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Composition-Rhetoric by Stratton D. Brooks

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2. Adverb: [I will go _when_ it is possible].

_B._ Subordinate clauses may also be classified according to the
introductory word.

(_a_) Clauses introduced by _relative_ or _interrogative pronouns_: _who,
which, what, that_ (= who or which), _as_ (after such), and the compound
relatives, _whoever, whichever, whatever_ (the first three are both
relative and interrogative): [The school _that stands on the hillside_ is
painted white. I know _whom you_ mean].

(_b_) Clauses introduced by a relative or interrogative adjective: [The
man _whose library is well furnished_ is rich. I see _which way I ought to

(_c_) Clauses introduced by a relative or interrogative adverb, such as
_when, whenever, since_ (referring to time), _until, before, after, where,
whence, whither, wherever, why, as, how_: [I know the house _where lie

(_d_) Clauses introduced by a subordinate conjunction, such as _because,
since_ (= because), _though, although, if, unless, that_ (= in order
that), _as, as if, as though, then_: [I will go _since you wish it_].

_C._ Subordinate clauses may also be classified according to the nature of
the thought expressed.

(_a_) General description: [The house, _which stands on the hill_, has a
fine view].

(_b_) Place: [The house _where he was born_ is torn down].

(_c_) Time: [He works _whenever he_ can].

(_d_) Cause: [_Since you wish it_, I will go].

(_e_) Concession: [_Although he is my friend_, I can see his faults].

(_f_) Purpose: [Run, _that you may obtain the prize_].

(_g_) Result: [She was so tired _that she stumbled_].

(_h_) Condition: [_If it rains_, we shall not go].

(_i_) Comparison: [You look as _if you were tired_].

Note that the subordinate clauses in the above examples are modifying

(_j_) Direct quotation: [She said, "_I will go_"].

(_k_) Indirect statement: [She said _that she would go_].

(_l_) Indirect question: [I knew _where his house_ was].

Note that the subordinate clauses in the above examples are substantive

+85. The Framework of a Sentence+ has been already described as consisting
of the _subject_, the _verb_, and, if the verb be incomplete, of some
completing element, _object_ or _attribute complement_. Occasionally an
_objective complement_ must be added. Besides these elementary parts, both
subject and predicate may have modifiers.

The usual modifiers of the subject are:--

1. Adjective: [The _golden_ bowl is broken].

2. Adjective phrase: [The house _on the hill_ is beautiful].

3. Adjective clause: [The house _which stands on the hill_ is beautiful].

4. Noun or pronoun in possessive case: [_Helen's_ paint box is lost].

5. Noun in apposition: [Mr. Merrill, the _president_ of the club, will
open the debate].

6. Adverb used as an adjective: [My _sometime_ friend].

7. Infinitive used adjectively: [Work _to do_ is a blessing].

8. Participle: [The child, _lagging_ behind, lost her way].

The modifiers of the predicate are:--

1. Adverb: [The snow melted very _quickly_].

2. Noun used adverbially: [I walked a _mile_].

3. Infinitive used adverbially: [We were called together _to decide_ an
important question].

4. Adverbial phrase: [She ran _along the road_].

5. Adverbial clause: [Go _when you can_].

6. Nominative absolute: [The _speeches being over_, the audience

Occasionally, adverbs and phrases of adverbial character modify the entire
thought in a sentence, rather than some single word: [_To speak plainly,_
I cannot go. _Perhaps_ I may help you].


+86. Special Words.+--A list is here given of words which
appear as various parts of speech:---

+a+ (1) Adjective: _A_ book. (2) Preposition: I go a-fishing.

+about+ (1) Preposition: Walk _about_ the house. (2) Adverb: We walked
_about_ for an hour. _By, over, up_, etc., are used in the
same way.

+above+ (1) Preposition: The sun is _above_ the horizon. (2) Adverb: Go
_above_. (3) Noun: Every good gift is from _above_. (4)
Adjective: The _above_ remarks are discredited. _Below_ has
the same uses.

+after+ (1) Preposition: _After_ our sail. (2) Conjunctive adverb: He
came _after_ she went away.

+all+ (1) Pronoun: _All_ went merry as a marriage bell. (2) Noun: I
gave my _all_. (3) Adjective: _All_ hands to the rescue.
(4) Adverb: The work is _all_ right.

+as+ (1) Conjunctive pronoun: I give such _as_ I have. (2) Conjunctive
adverb: I am not so old _as_ she. (3) Adverb: What other
grief is _as_ hard to bear? (4) Conjunction: _As_ it was hot,
we did not go. (5) Preposition: I warned her _as_ a friend.
(6) Compound Conjunction: He looks _as_ if he were not well.

+before+ (1) Preposition: He stood _before_ the door. (2) Conjunctive
Adverb: I will do it _before_ I go. (3) Adverb: She has never
been here _before_.

+both+ (1) Adjective: _Both_ white and red pines are beautiful. (2)
Pronoun: _Both_ are yours. (3) Conjunction: She is _both_
good and beautiful.

+but+ (1) Conjunction: John reads _but_ Richard plays. (2) Preposition:
All _but_ him are at home. (3) Adverb: We can _but_ fail.

+either+ (1) Adjective: _Either_ dress is becoming. (2) Conjunction:
_Either_ this dress or the other is becoming. (3) Pronoun:
_Either_ is right.

