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Elson Grammer School Literature, Book Four. by William H. Elson and Christine Keck

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parchment (parch'ment), skin of sheep or goat, etc., prepared for writing.

pard (pard), a leopard.

parricide (par'i-sid), one who murders his own father, or any ancestor.

participate (par-tis'i-pat), have a share in common with others; to take

particularize (par-tik'u-lar-iz), to state in detail.

Pascagoula (pas'ka-goo'la), a river in Mississippi flowing into the Gulf of

patriarch (pa'tri-ark), Father and ruler of a family; a venerable old man.

patrician (pa-trish'an), one of high birth; a nobleman.

patricide (pat'ri-sid), murder of one's father; the crime of murdering
one's father.

patrimonial (pat'ri-mo'ni-al), inherited from an ancestor.

pavilion (pa-vil'yun), a tent, a large temporary building.

peasant (pez'ant), tiller of the soil in European countries.

peasantry (pez'ant-ri), peasants, collectively.

pedagogue (ped'a-gog), teacher of children; a schoolmaster.

pedantry (ped'ant-ri), vain display of learning.

pedigree (ped'i-gre), a line of ancestors; descent.

peer (per), one of the same rank; an equal; member of the British nobility.

pellicle (pel'i-k'l), a crystallized film.

pell-mell (pel'-mel'), in utter confusion.

pendent (pen'dent), something which hangs, depends, or is suspended.

penetrate (pen'e-trat), enter into: understand.

penitent (pen'i-tent), feeling sorrow on account of offence. Penitent
Peter, Luke 22, 54-62.

pensive (pen'siv), thoughtful; sad.

pent (pent), penned or shut up.

penthouse (pent'hous'), a shed sloping from the main wall or building, as
over a door or window.

Pequot (pe'kwot), a former tribe of North American Indians, the most
dreaded of all in southern New England.

peradventure (per'ad-ven'tur), by chance; perhaps.

perceive (per-sev'), obtain knowledge of through the senses; see.

perceptible (per-sep'ti-b'l), capable of being perceived.

perfidious (per-fid'i-us), false to a trust reposed.

perpetrator (pur'pe-tra'ter), one who does or performs.

perpetual (per-pet'u-al), continuing forever, endless.

perplexity (per-plek'si-ti), bewilderment; doubt.

persecution (pur'se-ku'shun), pursuing to injure; injury.

perseverance (pur'se-ver'ans), continuing in a given cause; persistence.

perusal (pe-rooz'al), a careful reading through.

pervade (per-vad'), spread through-out; pass through.

pervasive (per-va'siv), having the power to spread throughout.

perverse (per-vurs'), turned aside or away from the right, contrary.

perversity (per-vur'si-ti), the quality of being perverse.

pestilence (pes'ti-lens), any contagious disease that is devastating.

pestilent (pes'ti-lent), destructive; troublesome.

Petruchio's Kate (pe-troo'chi-o), Petruchio--a character in Shakespeare's
play, "Taming the Shrew." His wife, Kate, is called a shrew on account of
her ill-temper.

petty (pet'i), small, trifling.

pewter (pu'ter), a hard, tough, but easily fusible alloy of tin with lead.

phalanx (fa'lanks), a body of troops in close array; combination of people
firmly united.

phantom (fan'tum), that which has only apparent existence, a ghost.

phenomenon (fe-nom'e-non), pl. phenomena, that which strikes one as
strange, unusual, or unaccountable; an appearance.

philanthropist (fi-lan'thro-pist), one who loves mankind, and seeks to
promote the good of others.

philosopher (fi-los'o-fer), one who lives according to the rules of
practical wisdom; one devoted to the search after wisdom.

phiz (fiz), the face; a humorous abbreviation for physiognomy.

Phlegethon (fleg'e-thon), in Greek mythology, a river of fire in the lower

phlegm (flem), sluggishness of temperament; dullness.

Phoebus (fe'bus), or Phoebus Apollo in Greek and Roman mythology, one of
the great Olympian gods and giver of light and life. Leader of the Muses
and God of music.

physical (fiz'i-kal), pertaining to nature; relating to the bodily
structure as opposed to things mental.

physiognomy (fiz'i-og'no-mi), the face or countenance.

pibroch (pe'brok), a Highland air; air played on bagpipes when Highlanders
go to battle.

picturesque (pik'tur-esk'), forming a pleasing picture.

pillage (pil'aj), something taken by force; plunder.

pin (pin), mood,

Pinckney, William (pink'ni), an American lawyer and diplomatist of a fine
old southern family.

"Pindusborn Aracthus" (pin'dus, a-rak'thus), a river in Greece, Pindus-born
because it rises in the Pindus mountains.

pinion (pin'yun), a feather; quill; a wing.

pinnacle (pin'a-k'l), a lofty peak; the very topmost point.

Pisa (pe'za), small town in Italy, famous for its leaning tower.

Piscataqua (pis-kit'a-kwa), a river in New Hampshire.

"pitch and moment," impetus or speed.

"pitch of pride," in the very place where Douglas's pride is centered.

pitcher plant, a plant with leaves shaped like pitchers.

"pith o' sense," the force, strength, or essence of sense.

plain (plan), complain.

