big or imposing, but there were few State
buildings on the World's Fair grounds that excited more interest or
inquiry. The building was a bungalow with an open court, in which were
grass and bright flowers. The structure, which was 60 feet square, was
but 1 story high and contained ten rooms. The roof was of red tile and
the exterior of cream-colored staff. The interior finish served to show
the utility of Idaho woods for this particular use. Transparencies and
mounted photographs illustrated the vast forest resources of the State.
Around the court a row of heavy columns supported the overhanging roof,
and a wide cloister behind the columns, paved with brick, afforded a
charming resting place. At the close of the exposition the building was
sold to a citizen of Texas, who is to have it reerected on his ranch,
and it will still bear the name of "Idaho."

The exhibits of the State were shown in the departments of Education,
Mining, Agriculture, and Horticulture. The State appropriation for the
World's Fair was $25,000.

While not boasting a large acreage under cultivation, Idaho was a
competitor at the World's Fair with the best of her sisters in the
quality of her field products. The exhibit in the Palace of Agriculture
was impartially chosen and fairly represented all parts of the State
where agricultural interests have a foothold. In the exhibit were 47
varieties of wheat, 41 varieties of oats, 32 varieties of flax--the only
specimen of white flaxseed known to exist, from the farm of Alonzo
McWillis, of Rosetta, who received a gold medal for his exhibit. Wheat
was shown weighing 62 to 64 pounds to the bushel in comparison with the
standard of 60 pounds. Idaho barley weighs 53 to 54 pounds to the
bushel, while the standard is but 48. A bunch of alfalfa of the second
cutting was received early in October and was more than 6 feet high.
Displays of beans of many varieties, peas, corn, alfalfa, and clover
seed all indicated the resourcefulness of Idaho soil.

It was not practicable to show Idaho melons, strawberries, and small
fruits in fresh condition, but a display with a showy array of canned
fruits and dried fruits of favorite sorts attracted attention. Idaho
potatoes of the 5-pound class were a part of the exhibit, along with
turnips, carrots, parsnips, onions, and other vegetables. There was a
small showing also of popcorn, sweet corn, and the field varieties.

The effort to make a complete fruit exhibit on behalf of Idaho had its
justification in the wide advertising its fruit and agricultural lands
would receive from an effective presentation of the products of the many
fine orchards of the State. The exhibit contained many surprises, such
as the soft-shell almonds. Idaho's grape display was a surprise to many
of the States. In the exhibit were about a dozen varieties that are new
in this country, the vines of which were brought from Persia and other
eastern Mediterranean countries. Among these were the Hunisa, a dark
grape which is regarded as a distinct gain to the Pacific slope
grape-growing interests because of its fine flavor and sweetness and
good keeping qualities.

The educational exhibit was collected by Miss May Scott, State
superintendent of public instruction, installed at State expense, but
maintained at the personal expense of Mrs. S.M. Harris, of Silver City,
and Mrs. C.J. Johnson, of Pocatello. The Boise exhibit showed the work
of all grades, elementary, secondary, and high school pupils doing
themselves and the State credit in comparison with other States.
Lessons, drawings, photographs, and maps were displayed in 37 bound
volumes, besides 5 volumes of district school work and 33 card mounts of
lessons, embracing the 8 grades of the primary schools. Silver City
exhibited graded work from the first to eighth grades, inclusive, very
attractively mounted on cards. Credit is due the Weiser schools, also,
for all-around good work. The schools contributed to the general display
a fine collection of mounted cards in elementary work, and the
Industrial School sent a good display of the work in manual training,
including needlework and photographs of buildings. Moscow made a good
general display of school work, and particularly in composition and
writing. Every community was shown to be alive to the importance of
having good schools. A part of the space in the exhibit was devoted to
photographs of the University of Idaho, about which a great many
questions were asked. The work of the Mountainhouse School was
handsomely bound in a burnt-leather cover.

The Pocatello public school work was delayed and reached the exhibit so
late that it could not be judged. The display consisted of photographs
of the children and schoolhouses and the work of the schools from the
kindergarten to the high school. The Shoshone County exhibit was
displayed in 79 volumes, embracing the work from the first grade to the
high school work. A number of mounted cards of kindergarten work were
also shown. The Wallace schools were commended for several excellent
examples of map drawing contributed. Kendrick made a good display in 11
bound books. Coeur d'Alene sent a dozen volumes of bound work. Bonners
Ferry and Sandpoint contributed good work in a number of bound books and
photographs. Idaho County made a good display of raffia work and Indian
pictures, besides the school-work exhibit. The Albion State Normal
School made a large display of photographs showing the institution and
its equipment. Oro Fino sent a collection of drawings, and Council and
Harrison both made good displays of what their schools are doing to keep
up with the times. The work of the Lewiston schools, which would have
formed a conspicuous and very creditable part of the Idaho educational
display, was lost in transit.

The mineral exhibit of the State at the World's Fair at St. Louis
embraced specimens from every county and mining district. Hundreds of
mines contributed specimens of ore and they were all labeled and
displayed to the best advantage possible in the Idaho booth. The largest
specimens were huge nuggets of lead ore weighing several tons each,
almost pure lead, which occupied a central place in the exhibit and
served to draw attention to the vast collection of other mineral
specimens. Boise, the seat of government, was represented by specimens
of gold-bearing rhyolite from the granite slopes north of the city, as
well as by samples of fire clay of high quality; found partly within the
city limits. From the Black Hornet and Curlew Creek districts came
quartz specimens containing gold and silver. From Bear Creek were
cuttings from the dike formation of low-grade ores that may mean much to
Boise if they be profitably handled.

There were specimens of lead ores from Halley and Wood Rivet district,
where lead to the value of $20,000,000 has been taken out. These ores
run high in silver, and the revival of interest in the workings there is
a matter of comment. These specimens included some of the Minnie Moore
deposits, the most famous mine in Idaho's history, whose best ores show
70 per cent lead and 110 ounces of silver to the ton. A few specimens of
gold-bearing quartz from the Boise basin were shown, although these
deposits are but partly developed, more interest attaching to the placer
mining, which has produced a hundred million dollars' worth of gold in
the history of this region. The Pearl district contributed good
specimens of oxidized quartz and granite gangue, iron and arsenical
pyrites with zinc blend, and a showing of galena and copper sulphides.
Monaxite, a heavy yellow sand, the ore of thorium, is found here, and is
in considerable demand on account of the new discoveries in the radio
activity of certain minerals.

From the vicinity of Pocatello were fine specimens of copper and lead
ores having gold and silver veins, iron, and manganese oxide ores. These
came principally from the workings on Rabbit Creek, Pocatello Creek, and
the Hovey group. Coal specimens were shown from the vicinity of
Blackfoot and Idaho Falls. From Bear Lake County were ores carrying
copper, gold, and silver. Coal specimens were shown from the Goose Creek
Mountains and the ranges in the southern part of Cassia County. The
mines all about Silver City, the county seat and mining center, were
well represented. The South Mountain district, south of Silver City, was
represented by ores from some of the reopened mines which had been idle
for many years.

Ores from the Rocky Bar, Atlanta, Pine Grove, Black Warrior, Neal, Lime
Creek, and Dixie districts made a good representation for Elmore County,
which, on account of its nearness to Boise and railroad facilities, has
been better developed than many other parts of the State. The Yankee
Fork, Loon Creek, and Stanley basin districts of Custer County were all
contributors to the State exhibit of gold and silver ores. The
lead-silver ores of Custer County came from the Bayhorse, Squaw Creek,
Clayton, Poverty Flat, and Slate Creek districts. Copper ores from the
Big Lost River Valley were convincing proof of the richness of mines in
that newly developed part of the State. Fremont County sent specimens of
coal from the rich mines opened a year ago in the eastern part of the

Shoshone County was represented by huge nuggets of lead-silver ore. Gold
ores from Shoshone County showed the wide distribution of the yellow
metal, which appears in every county in the State. Copper ores from
Shoshone County were an indication of future possibilities in copper
production in the State.

It was the earnest endeavor of the Commission to make the most of the
opportunities and the means at their disposal to give Idaho and her
resources a thorough advertisement. The press of the country was
interested in Idaho's development, with the result that hundreds of
articles have been printed about the State's large showing at the
exposition in the newspapers of all States. The large number of gold,
silver, and bronze medals awarded to the exhibitors bore evidence of the
success of the work.


To Illinois belongs the distinction of having held the first and, until
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the greatest World's Fair. Naturally
the State of Illinois at that time had a more immediate pride in its
showing and spent a vastly greater sum to gather and shelter its
exhibits than it could afford for an exposition outside of its own
borders; but it is not the opinion of any that Illinois has been
outclassed in any respect at the World's Fair of 1904. With
comparatively a small appropriation, when the $800,000 appropriated by
Illinois in Chicago in 1893, or the $1,000,000 spent by Missouri, in St.
Louis is considered, Illinois has taken a leading part in the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition. It has not only furnished its large share of the
attractions, but it no doubt sent to the exposition the largest number
of visitors from any one State outside of Missouri.

Only exhibits of a public character were installed at the expense or
through the efforts of the commission. Private enterprises, many of
which took exhibits from this State, were not assisted at the expense of
the commission; but the State exhibits were gathered, prepared,
installed, and cared for wholly or in part at the expense of the State,
authorized by an act of the Forty-second general assembly in 1901, which
appropriated the sum of $250,000 for the purpose.

The law provided for the appointment of a commission of 15 members. The
members of this commission as originally appointed were:

Samuel Alschuler, C.F. Coleman, F.M. Blount, I.L. Ellwood, D.M. Funk,
Jos. P. Mahoney, J.N.C. Shumway, H.C. Beitler, C.C. Craig, H.M. Dunlap,
J.H. Farrell, J.H. Miller, P.T. Chapman, C.N. Travous, C.N. Rannals.

The commission organized by the election of officers, as follows:
President, H.M. Dunlap; vice-president, C.N. Travous; second
vice-president, J.P. Mahoney; treasurer, P.T. Chapman; secretary, John
J. Brown.

Of the members originally appointed the following afterwards resigned,
viz, I.L. Ellwood, P.T. Chapman, H.C. Beitler, C.N. Rannals, Samuel
Alschuler, F.M. Blount, and were succeeded by John H. Pierce, Albert
Campbell, Walter Warder, W.L. Mounts, T.K. Condit, William J. Moxley.

