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Final Report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission by Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission

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Wrecking Company, that much higher bids would have been made, and
considerably more money realized from the sale than they received from
the Chicago House Wrecking Company.

Between the 15th and 20th of December, 1904, I came in possession of one
of the catalogues that the Chicago House Wrecking Company sent out,
showing all the property they had for disposal. It contained cuts and
descriptions and computations that would take at least one month or more
to compile and print. I have had considerable experience in getting up
catalogues of material and property, and am confident that they could
not have compiled all the figures, secured all the cuts and
descriptions, and had the catalogue printed and on the market in a
month's time.

I consider the manner in which the bids were handled very irregular, and
that the awarding of the contract to the Chicago House Wrecking Company
for $450,000, in view of the amount and value of the property turned
over to them, as shown by their catalogue and their contract, to have
been detrimental to the interests of the United States, the city of St.
Louis, and the stockholders of the Exposition Company.


Subscribed and sworn to before me this 28th day of March, 1905. My
commission expires on the 9th day of November, 1908.


STATE OF ILLINOIS, _County of Cook, 88_:

Personally appeared before me this 28th day of March, 1905, Mr. John M.
Dunphy, who, being duly sworn, on his oath says:

My name is John M. Dunphy; I reside in the city of Chicago; I have
resided here for the past forty-seven years. I was city treasurer of
Chicago for one term; was commissioner of buildings for one term in this
city; I have been engaged in the contracting business for the past forty
years; I have been in the employ of Mr. S. Krug, contractor, of Chicago,
for the past three years; I am very familiar with construction and
wrecking work.

In regard to the sale of the salvage of the St. Louis Exposition I
desire to make the following statement:

Through a friend, Mr. Krug received specifications and instructions for
the wrecking and removal of certain buildings at the St. Louis
Exposition. These specifications were obtained from Mr. Isaac S. Taylor,
director of works of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. After we had
looked over the specifications Mr. Krug suggested that we go to St.
Louis and look over the plans and the buildings, with a view of
submitting a bid on the work. Mr. Krug, Mr. Powers, and myself arrived
in St. Louis on October 24, 1904. We called at Mr. Taylor's office that
day. I asked for Mr. Taylor, but was informed by some clerk there that
Mr. Taylor was too busy and could not see us. I talked with his
secretary, Mr. Carl Hoblitzelle, in the presence of Mr. Krug and Mr.
Powers. He told us he could answer all questions. I told him I wanted to
look at the plans, as we desired to figure on some of the buildings that
were to be disposed of. He took us into another room where the plans
were stored and introduced us to some gentleman in charge there. I
requested the plans from this gentleman. I asked for the plans for the
Agricultural and Horticultural buildings. After we had finished looking
these two plans over I looked around for the young man to ask for more
plans, but could not find him, and we went to the shelves and got down
the plans ourselves.

While we were there looking over the plans some gentleman came into the
room and spoke to Mr. Krug. Later on I asked Mr. Krug who the gentleman
was, and he told me it was a Mr. Frank Harris, of the Chicago House
Wrecking Company. Mr. Krug further stated that Mr. Harris was a resident
of Chicago, but was then interested in the Ferris Wheel at the
exposition. We remained in St. Louis for two days longer looking over
the plans and buildings, and then returned to Chicago. I never saw any
notice in the newspaper requesting sealed proposals for the wrecking and
removal of the exposition buildings. The first I knew about it was when
Mr. Krug received the specifications from his friend. We talked over the
matter of submitting bids on the work. On the 9th of November, 1904; Mr.
Krug and Mr. Schmitt, a bookkeeper for Mr. Krug, went to St. Louis to
submit a bid on the work, according to the specifications and
instructions prepared by Mr. Taylor, director of works. The bids were to
be in Mr. Taylor's office by 12 o'clock noon Thursday, November 1 1904.
Mr. Schmitt returned to Chicago on Friday night. Mr. Krug remained in
St. Louis. Mr. Schmitt went to St. Louis again on Monday, November 14.
On Tuesday, November 15, Mr. Krug and Mr. Schmitt returned to Chicago
and told me that all the bids had been rejected. Mr. Krug desired that
some one be on the ground to look after his interests, and suggested
that I go to St. Louis and keep in touch with affairs there and try and
ascertain what was going on. I left Chicago for St. Louis on Sunday,
November 20, 1904, and arrived at St. Louis morning of November 21.
After I was informed that all bids had been rejected I did not see any
published notice requesting additional or new bids, although I watched
the papers pretty close and tried to keep in touch with what was going
on. I went to Mr. Taylor's office several times while I was there and
sent in my card, as agent for Mr. Krug. I was informed each time by some
clerk in the office that Mr. Taylor was busy and could not see me. I
remained in St. Louis until the evening of November 26, when I was
compelled to return to Chicago. I requested Mr. Wm. H. Ranstead, a
friend of mine who lives in St. Louis and who was in pretty close touch
with what was going on, to look after matters there for me during my
absence, and to keep me advised of what went on, and if new bids were
requested to telephone or telegraph me. On the morning of Tuesday,
November 29, 1904, I received a telegram from Mr. Ranstead requesting
Mr. Krug and myself to go to St. Louis at once, as Mr. Taylor and
President Francis desired to have a talk with us. We left Chicago for
St. Louis on the first train out--11.03 a. m.--and arrived St. Louis at
6 p. in. November 29. We met Mr. Ranstead at the Lindell Hotel. We
talked over matters that evening. The next morning, November 30, Mr.
Krug, Mr. Ranstead, and myself went to the office of Mr. W.B. Stevens,
secretary of the Exposition Company. We waited in Mr. Stevens's office
some time. After a while Mr. Stevens took us to Mr. Taylor's office. The
salvage committee was in session in Mr. Taylor's office. There were
present at the time President Francis, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Samuel Kennard,
and Mr. J.A. Holmes. We talked with the salvage committee, and asked
them how they wanted us to submit a bid, and what they had to sell that
they wanted us to bid on. President Francis said that he wanted us to
bid on all the buildings shown in the specifications, and to include the
intramural stations, the bridges, and the fence around the grounds; also
the railroad rails and the copper wire. President Francis said that the
bid must be in by 4 o'clock that afternoon. It was then about 12 o'clock
noon. Mr. Krug said that he could not make an intelligent bid on such
short notice and asked for more time. Mr. Kennard then spoke up and
said: "Mr. Krug, you can give us a bid on the buildings, including the
intramural stations, the bridges, and the fence this afternoon, and have
it in by 4 o'clock, and we will give you until Friday, December 2, to
put in your bid on the rail and the copper wire." President Francis then
stated, "Mr. Krug, there are 2,000 tons of steel rail to be disposed
of." Mr. Krug asked for a statement showing the amount of rail and
copper wire, and stated he would be able to put his bid in before Friday
if he was furnished the statement. President Francis stated they could
not furnish such a statement. We then left the office and walked around
the grounds looking over the stations, the bridges, and the fences. We
did not look over the rail and wire that afternoon, as we thought we
would have more time for that the following day. After we had gone over
the ground we went and figured out a new bid and returned to the office
of Mr. Taylor about 4 o'clock. The salvage committee was in session at
the time. Mr. Frank and Mr. Abraham Harris, of the Chicago House
Wrecking Company, were holding a conference with the committee at the
time. About 5.30 p.m. the Harris brothers came out of the committee room
without their overcoats and hats on. They had left them in the room
where the committee was meeting. As soon as they came out we went in. We
were asked if we had prepared our bid. I handed the bid to Mr. Francis,
who in turn handed it to Mr. Kennard, who opened it and read it aloud.
The bid was for $101,000. This was only for the buildings, as shown by
the specifications, and on the intramural stations, bridges, and fences,
it being agreed during the talk in the morning that these latter items
should be included. President Francis then told Mr. Krug that he could
not wait until Friday for the bid on the railroad steel and the copper
wire; that it would have to be in by 11 p.m. that night, and that the
salvage committee would be in session until that hour. He said,
"To-morrow is the closing day of the Fair--Francis Day--and I will be
very busy." During our talk there then, President Francis told Mr. Krug
that he had made a mistake that morning in saying there were 2,000 tons
of steel rail; that there were 4,000 tons. Mr. Krug then asked for a
list of the rails and wire, or rather for a statement of the amount they
had purchased, so he could figure on it, but he was unable to get same.
We then left the fair grounds and went to the Lindell Hotel. As we were
leaving the room President Francis asked our names and where we were
stopping, and stated they would call us up over the telephone during the
evening. When we arrived at the hotel we held a conference and agreed on
a new bid. I went to the telephone at about 7.30 p.m. and called up Mr.
Taylor's office. I was informed by the party who answered the telephone
that the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 o'clock. I presumed they
had adjourned to get something to eat and would return shortly. About
8.30 p.m. I again called up Mr. Taylor's office and was informed that,
the salvage committee had adjourned at 7 p.m. and would not be back that
night. Shortly after this I called up President Francis's house and was
informed that he was not at home. I then called up Mr. Taylor's house
and was told that he was not at home. About 10 p.m. I called up Mr.
Holmes's residence and was informed that Mr. Holmes had gone to bed. I
tried every way I could to reach some member of the salvage committee,
but could not. The next morning, December 1, about 8.30 a.m., I called
up Mr. Holmes's house and was informed that Mr. Holmes was then on his
way to his office. I told Mr. Krug this, and he suggested that I go to
Mr. Holmes's office and see him. I went to the office of Mr. Holmes and
waited there some time. I think I was there about thirty minutes before
he came in. When he came he invited me into his private office. I asked
him what the salvage committee had done about the bids. He asked, "Did
they not call you up?" I said "No; nobody called us up." He said, "Why,
that is singular; it was understood that they would call you up before
doing anything." I told him that I had telephoned the office of Mr.
Taylor the night before, and was informed that the salvage committee had
adjourned at 7 o'clock. I asked him if the contract had been awarded,
and he told me that it had been given to the Chicago House Wrecking
Company before they adjourned at 7 o'clock on the evening of November
30. I went back to the hotel and told Mr. Krug and Mr. Ranstead that the
deal had been closed and that the contract had been given to the Chicago
House Wrecking Company. I asked him for what amount the contract was
closed and he refused to tell me. I came back to Chicago the next day,
December 2.

While we were in the salvage committee room talking about the bids I
asked President Francis for a list of all the property to be disposed
of, so that we would know what to figure on and make an intelligent bid.
He said that they were not furnishing lists to anyone; that they were
only giving out the specifications, and that we could go out on the
grounds and gather our own data. I never saw, by the papers or
otherwise, that new bids were requested after I was informed that the
first bids had been rejected.

I consider the manner in which the bids were handled very irregular, in
that the bids were opened in secret, and not in public, as demanded by a
majority of the bidders, and as is customary on large contracts. The
manner in which the bids were handled was not in accord with the way the
Government and the city handle bids.

I have had a great deal of experience in the past thirty years in
figuring on specifications for the construction and wrecking of
buildings, and never before saw specifications drawn up in the manner in
which these specifications were drawn up. They required such a large
deposit to accompany the bid and made the time limit too short, namely,
three months. The usual amount required to be deposited with a bid runs
from 5 to 10 per cent of the amount bid.

I have seen a list of the property acquired by the Chicago House
Wrecking Company under the terms of the contract, and will say that I
consider the market value of all the property at the time it was turned
over to the Chicago House Wrecking Company, on November 30, 1904, to
have been at least $1,000,000.

