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Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama, Vol 1 by The Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D.

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It_ (1598).

The character of "Audrey," that of a female
fool, should not have been assumed [_i.e._ by Miss
Pope, in her last appearance in public]; the last
line of the farewell address was, "And now poor
Audrey bids you all farewell" (May 26, 1808).--
James Smith, _Memoirs, etc._ (1840).

AUGUSTA, mother of Gustavus Vasa. She is a prisoner of Christian II.
king of Denmark, but the king promises to set her free if she will
induce her son to submission. Augusta refuses, but in the war which
follows, Gustavus defeats Christian, and becomes king of Sweden.--H.
Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

_Augusta_, a title conferred by the Roman emperors on their wives,
sisters, daughters, mothers, and even concubines. It had to be
conferred; for even the wife of an Augustus was not an Augusta until
after her coronation.

1. EMPRESSES. Livia and Julia were both _Augusta_; so were Julia
(wife of Tiberius), Messalina, Agrippina, Octavia, Poppaea, Statilia,
Sabina, Domitilla, Domitia, and Faustina. In imperials the wife of an
emperor is spoken of as _Augusta: Serenissima Augusta conjux nostra;
Divina Augusta_, etc. But the title had to be conferred; hence we
read, "Domitian uxorem suam _Augustam_ jussit nuncupari;" and "Flavia
Titiana, eadem die, uxor ejus [_i.e._ Pertinax] _Augusta_ est

2. MOTHERS or GRANDMOTHERS. Antonia, grandmother of Caligula, was
created _Augusta_. Claudius made his mother Antonia _Augusta_ after
her death. Heliogabalus had coins inscribed with "Julia Maesa
_Augusta_," in honor of his grandmother;

Mammaea, mother of Alexander Severus, is styled _Augusta_ on coins;
and so is Helena, mother of Constantine.

3. SISTERS. Honorius speaks of his sister as "venerabilis _Augusta_
germananostra." Trajan has coins inscribed with "Diva Marciana

4. DAUGHTERS. Mallia Scantilla the wife, and Didia the daughter of
Didius Julianus, were both _Augusta_. Titus inscribed on coins his
daughter as "Julia Sabina _Augusta_;" there are coins of the emperor
Decius inscribed with "Herennia Etruscilla _Augusta_," and "Sallustia
_Augusta_," sisters of the emperor Decius.

5. OTHERS. Matidia, niece of Trajan, is called _Augusta_ on coins;
Constantine Monomachus called his concubine _Augusta_.

AUGUSTA HARE, a woman with a native genius for popularity, in Mrs.
A.D.T. Whitney's novel _Hitherto_.

AUGUSTINA, _the Maid of Saragossa_. She was only twenty-two when, her
lover being shot, she mounted the battery in his place. The French,
after a siege of two months, were obliged to retreat, August 15, 1808.

Such were the exploits of the Maid of Saragossa,
who by her valor elevated herself to the
highest rank of heroines. When the author
was at Seville, she walked daily on the Prado,
decorated with medals and orders, by order of
the Junta.--Lord Byron.

AULD ROBIN GRAY was written (1772) by Lady Anne Barnard, to raise a
little money for an old nurse. Lady Anne's maiden name was Lindsay,
and her father was earl of Balcarras.

AULLAY, a monster horse with an elephant's trunk. The creature is as
much bigger than an elephant as an elephant is larger than a sheep.
King Baly of India rode on an aullay.

The aullay, hugest of four-footed kind,
The aullay-horse, that in his force,
With elephantine trunk, could bind
And lift the elephant, and on the wind
Whirl him away, with sway and swing,
E'en like a pebble from a practised sling.

Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, xvi. 2 (1809).

AURELIUS, a young nobleman who tried to win to himself Dorigen, the
wife of Arviragus, but Dorigen told him she would never yield to his
suit till all the rocks of the British coast were removed, "and there
n'is no stone y-seen." Aurelius by magic made all the rocks disappear,
but when Dorigen went, at her husband's bidding, to keep her promise,
Aurelius, seeing how sad she was, made answer, he would rather
die than injure so true a wife and noble a gentleman.--Chaucer,
_Canterbury Tales_ ("The Franklin's Tale," 1388).