The advantage of nearness to the seat of the World's Fair which made
possible the great displays of Missouri was enjoyed and made use of
almost as fully by the sister State of Illinois. In every department of
the exposition the great resources of Illinois were shown.

The State House was, with possibly two exceptions, the most pretentious
of all the State buildings, and certainly its location was the most
commanding. From the intramural cars this great white structure, with
its generous verandas and its wealth of ornament, could be seen at
several points. It was not on the Plateau of States, but was the
important member of another State group on The Trail, directly west of
the Cascade Gardens. Across the way were the beautiful gardens of Japan,
and the Lincoln Museum was directly north.

The building was designed along the lines of the French renaissance, but
it was entirely modern in treatment. For instance, in the relief
ornament of frieze and cornice the fleur-de-lis was replaced by the ear
of corn motif. This was Illinois renaissance and was something more than
cut and dried ornament. It was symbolic of the State.

The two great statues that greeted the visitor were those of Lincoln and
Douglas. The grand central reception hall was done in tones of ivory,
green, and gold, with floor of tile. The medallion center of the tile
was the great seal of the State. At one side of the broad staircase was
a raised platform, on which stood a grand piano. The elevated apartment
served as a reception and music room.

Opening from the great hall were reading rooms, rest rooms, and the
office of the commission. On the floor above were the suites of
apartments for the governor, the commissioners, and the officers of the
building. The wives of the commissioners served as hostesses, each doing
the honors for a period of ten days at a time.

One of the most noteworthy features of the Illinois State Home was its
verandas. From these every part of the exposition grounds could be seen,
and the night view was especially glorious. The building was designed by
Illinois architects, erected by Illinois labor, and furnished, for the
most part, by Illinois firms. Hence it was really an expression of the
State it represented. Its cost was $90,000.

Aside from the State House, the most remarkable exhibits of the State
were those in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy and the Palace of
Agriculture. In the former there was abundant evidence that Illinois is
primarily a mining State, while the latter wholly contradicted this
notion. As a matter of fact, Illinois ranks second to Pennsylvania in
the production of coal, and its quarries yield a fine quality of both
sand and lime stone. The booth in the Palace of Mines contained the
largest block of soft coal ever removed from a mine. It was 6 by 7 by 8
feet in size and was hoisted 335 feet from the shaft. In the coal
exhibit there were specimens of the product of over 50 mines, with
chemical analyses showing their respective heating elements.

There was a large display of the clay industry of the State, including
bricks, tile, and pottery. In addition there were shown splendid
specimens of fluorspar, lead, and zinc.

In the Palace of Horticulture there was an extensive table exhibit of
fresh fruit, especially of apples and the more ephemeral fruits, such as
berries and plums. However, the best display of all was in the Palace of
Agriculture. In the cold-storage case in the dairy section were two
exceptionally good pieces of butter sculpture. They were the busts of
those two great Illinoisans--Lincoln and Grant.

The most striking feature of the great corn pavilion was an enormous
broom, that was typical both of the production of broom corn and of the
State's broom industry. In the corners were small ornamental booths made
entirely of the native woods of the State. One of these was used as an
office by the secretary. There were several excellent pictures made of
various grains. Among the grain pictures were three that were worthy to
stand together. They were President Lincoln, Governor Yates, and the
great seal of the State.

By far the largest and most significant part of the exhibit was the
collection of samples of corn planted, cultivated, and harvested by
boys. The League of Corn Growers numbered 8,000 members, and there were
1,100 prizes each year, the first being $500. Each boy submitted 10 ears
of corn from his own patch, together with an account of his experiences
and method. The prize winners attached their photographs to the little
pyramids of 10 ears of fine corn. For the farming industry of the State
it was felt that nothing could possibly be better than this annual
contest. The boy is taught to look upon the scientific cultivation of
the soil as something worthy his best effort. That in which he takes a
personal pride ceases to be drudgery. As a result of this corn contest
much of the danger that all the farmer boys will seek the great cities
may be averted, and it was felt that the great exposition should
encourage the boys in their worthy enterprise.

There were installed by the Illinois commission 14 separate and distinct
exhibits, including that of live stock. Each exhibit was in charge of a
superintendent and a committee of the commission.

As soon as the Illinois commission had been appointed the members of the
Illinois State Historical Society felt that the society should make an
exhibit. As the appropriation of $2,000 was small and the time brief for
the preparation of the exhibit, the trustee decided that no better and
more appropriate exhibit could be made than a manuscript and pictorial
life of Abraham Lincoln, these manuscripts and pictures to be arranged
so plainly that they could be understood and appreciated by all.

The plan of the exhibit was to utilize all the space possible, and as
this was the only exhibit in the Illinois Building it was made as
handsome in appearance as possible. Accordingly 16 large wall frames
handsomely labeled in gold letters were prepared. The labels read as

(1) Ancestry of Lincoln.
(2) Youth of Lincoln.
(3) Lincoln at New Salem.
(4) Lincoln as a Surveyor.
(5) Lincoln in the Black Hawk War.
(6) Lincoln as a Lawyer (two cases).
(7) Lincoln in Congress.
(8) Domestic Life of Lincoln.
(9) Lincoln and Douglas.
(10) Lincoln and Douglas Debates.
(11) Lincoln and the Foundation of the Republican Party.
(12) The Campaign of 1860.
(13) Lincoln in Washington, The Cabinet.
(14) The War of Rebellion.
(15) Assassination and Death.

The titles indicate the character of the contents.

The agricultural committee was organized, and the scope and character of
the exhibit to be made by Illinois was carefully considered.

It was determined to devote entire attention to the exploitation of
those products which can be grown most successfully and profitably
within the limits of this State. While the interests of Illinois were,
of course, always given the first consideration, such an exhibit was of
just as much interest and value to adjoining States, or, in fact, to any
countries of the Temperate Zone where similar conditions of climate and
soil exist as in the State of Illinois.

Accordingly it was determined to exploit the principal crop of the
State, which surpasses all other in value--that of corn.

It was also planned to exhibit choice specimens of wheat, oats, rye,
millet, sorghum, Kaffir corn, clover, broom corn, and other grains and
grasses, and did exhibit those varieties that can best be raised in the
different sections of the State. The grains were shown both in the sheaf
and thrashed. There were collected over one hundred varieties of native
woods from different sections of the State.

The installation and exhibit was completed early in May, soon after the
fair opened, except the soil exhibit, which was not finished in all its
details until about a month later. A company of Chicago donated to the
committee an assortment of some thirty new by-products of corn, which
have been manufactured by them in the last few years, including
different varieties of glucose, starch, proteins, and different
varieties of sugar, rubber, dextrine, corn oils, sirups, etc., which
were exhibited in large jars arranged in the form of a pyramid. The
entire agricultural exhibit covered 10,000 square feet of space.

During the fair additions were made from time to time as the season
progressed, and specimens of grains and corn from the crop of 1904 were

The exhibit as completed showed the variety and character of Illinois
soil and also showed the elements which they contain and which they lack
in various portions of the State. The proper treatment, cultivation, and
fertilization necessary to bring each kind of soil to the standard and
keep it there; the products that could be raised to best advantage on
these soils; the method of raising them, and the appearance and
characteristics of these crops at various stages of their growth; the
best seed to plant, and, finally, the grown and ripened products and the
various articles manufactured therefrom, and the uses to which they
could most successfully and profitably be put. Attendants were engaged
who were able to fully explain the various features of the exhibit, and
as there were so many things that had never been exhibited or shown
anywhere before the exhibit appealed strongly to those interested in

And in this connection it might be stated that thousands of
schoolteachers from every State came to the Illinois section to study
corn in a more scientific manner than they had ever studied it before.
This was especially true of the teachers of the East and South.

There was no effort made to collect every known grain or grass or seed
that grows upon the farm, but to display such products as were
considered most valuable to the different sections of the State. Only
the leading standard varieties were installed and such valuable
varieties were exhibited in such proportion and in such profusion as to
demonstrate their value in different sections of the State. Large
displays of wheat, oats, grasses, and grains of all kinds, in sheaf and
thrashed, were exhibited, and it was intended to show both the growth of
the root and the stalk, as well as the grain. As an example, more than
thirty varieties of oats were exhibited, showing root growth, stalk
growth, size and length of head, and beside each variety was 1 peck of
the oats thrashed.

In one corner of our exhibit was erected a triangle of grain pictures,
three in number, each 8 by 10 feet, and made entirely of seeds. One
picture was that of Abraham Lincoln, another Governor Richard Yates, and
a third represented the State seal.

Upon seven large tables were displayed more than 500 glass bottles of
seeds, ranging from 8 ounces to 1 gallon each.

But the feature of the agricultural display that attracted more
attention than anything else was the immense display of corn grown by
the farmer boys of Illinois. The commission from the very start
determined to make this display by the farmer boys a strong feature of
the exhibit, and how well their efforts were rewarded is now known by
millions of people who visited the Agricultural Building. The
superintendent solicited special premiums to the amount of $3,500.
Circulars describing the farmers boys' corn contest were placed in the
hands of 120,000 farmer boys in Illinois. Eight thousand entered the

Above the two vast pyramids of white and yellow corn, each 20 by 30
feet, was a handsome banner inscribed "Grown by the farmer boys of

One of the most attractive and interesting sections of the dairy exhibit
was that installed by the Illinois commission. The statuary in this
exhibit consisted of a full-length ideal statue representing "Illinois,"
holding the shield of State with one hand, while the other grasps the
shaft holding the streamer reading "Illinois" in large, clear, golden
letters. On either side of this figure were large busts of Lincoln and
Grant. These busts and the full-length figure were made of pure Illinois
creamery butter.

The background for the statuary was arranged with the banner won by the
Illinois creameries and two large United States flags, which were in
keeping with the historical character of the two men represented.

At the sides and in front heavy draperies separated the statuary from
the commercial exhibits, which consisted of print butter from the Elgin
district and from the University of Illinois, arranged in various
designs; also samples of condensed milk, malted milk, and evaporated

There were also jars with samples showing the amounts of water, butter
fat, casein, albumen, and other ingredients entering into the
composition of a 30-pound tub of butter.