I will say further, that had the Exposition Company properly advertised
the sale of the property, and had disposed of same in piece lots, they
would have realized at least $1,200,000.

It was very apparent to me that the Chicago House Wrecking Company was
being furnished inside information, and it was also evident that they
were being favored in the deal.

I consider the awarding of the contract to the Chicago House Wrecking
Company for the sum of $450,000 was detrimental to the interests of the
United States, the city of St. Louis, and the stock-holders of the


Subscribed and sworn to before me this 28th day of March, 1905. My
commission expires on the 15th day of October, 1905.
_Notary Public_.




In November, 1903, the organization commission was appointed by the
President as follows: Senor Francisco Sequi, president; Senor Ricardo
Pillado, secretary; Senor Luis Suberbuhler; Senor Antonio Lanusse; Senor
Francisco de Souza Martinez; Senor Manuel G. Llamazares.

Dr. Jose V. Fernandez, commissioner-general; Senor Eduardo Schiaffino,
commissioner of fine arts; Senor Horacio Anasagasti, commissioner of
liberal arts and mines; Senor Guillermo A. Puente, commissioner of
manufacture and electricity; Dr. Damian Lan, commissioner of live stock;
Senor Ernesto Nelson, commissioner of education; Senor Enrique M.
Nelson, commissioner of agriculture and forestry; Senor Jose de
Olivares, commissioner of press and propaganda; Miss Ernestina A. Lopez,
Ph.D., delegate of the National Board of Education; Mrs. Sara C. de
Eccleston, delegate to the Women's Congress; Dr. B. del Castillo,
delegate of the Argentine Press Association; Dr. Luis A. Sauze, honorary
commissioner; Dr. Vicente Casares, jr., honorary attache; Senor Ricardo
Fernandez Guerrico, honorary attache; Senor Jorge Newbery, delegate of
the municipality of Buenos Aires to the Congress of Electricity.

In the extent and importance of its participation the Argentine Republic
ranked among the greatest foreign exhibitors at the International
Exposition of 1904. The total amount of money expended, including the
national appropriation by Congress, the contributions of the various
ministries of the Government and of the art, industrial, and scientific
institutions of the country, represented more than $300,000 gold. The
total space covered by the Argentine exhibit sections, independent of
the site occupied by the national pavilion, was about 20,000 square

The Argentine commission constructed an elegant pavilion at the northern
extremity of the grounds in the renaissance style, which was a copy,
although reduced in dimensions, of the two higher stories of the central
part of the "Casa Rosador," or "Pink Palace," the principal Government
building in Buenos Aires. In the pavilion was installed the offices of
the Commission, a reception and a reading room. On the second floor was
exhibited an excellent archaeological collection.

Numerous photographs distributed on the walls, in albums, and in
stereoscopic apparatus almost equaled a visit to the principal cities of
the country. The principal exhibits of the Argentine Republic were found
in the palaces of Agriculture, Mines, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Fine
Arts, Education, and Electricity. The art facades constructed about each
of the exhibit spaces in the greater palaces of the exposition were
universally admired.

The Argentine Republic, being a country essentially agricultural, its
section in the Agriculture Building revealed the productiveness of the
country and its vast agricultural resources. Wool was displayed in
numerous samples. That obtained from the Merino and Lincoln sheep was
noticeable. The first species was of a short and exceedingly fine
thread; the other, longer, coarser, and adapted for the manufacture of

The Argentine Republic is reputed to be the greatest producer of wool in
the world, having outrivaled Australia in its annual output. It is said
to have 120,000,000 sheep, or as many as Australia and the United States
combined. Besides wool, there was a magnificent display of sheepskins
and hides. The industry of footwear and harness was excellently

The Argentine section in the Palace of Agriculture showed the enormous
development of the dairy industry, including the manufacture of butter
and cheese. Two large Argentine establishments exhibited natural milk,
pasteurized, sterilized, and maternized. Both of these companies each
day produced 6,000 gallons of milk, for which 5,000 cows are milked
daily. In eight years the export of butter has multiplied twelve times.
The product exhibited was excellent, having been tested by examination
and analysis made in various colleges of agriculture in the United

Numerous samples of wheat, corn, and cotton were shown also. There were
samples of wheat weighing 67 pounds to the bushel. Statistics show that
the annual harvest of wheat reaches 120,000,000 bushels. Argentine
linseed also deserves consideration in this description, the Republic
producing almost one-third of the linseed consumed in the world. Flax in
abundance indicated the existence of an important textile industry in
connection with the enormous production of linseed.

There were exhibited also various fibers extracted from native plants,
and excellent samples of cordage showed what industry can get out of the
rich Argentine textile material.

The Argentine section of the manufactures offered many interesting
exhibits, among which figured a large variety of tanned leathers. In the
same section was exhibited foundry work executed in the Arsenal de
Guerra, of the city of Buenos Aires. There were also artistic medals,
ornamental shields, and munitions of war. One of the industries of
Buenos Aires is the manufacture of wax matches. The exhibit in the
section of manufactures spoke eloquently in favor of the position
reached by the industry in Buenos Aires. Exhibits of this industry
showed that Argentina is rapidly passing into the rank of industrial
nations. This suggestion was confirmed by the display of the other
manufactures exhibited in the Argentine section, which consisted of
furniture, textiles, hats, footwear, etc. The Republic also displayed an
interesting collection of minerals, which generally are shown in the
Departments Nacional de Minas Geologia, in the city of Buenos Aires.
There were samples of gold, silver, and copper on exhibition; also an
excellent display of coal.

Another Argentine section of great interest was that in the Liberal Arts
Palace, where an extensive collection of plans and relief models were
displayed, showing notable works undertaken by the Argentine Republic to
facilitate river as well as ocean navigation. One of the models showed
the harbor of Buenos Aires, which now occupies the second place in the
South American continent.

An interesting exhibit representative of the Argentine Republic was that
of the national press, which in the number of publications presented and
extent of space covered was one of the most important displays of the
kind in the exposition.

In consequence of the size and importance of the exhibit, it was found
necessary to install it in a special section. The credit for the
collection of the press exhibit was due principally to the Circule de la
Prensa, or National Press Association of the Argentine Republic, one of
the principal literary and journalistic institutions in the southern
continent. Models of dams, as constructed in the interior of the country
to facilitate irrigation, were also shown. The same section contained
excellent lithographic and engraving work.

The Argentine Republic had two rooms in the west wing of the Palace of
Fine Arts. The Argentine paintings received as many awards in this
department as any other country in proportion to the number of

The intellectual development of the country revealed itself in the
Palace of Education. A graphic statistical exhibit in the Argentine
section showed that that country spends as much money per capita in
public education as any other nation in the world. Another statistical
display demonstrated the number of teachers employed. A diagram showed
that the Argentine Republic comes next to France and among the Latin
countries in respect to the number of students attending schools. The
scholastic works, especially the needlework, ranked well with that in
many of the advanced schools of the United States.


_Austrian commission._--Mr. Adalbert R. Von Stibral,
commissioner-general; Mr. Victor Pillwax, assistant commissioner; Mr.
Dominik Fetz, secretary; Mr. Emil S. Fischer, commercial secretary.

_Austrian commercial commission._--Count Johann Harrach, president; Mr.
Oskar Edler Von Hoefft, first vice-president; Mr. Franz Hiess, second
vice-president; Mr. Charles M. Rosenthal, executive commissioner; Mr.
Johann Peterka, commercial director; Mr. Adolph Taussig, commercial
representative and assistant commissioner.

One of the most interesting and, as far as the interior scheme of
decoration is concerned, the most artistic of the various foreign
buildings in the World's Fair grounds, was that of the Austrian Empire.
It was most prominently situated at the western end of Administration
avenue, immediately opposite the Administration Building of the World's
Fair. The garden at the west end of the pavilion, though small,
attracted a great deal of attention on account of its artistic beauty.
Morning-glory and other vines had been planted around the building, and
before the close of the fair had covered the walls and added much to the
beauty of the structure.

The Austrian Government Building was of impressionistic architecture. It
was 60 meters long, 35 meters wide, and built in the form of a T. From
the transepts a middle aisle, 24 meters broad, extended to the building
line. On either side of the aisle exits led to the loggias and to the
lawns. The pavilion was built of wood and all the rooms had skylights.
The style of architecture and decoration was modern, with a classical
toning. The exterior of the building was faced with a grayish,
yellow-colored gypsum, shaded with gold, dark blue, and light green. Two
groups of figures, above life size, adorned the main porch of the
central building. The imperial coat of arms, with a crown surrounded by
a large wreath, was raised above the center of the pavilion, and to the
right and left two sphinxes crowned the gables. The center building
(garden front) was finished with two enormous square pylons, with
festoons and masks and decorated with all the coats of arms of the
Austrian crown lands. Four stela-bearing gilded busts were symmetrically
placed along the front of the flower beds, in which monumental fountains
had been erected. The interior of the building was divided into fifteen
rooms. To the left and right of the entrance hall, which was adorned
with a marble bust of the Emperor, were the official apartments, one of
which was meant as a library and reading room and the other as a
reception room. Beyond the entrance hall was the technical exhibition of
the ministry of railways, which likewise occupied the room on the
left-hand side for an exhibition, "Sceneries and People of Austria." The
hall to the right was devoted to the department of the ministry of
commerce for the building of waterways. At the back part of the middle
aisle a large hall was devoted to the exhibits of the professional art
schools, and two smaller ones showed interiors executed by the schools
for arts and crafts in Vienna and Prague. The fine-arts exhibits of the
Vienna Artists' Association and of the association called "Hagenbund"
were on the right of the transepts; pictures by Bohemian and Polish
artists on the opposite side.

The artists and artisans who took part in building and decorating the
Austrian Government pavilion were as follows: The plans of the whole
building, the entrance hall, the two halls of the ministry of railways,
and the hall containing the exhibition of waterways were designed by the
chief architect, Oberbaurat Ludwig Bauman, Josef Meissner substituting
him in the superintendence of the works; contractor J. Lecoeur.

The library was designed by Leopold Bauer, architect, and the architect
Joseph Pleonik designed the reception room.

The plastic on the outside of the building was delivered by the sculptor
Othmar Schimkowitz. The figurate frieze in the library was the work of
the painter Josef Engerhart. The painter Ferdinand Andri executed the
frescoes on the facade and Meinrich Tomec those in the department for
waterways. The Emperor's bust, which was made of Lassar marble and which
had been executed in the workshop of the Tyrol Marble and Porphyry
Company (Fritz Zeller), Laas (Tyrol), was a copy of Professor Strasser's

The relief "Empress Elizabeth" (allegory) in the reception room was by
the late Rudolf Weigl, sculptor.

Sandor Jaray had been intrusted with the interior decorations and
fittings. The carpets were delivered by J. Ginskey, Maffendorf, and the
ornamental locksmith work by Alexander Nehr.

The mosaic and artistic work was done by Max Freiherr von Spann and
Johann Kappner; the fancy needlework by Carl Giani; the inlaid work
(intarsia) by Michael Kehl, Josef Duchoslav, and Franz Makienec, and the
bronze works by Johann Hastach, Carl Kratky, J. Schubert, and A.T.
Lange. On account of the beauty of its furnishings and the harmonious
color schemes of the interior the pavilion was especially attractive to
women visitors to the fair.