+fast+ (1) Noun: A long _fast_. (2) Verb: They _fast_ often. (3) Adverb:
The rain fell _fast_. (4) Adjective: He is a _fast_ walker.

+for+ (1) Subordinate Conjunction: I must go, _for_ I promised. (2)
Cooerdinate Conjunction: She stayed at home, _for_ I saw her.
(3) Preposition: I have nothing _for_ you.

+hard+ (1) Adjective: _Hard_ labor. (2) Adverb: He works _hard_.

+like+ (1) Noun: We may never see her _like_ again. (2) Adjective: This
process gives _like_ results. (3) Adverb: _Like_ as a father
pitieth his children. (4) Preposition: She looks _like_ me.
(By some grammarians _like_ in this case is considered a
_adjective_ with the preposition _to_ omitted.) (5) Verb:
You _like_ your work.

+little+ (1) Adjective: A _little_ bread. (2) Noun: I wish a _little_.
(3) Adverb: He laughs _little_. _Much_ has the same uses.

+many a+ (1) Adjective: _Many a_ tree.

+notwithstanding+ (1) Preposition: _Notwithstanding_ the rain, we were
content. (2) Conjunction or Preposition: She is happy,
_notwithstanding_ (the fact that) she is an invalid.

+only+ (1) Adjective: This is the _only_ way. (2) Adverb: _Only_
experienced persons need apply. (3) Conjunction: I should
go, _only_ it is stormy.

+since+ (1) Preposition: _Since_ that day I have not seen her. (2)
Conjunction: _Since_ you lost it, you must replace it.
(3) Adverb: I have not seen her _since_. (4) Conjunctive
Adverb: You have been here _since_ I have.

+still+ (1) Adjective: The lake is _still_. (2) Adverb: The tree is
_still_ lying where it fell. (3) Conjunction: He is
entertaining; _still_ he talks too much. (4) Verb: Oil
is said to _still_ the waves. (5) Noun: In the _still_ of
noonday the song of the locust was loud.

+than+ (1) Conjunction: I am older _than_ she. (2) Preposition: _Than_
whom there is none wiser.

+that+ (1) Demonstrative Pronoun: _That_ is right. (2) Conjunctive
Pronoun: He _that_ lives nobly is happy. (3) Adjective:
_That_ book is mine. (4) Conjunction: I say this _that_ you
may understand my position. (5) Substantive Conjunction:
_That_ this is true is evident.

+the+ (1) Adjective (article): _The_ lake. (2) Adverb: _The_ more ...
_the_ merrier.

+then+ (1) Adverb: I shall know _then_. (2) Conjunction: If you so
decide, _then_ we may go.

+there+ (1) Adverb: The stream runs _there_. (2) Expletive: _There_ are
many points to be considered. (3) Interjection: _There!
there!_ it makes no difference!

+what+ (1) Conjunctive Interrogative Pronoun: I heard _what_ you said.
Pronoun: _What_ shall I do? (3) Interrogative Adjective:
_What_ game do you prefer? (4) Conjunctive Adjective: I
know _what_ books he enjoys. (5) Adverb: _What_ with this
and _what_ with that, he finally got his wish. (6)
Interjection: _What! what!_

+while+ (1) Noun: A long _while_. (2) Verb: To _while_ away the time.
(3) Conjunctive Adverb: I stay in _while_ it snows.


+87. Figures of Speech.+--A figure of speech is a change from the usual
form of expression for the purpose of producing a greater effect. These
changes may be effective either because they are more pleasing to us or
because they are more forcible, or for both reasons.

While figurative language is a change from the usual mode of expression,
we are not to think of it as being unnatural. It is, in fact, as natural
as plain language, and nearly every one, from the illiterate to the most
learned, makes use of it, more or less, in his ordinary conversation. This
arises from, the fact that we all enjoy comparisons and substitutions.
When we say that we have been pegging away all day at our work, or that
the wind howls, or that the man has a heart of steel, we are making use of
figures of speech. Figurative language ranges from these very simple
expressions to the beautiful figures of speech found in so much of our
poetry. Written prose contains many beautiful and forcible examples, but
it is in poetry that we find most of them.

+88. Simile.+--A simile is an expressed comparison between objects
belonging to different classes. We must remember, however, that all
resemblances do not constitute similes. If we compare two trees, or two
beehives, or two rivers, our comparison is not a simile. If we compare a
tree to a person, a beehive to a schoolroom, or time to a river, we may
form a good simile, since the things compared do not belong to the same
class. The best similes are those in which the ideas compared have one
strong point of resemblance, and are unlike in all other respects.

1. How far that little candle throws its beams!
So shines a good deed in a naughty world.


2. For very young he seemed, tenderly reared;
Like some young cypress, tall, and dark, and straight.

--Matthew Arnold.

3. In the primrose-tinted sky
The wan little moon
Hangs like a jewel dainty and rare.

--Francis C. Rankin.

+89. Metaphor.+--A metaphor differs from a simile in that the comparison
is implied rather than expressed. They are essentially the same as far as
the comparison is concerned, and usually the one kind may be easily
changed to the other. In a simile we say that one object _is like_
another, in a metaphor we say that one object _is_ another.


Select the metaphors in the following and change them to

1. In arms the Austrian phalanx stood,
A living wall, a human wood.

--James Montgomery.