Tables showing the value of the great dairy industry of Illinois, the
production of butter and cheese in the Elgin district, the butter and
cheese market of Chicago, and large photographs portraying typical
Illinois dairy cows and Illinois creameries and the condensing plants
occupied prominent positions among the exhibits. Several bulletins from
the University of Illinois agricultural experiment station, showing the
importance of clean milk and pure butter and other information of value
to dairymen, were distributed from the superintendent's desk. The cheese
exhibited consisted of samples made by students at the University of
Illinois, and a large collection installed by M. Uhlmann & Co., of
Chicago, occupied a space in the cheese case directly opposite the
butter exhibit.

The refrigerator which contained these exhibits had a glass front formed
of three thicknesses of plate glass, with air spaces between. The
temperature inside the case was kept close to the freezing point by an
ice-making machine in constant operation.

The Illinois commission set apart $15,000 to make a duplication as far
as possible of premiums won by the breeders of live stock exhibited in
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, less than $1,000 of which was
reserved to provide for the necessary expenses incident to printing,
allotting, and distributing the said prize fund.

The live stock from the State of Illinois won one-twentieth of the
entire premiums offered by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

Five thousand square feet of space was secured in the Palace of
Horticulture at the exposition for the exhibit and installation and
fixtures placed thereon prior to the opening of the exposition, May 1,
1904, upon which date the exhibit was put in place and maintained with
apples from storage of 1903 crop until the crop of 1904 began to mature
about June 1. From this latter date fruits of all kinds were supplied as
they matured during the period of the exposition. Among the most popular
varieties of apples exhibited were: For early apples--Yellow
Transparent, Red June, Benoni, Wealthy, Duchess, Maiden Blush. For fall
or early winter--Grimes Golden and Jonathan. Winter varieties--Wine Sap,
Willow Twig, Rome Beauty, Ben Davis. Peaches--Reeves, Elberta, Diamond.
Pears--Bartlett, Tyson, Sechel, Duchess.

_Mines and metallurgy exhibit._--The mines and metallurgy exhibit
covered a space 25 by 75 feet facing on two of the main aisles near the
southeast entrance to the Mines and Metallurgy Building.

The installation was uniform with that of the other exhibits of the
State. The object of the exhibit was to show particularly the mineral
and to some extent the mineral industries.

The most important branch of production, according to its value, was
that of coal. After this came the various materials used in the
manufacture of brick and ceramics.

The building stone, although limited to a few varieties of limestone and
sandstone, was of great importance, as was also some stone and gravel
used for road material, railroad ballast, concrete, and flux for iron

The exhibit of coal consisted of a series of large blocks intended to
show the character and thickness of the veins; the largest block,
weighing 15 tons, is the largest single piece ever hoisted from a mine.
There are 11 of these blocks from different mines, ranging from the
largest down to one block of 1 ton.

In clay products the importance of the industry could only be shown by
statistics, as common brick, which is made all over the State in such a
uniform character, are so well known that exhibits are not necessary.

Neither the geology nor topography offer many opportunities for the
development of stone quarries, but such stone as is extensively used was
displayed. The limestones of the Silurian series are the principal
sources of supply, the quarries about Joliet being among the largest in
the United States. The limestone is generally used in the form of rubble
or rock-faced ashler.

The exhibit at the United States Fish Commission Building was in the
large aquarium situated in the southeast corner of the building and the
two smaller aquaria immediately adjoining on the right and left.

In the large aquarium the commissioners decided to show the commercial
fishes of the State--that is, such fishes as were commonly used for
shipping and found in greatest abundance, namely, the carp, buffalo, the
coarser catfishes, and dogfish. The dogfish in the last few years has
become a very important factor in the food supply, having been
previously thrown away as worthless, but is now extensively used by a
class of people in the larger cities and sold alive under the name of
grass bass. In this aquarium has been carried, for a period of seven
months, perhaps the largest amount in weight ever carried in an aquarium
for that length of time with so small a percentage of loss.

In the smaller aquaria were shown the game fish of the State, a list of
which comprises the black bass, crappie, sunfishes, yellow perch, white
perch, warmouth bass, and the two varieties of striped bass.

These aquaria have attracted a great deal of attention, particularly
among those who were interested in the subject of fish propagation and
distribution, and gave people a better idea of what Illinois produced
than could have been obtained by any other method.

The exhibits of the common schools and the five State normal schools
were installed under the direction of the State superintendent of public
instruction. The material of the exhibits was furnished, except that
from the normal schools, by the school districts, without expense to the
commission, and in substantial conformity to the following suggestions,
sent to the schools about November 1, 1903:

_Classification of schools._--Group 1. Elementary education.--Class 1.
Country schools. Class 2. Semigraded schools. Class 3. Graded schools.
Group 2. Secondary education.--Class 4. High schools. Class 5. Normal

Under this classification it is desired to exhibit: (1) Legislation,
organization, general statistics; (2) buildings, photographs, plans,
models; (3) administrative methods; (4) results obtained by methods of

The educational exhibit of the university of Illinois occupied a space
30 by 45 feet, or an area of 1,290 square feet, open upon an aisle on
its long dimension. Against the back and the two side walls were
glass-inclosed cases 7 feet high, and above these were many enlarged
photographs in frames, showing the main buildings, views of the campus,
etc., together with numerous pictures from the department of art and
design, also a set of finely colored plates of the food and game fish of
Illinois. Other cases occupied a part of the central area of the space,
with room for seats and a writing table.

The exhibits were classified according to general subjects illustrative
of the equipment and work of the colleges of the university from which
they came. An attendant was on hand to supply published documents and
information to visitors.

The exhibit of the college of science contained diagrams and photographs
and a set of bound volumes of the contributions to science published by
the members of the college faculty, but was otherwise almost wholly
illustrative of the work of only one of its eight departments, that of
chemistry, and in this it was confined to the results of two line of
investigation, which have for some years been closely associated with
the work of the department; first, a study of the chemical composition
and heating value of the coals of the State, and, second, a sanitary
survey of Illinois waters. The importance of the first is emphasized by
the fact that Illinois ranks second among American States in tonnage
output, with a valuation in the aggregate of $35,000,000 annually.

The agricultural portion of the university exhibit was designed to show
the comparative produce of Illinois soils expressed in terms of both
crops and animal products. The yields shown were of corn, wheat, oats,
beans, potatoes, apples, tomatoes, milk, butter, cheese, port, mutton,
and beef.

The actual amount of corn, wheat, apples, and other crops shown was the
normal yield of one-hundredth of an acre of standard fertile soil of
Illinois. The milk shown was the amount that should be produced from the
same amount of land when growing crops suitable for milk production, and
the butter and cheese shown were such as could be made from this milk.

A mounted steer, which when living weighed 750 pounds, represented the
amount of beef that should be produced from an acre of soil in one year.
The same land would produce 10 such sheep as shown, weighing in all
1,100 pounds, or 100 pigs like the roaster shown, or their equivalent,
with a total weight of 1,400 pounds.

Incidentally the work in soil improvement was shown by a number of
yields from soils naturally deficient in fertility, taken both before
and after treatment, and thus showing the benefit of intelligent methods
of soil restoration.

The articles contributed by the College of Engineering were arranged in
an alcove, partly inclosed by cases of books and for folding frames, on
which were placed photographs and diagrams mounted on large cards. A
larger case contained the more bulky specimens of the work of students
in the engineering shops. Above these cases were placed on the walls
enlarged views and some original designs by architectural students.

A large series of good photographs arranged for convenient examination
presented views of all buildings occupied by the College of Engineering,
especially of their interiors, showing class and drawing-rooms, shops
and laboratories, incidentally illustrating much of the equipment of
machines and apparatus. A series of large diagrams and tables afforded
full information concerning the very remarkable increase in the number
of students in attendance during recent years.

The exhibit of the College of Medicine consisted of a large series of
normal and pathological specimens and dexterously executed dissections
of various portions of the human body. These were mounted so as to show
to best advantage the special peculiarities in each case and so as to
secure permanent preservation.

_Closing up_.--The closing up of the business of the commission, the
sale of the building, furniture, and exhibits involved considerable
work. The commission on two separate occasions advertised the building
and furniture for sale, advertisements to that effect appearing in the
St. Louis, Chicago, and Springfield papers. Opportunity was given for
the people to bid for the building and furnishings as a whole, for them
separately, or for any part. About sixty separate bids were received,
some for one article only, many for a few pieces of furniture, and a
very few for the building or furniture as a whole. Four bids were
received for the building, viz, $200, $500, $750, and $1,000, the bids
on the building including a provision that all debris from the wrecking
of same should be removed and the ground cleared and left as it was
originally, all of which involved considerable expense. The bid of the
Southern Illinois Construction Company, of East St. Louis, was the
highest, including building, furniture, and furnishings, and amounted to
$4,250. This bid was accepted. Articles in other exhibits not included
were afterwards disposed of and are included in the financial statement,
bringing the amount of salvage to over $5,000. This amount seemed small,
but was in line with the results of all expositions. At Chicago, with a
net appropriation of $662,000 and with a building and furnishings
costing $277,000, the total amount realized from the sale of buildings
and furnishings was $3,926.50. At Omaha and Buffalo the amounts realized
were less than $1,000.


On March 9, 1903, the legislature of the State of Indiana appropriated
the sum of $150,000 for the necessary expenses of the participation of
Indiana at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. At the same time the
governor of the State was authorized and directed to appoint a
commission of fifteen persons, not more than nine of whom were to be of
the same political party.

Newton W. Gilbert, president; Henry W. Marshall, vice-president; James
W. Cockrum, secretary; A.C. Alexander, assistant secretary; W.W.
Wicks, W.W. Stevens, W.H. O'Brien, Crawford Fairbanks, D.W. Kinsey,
N.A. Gladding, Frank C. Ball, C.C. Shirley, Fremont Goodwine, Joseph
B. Grass, Stephen B. Fleming, Melville W. Mix.

The State made altogether seventeen exhibits in the various exhibit
palaces, the total value of which was approximately $60,000. The
exhibits consisted of needlework and lace work in the Manufactures
Building, decorated china in the Varied Industries Building, coal and
stone exhibits in the Mines and Metallurgy Building, horticultural
exhibit in the Horticultural Building, special corn and dairy exhibits
in the Agriculture Building, and general educational, library, college,
State board of health, juvenile courts, department of inspection, school
for feeble-minded youths, and State board of charities exhibits in the
Educational Palace.

The Indiana Building at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was located in
the center of the State group, on one of the most artistic spots within
the exposition grounds. It was designed in the spirit of the French
renaissance, and was intended to be a resting place for all visitors to
meet friends and enjoy social and musical entertainments.