Plains of Abraham, an elevated plain just beyond Quebec to the southwest;
the scene of the battle of Quebec.

plain-song, a short, comprehensive prayer, adapted to a particular day or
occasion, recited in one tone.

Plaquemine (plak'men), Bayou of (bi'oo) an inlet from the Mississippi river
in Louisiana.

planetree, an Oriental tree, rising with a straight, smooth branching Stem
to a great height; the sycamore or buttonwood.

plashy (plash'i), watery; splashy

Plataea's day (pla-te'a),

plausible (plo'zi-b'l), praiseworthy; reasonable.

pleasance (plez'ans), pleasure; merriment.

plebeian (ple-be'yan), of or pertaining to the common people.

pliant (pli'ant), capable of plying or bending; flexible.

policy (pol'i-si), prudence or wisdom in the management of public and
private affairs.

pollute (po-lut'), make foul, impure, or unclean.

pomp (pomp), show of magnificence or splendor.

ponder (pon'der), think or deliberate.

ponderous (pon'der-us), very heavy; weighty.

Popedom (pop'dum), place, office, or dignity of the pope.

populous (pop'u-lus), containing many inhabitants.

porpoise (por'pus), a sea fish closely allied to the dolphin.

port (port), the left side of a ship, looking forward.

portal (por'tal), a door or gate.

portcullis (port-kul'is), a grating of iron or of timbers pointed with
iron, hung over the gateway of a fortress.

portent (por'tent), a sign of coming calamity.

portico (por'ti-ko), a colonnade; covered space before a building.

postern (pos'tern), back door or gate, especially of a castle.

potent (po'tent), powerful, having great authority.

potentate (po'ten-tat), monarch.

praetor (pre'tor), a civil officer among the ancient Romans,

precarious (pre-ka'ri-us), riot to be depended on; dangerous.

precedent (pre-sed'ent), going before.

precedent (pres'e-dent), a decision serving as a rule for future
determination in similar cases.

precipitate (pre-sip'i-tat), overhasty, rash; to fall with steep descent.

precocity (pre-kos'i-ti), development more than is natural at a given age.

preconceive (pre'kon-sev'), form an idea or opinion in the mind beforehand.

predetermination (pre'de-tur'mi-na'shun), a decision reached beforehand.

preeminent (pre-em'i-nent), above other things of exalted station.

pregnant (preg'nant), heavy with important contents or significance.

prejudice (prej'oo-dis), judgment formed without due examination; to bias
the mind of.

prelude (prel'ud), introductory performance.

premature (pre'ma-tur'), ripe before the proper time.

presage (pre'saj), n. sign, presentiment.

presage (pre-saj'), foretell.

presuppose (pre'su-poz'), take for granted.

pretension (pre-ten'shun), laying claim to more than is due.

prevalent (prev'a-lent), generally existing; widespread.

primal (pri'mal), first; original.

prithee (prith'e), a corruption of "pray thee," generally used without the

privation (pri-va'shun), depriving or taking away; getting along without.

proclaim (pro-klam'), make known by public announcement.

prodigal (prod'i-gal), given to extravagant spending. Prodigal Son, Luke
15, 11-32.

prodigious (pro-dij'us), very great; immense.

prodigy (prod'i-ji), a marvel or wonder.

profess (por-fes) admit freely.

proffer (prof-er), offer for acceptance.

profound (pro-found') reaching too the bottom of a matter; deep.

profuse (pre-fus'), pouring forth bountifully; lavish.

progenitor (pro-jen'i-ter), ancestor; forefather.

projecting (pro-jekt'ing), planning; throwing forward.

promontory (prom'un-to-ri), high point of land projecting into the sea.

promulgate (pro-mul'gat), make known, proclaim.

prone (pron), prostrate, flat; inclined, disposed.

proportionate (pro-por'shun-at), at the same rate.

proscribe (pro-skrib'), doom to destruction; denounce.

prostrate (pros'trat), lying at length with the body extended on the

provoke (pre-vok'), call forth, irritate.

prudence (proo'dens), wisdom in the way of caution and provision.

puke (puk), vomit.

Punic (pu'nik), pertaining to the Carthaginians, whom the Romans considered
unworthy of trust, hence, faithless.

purling (pur'ling), eddy; also, to make a murmuring sound as water does in
running over an obstruction.

purport (pur'port), meaning.

pursue (pur-su'), follow with a view to overtake; chase.

Pyrrhic (pir'ik), Pyrrhic dance, a Greek martial dance. Pyrrhic phalanx, a
phalanx such as was used by Pyrrhus, king of Epirus.

quaff (kwaf), drink.

Queen of Lebanon (Leba-nen), Lady Hester Stanhope, niece of William Pitt.
She established herself in the Lebanon hills near Jerusalem, awaiting the
second coming of Christ.

quell (kwel), subdue; repress.

querulous (kwer'oo-lus), apt to find fault.

quick (kwik), vital part.

quietus (kwi-e'tus), that which silences claim; death.

rack (rak), danger.

radical (rad'i-kal), proceeding directly from the root.

railer (ral'er), one who scoffs.

raiment (ra'ment), clothing.

rampart (ram'part), defense.

rampire (ram'pir), same as rampart.