2. The familiar lines
Are footpaths for the thoughts of Italy.


3. Life is a leaf of paper white,
Whereon each one of us may write
His word or two, and then comes night.


+90. Personification.+--Personification is a special form of the metaphor
in which life is attributed to inanimate objects or the characteristics of
persons are attributed to objects, animals, or even to abstract ideas.


Explain why the following quotations are examples of personifications:--

1. The day is done; and slowly from the scene
The stooping sun upgathers his spent shafts
And puts them back into his golden quiver.


2. Time is a cunning workman and no man can detect his joints.

--Charles Pierce Burton.

3. The sun is couched, the seafowl gone to rest,
And the wild storm hath somewhere found a nest.


4. See the mountains kiss high heaven,
And the waves clasp one another;
No sister flower would be forgiven
If it disdained its brother.


+91. Apostrophe.+--Apostrophe is like personification, but has an
additional characteristic. When we directly address inanimate objects or
the absent as if they were present, we call the figure of speech thus
formed apostrophe.

The following are examples of apostrophe:--

1. Break, break, break,
At the foot of thy crags, O Sea!


2. Backward, turn backward, O Time, in your flight,
Make me a child again just for to-night!
Mother, come back from the echoless shore,
Take me again to your heart as of yore.

--Elizabeth Akers Allen.

+92. Metonymy.+--Metonymy consists in substituting one object for another,
the two being so closely associated that the mention of one suggests the

1. The pupils are reading George Eliot.
2. Each hamlet heard the call.
3. Strike for your altars and your fires.
4. Gray hairs should be respected.

+93. Synecdoche.+--Synecdoche consists in substituting a part of anything
for the whole or a whole for the part.

1. A babe, two summers old.
2. Give us this day our daily bread.
3. Ring out the thousand years of woe,
Ring in the thousand years of peace.
4. Fifty mast are on the ocean.

+94. Other Figures of Speech.+--Sometimes, especially in older rhetorics,
the following so-called figures of speech are added to the list already
given: irony, hyperbole, antithesis, climax, and interrogation. The two
former pertain rather to style, in fact, are qualities of style, while the
last two might properly be placed along with kinds of sentences or
paragraph development. Since these so-called figures are not all mentioned
elsewhere in this text, a brief explanation and example of each will be
given here.

1. _Irony_ consists in saying just the opposite of the intended meaning,
but in such a way that it emphasizes that meaning.

What has the gray-haired prisoner done?
Has murder stained his hands with gore?
Not so; his crime is a fouler one--
God made the old man poor.


2. _Hyperbole_ is an exaggerated expression used to increase
the effectiveness of a statement.

He was a man of boundless knowledge.

3. _Antithesis_ consists merely of contrasted statements. This contrast
may be found in a single sentence or it may be extended through an entire

Look like the innocent flower,
But be the serpent under it.


4. _Climax_ consists of an ascendant arrangement of words or ideas.

I came, I saw, I conquered.

5. When a question is asked, not for the purpose of obtaining information
but in order to make speech more effective, it is called the figure of
_interrogation_. An affirmative question denies and a negative question

1. Am I my brother's keeper?
2. Am I not free?


+95. Unity, Coherence, and Emphasis in Sentences.+--On pages 153-155 we
have considered the principles of unity, coherence, and emphasis as
applied to the whole composition. In much the same way these principles
are applicable to the sentence. A sentence possesses unity if all that it
contains makes one complete statement, and no more; and if all minor ideas
are made subordinate to one main idea. The effect must be single. A
sentence exhibits coherence when the relation of all of its parts is
perfectly clear. We secure emphasis in the sentence by placing ideas that
deserve distinction in conspicuous positions; by arranging the members of
a series in the order of climax; by using specific rather than general
terms; by expressing thoughts with directness and simplicity; and by
employing the devices of balance and contrast.

We must remember that, in the sentence as well as in the whole composition
and the paragraph, if coherence and unity are secured, emphasis is quite
likely to follow naturally. On the other hand, a violation of coherence or
unity often results in a lack of emphasis.

+96. Unity in the sentence is affected unfavorably by+--

1. _The presence of more than one main thought_. (Stonewall Jackson was a
general in the Confederate Army, and he is said to have been a very
religious man.) In this sentence two distinct thoughts are embodied, and
in such a way that their relation to each other is altogether illogical.
The effect is not that of a single thought. To possess unity the two or
more thoughts of a compound sentence should sustain some particular
relation, like cause and effect, contrast, series, details of a picture.
We can unite the two thoughts in a perfectly logical sentence, thus:
(Stonewall Jackson, the Confederate general, is said to have been a very
religious man.)

2. _The addition of too many dependent clauses_. (The boy was startled
when he awoke, for he heard the plan of his captors, who were preparing to
seize the boat, which had been left by his friends who had so mysteriously
deserted him at a time when he needed them most.) Here, the numerous
dependent clauses tacked on obscure the main thought. The sentence should
be broken up and, where possible, clauses should be reduced to phrases and
words. (The boy was startled when he awoke, for he heard the plan of his
captors. They were preparing to seize the boat left by his friends, who
had deserted him in the hour of greatest need.)