(This is substantially the same as Boccaccio's tale of _Dimora and
Gilberto_, x. 5. See DIANORA.)

_Aurelius_, elder brother of Uther the pendragon, and uncle of Arthur,
but he died before the hero was born.

Even sicke of a flixe [_ill of the flux_] as he was, he caused himself
to be carried forth on a litter; with whose presence the people
were so encouraged, that encountering with the Saxons they wan the
victorie.--Holinshed, _History of Scotland_, 99.

... once I read
That stout Pendragon on his litter sick
Came to the field, and vanquished his foes.

Shakespeare, 1 _Henry VI._, act iii. sc. 2 (1589).

AURORA LEIGH, daughter of an Englishman and an Italian woman. At
her father's death Aurora comes to England to live with a severe,
practical aunt. In time she becomes a poet, travels far, sees much,
and thinks much of life's problems. She marries her cousin Romney,
a philanthropist, blinded by an accident.--_Aurora_ _Leigh_, by
Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1856).

AURORA NUNCANOU, beautiful Creole widow in _The Grandissimes_, by
George W. Cable. In her thirty-fifth year, she "is the red, red,
full-blown, faultless joy of the garden. With her it will be always
morning. That woman is going to last forever; ha-a-a-a!--even longer!"

AUSTIN, the assumed name of the lord of Clarinsal, when he renounced
the world and became a monk of St. Nicholas. Theodore, the grandson of
Alfonso, was his son, and rightful heir to the possessions and title
of the count of Narbonne.--Robert Jephson, _Count of Narbonne_ (1782).

AUSTINS (_The_). _Miss Susan_, old maid resident at Whiteladies,
concerned in a conspiracy to introduce a false heir to the estate.

_Miss Augustine_, saintly sister, who tries to "turn the curse
from _Whiteladies_, by her own prayers and those of her
almsmen."--_Whiteladies_, by M.O.W. Oliphant.

AUSTRIA AND THE LION'S HIDE. There is an old tale that the arch-duke
of Austria killed Richard I., and wore as a spoil the lion's hide
which belonged to our English monarch. Hence Faulconbridge (the
natural son of Richard) says jeeringly to the arch-duke:

Thou wear a lion's hide! doff it for shame,
And hang a calf-skin on those recreant limbs.
Shakespeare, _King John_, act iii. sc. 1 (1596).

(The point is better understood when it is borne in mind that fools
and jesters were dressed in calf-skins.)

AUTOCRAT OF THE BREAKFAST-TABLE, a mythical personage who indites
Oliver Wendell Holmes's breakfast-table conversations.

AUTOLYCOS, the craftiest of thieves. He stole the flocks of his
neighbors, and changed their marks. Sisyphos outwitted him by marking
his sheep under their feet.

AUTOLYCUS, a peddler and witty rogue, in _The Winter's Tale_, by
Shakespeare (1604).

AVARE (_L_'). The plot of this comedy is as follows: Harpagon the
miser and his son Cleante (2 _syl._) both want to marry Mariane (3
_syl._), daughter of Anselme, _alias_ don Thomas d'Alburci, of Naples.
Cleante gets possession of a casket of gold belonging to the miser,
and hidden in the garden. When Harpagon discovers his loss he raves
like a madman, and Cleante gives him the choice of Mariane or the
casket. The miser chooses the casket, and leaves the young lady to his
son. The second plot is connected with Elise (2 _syl._), the miser's
daughter, promised in marriage by the father to his friend Anselme (2
_syl._); but Elise is herself in love with Valere, who, however, turns
out to be the son of Anselme. As soon as Anselme discovers that Valere
is his son, who he thought had been lost at sea, he resigns to him
Elise, and so in both instances the young folks marry together, and
the old ones give up their unnatural rivalry.--Moliere, _L'Avare_

AVENEL (2 _syl._), _Julian_, the usurper of Avenel Castle.

_Lady Alice_, widow of sir Walter.

_Mary_, daughter of Lady Alice. She marries Halbert Glendinning.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (date 1559).

_Avenel_ (_Sir Halbert Glendinning, knight of_), same as the
bridegroom in _The Monastery_.