Rance (rans), a river in France.

random (ran'dum), want of direction: chance.

rapine (rap'Tn), a plundering,

rapture (rap'tur), pleasure, delight.

Ratisbon (rat'is-bon), town in Bavaria, Germany, called Regensburg by the

ravage (rav'aj), desolation by violence.

ravenous (rav''n-us), devouring with great eagerness.

raze (raz), lay level with the ground.

rebuff (re-buf), sudden check.

rebuke (re-buk'), check or silence with reproof; chide.

recall (re-kol'), call back; remember.

recede (re-sed'), retreat; move back.

recess (re-ses'), part of a room formed by the receding of a wall.

recessional (re-sesh'un-al), a hymn sung while the choir and clergy are
leaving the church at the close of a service.

reciprocate (re-sip'ro-kat), a mutual giving and returning.

reck (rek), heed.

recoil (re-koil'), drawing back.

recollection (rek'o-lek'shun), something called to mind.

reconcile (rek'on-sil), pacify, settle.

reconnoiter (rek'o-noi'ter) examine with the eye, survey.

recreation (rek're-a'shun), amusement.

recruit (re-kroot'), repair by fresh supplies; reinforcement.

rectitude (rek'ti-tud), honesty.

recurrence (re-kur'ens), the act of returning from time to time.

redress (re-dres'), set right a wrong.

reek (rek), send forth vapor or smoke, "reeking tube," guns and cannons.

reel (rel), stagger.

refluent (ref'loo-ent), flowing back.

reflux (re'fluks), ebb.

refugee (ref'u-je'), one who flees to a place of safety.

refuse (ref'us), waste matter.

regal (re'gal), royal.

regent (re'jent), ruler.

Regulus (reg'u-lus),

reiterate (re-it'er-at), repeat again and again.

relax (re-laks'), slacken.

relevant (rel'e-vant), bearing upon the case in hand.

relief (re-lef), in art, projection of a figure above the ground on which
it is formed.

reluctant (re-luk'tant), unwilling.

remnant (rem'nant), that which remains after a part is removed.

remonstrate (re-mon'strat), present and urge reasons in opposition to an

removes (re-moovz'), a transfer of one's business or belongings from one
place to another.

remuneration (re-mu'ner-a'shun), payment.

renown (re-noun'), fame.

rent (rent), broken.

repair (re-par'), go.

reputation (rep'u-ta'shun), estimation in which one is held.

repute (re-put'), estimate.

requisite (rek'wi-zit), something required.

research (re-surch'), continued search after truth.

reserve (re-surv'), withhold from present use for another purpose or time.

resignation (rez'ig-na'shun), a giving up a claim, possession or office,

resistless (re-zist'les), powerless to withstand; helpless.

resolute (rez'e-lut), determined.

respectively (re-spek'tiv-li), relating to each.

respite (res'pit), a putting off.

restoration (res'to-ra'shun), a bringing back to a former condition.

retain (re-tan'), keep.

retreat (re-tret'), departure; shelter.

reveal (re-vel'), disclose.

revelry (rev'el-ri), noisy festivity.

reverberate (re-vur'ber-at), echo.

reverence (rev'er-ens), a mingled feeling of awe and admiration.

reverend (rev'er-end), worthy of respect.

revery (rev'er-i), day dream.

reviving (re-viv'ing), returning to life.

Reyhan (ra-han'),

ribband (rib'band'), a ribbon.

rife (rif), prevailing.

rift (rift), an opening made by splitting.

riot (ri ut), tumult.

rise (riz; ris), cause; occasion.

rite (rit), solemn observance.

rivet (riv'et), fasten firmly.

riving (riv'ing), splitting.

roan (ron), brown or black color, with gray or white interspersed.

roister (rois'ter), a blustering, noisy fellow.

romance (ro-mans'), tale or novel.

"Romance languages," the languages which were originally dialects of Latin,
as French, Spanish, Italian.

Roos (roos),

Roushan Beg (roo'shan-bag),

routed (rout'ed), overpowered.

routine (roo-ten'), a round of business or pleasure frequently returning.

Royal Society, a society of London for improving natural knowledge.

rub (rub), hindrance.

rubicund (roo'bi-kund), ruddy, red.

rudiment (roo'di-ment), a beginning or first step.

rumor (roo'mer), hearsay, common talk.

runic (roo'nik), pertaining to the written language of the ancient

rural (roo'ral), pertaining to the country.

rustic (rus'tik), unpolished.

ruthlessly (rooth'les-li), in a cruel manner.

Rutledge (rut'lej), the name of an illustrious family in South
Carolina--one of them was a signer of the declaration of Independence and
governor of the state.

sabre (sa'ber), a sword with a broad, heavy blade, usually curved.

sackcloth (sak'kloth'), a garment worn in mourning or penitence.

saddle-girth (sad'l-gurth), that which fastens on the saddle.

saddletree, frame of a saddle.

sage (saj), wise.

Saint (sant),
Catherine's tresses (kath'er-in) in the Roman church, St. Catherine is
noted for her vows never to marry. To braid St. Catherine's tresses applies
to one who does not marry.

Eulalie (u-la'li), St. Eulalie's day is the 12th of February. If the sun
shines on that day, there will be a plentiful apple harvest.

Francois (fran'swa'), a small river in Quebec.