The building was surrounded by a broad terrace, with balustrade
embellished with flowers and pedestals supporting vases with flowers and
vines. The approach was through a spacious portico, on either side of
which were candelabra of monumental character. A large lounging hall, 30
by 58, was furnished with heavy leather upholstered furniture. On either
side were men's and women's resting rooms, 19 by 37, back of which were
commodious toilet and retiring rooms. The toilet rooms had tile floors
and walls and partitions made of "novus" sanitary glass, manufactured at
Alexandria, Ind. The resting rooms were wainscoted 7 feet high with
paneled oak, and were luxuriously furnished with rugs, upholstered
furniture, and each was furnished with an upright piano.

In connection with the lounging hall were a secretary's office, a
post-office, check room, registry desk, and bureau of information. The
broad, spacious stairway in the center led to a landing with Corinthian
columns supporting an art-glass dome.

Midway was a large landing and on either side were wide stairs leading
to the floor above. This landing merged into a large music room, 25 by
50, superbly furnished with oriental rugs, Louis XIV furniture, and
containing two grand pianos.

The art-glass decorations throughout the building and in the dome
represented a material whose quality is said to be unexcelled in the

On the second floor was a large library, or reading room, in which were
kept on file all the State newspapers and magazines; also all the
principal daily papers and monthly magazines.

At one end of the building was the governor's reception room; at the
other, the commissioners' reception room and private office. In
connection with this latter was the art and literary department of the
State, which contained copies of books by prominent Indiana authors and
original manuscripts and drawings. The paintings which adorned the walls
of the building were the product of Indiana genius. Her artists were
lavish of their time and thought in contributing to the effect sought.
The color scheme of the building was the result of educated taste.

The electric lighting was a special feature. A multitude of
4-candlepower lamps were used, distributed on the ceiling in pleasant
form, that harmonized the decorative plaster panels. The woodwork
throughout the building was stained and finished in bog oak. Most of the
furniture was of the Mission style, stained to suit the interior finish.

The building was furnished and decorated luxuriously and in a quiet
character, making an interior that offered comfort and quiet environment
to the weary visitor. At the very beginning it was determined that this
building and the things associated with it and housed in it should speak
the culture and artistic development of Indiana life, and so it has
gathered within its walls the best offerings of literature and art--the
trophies of civilization.


_Members of Indian Territory commission_.--Thomas Ryan, chairman; F.C.
Hubbard, executive commissioner; H.B. Johnson, honorary commissioner;
A.J. Brown, honorary commissioner; W.L. McWilliams; H.B. Spaulding;
J.E. Campbell; J.J. McAlester; William Busby; Miss Olive Blentlinger,

A fund of $50,000 was expended for the Indian Territory participation in
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Of this amount, $25,000 was
appropriated by Congress and $25,000 was raised by popular subscription
in the Territory. The expenditure, according to the provisions of the
Congressional appropriation, was made under the direction of the
Secretary of the Interior. It was the purpose of the commission to make
the Indian Territory exhibit one that would primarily set forth the
actual condition that existed in the Territory and to advertise the
developments and resources of the same in a comprehensive manner. The
same general lines that were adopted by other States and Territories in
similar work were followed as closely as practicable.

Because of its limited funds the Territorial commission deemed it
advisable to make exhibits only in the following departments: In the
Mines and Metallurgy Building were displayed the coke and coal, marble,
granite, and oil exhibits. The corn and cotton exhibits were shown in
the Palace of Agriculture. In the Horticultural Building exhibits of the
orchards and gardens of Indian Territory were maintained, and all other
exhibits, such as educational, photographic, mineral specimens, etc.,
were installed in the Indian Territory Building.

The Indian Territory Building was completed and exhibits installed on
the opening day of the exposition, April 30, 1904. It was located on a
beautiful site in the Plateau of States, near the southeast entrance to
the grounds. The building was a two-story colonial structure, 109 by 72
feet. The first floor contained, besides the large lobby room, two
exhibit rooms. In one of these rooms was displayed the art and
educational exhibit; in the other the photographic exhibit. These two
exhibits--one setting forth the artistic, the other the commercial
development of the residents of the Indian Territory--went far toward
dispelling the somewhat prevalent idea that the Indian Territory is a
wilderness, where progress and civilization are unknown.

In the art and educational room were displayed many beautiful paintings,
studies, laces, fine needle and bead work, and industrial work, all the
products of Indian Territory students and residents. In the photographic
room were arranged 500 large photographs suitably framed and mounted,
taken from all parts of Indian Territory, and representing the actual
status and present commercial condition in the Indian Territory.

In the main lobby on the first floor of the Territory Building were
displayed the collections of old Indian pottery, beadwork, etc. These
collections belong to J.E. Campbell, of the Cherokee Nation; Mr. and
Mrs. J.S. Murrow, of the Choctaw Nation; Mr. Thomas P. Smith and Miss
Alice M. Robertson, of the Creek Nation, and were all especially fine
and very valuable, many of the articles being more than a hundred years
old and representing in the highest type the work of the old Indians.
The paintings of Jefferson and his descendants, the work of Mrs.
Narcissa Owen, of the Cherokee Nation, as well as the tapestries by the
same artist, were admired by the many thousands who visited the
Territory pavilion. Mention should be made also of the 100 wild flowers
of the Indian Territory, mounted and framed, the collection of Mr. J.B.
Bushyhead, of the Cherokee Nation.

The second floor of the Territory Building contained a large reception
hall, ladies' parlors and resting rooms, and the offices of the
executive commissioner. An especially attractive feature about the
pavilion were the large stair landing and the five big windows, two
transparencies being set in each and representing typical scenes from
the Territory.

The Indian Territory was also represented in three of the exhibit
palaces of the exposition, maintaining booths in the Palace of Mines and
Metallurgy, the Palace of Horticulture, and the Palace of Agriculture.

The coal fields of the Indian Territory, especially in the Choctaw
Nation, have for years been operated successfully, and within the past
two years the development of the coal industry has been immense.
Petroleum is also found in many parts of the Indian Territory. This
industry, though new, is developing into gigantic proportions. Hundreds
of wells are going down in both the Bartlesville and Muskogee fields,
and the majority of those already opened are good producers. The crude
oil in the Bartlesville field is in grade about the same as the Kansas
oil, while the grade of the Muskogee field is somewhat better.
Railroads, pipe lines, and refineries are being built for handling this
product, which promises to be in such abundant supply. In the Indian
Territory booth in the Mines and Metallurgy Building were shown many
samples of Indian Territory coals and oils. Beside the four large cubes
of the four separate grades of bituminous coal found in the Territory,
there were arranged cases of the finest samples of egg coal, nut coal,
and pea coal, and pyramids of coal and coke were erected. Samples of the
oil from 27 flowing wells, together with samples of the oil sands, were
arranged in glass and formed the background of the booth. Cubes of the
Chickasha granite and the Cherokee marble and many blocks of building
stone, filtering rock, colite, etc., were shown in this booth. A large
relief map, costing more than $2,000, of the Choctaw coal fields and
many pictures and plates of the top works of coal mines, oil wells, and
asphaltum works were attractively placed in this booth.

A comprehensive display of the corn and cotton products of the Indian
Territory was made in the two booths maintained in the Palace of
Agriculture. The Indian Territory is particularly a cotton country. No
finer staple is sold on the Liverpool market than that which grows in
the bottoms along the Arkansas, Verdigris, Canadian, Washita, and Red
rivers. Corn, wheat, oats, rye, and, in fact, all grains and products
that flourish in such States as Kansas, Iowa, and Illinois do equally
well in Indian Territory. With practically an unvarying temperature and
abundant rainfall the "Indian lands" will, within a few years, be
converted into agricultural domains rich and beautiful.

Though not the largest, one of the very prettiest displays in the Palace
of Horticulture was that of the Indian Territory. Occupying the very
center circular space in the building, this booth was kept constantly
supplied with Indian Territory products of the orchard and flower
gardens. Apples, peaches, pears, grapes, and plums seem to grow to
perfection in the Indian Territory, and the many thousands who saw the
fruit display at the exposition can attest the fact that wonderful are
the products from Indian Territory orchards and gardens.


The legislature of the State of Kansas in 1901 appropriated the sum of
$75,000 for the purpose of having the State represented at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition. Subsequently, in March, 1903, a second
appropriation of $100,000 was made. There were no subscriptions of any
kind for this purpose.

In 1901 the governor of Kansas appointed the following-named gentlemen
as commissioners:

John C. Carpenter, president; J.C. Morrow, vice-president; R.T. Simons,
treasurer; C.H. Luling, secretary; W.P. Waggener, commissioner.

Kansas made exhibits in the Agriculture, Horticulture, Education, and
Social Economy buildings and in the Dairy Department. The State also
made large exhibits in live stock of horses, cattle, swine, sheep, and

In the Agricultural Palace the corn steer, corn eagles, corn Indian, and
several other striking features of installation, made exclusively of
agricultural products, were greatly admired and favorably commented
upon. In this department a grand prize was given to the State.

Although known principally as an agricultural State, the exhibit made by
Kansas in the Mines and Metallurgy palaces was such as to astonish all
who saw it. Besides its other large and varied resources and fine
installation of lead, zinc, coal, salt, gypsum, stone, shale for
manufacture of brick, cement, etc., Kansas is known as one of the
greatest oil and gas fields in the United States.

The floor space assigned to the Kansas educational exhibit in the
Educational Building was 45 by 30 feet. The walls were 15 feet high,
thus giving for display purposes a surface of 2,100 square feet in
addition to the floor space. All the wall space was used to show drawing
maps, charts, photographs, and work in manual training. Thirty cabinet
cases were used to exhibit miscellaneous work, mainly in drawing,
kindergarten, sewing, and in photographic representations of various

The total cost of the booth was about $1,230, and of the furnishings
about $600. The transportation of the educational exhibits cost
approximately $100. The total cost of the educational exhibit in the
Kansas booth was about $6,000.

In the Kansas school exhibits the work of the common schools was made
conspicuous. There were on the tables in the booths between three and
four hundred bound volumes of written work, comprising spelling,
writing, composition, arithmetic, geography, grammar, United States
history, map drawing, kindergarten. But while the work of the elementary
schools was given the most important place in the Kansas exhibit, higher
education was kept well in the foreground. The University of Kansas
effectively showed its work through 50 large framed photographs in which
all the buildings and many of the class rooms made the work of the
institution visible to all.