_The lady Mary of Avenel_, same as the bride in _The Monastery_.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

_The White Lady of Avenel_, a spirit mysteriously connected with the
Avenel family, as the Irish banshee is with true Milesian families.
She announces good or ill fortune, and manifests a general interest
in the family to which she is attached, but to others she acts with
considerable caprice; thus she shows unmitigated malignity to the
sacristan and the robber. Any truly virtuous mortal has commanding
power over her.

Noon gleams on the lake,
Noon glows on the fell;
Awake thee, awake,
White maid of Avenel!

Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

AVENGER OF BLOOD, the man who had the birthright, according to the
Jewish, polity, of taking vengeance on him who had killed one of his

... the Christless code
That must have life for a blow.

Tennyson, _Maud_, II. i. 1.

AVERY (_Parson_), a missionary "to the souls of fishers starving on
the rocks of Marblehead." He is wrecked with his crew, one wintry
midnight, and dies praying aloud.--J.G. Whittier, _The Swan Song of
Parson Avery_ (1850).

AVICEN or _Abou-ibn-Sina_, an Arabian physician and philosopher, born
at Shiraz, in Persia (980-1037). He composed a treatise on logic, and
another on metaphysics. Avicen is called both the Hippocrates and the
Aristotle of the Arabs.

Of physicke speake for me, king Avicen ...
Yet was his glory never set on shelfe,
Nor never shall, whyles any worlde may stande
Where men have minde to take good bookes in hande.

G. Gascoigne, _The Fruits of Warre_, lvii. (died 1577).

AVIS, a New England girl, heroine of _The Story of Avis_, by Elizabeth
Stuart Phelps-Ward. She is forced by genius to be an artist, and
through her art loses hope of domestic happiness (1877).

AYL'MER (_Mrs._), a neighbor of sir Henry Lee.--Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

AY'MER (_Prior_), a jovial Benedictine monk, prior of Jorvaulx
Abbey.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

AY'MON, duke of Dordona (_Dordogne_). He had four sons, Rinaldo,
Guicciardo, Alardo, and Ricciardetto (_i.e._ Renaud, Guiscard, Alard,
and Richard), whose adventures are the subject of a French romance,
entitled _Les Quatre fils Aymon_, by H. de Alleneuve (1165-1223).

AZA'ZEL, one of the ginn or jinn, all of whom were made of "smokeless
fire," that is, the fire of the Simoom. These jinn inhabited the
earth before man was created, but on account of their persistent
disobedience were driven from it by an army of angels. When Adam was
created, and God commanded all to worship him, Azazel insolently made
answer, "Me hast Thou created of fire, and him of earth; why should
I worship him?" Whereupon God changed the jinnee into a devil, and
called him Iblis or Despair. In hell he was made the standard-bearer
of Satan's host.

His mighty standard; that proud honor claimed
Azazel as his right.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 534 (1665).

AZ'LA, a suttee, the young widow of Ar'valan, son of
Keha'ma.--Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, i. 10 (1809).

AZ'O, husband of Parisi'na. He was marquis d'Este, of Ferrara, and had
already a natural son, Hugo, by Bianca, who, "never made his bride,"
died of a broken heart. Hugo was betrothed to Parisina before she
married the marqnis, and after she became his mother-in-law, they
loved on still. One night Azo heard Parisina in sleep express her love
for Hugo, and the angry marquis condemned his son to death. Although
he spared his bride, no one ever knew what became of her.--Byron,

AZRAEL (_3 syl._), the angel of death (called Raphael in the _Gospel
of Barnabas_).--_Al Koran_.

AZTECAS, an Indian tribe, which conquered the Hoamen (2 _syl._),
seized their territory, and established themselves on a southern
branch of the Missouri, having Aztlan as their imperial city. When
Madoc conquered the Aztecas in the twelfth century, he restored the
Hoamen, and the Aztecas migrated to Mexico.--Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

AZUCENA, a gipsy. Manrico is supposed to be her son, but is in
reality the son of Garzia (brother of the conte di Luna).--Verdi, _Il
Trovatore_ (1853).

AZYORUCA (4 _syl._), queen of the snakes and dragons. She resides in
Patala, or the infernal regions.--_Hindu Mythology_.

There Azyoruca veiled her awful form
In those eternal shadows. There she sat,
And as the trembling souls who crowd around
The judgment-seat received the doom of fate,
Her giant arms, extending from the cloud,
Drew them within the darkness.

Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, xxiii 15 (1809).

BAAL, plu. BAALIM, a general name for all the Syrian gods, as
Ashtaroth was for the goddesses. The general version of the legend of
Baal is the same as that of Adonis, Thammuz, Osiris, and the Arabian
myth of El Khouder. All allegorize the Sun, six months above and six
months below the equator. As a title of honor, the word Baal, Bal,
Bel, etc., enters into a large number of Phoenician and Carthaginian
proper names, as Hanni-bal, Hasdrubal, Bel-shazzar, etc.

... [the] general names
Of Baaelim and Ashtaroth: those male;
These female.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 422 (1665).

BAB (_Lady_), a waiting maid on a lady so called, who assumes the airs
with the name and address of her mistress. Her fellow-servants and
other servants address her as "lady Bab," or "Your ladyship." She is a
fine wench, "but by no means particular in keeping her teeth clean."
She says she never reads but one "book, which is Shikspur." And
she calls Lovel and Freeman, two gentlemen of fortune, "downright
hottenpots."--Rev. J. Townley, _High Life Below Stairs_ (1763).

BABA, chief of the eunuchs in the court of the sultana
Gulbeyaz.--Byron, _Don Juan_, v. 82, etc. (1820).

BABA (_Ali_), who relates the story of the "Forty Thieves" in the
_Arabian Nights' Entertainments_. He discovered the thieves' cave
while hiding in a tree, and heard the magic word "Sesame," at which
the door of the cave opened and shut.

_Cassim Baba_, brother of Ali Baba, who entered the cave of the forty
thieves, but forgot the pass-word, and stood crying "Open Wheat!"
"Open Barley!" to the door, which obeyed to no sound but "Open

BABA MUSTAPHA, a cobbler who sewed together the four pieces into
which Cassim's body had been cleft by the forty thieves. When the
thieves discovered that the body had been taken away, they sent one
of the band into the city, to ascertain who had died of late. The man
happened to enter the cobbler's stall, and falling into a gossip heard
about the body which the cobbler had sewed together. Mustapha pointed
out to him the house of Cassim Baba's widow, and the thief marked it
with a piece of white chalk. Next day the cobbler pointed out the
house to another, who marked it with red chalk. And the day following
he pointed it out to the captain of the band, who instead of
marking the door studied the house till he felt sure of recognizing
it.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Ali Baba, or The Forty Thieves").

BABABALOUK, chief of the black eunuchs, whose duty it was to wait
on the sultan, to guard the sultanas, and to superintend the
harem.--Habesci, _State of the Ottoman Empire_, 155-6.

BABES IN THE WOOD, insurrectionary hordes that infested the mountains
of Wicklow and the woods of Enniscarthy towards the close of the
eighteenth century. (See CHILDREN IN THE WOOD.)

BABIE, old Alice Gray's servant-girl.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of
Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

BABIECA (3 _syl._), the Cid's horse.

I learnt to prize Babieca from his head unto his

_The Cid_ (1128).

BABOON (_Philip_), Philippe Bourbon, duc d'Anjou.

_Lewis Baboon_, Louis XIV., "a false loon of a grandfather to Philip,
and one that might justly be called a Jack-of-all-trades."

Sometimes you would see this Lewis Baboon
behind his counter, selling broad-cloth, sometimes
measuring linen; next day he would be
dealing in mercery-ware; high heads, ribbons,
gloves, fans, and lace, he understood to a nicety
... nay, he would descend to the selling of
tapes, garters, and shoebuckles. When shop
was shut up he would go about the neighborhood,
and earn half-a-crown, by teaching the
young men and maidens to dance. By these
means he had acquired immense riches, which he
used to squander away at back-sword [_in war_],
quarter-staff, and cudgel-play, in which he took
great pleasure.--Dr. Arbuthnot, _History of John
Bull_, ii. (1712).

BABY BELL, the infant whose brief beautiful life is given in the poem
that first drew the eyes of the world to the young American poet, T.B.
Aldrich, then but nineteen years of age.