Helena (he-le'na), island off the coast of Africa; the place of
Napoleon's exile.

Louis (loo'i), Louis IX, king of France. Napoleon received his education
at his country's expense.

Malo (ma'le), city in France noted for its high tides.

Maur (mor), town on the Teche river in Louisiana.

Salamis (sal'a-mis), an island in the Gulf of Aegina, Greece, famous for a
great naval battle, 480 B. C.

Salisbury (solz'ber-i), a town in northeastern Massachusetts near
Whittier's home.

Sallust (sal'ust), a Roman historian who accompanied Caesar on his African

sally (sal'i), an excursion from the usual course.

salutary (sal'u-ta-ri), wholesome.

salutation (sal'u-ta'shun), greeting.

Samian (sa'mi-an), pertaining to the island of Samos.

sanctuary (sank'tu-a-ri), a sacred place; a place of refuge.

Sandflesen (sand-fla'sen),

sanguine (san'gwin), hopeful.

Sappho (saf'o), a Greek woman who lived about 600 B. C., famous for her
lyric poetry.

sark (sark), a skirt.

sassafras (sas'a-fras), an American tree of the Laurel family.

satiety (sa-ti'e-ti), fullness beyond desire.

satirical (sa-tir'i-kal), cutting or sarcastic.

savanna (sa-van'a), tract of level land covered with grass or reeds, but
without trees.

Saxon (sak'sun), English,

scar (skar), a bare place on a mountain side.

scarf (skarf), in carpentry a certain kind of joint forming a continuous

scaur (skar),

sceptic (skep'tik), a doubter of fact.

schooner (skoon'er), a vessel with three, four, and even with six masts
similarly rigged.

Scian (si'an), pertaining to Scio, claimed by some to be the birth-place of
Homer, who is called the "Scian muse,"

Scio (si'e), an island in the Aegean Sea noted for its wine.

scoff (skof), sneer.

score (skor), furrow.

Scorpion (skor'pi-un), a constellation; the eighth sign of the zodiac.

scrupulous (skroo'pu-lus), exact.

scrutiny (skroo'ti-ni), close examination.

scud (skud), move swiftly.

sculpture (skulp'tur), carve.

"seal and hand," a letter with the seal and signature of the king,

season (se'z'n), temper.

sedulous (sed'u-lus), diligent, earnest.

seethe (seth), boil.

segment (seg'ment), a part cut off.

Selborne (sel'born), a parish in England, noted on account of Gilbert
White's Natural History of Selborne.

semblance (sem'blans), likeness.

seneschal (sen'e-shal), officer in a prince's house.

Sennacherib (se-nak'er-ib),

sensation (sen-sa'shun), feeling obtained through the senses; state of
excited feeling or that which causes.

sentiment (sen'ti-ment), opinion

sentinel (sen'ti-nel), soldier set to guard an army or camp.

sentry (sen'tri), guard.

sepulchre (sep'ul-ker), grave; bury.

seraglio (se-ral'yo), a harem.

seraph (ser'af), an angel.

serenity (se-ren'i-ti), calmness.

serf (surf), a slave bound to work on a certain estate and sold with it.

servile (sur'vil), like a slave; cringing.

session (sesh'un), meeting.

sesterce (ses'ters), an ancient Roman coin.

settie (set''l), a high-backed bench.

Sewel (su'al), William Sewel wrote a ponderous history of the Quakers.

Sexagesima (sek'sa-jes'i-ma), the second Sunday before Lent.

sever (sev'er), disjoin.

shade (shad), ghost.

shard (shard), a fragment of any hard substance.

"sharps and trebles," musical notes.

Shawnee (sho-ne'), a tribe of Indians. Their name means "Southerners."

sheathe (sheth), cover with something which protects.

sheen (shen), brightness.

Sheik (shek), chief magistrate of an Arabian village.

shelves (shelvz), slopes.

shifty (shif'ti), changable.

shingly (shm'gli), covered with gravel or pebbles.

shoal (shol), a bar which makes the water shallow.

shrew (shroo), a scold.

shrewdness (shrood'nes), sharp-wittedness.

shrive (shriv), to hear confession and pardon.

shroud (shroud), set of ropes staying a ship's masts.

shuffle (shuf'l), to rid one's self of.

sicklied (sik'lid), made sickly.

Sidney (sid'ni), Sir Philip, an English author and general of exceptionally
fine feeling.

Sienas saint (sye'na), St. Catherine, the patron saint of Siena.

silhouette (sil'oo-et'), profile portrait in black.

similitude (si-mil'i-tud), resemblance.

Sinai (si'ni), the mountain near, which the Israelites encamped, and where
the law was given to Moses.

Sinbad (sin'bad), or Sindbad, a character in the "Arabian Nights," who made
seven wonderful voyages.

sinew (sin'u), that which supplies strength or power; a tendon or tissue.

sinuous (sin'u-us), winding, curving in and out.

sire (sir), a father.

Siren (si'ren), one of the three fabled sea nymphs, whose singing lured
mariners to destruction.

site (sit), situation.

Skarholm (skar'hom),

skepticism (skep'ti-siz'm), doubt or uncertainty.

skirt (skurt), surround.

skulk (skulk), hide sneakingly.

slack (slak), loosen; not pressing.

sledge (slej), a sleigh.