Austria is the home of the European alpine railways. The oldest, the
Semmering Railway, constructed in 1848-1854, lies on the South Railway
main line from Vienna to Trieste and is the first mountain railway
conducted exclusively on the adhesive principle. Then followed the
Brenner Railway (1864-1867), the shortest railway communication between
central Germany via Tyrol to Italy (Verona), and the Arlberg Railway
(1880-1884), which opened up the route via Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the
west (Switzerland and France). Four great panoramas in the exhibition
showing the above-mentioned alpine railways were witness to Austria's
prominence in this special field of railway technique. One room in the
pavilion was devoted to the models of alpine railways. There were also
plans of the lines, photographic views of buildings and of the tracks of
the first three mentioned lines, which are in full working order. The
lines in course of construction were further illustrated by models of
tunnels, scaffoldings, foundations of arched bridge (with span of 80
meters) over the Isonzo (littoral lands of Austria), with statistical
calculations and charts of the largest vaulted bridges ever built, and
photographic views of the working in the Karawanken and Wocheiner
tunnels. Among the other exhibits in this department may be mentioned a
model of the groundwork of the Austrian State railways for express
trains, photos of the imperial court train and of the newest locomotives
and passenger carriages of the Austrian State railways, as well as plans
for iron bridges, groundwork, locomotives, and passenger carriages of
the State railways. The work published for the Emperor's jubilee,
"History of the Railways of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy," together
with a number of other publications on the statistics, pedagogy, and
technique of railways, were exhibited. Finally, there was a chart of the
railways of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy on a scale of 1:1000000.

For a long time the Austrian ministry of railways set itself the task of
drawing the attention of the traveling public to the beauties of the
scenery and the ethnographical charms in which Austria abounds, and thus
inducing them to visit the country. To gain this end the ministry issued
various publications, opened inquiry offices, and arranged exhibitions.
The exhibition "Sceneries and People of Austria" in the Government
pavilion was arranged, with the cooperation of several artists, for the
same object. The exhibit principally consisted of a collection of views
of the most beautiful parts of Austria, especially the Austrian Alps,
and pictures of Austrian national life. Photographs taken by the best
photographers, as well as a number of artistic amateur photos,
representing important traveling districts in Austria (99 in all), were
enlarged and reproduced as pigment prints or linographs. Two series of
photographic prints were exhibited also, one consisting of Austrian
castles and strongholds and the other of various favorite alpine
resorts. Further, a selection of alpine and traveling works in luxurious
editions were shown.

The whole exhibition was finished off with a collection of 14 pictures
of costumes and sport, arranged like a frieze and illustrating special
Austrian national scenes. Four bronze statuettes, viz, "Chamois-hunter,"
"Alpine tourist," "Ski sportsman," "Alpine dairy woman," had been placed
in the room as decorations.

The exhibition of models, plans, and photographs of the existing and
projected canal for deep-draft ships, arranged by the department of the
ministry of commerce for the building of waterways, offered a general
view of the whole network of the Austrian waterways, comprising those of
the Danube, Moldau, and Elbe rivers, together with the system of canals.

The beautiful landscape of the river sides was shown by means of views
of the Danube, contained in an album, while the plans, photographs, and
models exhibited by the Danube Regulation Commission showed the river
courses, the harbor in lower Austria and Vienna, as well as the
construction for regulating the water level in the Vienna-Danube Canal.
A map of Prague showed the harbor and canal construction works, some
finished and others projected, in the precincts of the town. The
drawings and photos exhibited in a corner of the hall by the
Aussig-Teplitz Railway Company illustrated the position and traffic of
the harbor of Aussig, the most important inland harbor of Austria. The
charts, in addition to giving a view of the position of the canals and
rivers, with canals projected, showed also longitudinal sections of the
Danube-Oder Canal.

The exhibitions of the State professional art schools, arranged by the
imperial royal ministry of public instruction, Vienna, gave an idea of
the work done by these institutions. The exhibition was arranged in
three divisions, the first two containing the exhibits of the schools
for arts and crafts in Vienna and Prague (the largest of their kind in
Austria) and the third the work of the other professional art schools.

The decoration of the two interiors of the schools for arts and crafts,
Vienna (Director Felizian Freiherr von Myrbach) and Prague (Director
Georg Stibral), as well as all the objects exhibited in these divisions,
were designed at the above institutions and executed by the pupils. The
organization of the "collective exhibition" of the other professional
art schools was intrusted to the inspector of these schools and Hofrat
Arthur von Scala, director of the Austrian Museum, Vienna. The interior
and the exhibits themselves were executed in the workshops of 46
different professional art schools, with the cooperation of the pupils.

The amount of money appropriated by the Austrian Government for the
participation of the Austrian Empire at the exposition was 1,100,000
crowns (about $220,000). The appropriation, however, was almost
exclusively made for the display of Austria in connection with the
Austrian Government Pavilion. The appropriated amount had to cover the
expense for the erection of the pavilion and its installation, as well
as the installation of two rooms in the Fine Arts Building, where the
Vienna Artists' Association had an additional display. The appropriated
amount had also to cover the transportation of the Austrian Government
exhibits as well as the expense of the reshipment of same. The
Government provided the 1,100,000 crowns not only for the erection of
the pavilion and its sculptural works, but for the expenses of
installation, transportation, etc. Part of this money was used by the
various Government participants, viz:

(1) The imperial royal railroad ministry.

(2) The imperial royal department of waterways of Austria.

(3) The imperial royal ministry of education.

(4) And finally by four fine art associations. These fine art
associations were: (1) the Vienna Artists' Association, (2) the
"Hagenbund" Artists' Association of Vienna, (3) the Bohemian artists,
and (4) the Polish Artists.

The fine art associations had their display each in one room of the
thirteen contained in the Austrian Government Pavilion. The Vienna
Artists' Association had also two rooms covering the Austrian section in
the Fine Arts Building.

In reference to the commercial exhibit, a number of prominent
individuals of Austria organized an exhibition of the manufacturers of
Austria. They secured a number of participants, mostly glass and
porcelain manufacturers as well as leather and jewelry merchants of
Austria. Their exhibits representing Austria were displayed in the
Manufactures Building, Varied Industries Building, Liberal Arts
Building, and in the Agricultural Building.


By decree No. 4897 of July 21, 1903, the President of the Republic of
Brazil sanctioned the act of Congress making an appropriation of
$600,000 giving the Government authorization for the representation of
Brazil at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

On the 27th of the same month the following commissioners were

Col. F.M. De Souza Aguiar, president; Maj. J. Da Cunha Pires, secretary
and commissioner; Mr. J. Da Motta, assistant commissioner; Mr. Antonio
Olyntho, commissioner; Mr. J.C. Alves de Lima, commissioner; Dr. A. Da
Graca Couto, commissioner; Commodore J.C. Do Carvalho, commissioner;
Commodore A. Correa, commissioner; Mr. J.A. Dos Santos, commissioner;
Mr. A.J. Da Costa Couto, commissioner; Mr. Ferreira Ramos, commissioner;
Capt. J. Cordeiro da Graca, commissioner; Mr. Eugenio Dahne, assistant
commissioner; Mr. E. Da Rocha Dias, aide; Air. Ricardo Mardock and Mr.
A.C. Lopes Goncalves, commissioners from State of Amazonas.

One of the most attractive exhibits at the World's Fair was offered by
Brazil. That country showed itself so rich and diversified in resources
as to astonish the public, and in keeping with its large exhibit erected
a building which soon became one of the features of the fair.

The Brazilian Building, which was designed and personally supervised by
the commissioner-general, Col. F.M. de Souza Aguiar, was located in the
southwestern part of the section occupied by the foreign governments,
having on its north the Belgian, Cuban, and Chinese buildings, and on
the east that of Nicaragua, on the south those of France and India, and
on the west the Forestry, Fish and Game, Italian, and Administration

In the center of the grounds, surrounded by lawns with flower beds and
wide gravel walks, stood the Brazilian Building in the French
renaissance style of architecture. The main cornice, 80 feet high, was
supported by eight groups of three columns each at the corners and sides
of the two entrances of the building, and by six single columns at each
loggia. These thirty-six columns were of the corinthian style of
architecture, without the fluting ordinarily used with this particular
column, and were ornamented only at the lower third of the shaft with
the Brazilian coat of arms between floral festoons. Projecting above the
roof of the building were three domes, two of which, on either loggia,
were spherical in form, being 44 feet in diameter, while the apex of the
central dome attained a height of 135 feet. The dome was octagonal in
shape, having at each corner an exterior buttress, adorned with a large
statue at its top. Encircling the same was a gallery from which could be
viewed the greater part of the exposition grounds and the surrounding
country. Above the cornice of the building was a balustrade decorated
with shields, showing the coats of arms of the twenty-one States of

The main floor was reached by means of a flight of nineteen granitoid
steps on either the north or south side of the building, which led
through two spacious porticoes. The second floor formed one large room
only, the ceiling of which was divided into rectangular panels,
supported by thirty-two Doric columns. The second floor was reached also
by a majestic double staircase, where a spacious reception room, two
apartments for ladies, and the offices of the commission were situated.
In the center of the reception room was a marble statue representing
"the Feast," mounted on a large pedestal and encircled by an upholstered
settee. Above this statue the large central dome opened, supported by
eight columns, which formed an interior gallery.

In simplicity, stateliness, and beauty of outline the Brazilian Pavilion
was equal to any of the foreign buildings on the grounds. Its dome rose
90 feet above the main structure, which covered 191 by 132 feet, and it
soon became known as a landmark in the foreign government section of the

The interior decorations of the building were entirely in keeping with
the magnificent exterior. The apartments were sumptuously furnished and
decorated with rare statues. The colored glass which ornamented the
central dome gave a soft tint to the furnishings beneath. On the walls
were hung interesting photographs and charts illustrating the chief
industry of the country-coffee culture. This industry was further
demonstrated by machinery of the most improved pattern, showing the
process of preparing coffee for the market. In sacks, in glass jars, and
cases, coffee beans ranging in size from furled grains as small as peas
to flat beans as large as cocoa beans were displayed. To illustrate the
abundance of the product Brazil had built here a fountain which poured
forth coffee beans instead of water. At night rows of electric lights,
outlining the same, took the place of the Brazilian and American flags,
which ornamented it by day. There were fifteen hundred of these lights
distributed throughout the building, some clustered in rich chandeliers
from the center of the reception halls and loggias, others placed in
rows to outline galleries and dome.

In addition to the appropriation of $600,000 made by the Federal
Government, many of the States contributed all the expenses toward
propaganda, collection and transportation of exhibits from their own
individual territories. The installations and booths (ten in all) in the
exposition building were made at the expense of the Brazilian Government
at a cost of $70,000. The cost of the main building, complete with its
furnishings and improvement of grounds, was $135,000. The cost of
transportation of exhibits from Brazil to St. Louis was $30,000. In all,
Brazil had 2,400 exhibitors in 14 departments out of 16.


The government of the Dominion of Canada was represented at the World's
Fair by the exhibition branch of the department of agriculture of
Canada. This branch was organized some years ago for the purpose of
collecting, installing, and maintaining exhibits at expositions where
the government of Canada was officially represented. The personnel of
the exhibition branch is as follows: Hon. Sidney A. Fisher, minister of
agriculture; William Hutchinson, exhibition commissioner; W.A. Burns,
secretary and assistant to the commissioner; W.H. Hay, decorator; S.
Anderson, superintendent of installation.