3. _The presence of incongruous ideas_. (With his hair combed and his
shoes blacked, he gave the impression of being a very strong man.) The
ideas of this sentence have no logical relation to each other. There is
little likelihood, too, of making them more congruous by any change in the
sentence. Blacking one's shoes and combing one's hair do not make one look
strong. The remedy for such a sentence is to separate the incongruous

4. _A needless change of construction_. (Silas was kindly received by the
men in the tavern; and when they had listened to his story and his answers
to their questions had been noted, they began to think of catching the
thief.) Confusion arises from such sudden and needless changes of the
subject. By keeping the same subject throughout, we secure unity of
impression. (The men in the tavern received Silas kindly; and when they
had listened to his story and had noted his answers to their questions,
they began to think of catching the thief.)

5. _Making the sentence too short and fragmentary to serve as a logical
unit of the paragraph_. (I went to the park yesterday. It was a pleasant
day. I saw many animals. I had a good time, etc.) Each of these sentences,
when considered in its relation to the others, and to the development of
the thought, is altogether too incomplete and unimportant in ideas
expressed to stand alone. Unity of impression and dignity of thought are
gained by combining the sentences. (Yesterday was a pleasant day; so I
went to the park, where I saw many animals, and had a good time.)

+97. Coherence in the sentence is affected unfavorably by+--

1. _The wrong placing of modifiers_. (The victorious general was
returning to his native city after many hard-fought campaigns with his
staff officers.) It is not likely that the campaigns here referred
to were waged against the staff officers. By changing the position of
phrases we express the thought that the writer had in mind. (After many
hard-fought campaigns, the victorious general, with his staff officers,
was approaching his native city.) Especial care should be taken in placing
the correlatives _either, or; neither, nor; not only, but also;_ and the
word _only_. Incoherence frequently arises through the wrong placing of
these words.

2. _The careless use of pronouns_. (Argument plays a very little part in
that work, and those that do occur are not interesting.) (He repeated to
his father what he had told him the night before when he was in his room.)
In both sentences, the relation between pronouns and antecedents is not
clear, and incoherence results. With the ambiguity in the use of the
pronouns remedied, the sentences are entirely coherent. (Argument plays a
very little part in that work, and whatever argumentative material is
found is not interesting.) (He repeated to his father what he had told
this parent the night before in his room.)

3. _Careless participial and infinitive relations_. (After carefully
preparing my lessons, a friend came in.) (Standing on Brooklyn Bridge, a
great many ferryboats can be seen.) The relation of the parts is
manifestly illogical and absurd. The sentences should read: (After I had
carefully prepared my lessons, a friend came in.) (While standing on
Brooklyn Bridge, one can see a great many ferryboats.)

4. _The use of wrong connectives_. (It rained yesterday, and I went to
school.) We assume that the pupil wishes to convey the thought that he
went to school yesterday in spite of the rain. But by his use of the
coordinating conjunction, "and," he has failed to establish a logical
relation between the two clauses. In this case unity is violated as well
as coherence. Use different connectives and note the result, (Although it
rained yesterday, I went to school) or, (It rained yesterday, but I went
to school).

5. _Failure to observe parallelism in form_. (The stranger seemed
courteous in his conduct and to have a solicitude for my welfare.)
Although this sentence is grammatically correct, the shift in structure
from the adjective and its phrase to the infinitive phrase leads to
confusion in thought. How much clearer and smoother this rendering: (The
stranger seemed courteous in his conduct and solicitous for my welfare.)

+98. Emphasis in the sentence is affected unfavorably by+--

1. _Weak beginnings and endings_. (A fire in the city is an exciting event
to the average boy.) (It seemed that the unprincipled fellow had forged
his father's name.) In the first sentence, the important words are
"exciting event," and they should occupy the most conspicuous position,--
at the end of the sentence. The effectiveness is much improved by this
order: (To the average boy, a fire in the city is an exciting event.) In
the second sentence the weak place is the beginning. The subject and its
modifiers are striking enough to demand their rightful position,--as the
introductory words; in "forged his father's name" we have ideas startling
enough for a place at the end of the sentence. "It seemed that" can be
reduced to one word, "apparently," and this can be made parenthetical.
(The unprincipled fellow, apparently, had forged his father's name.) This
sentence, it will be observed, illustrates the periodic or suspended
structure, a type particularly effective to employ for sustaining interest
as well as for securing emphasis.

2. _Failure to observe the order of climax_. (Dazed, broken-hearted,
hungry, the poor mother resumed her daily tasks.) Clearly, the strongest
idea is suggested by "broken-hearted." A better order would be: (Hungry,
dazed, broken-hearted, the poor mother resumed her daily tasks.)

3. _The use of superfluous words_. (I rushed hurriedly into the burning
house and hastily snatched my few possessions.) In this sentence, "rushed"
and "snatched" lose rather than gain force by adding "hurriedly" and
"hastily." Look up definitions of "rush" and "snatch." When we wish to
express strong emotion or to describe action resulting from excitement, we
only weaken the impression by using unnecessary words. Simple, direct
sentences are most forceful. In aiming to secure sentence emphasis, then,
we should avoid circumlocution, redundancy, tautology, and verbosity.
(Look up these terms in the Century Dictionary.)