Sleepy Hollow, a locality in Tarrytown, New York.

slip (slip), an inclined plane on which a vessel is built.

sloth (sloth), slowness.

smack (smak), small coasting vessel.

smelt (smelt), melt ore so as to separate and refine metal.

solace (sol'as), comfort in grief.

solicitude (so-lis'i-tud), concern.

Solidor (sol'i-dor), a fortress on the Rance river.

soliloquy (se-lil'e-kwi), a talking to one's self.

solstice (sol'stis), point in the earth's orbit at which the sun is
farthest from the equator; winter solstice at about December 22, summer
solstice about June 21.

Solway (sol'wa), an arm of the Irish Sea between England and Scotland,
noted for the rapidity of its tides.

sombre (som'ber), sad.

sombrero (som-bra'ro), broad-brimmed hat worn in Spain and Spanish America.

sonorous (so-no'rus), loud sounding.

sophomore (sof'o-mor), one belonging to the second of the four classes in
an American college.

sordid (sor'did), base.

sorebestead (sor-be-sted'), being put in great peril.

Southey, Robert (south'i), (1774-1843), an English poet of the Lake School.
He was made poet-laureate in 1813.

sovereign (sov'er-in), monarch.

spacious (spa'shus), vast in extent.

Spanish Main, the name formerly given to the southern part of the Caribbean
Sea and the adjoining coast, covering the route of the Spanish treasure

spar (spar), round timber used on a mast.

Spartan (spar'tan), an inhabitant of Sparta; one of great endurance.

spawn (spon), bring forth.

species (spe'shez), a kind.

specious (spe'shus), showy.

spectacle (spek'ta-k'l), something exhibited to view.

spectre (spek'ter), ghost.

spherule (sfer'ool), a little sphere.

spiral (spi'ral), winding like the thread of a screw.

spontaneous (spon-ta'ne-us), proceeding from a natural feeling, not forced.

spouse (spouz), husband or wife.

sprite (sprit), fairy.

spume-flakes (spum), flakes of froth or foam.

spur (spur), a pricking implement fastened to a rider's heel.

spurn (spurn), scorn.

squadron (skwod'run), a detachment of war vessels under command of a

squall (skwol), sudden and violent gust of wind.

stagnate (stag'nat), cease to flow, become dull.

stalwart (stol'wert), brave, strong.

stalworth (stol'wurth), brave, strong.

stanchion (stan'shun), bar for confining cattle in a stall.

starboard (star'bord), side of a vessel on the right hand of one on board
facing the bow.

staunch (stanch), stop the flow of.

stemson (stem'sun), a piece of curved timber bolted to the stem in a ship's

sterile (ster'il), barren.

sterling (stur'ling), genuine.

stern (sturn), after end of a vessel.

sternsonknee (sturn'sun-ne), the continuation of a vessel's keelson to
which the stern-post is secured by bolts.

stirrup (stir'up), a ring for supporting a horseman's foot.

stoic (sto'ik), one who appears to be indifferent to pleasure or pain.

Stony Point, a fort on the west bank of the Hudson, captured by the British
in 1779 and retaken by the American forces under Anthony Wayne.

storied (sto'rid), having an interesting history.

strained (strand), forced.

strenuous (stren'u-us), earnest; active, vigorous.

sturgeon (stur'jun), a large fish common on the coasts and in large rivers
and lakes.

Suarven (swar'ven),

subaltern (sub-pi'tern), an officer of inferior position, usually below the
rank of a captain.

subjugation (sub'joo-ga'shun), the act of conquering or subduing.

sublime (sub-lim'), majestic.

submission (sub-mish'un), a yielding to power or authority.

subservience (sub-sur'vi-ens), the state of being subordinate; yielding.

subside (sub-sid'), cease from action, be calm.

subsidiary (sub-sid'i-a-ri), assisting.

subsistence (sub-sis'tens), means of support.

substantial (sub-stan'shal), real; firm.

subtile (sub'til; sut'l), difficult of understanding.

suburb (sub'urb), an outlying part of a city.

subvert (sub-vurt'), overthrow.

suction (suk'shun), a sucking in.

sue (su), seek after; plead.

sufferance (suf'er-ans), endurance.

suffuse (su-fus'), overspread.

Suliote (soo'li-et),

sultry (sul'tri), very hot and moist.

summons (sum'unz), call by authority to appear at a place named.

Sumter (sum'ter), an illustrious family of South Carolina. Thomas Sumter
was a Revolutionary general.

sunder (sun'der), sever.

Sunium (su'ni-um), an ancient city on a promontory in southeastern Greece.
It contains the white marble ruins of a temple to Athene, a famous landmark
from the sea.

superb (su-purb'), magnificent.

superfluity (su'per-floo'i-ti), a greater quantity than is wanted.

superinhuman (su'per-in-hu'man), attended with cruelty to a very great

supernal (su-pur'nal), being in a higher place; heavenly.

supernatural (su'per-nat'u-ral), being beyond the powers or law of nature.

superstition (su'per-stish'un), a reverence for or fear of what is unknown
or mysterious.

supine (su-pin'), indolent; inattentive.

suppliance (sup'li-ans), entreaty.

surcease (sur'ses'), end.

surcoat (sur'kot'), a coat worn over the other garments, especially the
long, flowing coat of the knights worn over the armor.

surf (surf), swell of the sea breaking upon the shore.

surge (surj), a large wave or billow; rise high and roll.

surgery (sur'jer-i), art of healing by manual operation.

surly (sur'li), ill-natured, sullen.

surmise (sur-miz'), suspicion; imagine without certain knowledge.

surmount (stir-mount'), rise above; conquer.