The government and products of Canada were represented at the fair in
several exhibits, viz, an official building or pavilion; a collection of
minerals and mining products in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy; a
display of the grains, grasses, and the agricultural products in the
Palace of Agriculture; an exhibit of all the various fruits grown in the
Dominion in the Palace of Horticulture; a special exhibit of the forest
products of Canada showing the great variety of timber, bark, pulp wood,
etc., in a building erected especially for the purpose; also a varied
collection of the larger and smaller game, fish, etc., together with
specimens of all the numerous varieties of wood produced in the forests
and inland waters of the Dominion, exhibited in the Forestry, Fish, and
Game Building, and in a special exhibit of live beaver in the same

As an appropriation for the installation of these exhibits the
government of Canada made a preliminary grant of $150,000, which was
supplemented by further appropriations for maintenance aggregating
$175,000, making a total of $325,000.

The official pavilion was a structure built after the fashion of a
clubhouse, located near the north entrance to the Palace of Agriculture,
costing, with forestry building in rear, about $35,000. This building
was furnished throughout with the products of Canadian factories and
decorated with the work of Canadian artists, all suggestive of the
natural wealth, progress, and enterprise of the country.

The mining exhibit occupied a space of 10,000 square feet, and comprised
large quantities of coal and all the coarser metal ores, together with
an extensive collection of all the finer metals minerals, building
stones, and every product of the mines known to science and commerce.

The agricultural exhibit occupied a space of 12,000 square feet, and
consisted of a large central figure in the form of an octagonal trophy
rising to a height of 60 feet, in which were artistically worked over
three hundred grasses, grains, and plants, all grown in Canada, and
decorated with landscape views of the various breeds of cattle raised in
the Dominion. On either side of this central figure was a pedestal of
maple sugar and honey, respectively, and in the rear other products of
tobacco, grain, flour, breadstuffs, etc.

The horticultural display consisted of a varied collection of all the
fruits grown in Canada, comprising ninety-four varieties of apples in
their natural state, taken from cold storage, and a large collection of
pears, peaches, plums, grapes, currants, gooseberries, strawberries,
cranberries, raspberries, and everything included in horticulture,
presented in glass jars as well as in their natural state throughout
their respective seasons.

The special exhibit of forest products consisted of sections of the
great fir trees, pines, cedars, oaks, hemlocks, birch, ash, walnut,
cherry, etc., and specimens of rough and polished lumber from every
variety of wood grown in the Dominion, together with a large pyramid of
pulp wood, of which Canada possesses millions of acres, railway ties,
tan bark, etc.

In the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building the exhibit consisted of an
unique arch or bridge structure with a double span covering 80 feet, and
on this structure and under it were numerous specimens of moose, deer,
elk, buffalo, mountain goat, polar, grizzly, and brown bears, and every
fur-bearing animal to be found in America. There was also a fine
collection of game birds and water fowls, fish, etc. In this bridge
structure was worked over three thousand varieties of wood, all grown in
Canada. In another section of the building was shown a pool containing a
family of live beaver, an interesting animal common to the streams and
lakes of Canada.

Besides those already enumerated, Canada made a very creditable display
of figure and landscape paintings in the Palace of Fine Arts, as well as
a collection of various subjects in water colors.

Later in the season Canada made a very successful exhibit in the
live-stock department. Her display was especially large in sheep and
swine classes and almost equally good in poultry and pet stock.

In addition to those enumerated in the foregoing list, Canada is
entitled to credit for a number of individual exhibits of various kinds
scattered over the exposition grounds; for example, in the Building of
Mines and Metallurgy there was an exhibit of natural and wrought nickel,
every pound of the raw material coming from the Sudbury mines, in the
Province of Ontario. The exhibit occupied a large space in the Mining
Building and consisted of a varied and comprehensive display of nickel
and nickel goods, from the natural ore to the finest and most polished
culinary and domestic utensils. Every pound of raw material used in this
display was from the mines situated in Denison Township, Sudbury
District, Ontario, Canada.

In Machinery Hall there was an exhibit comprising a great variety of
corundum products, every pound of whose raw material came from Canada.
The exhibit showed corundum in bulk, in large wheels, small wheels,
hones, and every variety of grinding and sharpening specialties. The
amount of raw corundum used annually by the company reaches nearly 1,000
tons. In the Machinery Building, also, was an exhibit of asbestos and
its products, the raw material of which came from Canada. The display
consisted of steam-pipe coverings, mattings, packings, and everything of
that nature required in heating and steam machinery; also asbestos
mattings and fire screens, heavy papering and cardboards, and other
things that asbestos can be worked into. All the asbestos came from the
Shedford and Black Lake mines, in the Province of Quebec.

In the Manufactures Building was a very fine assortment of stones, etc.,
from different parts of Canada. Among the assortment were garnets from
the Stikine River and also from the Province of Quebec; amethysts from
Thunder Bay; labradorite, finest in the world, from the Isle of St.
Paul; spinel from Ottawa County, Quebec; sodalite from British Columbia;
pitanite, Litchfield, Quebec; lercon and perthite from Quebec; sunstone
and lebra stone from Perth, Ontario, and crown sunstone from Renfrew
County, Ontario.

Besides the exhibits mentioned there were in the Mines Building an
exhibit of mineral water from Abenakis Springs, Quebec; in the
Philadelphia exhibit in the educational department a fine display of
asbestos and pulp.


Consequent on the visit to Ceylon of Hon. John Barrett, commissioner of
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, in the latter part of 1902, Hon. W.H.
Figg was dispatched as advance commissioner to St. Louis to investigate
the conditions of the proposed World's Fair of 1904 and to make
preliminary arrangements for the representation of the colony thereat.
Mr. Figg's report, dated New York, February, 1903, was followed by the
appointment of a commission composed of the following members:

Hon. Stanley Bois, commissioner-general; Mr. R. Huyshe Eliot, assistant
commissioner; Mr. P.E. Pieris, assistant commissioner; Mr. Russell
Stanhope, assistant commissioner; Mr. Peter De Abrew, commercial agent;
Hon. J. Ferguson, C.M.G., Mr. F.C. Roles, Mr. H. Van Cuylenberg, and Mr.
D. Obeyesekeri, official visitors.

By vote $150,000 was placed at the disposal of this commission, and a
further sum of $10,000 was contributed by the Planters' Association.

The scheme finally adopted for the exploitation of the products of
Ceylon at the World's Fair was that all articles of artistic interest
should be displayed in a special court and those of commercial
importance in the various palaces. It was agreed that the practical
demonstration of the use of tea should be carried on in the court and
made as attractive as possible to the American public. A concession was
accordingly obtained from the Exposition Company for the sale of tea in
the cup at a nominal price, and an excellent site was allotted to the
Government of Ceylon immediately west of and adjoining the lake, where
the United States Life-Saving Service had its daily display and facing
the north end of the Palace of Agriculture. The building (which was
designed in Ceylon by Mr. Skinner) was rectangular in form, 120 feet
long and 60 feet wide, and two stories in height.

Broad verandas, so characteristic a feature of oriental houses, ran
round each floor, and there tea was served daily by 20 Cingalese
servants. These tea servers dressed in spotless white, and with long
hair fastened with big tortoise shell combs, made a most picturesque
appearance and gave a touch of reality to the Cingalese pavilion.

From the center of the building sprang an octagon 75 feet high,
reproducing the building where the kings of Ceylon used to show
themselves to their subjects at their ancient capital of Kandy. Smaller
octagons rose from the four corners. The ornamentation was
characteristically Cingalese. Broad friezes painted by native artists
represented the various birth stories of the Buddha. The door panels and
quaint capitals were such as may be seen at many a temple in Ceylon and
formed an appropriate setting for the impassive images of the Buddha.
The building was constructed by Messrs. Broderick & Wind, contractors of
New York, under the general supervision of Mr. Russell Stanhope,
representative at St. Louis of the commissioner-general, at a total cost
of $30,000.

Downstairs were the offices of the commission, while on the upper floor
the greater portion of the fine art exhibit of Ceylon was situated. The
native artist was seen at his best in the magnificent jeweled caskets of
carved ivory and the exquisite reprousse work in silver, representing an
art which has been handed down from father to son for twenty-five
centuries in the caste of Cingalese silversmiths.

The department of manufactures was represented by massive furniture in
calamander, ebony, and satinwood, carved with the most elaborate
devices, dainty laces made by the nimble fingers of village women,
beautiful productions on tortoise shell and gold, heavily embroidered
cloths of gold, and a large collection of the various curios for which
the East is famous, besides a display of tanned hides and jewelry of
exceptional merit. There was a further display of art work in the
international room of the Palace of Fine Arts. More than 100 exhibitors
were represented in this building, the total value of their exhibits
exceeding $50,000. Outside on the lake was an outrigger canoe of full
size, such as is still in use among the fishermen of Ceylon.

The chief commercial exhibit of the country was to be found in the
Palace of Agriculture, where a space of 2,000 square feet had been
allotted to it. First and foremost was the great industry of tea
cultivation. Thirty years ago the island exported a million tons of
coffee annually, and tea was an unknown article; last year the quantity
of the leaf which was exported to all parts of the world exceeded
150,000,000 pounds (of which 18,000,000 was sent to the United States),
while coffee hardly figures on the customs returns The industry is
almost exclusively in the hands of Europeans. All the chief producers
were represented at the exposition, their interests forming the special
province of an assistant commissioner.

The cocoanut palm and its cultivation was fully represented. The nut
itself, the various fibers, matting and ropes made from its husk, the
copra or dried kernel, from which is extracted the oil now so largely
used in the manufacture of best soaps and hair oils; the desiccated and
"shredded" cocoanut, the demand for which among confectioners is rapidly
increasing; cocoanut butter, an excellent emollient and substitute for
lard; the arrack, distilled from the "toddy" extracted from the flower,
a valuable liquor after a few years in cask; the vinegar and "jaggery,"
or molasses; down to the brooms, made from the "ekels" or midrib of the
leaves, were shown in infinite variety.

Rice, the staple food of the country, was represented in a few of its
350 varieties, and cinnamon in bark or oil, cloves, nutmegs, mace,
cardamoms, pepper, vanilla, and citronella oil, cocoa and coffee,
rubber, cinchona bark, from which quinine is prepared, croton seed, and
annotto dye might also be seen. The fibers included those of the Kitul
and Palmyra palms and the silky niyande (sansevier zeylanical). One
hundred and twenty exhibitors were represented, and the value of the
collective exhibit was $5,000.

The educational exhibit, which had been prepared under the direct
supervision of the director of public instruction in Ceylon, illustrated
the procedure adopted by the British Government in dealing with races
with an advanced literature of their own, to whom a certain knowledge of
English is a necessity. The present conditions of education--elementary,
advanced, and technical--were well depicted, and the exhibit contained
in addition a collection of the various scientific journals issued by
the Colombo Museum and the department of the botanical gardens in

Graphite, locally known as plumbago, the only commercial mineral of the
country, might be seen in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy. More than
600,000 hundredweights of this valuable commodity were exported in 1899,
the greatest demand being in the United States, where the article is
employed in the manufacture of crucibles, for stove polish, and for
lubricating purposes. A few of the choice rubies and sapphires, for
which the island is so famous, were on view in the Ceylon court. Thirty
firms and private individuals were represented in this department, the
exhibits exceeding $12,000 in value.