4. _The use of general rather than specific terms_. (He approached the
brook cautiously, and concealing himself in the bushes, began fishing.) A
consideration of the choice of words in the sentence belongs strictly to
the study of diction; however, force in the sentence is dependent in a
large measure on the words employed. Observe how forceful the following
sentence is as contrasted with the first example: (He crept noiselessly to
the fishing hole, and hiding in the willows, threw his hook into the

5. _Failure to employ balance and contrast_. (Worth makes the man; but the
fellow is made by the want of it.) (His life was spent in repenting of
past misdeeds; in doing what was wrong, while he inculcated principles of
righteousness.) Compare these with: (Worth makes the man; the want of it,
the fellow.) (His life was spent in sinning and repenting; in inculcating
what was right, and doing what was wrong.) Here the regularity of form
gives pleasure to the taste, while the position of balanced and parallel
parts adds clearness, coherence, and emphasis to the thoughts expressed.
This method of sentence structure, if employed too frequently, however,
will lead to a mannerism difficult to overcome. The caution to be heeded
in the case of this type of sentence as well as in the case of every other
is, "Nothing too much." Observe the law of variety.


Point out the specific faults and correct:--

1. He neither gave satisfaction as butler nor as coachman.

2. Elaine deserves our sympathy from the beginning to the end of the

3. John only played once and won; and then, after watching the other
players for a time, he got up and left the room.

4. The boy had an unconquerable fear of reptiles which no reasoning could

5 The Vicar's son Moses was a good student of the classics, but he made a
bad bargain in his purchase of the green spectacles.

6. In all of his behavior toward Lynette, Gareth was patient and
courteous, which reflected much credit on his knightly character.

7. Johnson was a man with a heroic soul, a wonderful intellect, and a kind

8. After they had all assembled and come together, Odysseus addressed

9. He had reached the age of seventy, and his death was due to a nervous

10. The boys were only injured a little.

11. George Eliot's writings are filled with the philosophy of life, if we
are wise enough to discover it.

12. Addison was sincere and kindly in his attitude toward men, and Pope
was hypocritical and spiteful.

13. With reputation, character, and wealth gone, the poor man had little
to live for.

14. Lancelot loved Queen Guinevere dearly, and he was Arthur's most
valorous knight.

15. We are at peace with all the world and the rest of mankind.

16. Cedric lived with two great ends in view,--the union of Athelstane and
Rowena and to see a restored Saxon monarchy.

17. James was walking backward and forward on the mountain side, which at
this place was very precipitous and from which a little silvery stream
issued to begin its rapid descent to the quiet hamlet that lay far below.

18. In our efforts to succeed in life we work hard that we may make names
for ourselves and to acquire property.

19. He is a good hunter, but his wife is a Methodist.

20. Going up the street I saw the strangest-looking man.

21. James speaks German fluently, and he did not begin to study it until
last year.

22. On returning to the deck, the sea assumed a very different aspect.


Abandon, cast off, desert, forswear, quit, renounce, withdraw from.

Abate, decrease, diminish, mitigate, moderate.

Abhor, abominate, detest, dislike, loathe.

Abiding, enduring, lasting, permanent, perpetual.

Ability, capability, capacity, competency, efficacy, power.

Abolish, annul, eradicate, exterminate, obliterate, root out, wipe out.

Abomination, curse, evil, iniquity, nuisance, shame.

Absent, absent-minded, absorbed, abstracted, oblivious, preoccupied.

Absolve, acquit, clear.

Abstemiousness, abstinence, frugality, moderation, sobriety, temperance.

Absurd, ill-advised, ill-considered, ludicrous, monstrous, paradoxical,
preposterous, unreasonable, wild.

Abundant, adequate, ample, enough, generous, lavish, plentiful.

Accomplice, ally, colleague, helper, partner.

Active, agile, alert, brisk, bustling, energetic, lively, supple.

Actual, authentic, genuine, real.

Address, adroitness, courtesy, readiness, tact.

Adept, adroit, deft, dexterous, handy, skillful.

Adequate, adjoining, bordering, near, neighboring.

Admire, adore, respect, revere, venerate.

Admit, allow, concede, grant, suffer, tolerate.

Admixture, alloy.

Adverse, disinclined, indisposed, loath, reluctant, slow, unwilling.

Aerial, airy, animated, ethereal, frolicsome.

Affectation, cant, hypocrisy, pretense, sham.

Affirm, assert, avow, declare, maintain, state.

Aged, ancient, antiquated, antique, immemorial, old, venerable.

Air, bearing, carriage, demeanor.

Akin, alike, identical.

Alert, on the alert, sleepless, wary, watchful.

Allay, appease, calm, pacify.

Alliance, coalition, compact, federation, union, fusion.

Allude, hint, imply, insinuate, intimate, suggest.

Allure, attract, cajole, coax, inveigle, lure.

Amateur, connoisseur, novice, tyro.

Amend, better, mend, reform, repair.

Amplify, develop, expand, extend, unfold, widen.

Amusement, diversion, entertainment, pastime.

Anger, exasperation, petulance, rage, resentment.

Animal, beast, brute, living creature, living organism.

Answer, rejoinder, repartee, reply, response, retort.

Anticipate, forestall, preclude, prevent.

Apiece, individually, severally, separately.

Apparent, clear, evident, obvious, tangible, unmistakable.

Apprehend, comprehend, conceive, perceive, understand.

Arraign, charge, cite, impeach, indict, prosecute, summon.

Arrogance, haughtiness, presumption, pride, self-complacency,
superciliousness, vanity.