Surrey (sur'i), an English nobleman, Earl of Surrey, lieutenant of the
northern counties, a county in England.

survive (sur-viv'), outlive; continue to live.

suspect (sus-pekt'), an object of suspicion; mistrust.

susurrus (su-sur'us), a whisper or murmur.

swanlike (swon'lik), referring to the tradition that the swan sings a most
beautiful song just before death.

swarthy (swor'thi), being of a dark hue or dusky complexion.

swath (swoth; swoth), whole sweep of a scythe or machine.

sweep (swep), a pole swinging on a tall post, to raise and lower a bucket
for drawing water.

swoon (swoon), faint.

sylvan (sil'van), forestlike; rustic.

symbol (sim'bol), emblem.

symmetry (sim'e-tri), due proportion of several parts of a body to each
other; beauty and balance of form.

symptom (simp'tum), sign; token.

synagogue (sin'a-gog), Jewish congregation or place for worship.

taciturn (tas'i-turn), habitually silent.

tang (tang), a strong taste.

tankard (tank'ard), large drinking vessel.

Tantallon (tan-tal'on), a castle in Scotland, the stronghold of the Douglas

taper (ta'per), gradually growing smaller.

tapestry (tap'es-tri), hangings of wool or silk with gold or silver threads
producing a pattern or picture.

tarn (tarn), a small mountain lake.

Tartar (tar'tar), an inhabitant of Tartary, central Asia; an irritable or
violent person.

Taygetus (ta'ge-tus), (p. 283, pronounced ta-ge'tus on account of rhythm),
highest mountain range in southern Greece.

Teche (tesh), a small stream in Louisiana.

teeming (tem'ing), bringing forth, abounding.

"teeth of the wind," grasp of the wind.

Teian (te'yan), pertaining to Te'os, an ancient Greek city in Asia Minor,
the birthplace of the Greek poet Anac'reon, who is called "the Teian Muse."

temerity (te-mer'i-ti), contempt of danger; boldness.

temper (tem'per), soften.

temporal (tem'po-ral), pertaining to time or this world; not lasting.

temporary (tem'po-ra-ri), lasting for a time only.

tenant (ten'ant), occupant.

tenantless (ten'ant-les), unoccupied.

tendril (ten'dril), a slender leafless portion of a plant which attaches
itself to a supporting body.

tenebrous (ten'e-brus), dark, gloomy.

tenor (ten'er), general course; conduct.

tenure (ten'ur), a holding.

termagant (tur'ma-gant), scolding; violent; a scold.

terminal (tur'mi-nal), boundary, end.

testament (tes'ta-ment), a will or bequest.

thatch (thach), straw, rushes, etc.

theme (them), a topic on which one writes or speaks. In music, a short
melody from which a set of variations is developed.

theory (the'o-ri), an idea; a plan.

thereat (thar-at'), on that account.

Thermopylae (ther-mop'i-le), a narrow pass in Greece, the scene of a famous
conflict in the Persian wars. A small army of Greeks defended the pass
against a vast army of Persians under Xerxes.

thill (thil), shaft of a carriage.

thole (thol), pin set in the gunwale of a boat to serve as a fulcrum for
the oar in rowing.

thorough-brace (thur'o-bras'), a leather strap supporting the body of a

thorp (thorp), a small village.

Thracian (thra'shan), pertaining to Thrace, in early times the entire
region north of Greece.

thrall (throl), slave, bondman.

thylke (thilk), the same.

tinsel (tin'sel), something shiny and gaudy, more showy than valuable.

tintinnabulation (tin'ti-nab'u-la'shun), a word coined by Poe to represent
the sound of bells.

Titan (ti'tan), enormous, like the ancient giants in Greek mythology.

titular (tit'u-lar), existing in title or name only.

tocsin (tok'sin), an alarm bell.

tolerable (tol'er-a-b'l), capable of being endured.

tolerant (tol'er-ant), indulgent, allowing.

tollmen (tol'men), men who gather toll or tax.

tome (tom), a large book.

Tongres (ton'gr'), a town in Belgium.

torpor (tor'por), dullness.

torrent (tor'ent), a violent stream as of water or lava.

Tory (to'ri), a supporter of the king.

Tourville (toor'vel),

"Tous les Bourgeois' de Chartres" (too la boor-zhwa' de shartr), the title
of an old French song.

tradition (tra-dish'un), custom or practice long observed; oral delivery of
information from father to son.