In Liberal Arts the government of Ceylon snowed the admirable work
turned out by its printing offices, and various private firms of
printers and photographers were represented. The large model of the
artificial harbor of Colombo was of particular interest as illustrating
the position of the city as the tenth port in the world for tonnage
entering and clearing. There was also a good private collection of coins
found in Ceylon and covering a period of nearly two thousand years. The
space occupied in the Palace of Liberal Arts was 600 square feet, and
the value of the total exhibit was $1,000.

The musical instruments of the country, chiefly consisting of drums and
the varied equipment of the "devil dancers," were shown in the Ceylon

In the Palace of Forestry a space or 600 square feet was occupied by
Ceylon. The chief exhibit there consisted of the massive trunk of a
satinwood tree, hollowed out so as to form a receptacle for "books,"
which consisted of blocks of all the various trade timbers of the
country. An exhibit prepared by the marine biologist illustrated
everything connected with fishing in the Ceylon waters, from the crude
fish trap of the villager to the latest addition to knowledge regarding
the origin of the lustrous oriental pearl. Models of the various kinds
of boats employed in the country were also shown. The wild animals of
the country, its beautiful birds (including the swift, which builds the
edible nest), and gorgeous butterflies, were well shown. The exhibit
represented a value of $3,000.

Finally, in the department of anthropology there were shown, in the
Ceylon Building, types of the various races found in Ceylon,
illustrations of their pre-Christian civilization, the utensils of brass
and wood still used in their houses, and all the accompaniments of their
philosophic religions.

A special handbook was prepared by a subcommittee in Colombo containing
information for the use of the American people regarding the trade and
resources of the country.


The participation of China at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
authorized by an imperial decree issued in January, 1903. The same
decree appointed an imperial commission, as follows:

His Royal Highness Prince Pu Lun, imperial high commissioner; Sir Robert
Hart, Bart., G.C.M.G. (inspector-general of customs), president
ex-officio; Mr. Wong Kai-Pah, imperial vice-commissioner; Mr. Francis A.
Carl, imperial vice-commissioner; Mr. D. Percebois, secretary of Chinese
imperial commission; Mr. J.A. Berthet, assistant to secretary of Chinese
imperial commission.

The amount set apart by the Chinese Government to meet the expenses
connected with China's participation in the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was 750,000 taels, or, roughly speaking, $500,000 gold. As
with all previous expositions in which China has taken part, the
collecting of exhibits was intrusted to the imperial Chinese maritime
customs service, under the control of Sir Robert Hart, Bart., G.C.M.G.,
inspector-general of customs. This service, with its numerous branches
and ramifications throughout the Empire and an experienced staff
acquainted with both native and foreign tastes was in an exceptional
position to succeed in making a representative collection of the best in
Chinese arts, manufactures, and products. The commissioners of customs
at the principal trading centers took the work in hand, selecting such
exhibits as were suitable when offered by merchants, and purchasing
outright such articles as could not be procured otherwise. The
collections were made at the following treaty ports: Newchang, Tientsin,
Chefoo, Chungking, Hankow, Kiukiang, Wuhu, Nanking, Chinkiang, Shanghai,
Hangchow, Ningpo, Wenchow, Foochow, Amoy, Swatow, Canton, Pakhoi,
Kiungchow, Mengtse, Lungchow, and Szemao.

Besides the Government exhibits from the foregoing-mentioned places, the
provincial authorities of Hupeh, Hunan, Kiangaan, and Fukien also made
collections. This is noteworthy, as it was the first time on record that
the regular Chinese officials have taken any interest in a foreign
exhibition. In addition to the Government participation, fifty-three
firms and private individuals sent their quota of exhibits. The
following table gives the kind, class, and approximate value of exhibits
installed by each:

Porcelain curios, cloisonne, carpets, art work in metal,
tapestries, furniture, silks, ivory, fans, and jade ...... $510,200
Furs and skins ............................................ 6,500
Cement and fire bricks .................................... 1,000
Fancy articles, wood carvings, paintings, and drawings, etc 11,600
Collections of butterflies ................................ 100
Preserved meats, fish, vegetables, and fruit .............. 100
Chinese postal stamps and coins ........................... 5,000
Silverware and lanterns ................................... 2,750
Total ................................................... 537,250
Government exhibits ....................................... 40,000
Provincial ................................................ 61,000
Grand total ............................................. 638,250

The collection made by the twenty-two treaty ports comprised such
articles as were not offered by the mercantile class. In nearly every
case the ports' collection included samples of products and manufactures
typical to the district, models of the prevailing architecture and of
any special costume worn by the people, models of the types of boats in
use, carriages and wheelwrights' work, agricultural implements and farm
machinery, appliances and methods used in agricultural industries,
agricultural seeds, equipment and method employed in the preparation of
foods, minerals and stones and their utilization, musical instruments,
chemical and pharmaceutical arts, gold and silver ware, weights and
measures, coins and medals, and photographs of the port. The collections
made by the provincial authorities comprised art work in jade, crystal,
porcelain and bronze, Chinese books and publications, lacquered ware and
fancy articles.

The total approximate value as given above was $638,250, but this sum
included the cost of transportation and installation. It represents in
fact the market value in the United States. There was in the
neighborhood of 2,000 tons of shipments from China to St. Louis--800
tons from the south of China, and 1,200 from the north of China. The
rate from the south of China, i.e., Hongkong, was $8 per ton, while from
the north of China, i.e., Shanghai, or nearly 900 miles shorter trip,
the rate was $14 per ton. The amount paid for transportation was more
than $20,000, to which must be added some $2,000 for terminal and
switching charges. The cost of installation for the entire exhibit was
about $7,500. The exorbitant wages necessary for all work done at the
exposition accounts for this heavy expenditure. Another large item of
expense, according to the Chinese commissioner, was the 5 per cent rate
charged in this country for fire insurance. Most of the foreign
countries taking part in the exposition effected insurance in home
companies at about half the above rate.

The total cost of the Chinese Government Pavilion amounted to $75,000.
It was partly a reproduction of a portion of Prince Pu Lun's palace at
Peking. Models were sent from China and copied in this country, the
large arch at the entrance being a "Pai-Lou," or memorial arch, common
in China as entrances to palaces, temples, and tombs. A small octagonal
pavilion or tea house was shown. They are always at some beautiful spot
in the gardens of the wealthy. Two flagstaffs outside were also copies
of Chinese models. The wood carvings were very expensive, and good
examples of what the Chinese workman can do in that line. Special men
from China were imported to carry out the designs of the building and to
do the painting in the Chinese style.

The space occupied by the Chinese in the Liberal Arts Palace was 28,000
square feet, and, with the exception of another 1,500 square feet in the
Educational Department, China was not represented in other buildings of
the exposition. The small exhibit in the Educational Palace was not an
attempt to illustrate the Chinese system of education. It was intended
simply to give the world an idea of the work being done by foreign
societies--missionary and otherwise--in the educational line in China.

The maintenance of the staff looking after exhibits was about $30,000.
The expense connected with the repacking and return of freight and
unsold exhibits was about $15,000.


On July 20, 1903, the Cuban Congress passed the following resolutions
authorizing the participation of that country at the Louisiana Purchase

The Executive is hereby authorized to dispose of $80,000 from
the public treasury to meet the expenses which the
representation of the Republic of Cuba will incur at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition which will take place at St.
Louis, Mo., in the year 1904.

Of this amount $30,000 shall be set aside to meet the expenses
of a special commission whose object is to study the advancement
which may have been realized in agriculture, chemistry, and
mechanical industries applicable to the industries of Cuba, also
public instruction in hygiene.

The commission will report the results of their investigation to
the Executive, which reports will be duly published.

The expenses incurred in the publication of the reports will be
met by the public treasury and will not be included in the above
allowed sum.

On the 15th of July, 1904, the Congress voted $50,000 as an additional
sum for the same purpose.

The Cuban Pavilion at the exposition was constructed on a lot 140 by 170
feet. The building was 100 feet by 80 feet surrounded by a garden
containing more than five hundred native plants. It was one story high.
At its front was a beautiful terrace, and there were extensive porticoes
on the sides. Access to the building was gained by a 32-foot stair on
the front, and by lateral stairs of smaller size.

Five rooms surrounding a central court. Access to the roof was obtained
by a winding stair placed on a tower. The style of architecture on the
building in its exterior court and entrances was Florentine-Renaissance,
from the last half of the fourteenth century. The other salons were
decorated in the modern style, called "New Art." The building was
lighted by more than four hundred incandescent lamps, arranged in such a
manner that they formed part of the decorations. The cost of erecting
the building was $31,050.

The members of the Cuban commission were as follows:

Mr. Gonzalo de Quesada, honorary president; Mr. Esteban Duque Estrada,
commissioner-general; Mr. Antonio Carillo, secretary of the Cuban
commission; Mr. Eduardo Morales de los Rios, commissioner of education;
Mr. Sixto Lopez Miranda, technical commissioner of education for Cuba;
Dr. J.J. Luis, commissioner of social economy; Mr. Enrique B. Barnet,
sanitary commissioner; Mr. J.W. Flanagan, honorary commissioner; Mr.
J.E. Bernal, Mr. Fernando Mesa, Mr. Francisco de Armas, assistant
commissioners; Mr. Antonio E. Trujillo, disbursing officer; Mr. John R.
Taylor, assistant sanitary commissioner. Technical commission: Dr.
Enrique Jose Varona, doctor in philosophy and letters; Dr. Carlos de la
Torre, doctor of natural sciences; Senor Carlos Theye, chemical
engineer; Senor Manuel D. Diaz, civil engineer; Senor Ramon Jimenez
Alfonso, agronomical engineer; Dr. Gaston Alfonso Cuadrado, doctor of
sciences and pharmacy.

The exhibit of Cuba in the Department of Education comprised the whole
educational system from the kindergarten to the university. For the
organization of this exhibit the secretary of public instruction, Dr.
Leopolds Cancio, appointed a committee of seven. The committee issued
several circulars inviting the teachers to contribute to the educational

Toward the beginning of March the first contributions began to arrive,
and in the early days of April the first shipment was made. This was
followed by others, and by the 25th of April all the educational
exhibits were in the various booths and ready for display.

This exhibit was classified in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8, which left
the only two groups, 5 and 7, in which it was not represented.

In group 1 it was represented by the normal school of kindergarten of
Habana, and by kindergarten public schools of Habana, Guanabacoa,
Matanzas, Gardenas, Sagua la Grande, and Cienfuegos, by elementary
public and private schools from most of the school districts of the
country, by a teachers' academy, and by training and correctional
schools for boys and girls.

In group 2 the six public secondary schools of the country were
represented by photographs, reports, collections of shells and
butterflies, pupils' work and reports.

The "San Alijandro" School of Painting and Sculpture of Habana appeared
with a report and photographs in group 4.

In group 6 the School of Arts and Trades of Habana had a very good
display of manual training and photographs.

Correspondence schools, the Academy of Science, meteorological and
magnetical observations of the Belen Observatory, geological
collections, text-books, school appliances, and a collection of the
text-books used at the present and of those used under the Spanish
Government in the public schools were all classified in group 8.

One of the most important features of the exhibit was the display of
photographs showing over 500 views of schoolrooms, school buildings,
groups of teachers and children, institutions of secondary education,
institutions of special education, and the university.

In these photographs the department showed the best schools, such as
"Luz y Caballero," of Habana, and the "Eseulen Modelo," of Santiago de
Cuba, and the least advanced rural schools located in thatched-roof huts
20 or more miles from the nearest town.