Have you not heard the poets tell
How came the dainty Baby Bell
Into this World of ours?
The gates of heaven were left ajar:
With folded hands and dreamy eyes,
Wandering out of Paradise,
She saw this planet like a star
Hung in the glistening depths of even,--
Its bridges, running to and fro,
O'er which the white-winged angels go,
Bearing the holy dead to heaven.
She touched a bridge of flowers--those feet
So light they did not bend the bells
Of the celestial asphodels,
They fell like dew upon the flowers;
Then all the air grew strangely sweet!
And thus came dainty Baby Bell
Into this world of ours. (1854.)

BACCHAN'TES (3 _syl._), priestesses of Bacchus.

Round about him _Bacchus_ fair Bacchantes,
Bearing cymbals, flutes, and thyrses,
Wild from Naxian groves, or Zante's
Vineyards, sing delirious verses.
Longfellow, _Drinking Song_.

BACCHUS, in the _Lusiad_, an epic poem by Camoens (1569), is the
personification of the evil principle which acts in opposition to
Jupiter, the lord of Destiny. Mars is made by the poet the guardian
power of Christianity, and Bacchus of Mohammedanism.

BACKBITE (_Sir Benjamin_), nephew of Crabtree, very conceited, and
very censorious. His friends called him a great poet and wit, but
he never published anything, because "'twas very vulgar to print;"
besides, as he said, his little productions circulated more "by giving
copies in confidence to friends."--Sheridan, _School for Scandal_

When I first saw Miss Pope she was performing
"Mrs. Candour," to Miss Farren's "lady
Teazle," King as "sir Peter," Parsons "Crab-tree,"
Dodd "Backbite," Baddeley "Moses,"
Smith "Charles," and John Palmer "Joseph"
[Surface].--James Smith, _Memoirs, etc_.

BACTRIAN SAGE _(The)_, Zoroas'ter or Zerdusht, a native of Bactria,
now Balkh (B.C. 589-513).

BADE'BEC (2 _syl_.), wife of Gargantua and mother of Pantag'ruel. She
died in giving him birth, or rather in giving birth at the same time
to nine dromedaries laden with ham and smoked tongues, 7 camels
laden with eels, and 25 wagons full of leeks, garlic, onions, and
shallots.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. 2 (1533).

BADGER _(Will)_, sir Hugh Robsart's favorite domestic.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Bad'ger (Mr. Bayham_), medical practitioner at Chelsea, under whom
Richard Carstone pursues his studies. Mr. Badger is a crisp-looking
gentleman, with "surprised eyes;" very proud of being Mrs. Badger's
"third," and always referring to her former two husbands, captain
Swosser and professor Dingo.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

BADINGUET [_Bad.en.gay_] one of the many nicknames of Napoleon III.
It was the name of the mason in whose clothes he escaped from the
fortress of Ham (1808, 1851-1873).

BADOURA, daughter of Gaiour (2 _syl._), king of China, the "most
beautiful woman ever seen upon earth." The emperor Gaiour wished her
to marry, but she expressed an aversion to wedlock. However, one night
by fairy influence she was shown prince Camaralzaman asleep, fell
in love with him, and exchanged rings. Next day she inquired for the
prince, but her inquiry was thought so absurd that she was confined as
a madwoman. At length her foster-brother solved the difficulty thus:
The emperor having proclaimed that whoever cured the princess of her
[supposed] madness should have her for his wife, he sent Camaralzaman
to play the magician, and imparted the secret to the princess by
sending her the ring she had left with the sleeping prince. The cure
was instantly effected, and the marriage solemnized with due pomp.
When the emperor was informed that his son-in-law was a prince, whose
father was sultan of the "Island of the Children of Khaledan, some
twenty days' sail from the coast of Persia," he was delighted with the
alliance.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Camaralzaman and Badoura").

BADROULBOUDOUR, daughter of the sultan of China, a beautiful
brunette. "Her eyes were large and sparkling, her expression modest,
her mouth small, her lips vermilion, and her figure perfect." She
became the wife of Aladdin, but twice nearly caused his death; once
by exchanging "the wonderful lamp" for a new copper one, and once by
giving hospitality to the false Fatima. Aladdin killed both these
magicians.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Aladdin or The Wonderful Lamp").

BAG DAD. A hermit told the caliph Almanzor that one Moclas was
destined to found a city on the spot where he was standing. "I am that
man," said the caliph, and he then informed the hermit how in his
boyhood he once stole a bracelet, and his nurse ever after called him
"Moclas," the name of a well-known thief.--Marigny.