There was work of some kind from 104 cities and about 400 country
districts. The exhibits from many of the smaller cities did not appear
separately on the catalogues, because they were included in county

The Kansas Pavilion in the Agricultural Palace occupied a space 92 by 62
feet on the main aisle, near the center of the building. On each side
were pillars 16 feet high decorated with ears of corn and corn husks.
Upon each of these rested a Grecian vase made of corn husks and
festooned with rosettes and garlands of corn husks, the whole being very

Standing at the main entrance, between the two high corn columns, were
two eagles with wings spread for flight--one made of corn husks and
kernels of corn, the other made of wheat straw and kernels of corn. They
were the work of an artist.

One of the most striking features was the large center pyramid,
surmounted by a monster steer of the Hereford type, 7 feet in height,
fashioned of red and white shelled corn. At the top of this pyramid the
word "Kansas" was worked in corn.

At the north entrance stood a pyramid of native grasses, upon which was
a vase made of oat heads, 7 feet high. Directly opposite stood a pyramid
of tame grasses, upon which rested a vase made of the heads of grains
and grasses, 7 feet high.

The Kansas State Agricultural College, at Manhattan, exhibited alfalfa,
corn, cane, Kaffir corn, oats, buffalo grass, and big blue-stemmed
grass, showing the plant and root growth. Besides these there were 25
varieties of wheat sheaves, 10 varieties of cane 14 feet in length, 4
varieties of Kaffir corn, 3 of broom corn 15 feet, stalks of corn 16
feet, and millet 6 feet high.

The State Agricultural College Experiment Station, Hays, Kans., had a
collection of wheat, rye, barley, speltz, oats, and flax.

The total cost of the various installations of the agricultural exhibits
of Kansas was $17,750.

The Kansas exhibit in the Horticultural Department fully and completely
represented that branch of industry in the State and was highly
commented upon by the people generally from all sections of the country.
Kansas was given space covering 2,000 square feet. The commission
appropriated $9,000 for this exhibit, which covered all expenses.

The fruits, especially apples, placed Kansas high in rank as one of the
leading apple-growing States of the Union. Kansas also ranked close
along with the leading States in peaches, plums, grapes, and small
fruits and was the banner State in the production of cherries.

The Kansas commission secured an 8-foot square space in the butter
pavilion, Palace of Agriculture, at a cost of $500 for the season. The
cost of placing and maintenance was $2,500.

Kansas did very well in her live-stock exhibit, for which an
appropriation of $10,000 was used. More than two hundred entries won
prizes, aggregating $313,800.

In the art exhibit, in the Kansas Building, the total number of articles
entered and shown was 537. The total value of the same was $20,247,
classified as follows: Sculpture, paintings in oil, paintings in water
colors, pastels and other drawings, miniatures, etchings, etc.,
paintings on china, art needlework, embroideries, etc., tapestries, etc.


The legislature of 1902 refused to make an appropriation for a State
exhibit. The organization of the Kentucky Exhibit Association to raise a
fund by private subscription followed. For fourteen months an active
canvass was conducted, resulting in $30,000 and a sentiment so unanimous
for the State's representation at the fair that in January, 1904, the
general assembly supplemented this amount with $75,000. The Kentucky
Exhibit Association had several hundred members, with a board of 15
directors. Upon the passage of the appropriation act, Governor J.C.
Beckham, who signed the measure, appointed the following commissioners,
all to serve without compensation:

A.Y. Ford, president; Charles C. Spalding, vice-president; R.E. Hughes,
secretary; W.H. Cox, W.T. Ellis, Clarence Dallam, W.H. Newman, Sam P.
Jones, Samuel Grabfelder, M.H. Crump, J.B. Bowles, Charles E. Hoge, A.G.
Caruth, B.L.D. Guffy, Garrett S. Wall, Frank M. Fisher, Mrs. Bertha
Miller Smith, hostess.

Mr. Hughes, as secretary, was in charge of the building, and as director
of exhibits maintained supervision over Kentucky's entire representation
in the exhibit palaces. He was Kentucky's member of the Executive
Commissioners' Association of the fair. Mr. Hughes had a most capable
secretary in Mr. Frank Dunn, who was connected with the work from the
organization of the old Kentucky Exhibit Association. Mrs. Bertha Miller
Smith, of Richmond, Ky., held the position of hostess of the building.

Besides erecting a State Building, Kentucky collected, installed, and
maintained 16 different exhibits; a collective display of minerals, a
separate display of coal, a separate display of clays, in the Mines and
Metallurgy Building; a collective display from the schools and colleges
of the State and two separate displays in the blind section in the
Palace of Education and Social Economy; two collective displays--one
exterior, the other interior--of forestry in the department devoted to
Forestry, Fish, and Game; a collective display of general agricultural
products in the Palace of Agriculture; and displays of paintings and
sculptures by Kentucky artists and sculptors, of fancy needle and drawn
work by women, and of the works of Kentucky authors and composers in the
Kentucky Building.

The displays in the exhibit palaces occupied 15,000 square feet of
space, the tobacco display with 4,000 square feet having the largest
space assigned any one product. Four thousand square feet were devoted
to minerals, 1,200 to education, 3,000 to a general agricultural
exhibit, 1,200 to forestry and its manufactured products, and 1,200 to

In the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy the general display combined both
State and individual effort. Its 3,400 square feet of space faced on
three of the main aisles of the building. Facing on three aisles the
exhibit had three entrances, an arch of cannel coal, an arch of white
limestone, and an arch of terra cotta burned in St. Louis from clay
taken from Waco, Madison County. The arches were connected by a 3-foot
wall of minerals, forming an inclosure for the exhibit. In this wall
were shown, as approaches to the clay-entrance arch, building brick,
tiles, paving brick, fire brick, plain and decorated pottery, etc.; as
approaches to the cannel-coal arch, both bituminous and cannel coal, and
as approaches to the stone arch, building stones and cement building

Oil and its future development was found in a collective petroleum
exhibit from the several oil horizons. Large blocks of coal,
representing the different veins of Kentucky, several full lines of
broken coals, and a very complete display of coke were also displayed. A
very elaborate display of kaolin--plastic, vitrifying, and refractory
clays--was made.

In all, there were 114 different specimens of clay attractively
displayed in glass cases and in convenient corners; also plain and
decorated pottery, white and cream-colored wares, terra cotta,
earthen-ware, building brick, firebacks, coke-oven sundries, paving
brick, fire brick, tiles, etc. The Kentucky display contained also zinc
ore and sphalerite, lead ore and barite, lead and zinc ore, and fluarite
from the mines in Chittenden County; zinc and lead ores and metallic
zinc from "the Joplin district of Kentucky;" sphalerite and galena from
Marion, galena (in barite) from Lockport, Henry County, and large lumps
and ground fluorspar and lead concentrates from Marion, Crittenden
County. There were 138 samples of iron ore shown as a collective State
exhibit, and in addition to this there was ore from Edmonson County, ore
from Nelson County, ore from Allen County, ore from Carter County, and
ore from Hart County. One of the unique displays was a sample bottle of
oil from the old American oil well in Cumberland County. This well,
begun September 10, 1827, was the first oil well in America. Collective
State exhibits of oynx marble, paint earths, polished earths, sands,
silicious earths, road materials, fluorspars, barite calcite, cement
materials, salt, lithograph stone, lime, potash, marl, asphalt rock,
etc., were also to be found in Kentucky's general mineral exhibit.

The State made a fine display in forestry, fish, and game. The
collection embraced displays from all parts of Kentucky. The forestry
exhibit not only showed Kentucky's timbers in the rough and polished
state, but hundreds of samples of the manufactured products. One of the
exhibits was a full-sized log wagon, carrying three large logs 10 feet
long, one each of oak, poplar, and hickory. The idea of showing the
timber from which the product was made was carried out as far as
possible throughout the exhibit.

Kentucky's educational exhibit occupied 1,100 square feet, every foot of
which was utilized to advantage. The public schools, Catholic
institutions, commercial branches, and colleges were given due
prominence, while special attention was given to mountain school labors.
One part was devoted to public schools and another to Catholic
institutions. The school work of the totally blind pupils occupied six
display cabinets. These cases showed the entire course, from 8 years to
18. The display from the Kentucky School for the Deaf at Danville,
illustrating the work done in its manual-training department, was shown
also. This school was the pioneer in the manual-training movement in
Kentucky, and for over half a century every graduate has left its halls
equipped with a knowledge of some useful handicraft. More than a year
was consumed in the collection of Kentucky's educational exhibit.

Kentucky made a good showing agriculturally, and had a creditable and
attractive representation in the Palace of Agriculture. Raising more
than 90 per cent of the hemp of the United States, Kentucky made one of
the really distinctive exhibits of the Agricultural Building at the
exposition. The exhibit occupied more than 2,000 square feet. An
experiment station showed 50 varieties of grasses and 15 varieties of
wheat, both in the seed and in the sheaf Another interesting feature was
an entire case of insects injurious to fruit trees and staple products.
An interesting feature was an obelisk, 12 feet high, made of blue grass
from the experiment station The apex was of ripened blue grass; the
shades leading up to it, formed the base, beginning with the grass in
its green state. The bluish tint that gives the grass its name could be
seen. Various stages of hemp culture and harvest were shown also. These
include the seed, the stalk intact, broken and dressed hemp. Practically
100 different places were represented in this Kentucky exhibit. There
were in all 242 exhibitors. Fifty-two of these showed tobacco, 108 corn,
18 wheat, 6 oats, 8 seeds, 5 hemp, and the others miscellaneous.

The display of tobacco was conceded to be most instructive. Occupying an
entire block--4,628 square feet of space--it covered more floor area
than any other display in the 1,240 acres of the exposition devoted to a
single product. There was shown in miniature or by pictures tobacco in
every phase of its culture and manufacture. A box of plug tobacco 3 feet
square, the largest ever made, was shown here. To show to good advantage
the successive steps in the culture, harvesting, curing, and marketing
of the tobacco, two platforms, each 31 feet long by 8 feet wide, were
utilized. They were on opposite aisles of the space, running parallel
with the 89-foot sides. On one platform were shown the plant beds and
fields, on the other the curing barns and warehouses.