The exhibit showed not only the great increase in the last few years in
the number of schools and in the school expenditures, both of which have
increased about tenfold, but the great change undergone in the methods
of teaching, which at present accord with the most modern standards, the
old methods having been entirely abolished from the public schools.

The superior board of health of Cuba was represented at the exposition
by Dr. Federico Torralbas, as medical inspector of the sanitary
department of Habana; Dr. Emilo Martines, as assistant professor of
pathology of the National University, and member of the commission for
infectious diseases of the sanitary department of Habana; Dr. Juan H.
Davalos, as chief of the section of bacteriology of the laboratory of
the island of Cuba, who is considered the leading authority on
bacteriological subjects in Cuba; Dr. Enriqui B. Barnet, as the
executive officer of the sanitary department of Habana and acting
secretary of the superior board of health of Cuba; Mr. John R. Taylor,
as preparator of the laboratory of Las Animas Hospital, of Habana,
having a thorough knowledge of the transmission of diseases by the
medium of the mosquito. He was one of those who voluntarily allowed
himself to be bitten with infected mosquitoes known to be capable of
transmitting yellow fever, recovering after a severe attack of the

In the Department of Mines and Metallurgy, Cuba's exhibition consisted
of Portland cement and its products, asphaltum (crude and refined),
iron, manganese, copper, zinc, tin, gold, and silver ores, and a
collection of marbles of the Isle of Pines.

In Liberal Arts Cuba's exhibition consisted of photographs, engravings,
periodicals, perfumes, soaps, and other manufactured articles.

In the Department of Art Cuba had a room where about one hundred and
fifty pictures were hung, consisting of oil paintings and water colors.

In the Department of Agriculture Cuba's exhibit consisted of
manufactured cigars, chocolate, jellies, beer, preserved fruits of all
descriptions, cotton, hemp, coffee, sugar, and various other
agricultural products of Cuba.

In the Department of Forestry, Fish, and Game Cuba's exhibition
consisted of samples of woods used in construction and for furniture,
house decorations, etc. The collection of woods at the Forestry Building
was given to the Yale University Forestry Schools at the close of the
fair. The mineral collection at the Mines Building was subsequently
donated to the United States National Museum, at Washington, D.C.


The Government of Denmark, while making no appropriation for a
participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, appointed William
Arup as commissioner-general to look after the interests of the Danish
exhibitors. At the same time the Government appointed a committee,
consisting of the following-named persons, to assist him in his work:
Charles Ambte, director of State railways; Mr. N. Anderson, councilor of
state, P.D.; Arnold Krog, professor in arts, P.D.; Admiral Richeleu St.
Kors, of D.; Philip Schon, councilor of state. Of these gentlemen only
Admiral Richeleu visited the fair.

Commissioner-General Arup personally bore the total expenses of
transportation and installation, which amounted approximately to

Denmark had no official building on the grounds but confined her space
to the principal exhibition palaces. Her principal displays were
installed in the Palace of Varied Industries, where she occupied about
5,000 square feet of space.

Twenty exhibitors displayed goods in the Palace of Varied Industries.
Their displays consisted principally of porcelain, silverware, art
pottery, cabinet works, embroideries, photography, ship models, and a
ship model of the free port of Copenhagen. The last-mentioned model was
subsequently donated to the Chicago Municipal Museum.

In the Palace of Electricity, the Agricultural Building, and the Palace
of Fine Arts Denmark occupied smaller spaces, but her exhibits attracted
general attention on account of their universal excellence.


The amount of Government appropriation for Egypt's participation at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition was approximately $50,000. The principal
exhibit made by the Government of Egypt consisted of a representation of
antiquities in the Anthropology Building; an exhibit by the Sudan
Government in the foreign section, comprising ivory, gum, rubber,
various cereals, and a variety of ancient weapons and curious articles
in use by the natives of Sudan. In the same section were exhibited some
heads of wild animals including hippopotamus and the buffalo. In the
Liberal Arts section was displayed a large relief map showing the system
of irrigation in use in Egypt with the canals clearly marked. This
exhibit was made by the administration of the Daira Sanich, which forms
part of the Government, and in the same section the public works
department of the Government exhibited various models of the Delta
Barrage and other irrigation works existing in various parts of Egypt.

In the Agricultural Building, through the Khedivial Agriculture Society
and the Produce Association of Alexandria, a complete collection of
cotton and cereals and every kind of agricultural product grown in Egypt
were shown, in addition to which the Campagnie des Sucreries of Egypt
had a very fine display of sugar, and the Port Said Salt Association
sent samples of various kinds of salt.

The commissioners appointed by the Egyptian Government were Herman E.
Lawford and Abdel Hamid Abazza. The latter was in charge of the
agricultural section. He is connected with the Khedivial Agriculture
Society of Egypt, and was requested by the Government of Egypt to make a
report on the cotton industry in this country, particularly with regard
to diseases of the cotton plant. Mr. Lawford has resided in Egypt for
several years and has been connected with various land and industrial
companies. Mr. Quibell, who was attached to the commission, is an
inspector of antiquities in the employ of the museum at Cairo, and has
been in Egypt for a number of years, his time being devoted to
scientific researches.


The French Government, at the time when the general commission to the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition was appointed, appropriated a sum of
600,000 francs for its expenses and a sum of 600,000 francs for the
participation of the fine arts. Later on an appropriation of 350,000
francs was made for the educational exhibit and several other exhibits
over which the Government had immediate and direct control. The entire
charge of putting up the French commercial exhibits in the various
palaces, except Fine Arts and Education and National Pavilion, had been
granted, in April, 1902, to a permanent committee on foreign
expositions, which worked under the supervision of the French general
commission. The committee raised from private sources a sum of 5,000,000

Aside from the above sums, an appropriation of 100,000 francs was made
by the department of the colonies for the participation of the different
colonies at the exposition.

Another appropriation of the same amount was made for the social economy

The approximate amount of money spent by France for its participation in
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was 7,750,000 francs. The contract for
building the French Government Pavilion was let to a general contractor
in Paris, who undertook to build it for the sum of 500,000 francs.

In addition to the above sum, an appropriation of 100,000 francs was
made for the painting of the building; 10,000 francs for the statuary
over the roof. An appropriation of 150,000 was made for the gardens.

The commission appointed by the Government of France was as follows:

Mr. Alfred Picard, special envoy of the French Republic; Mr. Georges
Gerald, commissioner-general; Mr. Jules Boeufve, assistant
commissioner-general; Mr. Felix Lamy, secretary of the French
commission; Mr. Robert Delaunay-Belleville, private secretary to the
special envoy; Mr. Max Ferlaud, private secretary to the
commissioner-general; Mr. Emile Heurteau, private secretary to the
special envoy; Mr. Marcel Estieu, attache; Mr. Andre Artoine, attache.
French commercial section: Mr. Ancelot, president; Mr. Gustav Kester,
vice-president; Mr. Perdoux; Mr. Maurice Estieu, treasurer. Fine arts
section: Mr. Andre Saglio, commissioner; Mr. Horteloup; Mr. Delestre,

The National Palace of France, as erected at the St. Louis World's Fair,
was a reproduction of the Grand Trianon, at Versailles. It was located
at the west end of the Louisiana way, one of the main avenues on the
fair grounds; at the other end of the avenue was located the United
States Government Building.

The French Pavilion consisted of three rectangular buildings bordering
on a main state court. Large pilasters of white and pink marble were
arranged as the frame work for high windows, topped with decorative
arches. An outside flight of stairs and porphyrolite sills of imitation
marble gave that impression of luxury and good taste which is
characteristic of all productions of the Louis XIV period.

Two large wrought-iron brackets supported lanterns in the same style and
gave a more animated appearance to the main entrance at the end of the
court. Part of the arch decorations were reserved for the entrances; the
balance of the arches used in the arrangement of windows with balcony
were fitted with wrought-iron balustrade railings, in the general style
of the palace.

Only one change was made in the otherwise exact reproduction of the
Grand Trianon. According to documents published in the seventeenth
century, and especially to the tentative drawings made by Lepautri
himself, the Grand Trianon architect, that monument was originally to be
decorated over its high balustrade railings with some artistic devices
and groups of children, each to be found in the present French monument.
The architects of the St. Louis Palace, Messrs. Gustave Umbdenstock and
Roger Bouvard, conceived the happy thought of making that restoration
complete, and thus contributing a more lifelike appearance to the whole

On the other hand, a large allegorical medallion was arranged over the
central decorative device, which was indicative of the national
character. The medallion bore the coat of arms of the French Republic
topped with the "Phrygian" cap, being flanked on either side by two
allegorical female figures, one of which was symbolic of the Armed Peace
protecting herself with a sword, and the other was intended to represent
French trade. Over the allegorical medallion was the mainmast used to
display the French flag. Owing to the arrangement of the palace itself
the flag was thus displayed in the continuation of the center of the
main monumental avenue of the fair.

From the entrance to the French Concession, which covered an area of
about 150 meters in width by 250 meters in depth, a large monumental
grill in the style of Louis XIV covered the entire front of the grounds
separating the garden from the avenue which bounded it at the right
corner. The grill included three large gates supported by four metal
towers which were topped by lanterns and decorated with allegorical
panels, producing the finest effect. The grills were devised on the same
lines as those exhibited at Versailles and on the Place Stanislas, at

A large garden, laid out in French style, was arranged in a border on
the central path leading to the palace. The latter, with flower beds in
the border, was ornamented with vases and statuary on pedestals.

The interior arrangement of the palace was such that the public would
visit it regularly in its entirety without the necessity of passing
twice through the same rooms. Double doors were provided so as to permit
a continuous circulation for entrance and egress.

The building at the farthest side of the state court was devoted to the
large state room, the decoration of which was intrusted to the National
"Garde-Meuble," or "Historical Furniture Depot." The size of the room
was 30 meters in length by 9 meters in width, and it was lighted by
seven large windows; its height was 7 meters to the ceiling. The
entrance stairs on the outside and the entrance hall were paved with
imitation marble of pink and white. The carved ceiling was arranged as a
framing for three large decorative paintings executed by Mr. George G.
Roussel. The subject selected by the artist was Liberty, Equality,
Fraternity. The Liberty allegory represented France placing her sword in
1772 at the service of America for the conquest of the latter's

In "Equality" the figures were personifications of the commerce and
industry of both nations.

"Fraternity" represented America receiving the France of 1904 in a
symbolic group.

In the corner of the ceiling were a child uniting the flags of both
nations and goddesses personifying Fame hovering over a globe
representing Earth in glorification of that cordial understanding.

The large state room contained fine Gobelin tapestries reproducing
scenes of the reign of Louis XIV, as follows:

(1) Audience of Cardinal Chigi (July 29, 1664). This was a tapestry
woven of wool and silk set off with gold manufactured at the Gobelin
factory in the seventeenth century. It was one of a series illustrating
the history of King Louis from Van der Meulen et de Charles Le Brun. It
had a very rich border by Yvart.

(2) Entrance of the King into Dunkerque (December 2, 1662). A wool and
silk woven tapestry set off with gold, made at the Gobelin factory in
the seventeenth century; one of the series of the history of King Louis
XIV from Van der Meulen et de Charles Le Brun drawing. A rich border by

(3) The Siege of the City of Douai (July, 1667). A wool and silk woven
tapestry with gold, made at the Gobelin factory in the seventeenth
century; one of the series of the history of King Louis XIV from Van der
Meulen et de Charles Le Brun drawing. A rich border by Yvart.