BAGSHOT, one of a gang of thieves who conspire to break into the house
of lady Bountiful.--Farquhar, _The Beaux' Stratagem_ (1705).

BAGSTOCK (_Major Joe_), an apoplectic retired military officer, living
in Princess's Place, opposite to Miss Tox. The major has a covert
kindness for Miss Tox, and is jealous of Mr. Dombey. He speaks of
himself as "Old Joe Bagstock," "Old Joey," "Old J.," "Old Josh,"
"Rough and tough old Jo," "J.B.," "Old J.B.," and so on. He is also
given to over-eating, and to abusing his poor native servant.--C.
Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

BAHADAR, master of the horse to the king of the Magi. Prince Amgiad
was enticed by a collet to enter the minister's house, and when
Bahadar returned, he was not a little surprised at the sight of his
uninvited guest. The prince, however, explained to him in private how
the matter stood, and Bahadar, entering into the fun of the thing,
assumed for the nonce the place of a slave. The collet would have
murdered him, but Amgiad, to save the minister, cut off her head.
Bahadar, being arrested for murder, was condemned to death, but Amgiad
came forward and told the whole truth, whereupon Bahadar was instantly
released, and Amgiad created vizier.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Amgiad and

BAHMAN (_Prince_), eldest son of the sultan Khrossou-schah of Persia.
In infancy he was taken from the palace by the sultana's sisters, and
set adrift on a canal, but being rescued by the superintendent of the
sultan's gardens, he was brought up, and afterwards restored to the
sultan. It was the "talking bird" that told the sultan the tale of the
young prince's abduction.

_Prince Bahman's Knife_. When prince Bahman started on his exploits,
he gave to his sister Parazade (4 _syl._) a knife, saying, "As long as
you find this knife clean and bright, you may feel assured that I am
alive and well; but if a drop of blood falls from it, you may know
that I am no longer alive."--_Arabian Nights_ ("The Two Sisters," the
last tale).

BAILEY, a sharp lad in the service of Todger's boarding-house. His
ambition was to appear quite a full-grown man. On leaving Mrs.
Todgers's, he became the servant of Montague Tigg, manager of the
"Anglo-Bengalee Company."--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

BAILIE (_General_), a parliamentary leader.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend of
Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

_Bailie (Giles)_, a gipsy; father of Gabrael Faa (nephew to Meg
Merrilies).--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

BAILLY, (_Henry or Harry_), the host of the Tabard Inn, in Southwerk,
London, where the nine and twenty companions of Chaucer put up before
starting on their pilgrimage to Canterbury.

A semely man our hoste was withal
For to han been a marshal in an halle,
A fairer burgeis is ther non in Chepe.

Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales, Prologue_.

BAILIFF'S DAUGHTER OF ISLINGTON (in Norfolk). A squire's son loved the
bailiff's daughter, but she gave him no encouragement, and his friends
sent him to London "an apprentice for to binde." After the lapse of
seven years, the bailiff's daughter, "in ragged attire," set out to
walk to London, "her true love to inquire." The young man on horseback
met her, but knew her not. "One penny, one penny, kind sir!" she
said. "Where were you born?" asked the young man. "At Islington," she
replied. "Then prithee, sweetheart, do you know the bailiff's daughter
there?" "She's dead, sir, long ago." On hearing this the young man
declared he'd live an exile in some foreign land. "Stay, oh stay, thou
goodly youth," the maiden cried, "she is not really dead, for I am
she." "Then farewell grief and welcome joy, for I have found my true
love, whom I feared I should never see again."--Percy, _Relics of
English Poetry_, ii. 8.