Artist, artificer, artisan, mechanic, operative, workman.

Artless, boorish, clownish, hoidenish, rude, uncouth, unsophisticated.

Assent, agree, comply.

Assurance, effrontery, hardihood, impertinence, impudence, incivility,
insolence, officiousness, rudeness.

Atom, grain, scrap, particle, shred, whit.

Atrociousness, barbaric, barbarous, brutal, merciless.

Attack, assault, infringement, intrusion, onslaught.

Attain, accomplish, achieve, arrive at, compass, reach, secure.

Attempt, endeavor, essay, strive, try, undertake.

Attitude, pose, position, posture.

Attribute, ascribe, assign, charge, impute.

Axiom, truism.

Baffle, balk, bar, check, embarrass, foil, frustrate, hamper, hinder,
impede, retard, thwart.

Banter, burlesque, drollery, humor, jest, raillery, wit, witticism.

Beg, plead, press, urge.

Beguile, divert, enliven, entertain, occupy.

Bewilderment, confusion, distraction, embarrassment, perplexity.

Bind, fetter, oblige, restrain, restrict.

Blaze, flame, flare, flash, flicker, glare, gleam, gleaming, glimmer,
glitter, light, luster, shimmer, sparkle.

Blessed, hallowed, holy, sacred, saintly.

Boasting, display, ostentation, pomp, pompousness, show.

Brave, adventurous, bold, courageous, daring, dauntless, fearless,
gallant, heroic, undismayed.

Bravery, coolness, courage, gallantry, heroism.

Brief, concise, pithy, sententious, terse.

Bring over, convince, induce, influence, persuade, prevail upon, win over.

Calamity, disaster, misadventure, mischance, misfortune, mishap.

Candid, impartial, open, straightforward, transparent, unbiased,
unprejudiced, unreserved.

Candor, frankness, truth, veracity.

Caprice, humor, vagary, whim.

Caricature, burlesque, parody, travesty.

Catch, capture, clasp, clutch, grip, secure.

Cause, consideration, design, end, ground, motive, object, reason,

Caution, discretion, prudence.

Censure, criticism, rebuke, reproof, reprimand, reproach.

Character, constitution, disposition, reputation, temper, temperament.

Characteristic, peculiarity, property, singularity, trait.

Chattering, garrulous, loquacious, talkative.

Cheer, comfort, delight, ecstasy, gayety, gladness, gratification,
happiness, jollity, satisfaction.

Churlish, crusty, gloomy, gruff, ill-natured, morose, sour, sullen, surly.

Class, circle, clique, coterie.

Cloak, cover, gloss over, mitigate, palliate, screen.

Cloy, sate, satiate, satisfy, surfeit.

Commit, confide, consign, intrust, relegate.

Compassion, forbearance, lenience, mercy.

Compassionate, gracious, humane.

Complete, consummate, faultless, flawless, perfect.

Confirm, corroborate.

Conflicting, discordant, discrepant, incongruous, mismated.

Confused, discordant, miscellaneous, various.

Conjecture, guess, suppose, surmise.

Conscious, aware, certain.

Consequence, issue, outcome, outgrowth, result, sequel, upshot.

Continual, continuous, incessant, unbroken, uninterrupted.

Credible, conceivable, likely, presumable, probable, reasonable.

Customary, habitual, normal, prevailing, usual, wonted.

Damage, detriment, disadvantage, harm, hurt, injury, prejudice.

Dangerous, formidable, terrible.

Defame, deprecate, disparage, slander, vilify.

Defile, infect, soil, stain, sully, taint, tarnish.

Deleterious, detrimental, hurtful, harmful, mischievous, pernicious,

Delicate, fine, minute, refined, slender.

Delightful, grateful, gratifying, refreshing, satisfying.

Difficult, hard, laborious, toilsome, trying.

Digress, diverge, stray, swerve, wander.

Disown, disclaim, disavow, recall, renounce, repudiate, retract.

Dispose, draw, incline, induce, influence, move, prompt, stir.

Earlier, foregoing, previous, preliminary.

Effeminate, feminine, womanish, womanly.

Emergency, extremity, necessity.

Empty, fruitless, futile, idle, trifling, unavailing, useless, vain,

Erudition, knowledge, profundity, sagacity, sense, wisdom.

Eternal, imperishable, interminable, perennial, perpetual, unfailing.

Excuse, pretense, pretext, subterfuge.

Exemption, immunity, liberty, license, privilege.

Explicit, express.

Faint, faint-hearted, faltering, half-hearted, irresolute, languid,
listless, purposeless.

Faithful, loyal, stanch, trustworthy, trusty.

Fanciful, fantastic, grotesque, imaginative, visionary.

Fling, gibe, jeer, mock, scoff, sneer, taunt.

Flock, bevy, brood, covey, drove, herd, litter, pack.

Fluctuate, hesitate, oscillate, vacillate, waver.

Folly, imbecility, senselessness, stupidity.

Grief, melancholy, regret, sadness, sorrow.

Hale, healthful, healthy, salutary, sound, vigorous.

Ignorant, illiterate, uninformed, uninstructed, unlettered, untaught.

Impulsive, involuntary, spontaneous, unbidden, voluntary, willing.

Indispensable, inevitable, necessary, requisite, unavoidable.