(4) A piece of tapestry. This was woven from wool and silk and made at
the Gobelin factory in the seventeenth century; one of the series of
hangings (portieres) of the Triumphal Chariot and bearing the coat of
arms of France and Navarre; made from the drawings of Charles Le Brun
(the final drawings).

The right wing of the palace was used first by the National Factory of
Sevre, with a room 12 meters by 8 meters and a hall in front which
measures 8 meters by 3.50 meters.

The decoration of this room was subdued to enhance the appearance of the
vases and bisques exhibited. The walls were hung with watered silk to a
height of 4.50 meters, the tone of the silk being well adapted to set
off the whiteness of the china. Above this hanging a painted frieze was
decorated with gray and blue leaves set off with medallions of
crystallized pink stone work. The application of ceramics to decorative
purposes was again found in the trimmings of the portieres in the shape
of pendentives.

The objects exhibited in these rooms were especially selected with due
consideration to the place they were to occupy and with a view to making
up a complete decorative whole.

In the main room the place in the center of the longest sides were
occupied by Houdon's bust of Lafayette, with a small statue of Liberty
by Aube in front, and by a Puech's bust of President Loubet, with a
small statue of De la Paix by G. Michel in front.

On either side of these busts were seen four pink vases of the so-
called "Cleremont" class and four vases of the "Chelles" class
representative of the four seasons in floral decorations.

At the corners of the main room in niches especially provided for them
were four Blois vases, decorated with hollyhocks, Chinese lilies, and
magnolias. On either side of the window were two d'Auxerre "Flambets"
(signed) vases.

The city of Paris occupied three rooms in the right wing of the National

There were in the exhibit many statues, pictures, objects of the Paris
municipal council and of the council-general of the Department of Seine,
the insignia of councils, engravings, reproducing the most important
decorative works in the Paris Hotel de Ville (city hall); also work done
by pupils of the professional and industrial art schools, such as the
Germain Pilon, Bernard, Palissy, Dorian, Diderot, Estienne, Boulle,
etc.; such work includes ceramic pieces, modeling, bookbinding,
furniture, chasing work, pottery, etc. The architectural service was
represented by plans and drawings illustrating some types of the main
edifices in Paris, such as the Sorbonne, Palais des Beaux Arts de la
Ville de Paris, the barracks, mayoralty buildings, professional schools,
primary schools, etc.

The departments of public highways, public lighting, water and health
exhibited some graphical and statistical information in reference to
their undertakings.

The Metropolitan Underground Railway sent most complete information
covering its most interesting work.

The department of public charity exhibited water colors which gave
useful information in reference to its various branches and modes of

The department of historical work and the committee of ancient Paris
showed a collection of publications covering the history of the city and
of its several transformations. The general decorations included views
of Paris, public gardens, and two large panels by de Grinberg, showing
the Notre Dame Cathedral and the Pavilion de Fiore, in the Tuilleries.

There were also frontispieces and escutcheons by the master decorator
Jambon. Elaborate middle pieces and a beautiful chandelier in the middle
of the main room attracted considerable attention.

There was a small horizontal show case containing a collection of
objects employed by the teacher in lecturing on civic instruction. These
objects included various kinds of tickets, stamps, tax bills, receipts,
official postals, etc.

Agricultural education occupied an extensive area, showing the
importance attached in France to that department. A very remarkable
collection, filling seven volumes, showed the really wonderful result
that an inspector of the Brittany region was able to obtain in a
district consisting of some hundred townships. There was also an
"experiment case," which was to be found again in the normal school
graduate's outfit, and a set of small instruments made by the country

The series, drawings, samples of manual work, of sewing, etc., showed
how republican schools in France care for the workman's interests.

Other superior schools were represented in adequate manner through the
aggregate exhibits. That at Onzain showed a few peculiarities of the
rural type.

Superior primary schools for girls only showed a few specimens of
several collections of work. The department of technical education, as
represented by practical, industrial, and commercial schools, gave a
fair idea of what is done in France in that branch.

The aggregate display gave a fair idea of what is going on in France in
the normal schools, where teachers of both sexes are being prepared for
their work.

Attention was particularly directed to manual work, especially to the
scientific training that the girls of the normal school receive on
leaving school.

A show case in one of the compartments contained a complete collection
of documents relating to primary education in France. Several displays
of that kind were attached to the walls, such as the six graphical
tables made by Levasseur, which are summaries of statistical documents.

The Museum of Pedagogy had collected in similar summary form the most
important results obtained for the past twelve years in the work done in
promoting special work as a complement to school education.

Enlarged photographs representing scenes of school life were placed
practically everywhere throughout the exhibit of French primary schools.
They were prepared by the school administration as a reproduction, on a
smaller scale, of the exhibit which proved such a success at the Paris
Exhibition Fair in 1900.

The exhibit of higher education included displays from universities and
scientific institutions, the leading ones being the College of France,
the Museum of Natural History, the Practical of Highest Studies, the
School of Charters, the School of Living Oriental Languages.

An inquiry was instituted in 1883 in academic councils and faculties in
reference to drafting a plan for the constitution of universities that
should administer and manage themselves under the supervision of the

Many had been impressed with the inconvenience caused by a lack of
cohesion in the work. Attention was called to those many common
interests of which the faculties should have been the guardian, but of
which they could not take care on account of their isolation. Inquiry,
begun in 1883, made the necessity of a reform obvious. It ended in the
rendering of the decrees of July 25 and December 28, 1885. These decrees
may be divided into two distinct parts--one covering the interior life
of faculties, the other providing for a grouping of faculties
established in each academic center and the general council of faculties
to be the representative organ and executive power of the new faculty
life created.

Appreciable results were derived from these reforms. However they were
incomplete, and it was thought, in consequence, that genuine unity
should be given to a superior education. The establishment of the new
universities had been a legal consequence of that express wish.

The law of July 10, 1896, gave the name of university to each body of
faculties, substituting the university council for the general council
of faculties, the duties and powers of such university council being
regulated by the decree of July 21, 1897. The rector of the university
is president of that council by right, and is the legal representative
of the university before the courts.

In the Department of Machinery the French exhibit included according to
the general classification groups, steam engines, various motors and
engines, sundry general machinery, machine tools, and shipyard
machinery. All of these several groups and classes were united in order
to form a collective exposition for the whole department.

To the above groups there were added the following: Spinning and
rope-making machinery and weaving machinery and materials. The latter
groups included machinery that could also have been placed in the
department of general machinery.

In compliance with a suggestion made by the head of the engineering
service at the fair, all machines and mechanical appliances exhibited in
the Palace of Machinery were distributed, not in accordance with the
nationality of exhibitors, but in accordance with the character and
nature of the machinery.

French manufacturers had nothing to fear from the fact of their
machinery having been placed in the immediate vicinity of other similar
machines made by foreign manufacturers. On the contrary, a closer
contact only resulted in setting off in a better light those particular
qualities that have made France so successful in that branch of industry
on previous occasions.

Outside of the Palace of Machinery there were exhibited in the boiler
buildings five steam generators made by French manufacturers. These
boilers contributed to the generation of the steam required for the
power houses of the fair.

The distribution of exhibits all over the Palace of Machinery has made
it impossible to arrange any decorative devices for the whole group of
French exhibitors.

Another manifestation of the French mechanical industry was found in a
pavilion which was built on ground between two of the main gates leading
to the main entrance to the Hall of Machinery.

The French department of electricity was located on the left of the main
entrance to the Palace of Electricity, occupying an area exceeding 2,000
square meters. In the center of the exhibit there was a space 350 square
meters in area, used as a resting room for visitors. There were to be
seen in a circular arrangement the show cases that made up the
retrospective and modern exhibits sent by the French department of
commerce, industry, post, and telegraph.

The decorative frieze arranged around the room bore, between laurel
wreaths, the name of the most illustrious French physicians or
electricians from the eighteenth century to this date.

The French exhibit in the Palace of Agriculture occupied an area of
nearly 2,800 square meters. It was located in the northern corner and
next to one of the main gates, fronting the French National Palace.

The French exhibit extended along the front of the palace on the
northern and eastern sides.

The French exhibit of social economy occupied an area of 700 square
meters in the Palace of Education. The main entrance formed one of the
largest avenues in that palace, giving access to a main hall 50 meters
in length by 12 meters in width, both front sides of which were
subdivided into a score of small rooms 3 by 5 meters. The front sides of
these small rooms were made up of partitions 4 meters high, decorated
with mural paintings, and topped with a decorative frieze that bore the
titles and subtitles belonging to the group of exhibits represented in
the room. A shelf 0.50 meter wide, with a ledge, was arranged all along
the rooms at the height of 1 meter from the ground, and supported all
pamphlets, books, and other documents that supplemented the information
supplied by the exhibits on the walls.

A show case and bookcase were put in the center of each room, containing
the documents placed in view by the several exhibitors who were
represented through publications only.

The individuality of each of the several groups was evident by titles or
medallions of a decorative character, which also included a subtitle and
index, arranged with as many particulars and in as methodical manner as
possible, of all exhibitors, in order that the visitor might be saved as
much labor as possible in his inquiries.


_Members of commission._--Dr. Theodor Lewald (privy councilor), imperial
German commissioner-general; Dr. Eugene Wagner (superior Government
councilor), vice-commissioner; Mr. Otto Zippel (imperial councilor),
treasurer; Mr. Heinrich Albert, assistant commissioner; Mr. Paul A.
Zilling, commercial attache, department of arts and crafts; Dr. Fritz
Kestner, attache; Dr. Hugo Hardy, attache; Fritz Von Bardeleben,
attache; Dr. F.C. Rieloff, imperial consul; Baron von Reden, imperial
vice-consul; Count Limburg-Stirum, general commissioner education
department; Dr. Leopold Bahlsen (professor), substitute to the general
commissioner education department; Mr. Herman Albert, commissioner
mining department; Mr. Alard Scheck, commissioner of forestry
department; Dr. Ludwig Wittmark (privy councilor), agricultural
department; Dr. Hugo Kruss, scientific instruments; Dr. Johannes Breger,
hygienic department; Dr. Otto Zwingenberger, chemical exhibits.

By order of the German Emperor, the German House (das Deutsche Haus) was
erected on a prominence in the center of the World's Fair near the
Cascades. It was a replica of one of the German castles most celebrated
in history and art, and the most prominent German architects reproduced
it in St. Louis and equipped it with the best products of modern art

In the year 1902 the great question arose as to what kind of style and
which building should be erected in America as a symbol of Germany. The
Emperor decided that Charlottenburg Castle should be used for this
purpose, as one of the most aristocratic and characteristic monuments of
the first epoch of the Prussian Kingdom. The location of the German
House on a towering hill and its purpose called for a different
architecture from that of the Charlottenburg Castle, which is situated
in a plain and which at the same time serves as a dwelling house. So the
two wings of the Charlottenburg Castle were omitted, one of them to give
room to the Pergola and the German Wine Restaurant. The place of a court
of honor was here taken by the massive stairway and there were new ideas
produced in the cupola, the exterior ornamentation, and in some of the
interior apartments. The erection of the building was awarded to Prof.
Bruno Schmitz, of Berlin, who in Germany has built some great monuments,
and who is no stranger to the American public.