Trafalgar (tra-fal'gar),

traffic (traf'ik), commerce.

trainband (tran'band), a band or company of an organized military force
instituted by James I dissolved by Charles II but reorganized later.

trait (trat), distinguishing mark or feature.

traitor (tra'ter), one who betrays a trust.

tranquil (tran'kwil), calm.

transcendent (tran-sen'dent), very excellent, surpassing others.

transfigure (trans-fig'ur), change the appearance of; make more beautiful.

transient (tran'shent), not lasting; staying for a short time.

transition (tran-sizh'un), passing from one condition or place to another.

transitory (tran'si-to-ri), fleeting.

transmutation (trans'mu-ta'shun), the changing from one form or condition
to another.

travail (trav'al), toil; produce with severe exertion.

treacherous (trech'er-us), faithless.

Trebizond (treb'i-zond'), province in northeastern Asia Minor.

treble, (treb'l), increase threefold.

treenails (tre'nalz), long wooden pins used in fastening planks of a vessel
to the timbers or to each other.

tremor (tre'mor; trem'or), a trembling.

tremulous (trem'u-lus), quivering; affected with fear or timidity.

trepidation (trep'i-da'shun), fear.

tribulashun (trib'u-la'shun), that which causes distress.

tribunal (tri-bu'nal), a court; seat of a judge.

tributary (trib'u-ta-ri), inferior; contributing.

trice (tris), a very short time.

trireme (tri'rem), an ancient galley or vessel with three tiers of oars.

Triton (tri'ton), a sea god, son of Neptune and his trumpeter.

triumphal (tri-um'fal), in honor of a victory.

trophy (tro'fi), anything preserved as a memorial.

"Truce of God," in 1040 the church drew up a compact which forbade any
fighting between sunset on Wednesday and sunrise on the following Monday.

truculent (truk'u-lent), fierce.

trysail (tri'sal'), a fore-and-aft sail, bent to a gaff, and hoisted on a
lower mast--used chiefly as a storm sail.

tumultuous (tu-mul'tu-us), boisterous, riotous.

Tunis (tu'nls), a country in N. Africa, one of the Barbary states.

turbulent (tur'bu-lent), producing commotion; restless.

turf (turf), sod.

turmoil (tur'moil), worrying confusion.

turnpike (turn'pik'), tollgate; a turnpike road.

turret (tur'et), a small tower at the angle of a large building.

Tuscarora (tus-ka-ro'ra), a tribe of Indians who, when first known, lived
in North Carolina. After years of warfare with the colonists, the remnant
joined the Iroquois in New York.

twang (twang), sound with a quick, harsh noise.

typify (tip'i-fi), represent by a type, model, or resemblance.

tyranny (tir'a-ni), cruel government or discipline; severity.

Tyre (tir), a famous maritime city of Phoenicia.

ubiquity (u-blk'wi-ti), existence everywhere at the same time.

ultimate (ul'ti-mat), incapable of further analysis; final.

unbeholden (un'be-hol'd'n), not indebted.

uncalculating (un-kal'ku-lat'ing), not estimating.

unconditional (un'kon-dish'un-al), made without conditions.

unconfined (un-kon-find'), not bound or limited.

uncouth (un-kooth'), awkward.

undulating (un'du-lat'ing), moving backward and forward, or up and down in

unfledged (un-flejd'), not feathered, hence not fully developed.

unfurl (un-furl'), unfold.

unison (u'ni-sun), harmony.

universal (u'ni-vur'sal), including the whole number, quantity, or space;

unknelled (un-neld'), having no bell tolled at funeral or death.

unmeet (un-met'), not suitable.

unobtrusive (un'ob-troo'siv), modest.

unperturbed (un-per-turbd'), not troubled or confused.

unpremeditated (un-pre-med'i-tat'ed), not thought out beforehand.

unprofaned (un-pro-fand'), not violated, as anything sacred.

unproportioned (un-pro-por'shund), not having the right relation of one
portion to another.

unrestrained (un-re-strand'), not kept in check or curbed.

unrivalled (un-ri'vald), having competitor.

unscathed (un-skathd'), not injured.

unwonted (un-wun'ted), unaccustomed.

upbraid (tip-brad'), reproach or blame.

Upharsin (u-far'sin), See Daniel 5, 25.

upholsterer (up-hol'ster-er), one who provides curtains, coverings,
hangings, etc.

urchin (ur'chin), a roguish child.

Ursini (ur-se'ne), a prominent noble family in Rome.

usurp (u-zurp'), seize and hold a possession by force.

utterance (ut'er-ans), the act of speech.

vague (vag), uncertain.

valiant (val'yant), courageous.

valor (val'er), personal bravery.

van (van), the front of an army

vandal (van'dal), one who wilfully destroys any work of art or literature.

vane (van), weathercock.

vanquish (van'kwish), conquer or get the better of.

vantage-ground (van'taj-ground), condition which gives one advantage over

variant (va'ri-ant), different.

variegated (va'ri-e-gat'ed), having marks of different colors.

vassal (vas'al), a subject or servant.

vaunt (vant), boast.

vehement (ve'he-ment), acting with great force; violent.

velocity (ve'-los'i-ti), speed.

vendue (ven-du'), an auction.

venerable (ven'er-a-b'l), deserving honor and respect.

venerate (ven'er-at), regard with respect and awe.

vengeance (ven'jans), punishment inflicted in return for injury; revenge.

vent (vent), outlet.

venture (ven'tur), risk.

veracity (ve-ras'i-ti), truthfulness.