The State Pavilion was dedicated as the "New Kentucky Home." By a
careful study of the visitors' register with the total attendance at the
exposition it was found that 1 out of every 18 visitors to the fair
visited the "New Kentucky Home." The registers showed for one day alone
citizens from 35 States and 11 foreign countries. Its walls, hung with
more than $20,000 worth of the paintings of Kentucky artists, the most
important collection in the State Building; a score of glass cases
holding one of the exhibits of fancy needlework and a display of relics,
with a library of the works of Kentucky authors and an art-design piano
with Kentucky-written music, the "New Kentucky Home" was most
interesting. With four sides, and every side a front, its doors were
always wide open and no restriction was placed upon visitors. Its 582
lights at night spoke an invitation to all.


_Members of commission._--Governor Newton C. Blanchard, president; Dr.
W.C. Stubbs, State commissioner; Maj. J.G. Lee, secretary; Gen. J.B.
Levert; Col. Charles Schuler; H.L. Gueydan; Robert Glenk, assistant to
State commissioner; Charles K. Fuqua, assistant secretary.

The legislature of the State of Louisiana in 1902 passed an act
providing that a board of commissioners, to be known as "The Board of
Commissioners of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition," be created,
consisting of the governor, who should be ex officio president thereof,
and four other members to be appointed by the governor. The sum of
$100,000 was appropriated by the same act for Louisiana's participation
in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

In the city of New Orleans is an old Spanish building, erected in 1795,
used during the Spanish reign as a cabildo or court building. In this
building the actual transfer of the Louisiana purchase from Spain to
France and from France to the United States occurred, the first on
November 30 and the last on December 20, 1803.

The commission wisely determined to reproduce this building as it was at
that date on the exposition grounds at St. Louis and to use the same as
a State building. It was determined also to furnish it with furniture
and pictures of that date. On account of the prominence of the State of
Louisiana in the original purchase, she was accorded first choice in the
selection of a site for her State building. A beautiful spot overlooking
Government Hill and directly south of Missouri's handsome State Palace
was selected. The building was completed in October, 1903, at a cost of
$25,000. On account of its historic interest and rich antique
furnishings, the State building attracted much attention, and the
visitors that passed through its portals numbered perhaps nearly a

In front of the building was reproduced the "Place d'Armes" of the
French and Spanish regimes, now Jackson square, in the center of which
was erected an equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, modeled upon the one
erected to the hero of Chalmette in the square in New Orleans by the
grateful citizens of Louisiana.

In the room known as Sala Capitular, in which the transfer occurred, was
exposed throughout the exposition a facsimile of the treaty signed by
Livingstone, Monroe, and Marbois. In the jails in the rear of the
Cabildo were placed the original stocks used by the Spanish in
punishment of their criminals.

Besides the Cabildo, which was a veritable museum of curios and
interesting relics, Louisiana had 15 exhibits in 10 buildings.

In the Agricultural Palace she had 8,500 feet of space, of which 2,000
was devoted to sugar, 2,000 to rice, 2,000 to cotton, and 2,500 to
general agriculture.

In the sugar exhibit was a field of cane made of wax, with negroes
cutting the same, and from this field there was a train of cars carrying
cane to the sugarhouse. On reaching the sugarhouse the cane was unloaded
by machinery and crushed by a complete sugar mill with crusher.
Surrounding the sugarhouse were 500 small barrels of sugar and 100
barrels of molasses; also in the same space were commercial samples of
plantation and refined sugars and a life-sized model of "Miss Louisiana"
made of sugar. Samples of 100 varieties of cane were shown and samples
of sugarhouse products were also, displayed. There were also to be seen
beautiful samples of paper Of all grades made from the cane.

In the rice exhibit were to be found, first, large shocks of each,
variety of rice in the sheaf. A field of growing rice, made of wax, with
a harvesting machine cutting and binding the same, was in evidence. All
stages of growing rice were represented, from the sprouting seed to the
fully matured grain. Samples of commercial rice were tastefully

In the cotton exhibit were to be found 15 commercial bales of cotton
specially prepared for the exhibit by patriotic citizens of Louisiana.
Over these bales was a platform, upon which was erected a "Carnival King"
in cotton. A roller and saw gin, a square and round bale cotton press,
and a complete cotton-seed oil mill made up the display of machinery in
the cotton exhibit. Nearly 100 varieties were shown in small, neat
bales, weighing 3 or 4 pounds each.

In the agricultural exhibit every crop growing in the field and the
garden was exhibited. Hay from the grasses and legumes, all kinds of
grain, both clean and in the straw; all kinds of fiber plants, in the
stock and in the fiber; all kinds of tobacco, yellow-leaf cigar leaf,
cigars, and the famous Perique were to be found. Vegetables of all
kinds, both fresh and in wax, were handsomely displayed.

In the Palace of Horticulture two exhibits were made. Pecans, oranges,
grapefruit, peaches, plums, pears, pomegranates, Japan persimmons, and
many other subtropical fruits were shown.

In the conservatory were two carloads of plants brought from New
Orleans. In it were 28 varieties of palms and many varieties of oranges,
pecans, figs, pineapples, bananas, pomegranates, etc.

In the Forestry Building there were two exhibits from Louisiana. In the
first were to be found timbers of valuable forests and their products.
In the same building were found the birds, fishes, and animals of

In the Educational Building there were also two exhibits from Louisiana.
One was the regular State exhibit, illustrating the work done in the
schools, colleges, and universities.

In the same building and in the exhibit from the experimental stations a
complete sugar laboratory made by the sugar experimental station at
Audubon Park, New Orleans, was shown.

In the Mines and Metallurgy Building were exhibits of sulphur and salt,
crude and refined petroleum, marble, and iron ore, all fresh from the
mines of Louisiana.

In the Liberal Arts Building were topographical maps showing the levees
of Louisiana, and showing also the city of New Orleans in 1803 and New
Orleans in 1903. There were also in this exhibit 200 maps of the Gulf
coast from 1500 up to the present time, some rare old books, a section
of the palisades that surrounded New Orleans in the year 1794, and
copies of all the books of the authors of the State.

In the Transportation Building was represented transportation on the
Mississippi River, past and present, beginning with the Indian canoe and
on through the evolution of transportation up to the monster ocean liner
of to-day.

In the Anthropology Building was a very fine collection of Indian
relics, including a number of baskets of rare and beautiful type.


The State of Maine erected one of the most noteworthy buildings of the
ground and one that attracted universal attention. The building
represented accurately the popular conception of what a sportsman's
clubhouse should be. The building was made entirely of Maine lumber and
was in the form of a log cabin, exaggerated in size and equipped with
all the comforts of a country clubhouse. In this connection it is
interesting to note that the Maine Pavilion was subsequently sold for
$2,000 for the purpose of a sportsman's clubhouse in the country. The
spacious, cool verandas and the odor from the fresh pine logs made the
log house of Maine a favorite rendezvous during the heated days of the
summer. The building was furnished throughout with furnishings from the
manufacturers of Maine. The walls were decorated with moose heads and
specimens of the game and fish to be found in Maine. The walls of the
building were hung with pictures of various scenes in the State. The
total cost of the building was $22,361.40, and the furnishings cost

The legislature of the State appropriated $40.000 for the purpose of
erecting the building and making the display. There was no money given
by individuals. The total cost of the exhibit was $1,893.19.

The commissioners appointed by the legislature were as follows:

Louis B. Goodall, Sanford, chairman; Lemuel Lane, Westbrook; Frank H.
Briggs, Auburn; Charles C. Burrill, Ellsworth; Henry W. Sargent,
Sargentville. Edward E. Philbrook was elected secretary.

The purpose of the commission was primarily to advertise they resources
of the State of Maine as a vacation and sporting State. The only exhibit
made by the State, beyond that described above, was a small display of
potatoes and apples.


In the legislature of the State of Maryland in 1902 an item of $25,000
was provided in the general appropriation bill "for the use of the
commissioners to the St. Louis Fair, hereby authorized to be appointed
by the governor." The amount of this appropriation was less than the
friends of the measure desired, but it enabled the work to be
inaugurated. Governor Smith appointed the following commissioners:

Gen. L. Victor Baughman, chairman; Francis E. Waters, vice-chairman;
Frederick P. Stieff, treasurer; Frank N. Hoen, William A. Marburg,
William H. Grafflin, Wesley M. Oler, Thomas H. Robinson, Jacob M.
Pearce, Orlando Harrison, Mrs. Frances E. Lord, Mrs. Parks Fisher, F.P.
Cator, H.J. McGrath; Samuel K. Dennis, secretary.

A further appropriation of $40,000 was made, giving the commission a
total of $65,000. Through the systematic, scientific work of the
Maryland geological survey the commission had at hand the basis of an
excellent exhibit for the Palace of Mines. After vicissitudes of various
kinds, chiefly those occasioned by the great fire in Baltimore, the
Maryland Building was finished and opened on June 8. The total cost of
the building was $18,402.70. It was of a modern classic design, very
boldly treated. In plan it was a parallelogram 100 feet long by 40 feet
wide, with a recess on the front 10 by 55 feet, forming a loggia, which
was richly decorated in color (the only such external color scheme on
the grounds), supported by six columns of the composite order 25 feet
high, carrying a cornice and balustrade above. The Maryland State arms
were the central feature over the main entrance. At either end there
were large semicircular porches, supported on Ionic columns, which made
the total length of the building over all 140 feet. The site was an
ideal one, close to the New York and other State buildings and on the
direct route from the Inside Inn to the center of the grounds. The
building was surrounded by a beautiful oak grove, and was on gently
rising ground. Inside the classic feeling was maintained. On entering
through the loggia one found an imposing hall 55 feet long by 25 feet
high. The color scheme of this room was golden brown, with a lighter
shade of the same for the vaulted ceiling. Portraits of great value,
taken from the statehouse at Annapolis, as well as one of his eminence
Cardinal Gibbons, lent an air of dignity. Other rooms on the ground
floor were: On the left a picture room, where a large number of framed
photographs of Maryland scenery, buildings, and objects of interest were
hung, and back of this a lunch room and pantry, for use on reception
days. At the other end of the building there was a drawing room, with a
room at the back which was used as a men's smoking room, with toilet
attached. A stairway led from this part of the building to the ladies'
boudoir, which also had toilet attached, and to a ladies' drawing-room.