Inquisitive, inquiring, intrusive, meddlesome, peeping, prying.

Intractable, perverse, petulant, ungovernable, wayward, willful.

Irritation, offense, pique, resentment.

Probably, presumably.

Reliable, trustworthy, trusty.

Remnant, trace, token, vestige.

Requite, repay, retaliate, satisfy.


Ability, capacity.

Accept, except.

Acceptance, acceptation.

Access, accession.

Accredit, credit.

Act, action.

Admire, like.

Admittance, admission.

Advance, advancement, progress, progression.

Affect, effect.

After, afterward.

Aggravating, irritating, provoking, exasperating.

Allege, maintain

Allow, guess, think.

Allusion, illusion, delusion.

Almost, most, mostly.

Alone, only.

Alternate, choice.

Among, between.

Amount, number, quantity.

Angry, mad.

Apparently, evidently.

Apt, likely, liable.

Arise, rise.

At, in.

Avocation, vocation.

Awfully, very.

Balance, rest, remainder.

Begin, commence.

Beside, besides.

Both, each, every.

Bring, fetch.

By, with.

Calculate, intend.

Carry, bring, fetch.

Casuality, casualty.

Character, reputation.

Claim, assert.

Clever, pleasant.

College, university, school.

Completeness, completion.

Compliment, complement.

Confess, admit.

Construe, construct.

Contemptible, contemptuous.

Continual, continuous.

Convince, convict.

Council, counsel.

Couple, pair.

Credible, creditable, credulous.

Custom, habit.

Deadly, deathly.

Decided, decisive.

Decimate, destroy.

Declare, assert.

Degrade, demean.

Depot, station, R.R.

Discover, invent.

Drive, ride.

Each other, any other, one another.

Emigration, immigration, migration.

Enormity, enormousness.

Estimate, esteem.

Exceptional, exceptionable.

Expect, suppose.

Falseness, falsity.

Fly, flee.

Funny, odd.

Grant, give.

Habit, practice.

Haply, happily.

Healthy, healthful, wholesome.

Human, humane.

Lady, woman.

Last, latest, preceding.

Learn, teach.

Lease, hire.

Less, fewer.

Lie, lay.

Loan, lend.

Love, like.

Mad, angry.

Majority, plurality.

Manly, mannish.

May, can.

Mutual, common.

Necessities, necessaries.

Nice, pleasant, attractive.

Noted, notorious.

Observation, observance.

Official, officious.

Oral, verbal.

Part, portion.

Partly, partially.

Persecute, prosecute.

Person, party.

Practicable, practical.

Prescribe, proscribe.

Prominent, predominant.

Purpose, propose.

Quite, very, rather.

Relation, relative.

Repair, mend.

Requirement, requisite.

Rise, raise.

Scholar, pupil, student.

Sensible of, sensitive to.

Series, succession.

Settle, locate.

Sewage, sewerage.

Shall, will.

Should, would.

Sit, set.

Splendid, elegant.

Statement, assertion.

Statue, statute, stature.

Stay, stop.

Team, carriages.

Transpire, happen.

Verdict, testimony.

Without, unless.

Womanly, womanish.


Action: observation of.
Actuality: in argument.
of expressing ideas gained from experience;
of imaginative theme writing.
Allen, Elizabeth A.
Allen, James Lane.
Analogy: argument from.
rule for;
as figure of speech.
purpose of;
use of explanation in;
by stating advantages and disadvantages;
by use of specific instances;
refutation or indirect;
differs from exposition;
clear thinking essential;
by inference;
from cause;
from sign;
from example;
from analogy;
differs from persuasion;
with persuasion.
Argumentative themes.
_see_ coherence;
in argument;
summary of.
Attendant circumstances: argument from.
Authority: appeals to in argument.
Auxiliary verbs.

necessity in debate;
establishing a general theory;
basis of.
Blank verse.

Cause and effect:
development of paragraph by use of;
development of composition by use of;
use in exposition;
use in argument.
Cautions and suggestions:
use of figures of speech;
in debating;
use of pronouns;
use of adjectives;
use of verbs;
use of adverbs;
Character sketch.
Choice of words:
adapted to reader;
as to meaning;
Clauses: restrictive and non-restrictive.
in narration;
in argument;
as figure of speech.
in outline;
in composition;
arrangement of details;
arrangement of facts in exposition;
aided by outline;
in argument;
in sentences.
Colon: rules for.
Comma: rules for.
as an aid to formation of images;
development of a paragraph by;
definitions supplemented by;
as a method of developing a composition;
as an aid in establishing fundamental image;
as an aid to effectiveness in description;
use in exposition;
of adjectives;
of adverbs.
Complete and incomplete verbs.
kinds of;
general principles of.
of nouns;
of personal pronouns;
of relative pronouns;
of adjectives.
development of a paragraph by;
development of a composition by;
use in exposition.
Correction of themes.

Dash: rules for.
value of;
statement of question;
necessity of belief;
order of presentation;
Deductive reasoning: errors of.
by synonym;
by use of simpler words;
definitions to be supplemented;
first step in exposition;
difficulty in framing;
Chapter VIII (_see also_ descriptive themes);
effectiveness in;
classes of objects frequently described:
natural features;
impression of;
impression as purpose of;
in narration;
general description.
Descriptive themes.
selection of;
paragraph developed by;
related in time-order;
related with reference to position in space;
used in general description;
in general narration;
composition developed by giving details in time-order;
by giving details with reference to position in space;
selection of, affected by point of view;
selection of essential;
selection and subordination of minor;
arrangement of;
in narration;
selection of facts in exposition;
exposition by use of.
Discourse: forms of
presupposes an audience.
Dramatic poetry.
Dunbar, Mary Louise.