verdant (vur'dant), green.

verdure (vur'dur), greenness.

verge (vurj), edge, brink.

verily (ver'i-li), beyond doubt or question, truly.

vernal (vur'nal), pertaining to the spring.

version (vur'shun), a translation, account.

vestal (ves'tal), a virgin consecrated to Vesta; nun.

veteran (vet'er-an), one grown old in service.

vibrant (vi'brant), tremulous.

vibration (vi-bra'shun), quick motion to and fro.

vicinity (vi-sin'i-ti), neighborhood.

vicissitude (vi-sis'i-tud), regular change or succession from one thing to

vigil (vij'il), watch.

vindicate (vin'di-kat), justify.

virago (vi-ra'go), a woman of extraordinary size, strength, and courage.

virtually (vur'tu-al-li), being in essence or effect, not in fact.

visage (viz'aj), the face.

vision (vizh'un), that which is seen.

vista (vis'ta), view between intervening objects.

vivid (viv'id), true to life; bright.

vivify (viv'i-fi), make alive.

vixen (vik's'n), a cross, ill-tempered woman.

vocation (vo-ka'shun), occupation.

vociferous (vo-sif'er-us), noisy.

void (void), empty; being without.

volley (vol'i), a burst of many things at once.

Volturnus (vol-toor'nus), a river in _Italy_.

voluminous (vo-lu'mi-nus), of great volume or bulk.

voluptuous (ve-lup'tu-us), full of pleasure; luxurious.

vortices (vor'ti-sez), whirlpools.

vouchsafe (vouch-saf'), condescend to grant; assure.

voyageur (vwa'ya'zhur'), a traveler; Canadian term used for one employed in
transporting goods to the Northwest.

vulture (vul'tur), a bird which feeds on dead flesh of animals or birds.

Vurrgh (vurg),

Wachita (wa'shi-ta),

wafted (waft'ed), floated along lightly on air or water.

wail (wal), weep.

wain (wan), wagon.

wake (wak), trace.

wallet (wol'et), knapsack; pocket-book.

Walleway (wal'e-wa), probably Longfellow had reference to the Wallowa river
in northeastern Oregon.

wan (won), pale.

wanton (won'tun), reckless.

wantoned (won'tund), played.

warder (wor'der), guard.

Ware (war), a town in England about 20 miles north of London.

warld (warld), world.

warp (worp), the threads extending lengthwise in a loom, and crossed by the

wary (wa'ri; war'i), cautious, watchful.

wash (wosh), bog or marsh.

watch (woch), period during which one serves as a sentinel or guard.

water-butt (wo'ter-but), a large, open-headed cask, set up on end to
contain water.

Waterloo (wo'ter-loo'), a village near Brussels where Napoleon met defeat.
So complete and so decisive was the disaster that Waterloo has come to mean

waver (wa'ver), totter; unsettled.

weather-cock, figure often in the form of a cock, turning with the wind and
showing its direction.

weird (werd), pertaining to witchcraft; wild.

welkin (wel'kin), vault of heaven; sky.

welter (wel'ter), roll or tumble about.

Wert (wurt), were (pronounce to rhyme with "art").

Westminster Abbey (west'min-ster), a former church in London, the burial
place of many kings, statesmen, and authors.

whig (h'wig), one of a political party in England, also in America; opposed
to Tories.

whipple-tree (hwip'l-tre'), bar to which the traces of a harness are
fastened for drawing a carriage.

whisking (hwisk'ing), moving nimbly and with velocity.

whit (hwit), the smallest part imaginable.

White, Gilbert (hwit), an eminent English naturalist, who was born in
Selborne and was the author of "Natural History of Selborne."

Wicaco (we-ka'ko),

wimpling (wim'pling), rippling.

wis (wis), think.

wistful (wist'fool), longing.

witchhazel (wich'-ha-z'l), American tree or shrub which blossoms late in

withhold (with-hold'), keep back.

wizard (wiz'ard), a magician.

woebegone (wo'be-gon'), distressed with grief.

wold (wold), a plain or low hill.

Wolfe, Charles (woolf), an Irish clergyman and poet, born 1791.

Wolsey, Thomas (wool'si), a celebrated English statesman and cardinal. He
gained the ill-will of Henry VIII by his conduct in the matter of the
King's divorce.

wont (wunt), custom or habit.

woof (woof), the threads crossing the warp in a woven fabric.

Worcester, Joseph Emerson (woos'ter),

wrack (rak), ruin.

writhe (rith), twist.

wrought (rot), made.

Xanthippus (zan-thip'us), a Spartan commander who won a victory over
Regulus in 255 B.C.

yacht (yot), light vessel for pleasure trips.

yard (yard), a long, slender timber to support and extend a ship's sail.

yeoman (yo'man), a common man of a reputable class.

Ypsilanti (ip'se-lan'te), a celebrated Greek patriot who in 1820 became a
leader in the movement for Greek independence.

Yulelog (yool'-log') a large log of wood, formerly put on the hearth on
Christmas Eve, as the foundation of the fire. It was brought in with much

zeal (zel), enthusiasm.

zone (zon), girdle.

Zutphen (zut'fen), a town in the Netherlands. Sir Philip Sidney was wounded
before it in 1586.

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