The second story, at the other end of the building, had a good room
fitted up for the gentleman in charge of the building. Mr. Albert Jones,
of Baltimore, and Mrs. Parks Fisher, of Baltimore, dispensed hospitality
in true Maryland style, and made many friends for the State among the
many visitors who came daily to the building. Upon Mrs. Fisher devolved
much of the responsibility of making the building popular, and she was
careful to have a few representative ladies of old Maryland families
established in St. Louis to assist her in entertaining those who came.
To Mrs. Fisher is due much of the credit for the taste and judgment used
in furnishing the building.

The exhibit of Maryland's mineral resources in the Mines and Metallurgy
Building covered an area of nearly 3,000 square feet of floor space,
together with about 4,000 square feet of wall and window space. The
mineral products were as follows:

Coals, building and decorative stones, ores, clays and clay products
(including pottery, tile, terra cotta, fancy and common brick, fire
brick, enameled brick, retorts and stove linings), limestones, sands,
cement rocks, flints, feldspars, marls, tripoli, barites, soapstones,
etc. All of the leading operators and manufacturers in the State took
part in the display, some of them supplying large collections of
materials. In addition to the exhibit of mineral products there was an
extensive systematic collection representing the geology, mineralogy,
and paleontology of the State, displayed in a series of plate-glass,
cases on the walls. In this exhibit the numerous materials found at the
various geological horizons were displayed, the object of the exhibit
being to show the great variety of geological formations represented in

The Maryland agricultural exhibit occupied a space 90 by 20 feet. A
feature intended to illustrate the varied conditions, crops, and methods
found in the northern and southern sections of the State, quite foreign
to each other, were the two barn scenes, located at each end and on the
wall side of the block. The corn exhibit, consisting of samples of ten
ears each, was displayed in a handsome case 4 by 12 feet, protected by
plate glass. Each sample was tied with orange and black ribbon, with the
names and addresses of the growers attached. A second corn exhibit was
made in a special exhibit in the, middle aisle of this mammoth building.
Here were displayed the four staples--tobacco, sugar, cotton, and corn.

The tobacco exhibit was displayed in a case of like construction and
proportions to that occupied by the corn, and located at the opposite
end and in front of the "Southern Maryland Barn." It made an attractive
showing of the planters' tobacco from both southern Maryland and
Frederick County. A special tobacco exhibit was also made in the middle
aisle on a space 20 feet square. In the center stood a giant Indian on a
pedestal over 7 feet high, with a long-stemmed pipe in his mouth and a
horn of plenty on his left arm, from which the manufactured products of
the weed fell to the ground. The whole was apparently built of tobacco.

The canned-goods industry was in evidence in this section to the right
and left of the "Springhouse." Placed against the wall, which was
covered with black cloth, were three pyramids of cans of peas, corn, and


That Massachusetts might be creditably represented at the St. Louis
Exposition the Commonwealth appropriated $100,000.

Governor Bates appointed as the board of managers having the
appropriation in charge Dr. George Harris, of Amherst; Mrs. Sears and
Mrs. May Alden Ward, of Boston; Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, of Brookline, and
Hon. Wilson W. Fairbank, of Warren. Doctor Harris was elected president
of the board; Mrs. Sears, vice-president, and Mrs. Ward, recording
secretary. To Mr. Harris was assigned the department of education; to
Mrs. Sears, art; to Mrs. Ward, history, and to Messrs. Fitzpatrick and
Fairbank, finance. Mrs. Sears, Mrs. Ward, and Mr. Fairbank were chosen
to serve as the building committee. The board appointed James M.
Perkins, of Boston, secretary and George E. Gay, of Malden, educational

The State Building at St. Louis was designed by C. Howard Wattset., of
Boston, and the cost, including the furnishings and the grading of the
grounds, was about $32,000. The building was of colonial style,
embodying as many features as possible of the Bulfinch front of the
Massachusetts statehouse. The reception hall on the first floor
resembled in part the old senate chamber in the statehouse, and the room
above, the historical hall, was like the present senate chamber. Most of
the furniture in the building was secured from the statehouse by Senator
Fairbank, to whom a large part of Massachusetts's success at the fair
was due.

In the historical room of the building was a very fine collection of
historical relics. Mrs. Ward, who was assisted by Miss Helen A.
Whittier, of Lowell, had charge of this exhibit. There were no other
exhibits in the State Building, but Massachusetts was well represented
in the different exhibit palaces, and in the Educational Building had an
exhibit that cost $30,000.


The governor of the State of Michigan appointed the following named
persons as commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

Governor Aaron T. Bliss, ex officio member; Frederick B. Smith,
president; Austin Farrell, vice-president; Roy S. Barnhart, treasurer;
Hal H. Smith, secretary; William A. Hurst, assistant secretary; D. Aaron
R. Ingram, Charles P. Downey.

The act which authorized the governor to appoint the commission
authorized also the expenditure of $50,000 for the purpose of Michigan's
representation at the exposition.

The Michigan State Building was situated at the corner of Federal avenue
and Government terrace. The building occupied 80 by 130 feet, and was of
colonial renaissance architecture. It rose to the height of two stories
and was surrounded by wide porches and terraces. Immediately in front
and center four fluted stately columns supported the porch around the
entire building. French windows were used on both floors, and their
effect was emphasized and enhanced by the use of arches on the lower
porch. The whole was painted white and colonial cream.

The interior of the building was divided into a large reception hall,
which was flanked on either side by double parlors. The decorations were
of green and yellow in quiet tints. From the center of the main assembly
hall an imposing staircase was raised to a landing and then to the
second floor. The second floor was arranged in a large assembly room,
which was decorated with scenes in green and filled with light wicker
furniture. At the one side was a writing room, finished in weathered or
mission furniture, and decorated with scenes of the resort sections of
Michigan; on the other side were the private apartments of the

The hangings of the rooms were in quiet tones, harmonizing with the wall
tints. The floors were of hard maple throughout, and were covered with
attractive and beautiful rugs. The building was erected at a cost of
$14,000. The furniture and fittings cost approximately $5,000.

The agricultural exhibit comprised an extensive collection of samples of
different varieties of pease and beans; a large exhibit of seeds; an
exhibit of grains in stalk, tastefully arranged; an exhibit of grains
and corn; also a cabinet of pickled goods; a large exhibit of salt;
condensed-milk products; a complete exhibit in season of vegetables from
different counties of Michigan. The sugar-beet industry was represented
by samples of beets and of sugar in its various processes. The
maple-sirup industry of Michigan and the pepper industry were likewise
represented by cabinets containing samples of the products. This exhibit
was installed, complete, on a space 40 by 40 feet.

The horticultural exhibit comprised a space covering 2,500 square feet
of tables. For its first installation there were used 100 bushels of
apples grown in 1903, which had been kept in cold storage for this,
purpose. It comprised a collection of over 100 varieties of Michigan
fruit. With the coming of 1904 fruit, a complete exhibit of fresh apples
was installed from time to time, comprising over 150 varieties of
apples, requiring as many as 1,500 plates at one time, with many
varieties of grapes, peaches, plums, pears, quinces, and cherries. A.
large exhibit was also made of small fruit, raspberries, strawberries,
currants, and huckleberries. The exhibits were made by individuals, by
counties, and by local fair associations of the State.

The forestry exhibit was collected through the generosity and
contributions of a committee. It was a complete exhibit of Michigan
lumber, showing the rough log and the finished board, both in lumber and
in transverse sections. There were also displayed samples of the
different products which are manufactured from the log, such as
shoe-last blocks, wooden utensils, paper, paper pulp, etc., and there
was also an extensive collection of photographs of forestry scenes and
lumber camps, together with a complete collection of blueprints for the
construction of lumber mills. It was installed in a space 50 by 20 feet,
and was surrounded by natural cedar railings.

The mines and metallurgy exhibit comprised exhibits of the iron, copper,
and salt products, cement, manufactures of lime and sand, brick, and an
extensive collection of specimens of various minerals found in Michigan.
The copper mines were represented by samples of rock, minerals, and
tailings, models of shaft houses, and manufactured copper. The iron
industry was represented by upward of 100 samples of ore of various
ranges. These were classified and shown in the various ranges and stages
of their production from the rock to the finished product. The cement
industry was well represented. Coal of the Saginaw Valley was installed
in a 6-foot wall in the booth. An extensive and very valuable collection
of over 1,500 specimens were shown in cases. Three large geographical
maps showed the location of the different ranges, and photographs of
mining scenes supplemented the exhibit.

In the educational exhibit the University of Michigan was represented by
a main exhibit in the Education Building and by a small exhibit of the
physical-culture work of women in the Physical Science Building. In the
Educational Building a space 22 1/4 by 30 feet was assigned to the
university, having frontage on two aisles. On this space a booth was
erected, built of cypress and stained to resemble weathered oak. Within
the booth the floor was stained a dark color, and upon it were spread
carefully selected oriental rugs of strong coloring. The furniture was
of the "arts and crafts" style. It may be said that the chief motive of
the committee having charge of the exhibit was to provide a rest room or
social headquarters for the alumni and students of the university and
their friends.

There were placed upon exhibition several hundred volumes containing the
chief publications of members of the various faculties, also reprints of
scientific articles, these and a series of books showing the work of the
university bindery.

The engineering department was represented by numerous rolls of
large-scale blueprints, by an album of photographs specially prepared,
and by a large and attractive sample board of student shop-work. To
illustrate the equipment in marine engineering there were presented two
models of vessels and a model of the large marine tank which is now in
process of completion.

In the Educational Building could also be found cabinets showing the
method of collecting vital statistics of the department of the State of
Michigan and cabinets exhibiting the work of the School for the
Feeble-Minded, of Kalamazoo, and a cabinet of the School for the Deaf
and Dumb, of Flint.

A Michigan furniture company, interested in the exposition through the
efforts of the commission, expended over $25,000 in the installation of
a magnificent exhibit of furniture in the Department of Varied
Industries, making the most complete collection of furniture shown by
any American firm.


The matter of the participation of Minnesota at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was brought to the attention of the State legislature at a
special session in 1902, and it responded with an appropriation of
$50,000. This bill was chapter 87, and was approved March 11, 1902. In
January, 1903, Governor Samuel R. Van Sant appointed as the board of
three managers authorized by the law Mr. Conde Hamlin, of St. Paul, Mr.
Theo. L. Hays, of Minneapolis, and Mr. J.M. Underwood, of Lake City.