Effectiveness in description
comparison and figures of speech, as aids to.
Eliot, George.
in sentences.
Equivalents: for nouns
for adjectives.
for adverbs
Essentials of expression.
Examples: use in exposition
argument from _(see also_ specific instances).
Exclamation mark: rule for.
Expediency: questions of.
Experience: ideas gained from, Chapter I; relation to imagination
impressions limited to.
Exposition: Chapter X (see _also_ expository themes); purpose of
importance of
clear understanding necessary
of terms
of propositions
by repetition
by examples
by comparison and contrast
by obverse statements
by details
by cause and effect
by general description
by general narration
by use of specific instances.
Expository themes.
Expression: essentials of.

Feelings: appeal to, in persuasion.
Figures of speech
use of
as an aid to effectiveness in description.
Form: importance of
directions as to.
Forms of discourse.
Fundamental image.

General theory: how established,
basis of
appeals to.
George, Marian M.
Grammar review.

Higginson and Channing.
History: writing of.

Ideas: from experience, Chapter I;
from imagination, Chapter II; from
language, Chapter III.
pleasure in expressing
sources of
advantages of expressing ideas gained from experience
from imagination
ideas from pictures
acquired through language.
Images: making of
complete and incomplete
reproduction of
other requirements to determine meaning
union with impression.
Imagination, Chapter II.
of description,
as purpose of description,
necessity of observing impressions,
limited to experience,
affected by mood,
union with image.
Incentive moment.
Inductive reasoning:
errors of.
Inference: use in argument.
Interrogation mark: rule for.

Jackson, Helen Hunt.
Jordan and Kellogg.


as a medium through which ideas are acquired,
adapted to reader,
Letter writing: Chapter VI;
importance of,
rule of,
business letters,
letters of friendship,
adaptation to reader,
Lyric poetry.

Madame de Stael.
Maxims: appeals to in argument.
McCarthy, Justin.
Meaning of words.
Methods of developing a composition:
with reference to time-order,
with reference to position in space,
by use of comparison or contrast,
by use of generalization and facts,
by stating cause and effect,
by a combination of methods.
Metrical romance.
Metrical tale.
Mill, J. S.
Miller, Mary Rogers.
Morris, Clara.
Motive, in persuasion.

Narration: Chapter IX _(see also_ narrative themes below);
kinds of,
use of description in,
general narration,
narrative poetry.
Narrative themes.

of actions,
order of,
accuracy in,
observation of impression.
Obverse statements.
Oral compositions.
Order of events.
of a paragraph.
the brief.
making of.
use of in exposition.

topic statement,
importance of,
reasons for studying,
methods of development--
by specific instances,
by giving details,
in time-order,
as determined by position in space,
by comparison,
by cause and effect,
by repetition,
by a combination of methods.
Parts of speech.
Period: rules for.
differs from argument,
importance and necessity of,
motive in,
material of,
appeal to feelings,
with argument.
Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart.
Philips, David Graham.
Phillips, Wendell.
interrelation with character.
Poetry: Chapter VII;
aim of,
kinds of.
Point: of a story,
_see also_ climax.
Point of view:
selection of details effected by,
place in paragraph.
Possibility: in argument.
Preston and Dodge.
Principal parts of verbs.
in narration,
in argument.
Procter, Adelaide.
Proportion of parts: for emphasis.
exposition of,
necessary to argument,
of fact and of theory,
statement of.
Proverbs: use in argument.

Quotation marks: rules for.

errors of induction,
relation between inductive and deductive,
errors of deduction.
Reasons: number and value of.
preparation for,
Reid, Captain Mayne.
developing a paragraph by,
exposition by use of.
of a story,
of the thought of a paragraph.
Restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses.
Rhythm: variation in.
Richards, Laura E.
Right: questions of.

Semicolon: rules for.
in conversation,
rhetorical features.
Sewell, Anna.
Sign: argument from.
Sources of ideas.
Specific instances:
development of a paragraph by use of,
use in argument and exposition,
development of a composition by use of,
use in exposition.
Strong verbs.
selection of,
adapted to reader,
should be definite,
Suggestions, _see_ cautions.
Summaries, at the end of the chapters.
Summarizing paragraph.

specific, general,
explanation of,
exposition of,
use in argument and exposition.
Themes: _see_ descriptive, narrative, expository, argumentative, and
reproduction themes.
Title: selecting of.
Topic statement.
Transition from one paragraph to another.
Transition paragraph.

aided by time relations,
aided by position in space,
in life;
in outline,
in composition,
in sentences,
selection of details giving,
selection of facts in exposition,
aided by outline.

Van Dyke.
Van Rensselaer (Mrs.).
Verse: names of.
how to increase,
words applicable to classes of objects.

Wilcox, Ella Wheeler.
choice of,
spelling, pronunciation, meaning, use,
relations of,
adapted to reader,
use of simpler words,
applicable to classes of objects,
offices of,
special list of.

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