The equipment of the interior rooms was awarded to a number of the first
German manufactories in the line of art furniture, the art of weaving
and illuminating, and was finished by the most skillful artisans. The
German House was on the same level as the Palace of Fine Arts and
Festival Hall. Its base was 47 feet higher than the Mining Building.
From the State buildings in the southern divisions of the World's Fair a
wide path led through artistic garden spots to the rear entrance of the
German House and from the Mining Building large stairs led up to the
German Restaurant. Ascending the hill of the German House, the first
impression was that of a castle front. The dimensions of the castle
were: Length, 150 feet; depth, 69 feet; the height of the building to
the apex of the cupola was 160 feet; it covered an area of 10,000 square
feet, while the complete site with the terraces amounted to 174,931
square feet.

The castle consisted of a two-story gable, the front of which was almost
exclusively occupied by the high windows and two by-parts with four
axes, each with three-quarter Corinthian columns. Of the three stories,
the uppermost--the mezzanine story--served only as a storeroom. The
gable above the center part bore in large letters the inscription "Das
Deutsche Haus." Groups at the corners of the gable represented Power and
Wisdom. The capitals of the columns were molded from the original and
the balustrades of the cornices were made from designs. The roof of the
house was a platform like the original in Charlottenburg, surrounded by
a cast-iron balustrade.

As at the prototype, in front of the German House the two Borghesian
gladiators with sword and shield kept guard. The death masks on the
sentry houses were Schluter's work and were erected after models taken
in Charlottenburg. The dark color of the building and the patina of the
roof accentuated the historical character of the building.

Around the building on the broad terraces, surrounded by a balustrade in
modern Baroque, were long rows of laurel trees and rhododendrons which
were brought over from Germany.

In the lower story was a circular center hall, the flat ceiling of which
was supported by 8 columns, a true copy of the entrance hall of the
Charlottenburg Castle. In the two wall niches, between high laurel
trees, were placed busts of the Emperor and Empress. The pedestals were
done in gray, specially prepared oak wood. Behind the busts were two
stucco reliefs molded from the originals in Charlottenburg, representing
scenes from Roman history.

A room with modern escritoire equipment served as reading and writing
room for the members of the German press.

Off the center hall and facing the front was the extensive reading hall,
likewise a copy of the room of the Charlottenburg Castle.

Noticeable in the room was a picture of the capital of the German
Empire, Berlin, showing the bridge across the Spree, with the renowned
statue of the Great Elector; behind this the great Royal Palace; also a
picture of the "Hohkonigsberg," in olden times a mighty castle in German
Alsatia, which for centuries has been a desolate ruin, but now is built
anew in its old pomp and splendor. The series of pictures was concluded
by a view of a plaza in the Hansa Town Lubeck.

In addition to these views, around the hall were the busts of eminent
scholars, artists, poets, musicians. Besides other pieces of ornament,
the reading room contained choice pieces of the royal porcelain
manufactory, as well as a series of artistically finished groups
representing the different countries of culture. Finally, to symbolize
the character of the reading room, on the right table a bronze figure
was placed showing the greatest German historian of all times, Theodore
Mommsen, who only a short time ago died in extreme old age.

In the rear of the reading hall a broad terrace led down to the garden
plots, embellished by the group by Professor von Uechtritz, Berlin, "The
Crown is the safeguard of peace."

At both sides of the reading hall the office rooms were situated; to the
right a large office room of the imperial commissioner or his
representative, very tastefully equipped in modern style. The walls were
wainscoted in oak and had capacious book shelves. From the ceiling, the
beams of which were ornamented, numerous lamps and large candelabra were
suspended. The room was completed by a comfortable fireplace, and to the
left side of the room, or reading hall, were office rooms.

The upper center hall, with its eight columns, was a copy of the center
hall of the Charlottenburg Palace, and in its quiet dignity highly
characteristic of the Prussian development of the art of the Baroque.

In front of the nether window, between two columns, was placed the bust
of the German Emperor in the uniform of the Gardes du Corps, with the
eagle helmet, from the royal porcelain manufacturer in Berlin.

Another interesting feature of the German Building was the Gobelin hall.
The rich ceiling in its pure plastic was modeled after the Elizabeth
hall in the royal palace of Berlin, the stucco figures, as well as the
decorations of the ceiling, likewise the golden medallions at the four
corners, representing a procession of bacchantes, while the rich door
panelings were modeled in the royal palace and placed here. The walls
all around were wainscoted with palisander. But the main interest in
this room centered in the four mighty gobelins. These gobelins were, by
the charm of their colors and the delicacy of the composition, a source
of enjoyment to every lover of art.

The Gobelin hall was laid out with a gorgeous modern carpet from the
carpet works at Barmen. Of surprising delicacy were the curtains and the
golden hangings above the windows, all masterpieces of the modern art of
weaving, as were those all over the house made by the concern Hertzog in
Berlin. The great candelabra of bronze and mountain crystal were lighted
by wax candles.

Off the Gobelin hall was one of the richest rooms of the castle, the
Bradenburg chamber. This red-velvet chamber was used for one of the most
brilliant ceremonies in the royal palace, the solemn decoration of the
Knights of the Order of the Black Eagle.

Adjacent to this rich room was the main hall of the Deutsche Haus, the
famous oak gallery, 115 feet long and 20 feet broad. The oak gallery
forms in Charlottenburg the most important apartment of the castle and
is characteristically German. The combination of the simple oak wood
with the delicate gold carving produced a most original and most restful
effect. The wonderful dimensions, the beautiful material, the harmony of
colors, and perfection of artistic details all combined to impress the
observer. The entire length of the long wall was divided into niches by
pilasters. Each niche contained a mirror and over that a picture from
the ancient classics. Along the walls of the hall were placed on marble
pedestals the busts of former Prussian rulers.

The series of state rooms was concluded by one of the very finest rooms,
the Tressen Saal (galloon room), also a copy from the Charlottenburg
Castle. In contrast to the substantial splendor of the oak gallery, this
apartment showed the whole delicacy and refinement of the Baroque. The
name "Tressen Saal" was given to this room in consideration of the gold
interwoven bands (tresses) which were sewn on to the red damask.

The harmony of the oak carvings, of the gilt stucco, the red damask, and
the gold galloon composed one of the most delicate decorations of
Prussian castles. This was finished by the ceiling, where were seen
allegories painted and mounted on linen in imitation of the Tressen Saal
in Charlottenburg Castle.

There was no special act authorizing the German exposition. In
accordance with the general principles of the German constitution, the
sum required for this purpose was entered in the budget. After an
approval of the budget by the Bundesrath and the Reichstag the
participation of Germany became a law. The fire insurance of the
combined German exhibits covered $4,000,000, and this sum may be
regarded as the approximate value of the exhibits. The aggregate cost of
the organization, installation, and transportation paid by the
Government was $1,300,000, of which the Imperial Government paid
$900,000, the Prussian government $250,000, and the other Federal States


_Members of commission_.--His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, K.G.,
president of the royal commission; the Right Honorable Viscount Peel,
chairman of the royal commission; Col. Charles M. Watson, R.E., C.B.,
C.M.G., commissioner-general and secretary of the royal commission; Mr.
J.H. Cundall, general superintendent; Mr. Edmund H. Lloyd, general
superintendent; Mr. Lucien Serraillier, secretary to the
commissioner-general and for juries; Mr. C.D. Barrett, accountant; Mr.
Herbert Langridge, in charge of correspondence and catalogue. Clerical
assistants: Mr. R. Grant Dalton, Mr. S.G. Hutchinson, Mr. J. Perrin
Harris. Department of education: Capt. P.H. Atkin, representative of the
education committee; Mr. C.E. Down, assistant superintendent.
Department of art: Mr. R.S. Hunt, representative of the art committee;
Mr. Alfred A. Longdon, representative of the applied art committee.
Department of liberal arts: Mr. J.E. Petavel, scientific manager of low
temperature exhibit; Mr. H. Payne, assistant. Assistant superintendents
of exhibits: Mr. J.F. Barrett, mines and metallurgy; Mr. John E.
Blacknell, manufactures; Mr. J.T. Christie, liberal arts; Mr. Harold
Darby, transportation; Mr. Joseph Devlin, agriculture, fish, and game;
Mr. Edward Dixon, electricity; Mr. H. Werninck, liberal arts; Mr. W.C.
Forster, Queen Victoria's jubilee presents; Mr. W. Brown, in charge of
the British Pavilion garden; Mr. Arthur Smith, general foreman.

On April 23, 1903, the royal commission of King Edward VII was issued at
Whitehall under His Majesty's royal sign, appointing the following
commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

The Prince of Wales; Arthur Wellesley, Viscount Peel; Victor Albert
George, Earl of Jersey; Richard George Penn, Earl Howe; Bernard Edward
Barnaby, Baron Castletown; George Arbuthnot, Baron Inverclyde; Richard
Barnaby, Baron Alverstone; John, Baron Avebury; Horace Cruzon Plunkett;
Charles Napier Lawrence; Sir Charles William Fremantle; Sir George
Hayter Chubb; Sir Edward John Poynter; Sir Charles Rivers Wilson; Sir
Edward Maunde Thompson; Sir William Henry Preece; Sir William Turner
Thiselton-Deyer; Sir Herbert Jekyll; Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema; Sir
Caspar Purdon Clarke; Sir George Thomas Livesey; Henry Hardinge; Samuel
Cunyghame; Edward Austin Abbey; Charles Vernon Boys; Thomas Brock;
George Donaldson; Clement Le Neve Foster; John Clarke Hawkshaw; Thomas
Graham Jackson; William Henry Maw; Francis Grant Ogilvie; William
Quiller Orchardson; Boverton Redwood; Alfred Gordon Salamon; Joseph
Wilson Swan; Jethro Justinian Harris; Teall, and Francis William Webb.

Col. Charles Moore Watson was appointed secretary to the commission.
Subsequently, on the 6th of June, 1903, Sir John Benjamin Stone, M.P.,
was appointed additional commissioner.

At the first meeting of the royal commission, held at Marlborough House
on the 28th of April, 1903, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, K.
G., made a speech showing the interest that was felt in the exposition
generally throughout Great Britain.

The interest taken in the exposition by Great Britain was exemplified
strikingly in the amount of space which she occupied in the various
exhibition buildings, amounting in the aggregate to no less than 206,642
superficial feet, of which only 8,000 feet was occupied by the Royal
Pavilion. An idea of the vast scope of the exhibit may be learned from
the following table, which gives the amount of space in each of the
various exhibit palaces occupied by Great Britain's display:

Superficial feet.
Education ...................... 6,500
Social economy ................. 810
------- 7,310
Art .................................... 20,872
Liberal arts ........................... 35,500
Manufactures ........................... 58,000
Electricity ............................ 5,960
Transportation ......................... 33,500
Agriculture ............................ 20,400
Horticulture ........................... 500
Forestry, Fish, and Game ............... 3,900
Mines and Metallurgy ................... 11,700
Physical Culture ....................... 1,000

In making choice of an interesting type to be followed in the British
Royal Pavilion at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, it was felt that
the Orangery of the Royal Palace of Kensington would be representative
of English domestic building at one of its happiest periods, and a
tribute also to the memory of the great architect, Sir Christopher Wren.
In the Orangery of Kensington was found a building that could be
strictly reproduced to its real size. The Orangery was 170 feet long
and had a range of sash windows uninterrupted by doorways, the central
and end windows having stall boards under them, making the entrances.
The long line of roof was broken only by the three brick parapets or
pediments, the center one being carried on half-round columns and
pilasters of gauged brickwork. The walls were of red brick and stock
brick spaced out with design, imitation white stone being sparingly

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