At the time of the appropriation it was expected that the exposition
would be held in 1903. It, however, grew in magnitude and scope far
beyond the original designs of its projectors. The board organized by
the election of Mr. Hamlin as president, Mr. Underwood as
vice-president, and Mr. Hays as secretary. Charles S. Mitchell, of
Alexandria, was elected superintendent and executive officer, to have
immediate charge of exhibits and to carry out the plans of the board.

A site for Minnesota's building was selected, and space was reserved in
the great exhibit palaces of Mines and Metallurgy, Education,
Agriculture, Horticulture, and Forestry, Game, and Fish.

Subsequently, on April 1, 1903, a further appropriation of $100,000 was
voted by the Minnesota legislature.

The style of the Minnesota State Building resembled the Byzantine. It
was designed for a southern climate. The entire lower floor could be
thrown open by means of large glass doors opening upon corridors and a
wide promenade, which was protected by awnings. A low wall surmounted
this promenade, broken at intervals by abutments, on which were placed
large vases of flowering plants. This added color, and with the beds of
cannas, which extended along the base of this wall, and large beds of
brilliant scarlet geraniums on the lawn, made a handsome setting for the
building. These plants were Minnesota grown. The cannas grew to huge
proportions, and at the height of the season there were few landscapes
on the Plateau of States more effective than that of Minnesota.

The building was ample for its uses. There was a reception room 30 by 50
feet in size, with reading tables, the files of the State papers, a
post-office, check room, and superintendent's office. A men's room and a
women's room, each 20 by 20 feet, opened from the reception room. Two
pianos were free for the use of guests, and were a much-appreciated
feature. Every possible convenience was afforded to visitors. That the
general public, as well as visitors from Minnesota, appreciated the
building was shown by the hundreds who visited it daily and the many who
came day after day to write letters, read the papers, or merely to rest
and enjoy its coolness. The location gave it added prominence, as it was
near the southeast entrance, one of the most convenient for visitors,
close to the Inside Inn, and with the Massachusetts, New York, Iowa, and
Kansas buildings as neighbors.

The financial statement shows that the construction of the building,
with furnishing, landscaping, maintenance, care, and salaries of
employees, cost a total of less than $29,000.

In the agricultural display, while wheat was not neglected, especial
stress was laid on Minnesota's grasses, both tame and wild, and its
general forage crops. It was conceded by experts that no State made a
better display in that line of products. Corn was also made prominent.
Two elaborate butter models were shown, one in this department and one
in the exposition refrigerator.

The State was fortunate in the location secured. It was on one of the
large central aisles and adjoining the great glass butter refrigerator,
where were shown all the competing fancy butter exhibits from the
various States. On the same aisle or near by were the most splendid
exhibits in this building, those of States that expended from $30,000 to
$100,000 in that department alone, the latter figure being the
expenditure of Missouri. That Minnesota was able with $10,000 to make a
showing that found credit and favor in comparison with these other much
more elaborate and costly displays was surely commendable.

The central feature of the booth was a splendid piece of statuary in
butter. On a platform was placed an eight-faced glass refrigerator; it
was 8 by 10 feet on the floor and 15 feet high. The statue in butter
filled this. The square pedestal had at the four corners figures
representing Agriculture, Education, Mining, and Dairying. On the front
face was the seal of Minnesota, and on the two side faces medallions of
Alexander Ramsey and Samuel R. Van Sant. The crowning figure was that of
a mother giving to her little boy, who stood at her side, a piece of
bread and butter. Nearly a ton of the best creamery butter made in
Minnesota was used in this model.

The butter refrigerator in the Agricultural Building was of triple-plate
glass, and was 90 feet long. Minnesota's space was 8 by 16 feet. The
subject chosen for its model was historical--a representation of Father
Hennepin discovering St. Anthonys Falls. The father, in his priestly
garb, was shown in the act of stepping from an Indian canoe to the
shore. An Indian was holding the canoe to the bank by grasping a small
bush, while the boat was steadied by a French voyageur with his paddle.
The three types--the aborigine, the priest, and the French
voyageur--were accurately reproduced in costume, expression, and
features, and were practically life-size. The swift-flowing river, with
a suggestion of the falls, completed the picture, in which nearly 1,500
pounds of butter were used.

In a space just east of the butter refrigerator was the exposition
refrigerator for displays of cheese. In this the board took a space 8 by
8 feet.

The horticulture exhibit was placed in the hands of experts from the
State Horticultural Society. Here were shown large and small fruits,
preserved in many handsome jars. Apples which had been preserved in cold
storage from the crop of 1903 kept that feature of the exhibit
replenished, while the smaller fruits were shown as they matured, being
shipped from the growers in the State almost daily.

In September, when the new apples became available, a second and larger
space was secured. Here was made a display which was one of the greatest
attractions in the building. It represented a Dutch windmill and tower,
done entirely in apples.

During the final months of the exposition, when the live stock displays
were made, the board arranged with the State live stock association for
an exhibit of cattle, horses, and swine. The board appropriated $4,000
to this department and paid it into the hands of representatives of the
association to be distributed to the exhibitors from the State in
proportion to the prizes awarded to them by the exposition. This plan
was very successful and resulted in a creditable exhibit of the State's
prize live stock. At this time also a very successful display of poultry
was made, and a great many prizes were won.

In the Department of Education it was determined that Minnesota, should
retain its rank among the States and, if possible, should win new glory.
It was therefore made a leading department. The exhibit was especially
strong in rural school and primary and elementary education, and much
more attention than ever before was given to the secondary schools of
the State at large. The State department of education was consulted, and
the State Teachers' Association, the request of the board, named a
committee to advise with the board.

This was the first exposition to devote a separate building and one of
the main group of exhibit palaces to education. The plan greatly
dignified the department. Minnesota was most fortunate in the location
assigned its display, as this exhibit had the first space at the
principal entrance and was the first seen on entering the building from
the main exposition thoroughfare. The space was 30 by 60 feet. The
booth, the cabinet, the furnishings, and the frames were of Mission
brown oak. The walls were covered by a deep-blue burlap. The mountings
of the wall and cabinet exhibits toned with these colors, as did the
hangings. The design, as a whole, was exceedingly simple, but in the
style, in harmony of tone, and general artistic merit it was given first
rank among all the exhibits in the building. Its prominent position
demanded this excellence, for it commanded the most critical dicta of
the visitors.

In the arrangement of material, repetition and duplication were avoided.
All the written work and much of the drawing, designing, and drafting
was mounted in cabinets or bound in books. The arrangement showed the
State system as a unit, and every article in the booth was the work of
the schools, including the furniture, pottery, bric-a-brac, and
hangings. It was especially strong in manual training. In dividing the
space the manual-training exhibits were united as far as possible. The
first alcove of cabinet exhibits was devoted to the rural schools, the
second to the semigraded schools. The third and fourth sets of cabinets
contained the work of the secondary high schools and the grades in their
respective towns. The fifth set was given to the normal schools, while
the last two alcoves were devoted to the schools of St. Paul and
Minneapolis, the wall space being also apportioned to them. One cabinet
was filled with photographs of the university, the curricula,
statistics, etc. On the rear wall was a frieze of excellent photographs
of the university buildings, and around the outside of the entire booth
was a painted frieze, 5 feet deep, giving a panoramic view of the campus
and buildings, both of the academic and of the agricultural department.

A cabinet was also devoted to statistics, which included the State
system of aid to rural, semigraded, graded, and high schools. This
cabinet also gave figures showing the State permanent school funds, the
special tax, and school apportionment based on attendance; school
attendance, value of school property, system of examination of teachers,
and State examination for pupils, etc. There were also very complete
sets of State examination papers.

In the State Building the large reception room and the women's and men's
rooms were furnished by the pupils of the manual training classes of the
Minneapolis high schools, and of the Mechanic Arts High School of St.

While the exhibits of mining and building materials were kept separate
financially, they were practically combined in one exhibit in the Palace
of Mines and Metallurgy. No scientific display was attempted, and the
plan of installation was severely simple.

Minnesota has but one mineral in such abundance as to be a great
financial asset, but in that one--iron--it produces over half the output
of the Lake Superior region, which alone of the United States iron
fields produces any considerable quantity of ore of a quality required
for manufacturing Bessemer steel. The analysis of the ores and names of
the mines were given on the samples, which were shown in nearly 100
large glass jars. A chart of the Mesaba range; a large map of the State,
showing the location of the mineral lands; two groups of photographic
views of working mines and mining methods, in frames 3 by 10 feet in
size, with statistical charts. These constituted the wall display. On
the floor was a model, 11 feet square, of the Fayal, the greatest
producing mine in the world. This showed all the mining processes and
every detail of shaft house, ore dumps, cars, tracks, steam shovels,
telegraph lines, etc., in and about the mines.

The stone exhibit was also a practical one. It showed the more
marketable varieties as they appear in actual use. There were five large
wall pieces of granite, one of Winona stone, one of pipestone, and one
of Frontenac stone. Inclosing two sides of the floor space, which was 36
by 54 feet, was a low wall of stone, with two entrances. The shorter
wall was of polished granite from the St. Cloud quarries, showing all
the more distinct varieties--gray, mottled, black, red, and brown. The
wall on the longer side, beginning with a corner post and extending to
the entrances, was of polished red granite, with a panel of Minnesota
marble. On either side of the side entrance, were high posts of Kettle
River sandstone, handsomely carved, and the rest of the wall was of this
stone combined in part with the Twin City brick.

An elaborate game and fish display was determined upon in the Game and
Fisheries Building. Every inducement was held out by the company, and an
especial effort was made for this exhibit. It pledged, among other
things, that pure refrigerated water would be furnished for the fish.
The board consulted in this department the State game and fish chief,
Mr. Samuel Fullerton, who extended all the assistance possible.
Eighty-four feet of aquaria were put in, and it is indisputable that
they were the best built, most practical, and best arranged in the
building. At the close of the fair the Pacific Coast Association offered
$1,000 in cash for them where they were, or nearly one-third of their
cost. They were planned to show not only the State's trout and small
fish, but the large game fish that are found there. As it was, splendid
specimens were shipped to St. Louis in the fish car of the Pennsylvania
commission, loaned without charge for that purpose. The fish arrived on
Minnesota Day under the personal care of Mr. Fullerton and one of his
wardens and of three Pennsylvanians, expert in such work. The fish were
in splendid condition, and they included wall-eyed pike, pickerel,
muskellunge, bass of all varieties, and great northern pike that experts
said were larger than had ever before been sent anywhere for exhibition

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