BAILZOU _(Annaple)_, the nurse of Effie Deans in her
confinement.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

BAJARDO, Rinaldo's steed.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

BAJAZET, surnamed "The Thunderbolt" (_ilderim_), sultan of Turkey.
After subjugating Bulgaria, Macedonia, Thessaly, and Asia Minor, he
laid siege to Constantinople, but was taken captive by Tamerlane
emperor of Tartary. He was fierce as a wolf, reckless, and
indomitable. Being asked by Tamerlane how he would have treated him
had their lots been reversed, "Like a dog," he cried. "I would have
made you my footstool when I mounted my saddle, and when your services
were not needed would have chained you in a cage like a wild beast."
Tamerlane replied, "Then to show you the difference of my spirit, I
shall treat you as a king." So saying, he ordered his chains to be
struck off, gave him one of the royal tents, and promised to restore
him to his throne if he would lay aside his hostility. Bajazet abused
this noble generosity; plotted the assassination of Tamerlane; and
bow-strung Moneses. Finding clemency of no use, Tamerlane commanded
him to be used "as a dog, and to be chained in a cage like a wild
beast."--N. Rowe, _Tamerlane_ (a tragedy, 1702).

_Bajazet_, a black page at St. James's Palace.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril
of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

BAKER (_The_), and the "Baker's Wife." Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette
were so called by the revolutionary party, because on the 6th October,
1789, they ordered a supply of bread to be given to the mob which
surrounded the palace at Versailles, clamoring for bread.

BALAAM (2 _syl._), the earl of Huntingdon, one of the rebels in the
army of the duke of Monmouth.

And, therefore in the name of dulness, be
The well-hung Balaam.

Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_.

_Balaam_, a "citizen of sober fame," who lived near the monument of
London. While poor he was "religious, punctual, and frugal;" but when
he became rich and got knighted, he seldom went to church, became a
courtier, "took a bribe from France," and was hung for treason.--Pope,
_Moral Essays_, iii.

BALAAM AND JOSAPHAT, a religious novel by Johannes Damascenus, son of
Almansur. (For plot, see JOSAPHAT.)

BALACK, Dr. Burnet, bishop of Salisbury, who wrote a history called
_Burnet's Own Time_, and _History of the Reformation_.--Dryden and
Tate, _Absalom and Achitophel_, ii.

BALAFRE (_Le_), _alias_ Ludovic Lesly, an old archer of the Scottish
Guard at Plessis les Tours, one of the castle palaces of Louis XI. Le
Balafre is uncle to Quentin Durward.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_
(time, Edward IV.).

Henri, son of Francois second duke of Gruise, was called _Le
Balafre_ ("the gashed"), from a frightful scar in the face from a
sword-cut in the battle of Dormans (1575).

BALAM, the ox on which the faithful feed in paradise. The fish is
called Nun, the lobes of whose liver will suffice for 70,000 men.

BALAN, brother of Balyn or Balin le Savage, two of the most valiant
knights that the world ever produced.--Sir T. Malory, _History of
Prince Arthur_, i. 31 (1470).

_Balan_, "the bravest and strongest of all the giant race." Amadis de
Gaul rescued Gabrioletta from his hands.--Vasco de Lobeira, _Amadis de
Gaul_, iv. 129 (fourteenth century).

BALANCE (_Justice_), father of Sylvia. He had once been in the army,
and as he had run the gauntlet himself, he could make excuses for
the wild pranks of young men.--G. Farquhar, _The Recruiting Officer_

BALAND OF SPAIN, a man of gigantic strength, who called himself
Fierabras.--_Mediaeval Romance_.

BALATSU-USUR, the name given to the captive Jew Daniel in Babylon,
meaning "May Bel protect his life!"

Prostrate upon his royal face, prostrate before
the court, the queen, the people--down like a
pleading conscience or a suppliant faith, Nebuchadrezzar
the Great lay in the dust, and worshipped
him right royally.

"_Thou_ art the Master of the Magicians!" said
the king. "For thou commandest the power of
thy God and thou controllest the spirit of
man!" ...

Plain moral purity and religious fervor had
done for the young man what a lifetime of political
scheming had failed to do for many a
grey-headed disappointed adventurer. Then, as
in all ages, intrigue regarded the success of sincerity
with astonishment.--_The Master of the
Magicians_, by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Herbert
D. Ward (1890).

BALCHRISTIE (_Jenny_), housekeeper to the laird of Dumbiedikes.--Sir
W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

BALDASSARE (4 _syl._) chief of the monastery of St. Jacopo di
Compostella.--Donizetti's opera, _La Favorite_ (1842).

BALDER, the god of light, peace, and day, was the young and beautiful
son of Odin and Frigga. His palace, Briedablik ("wide-shining"), stood
in the Milky Way. He was slain by Hoeder, the blind old god of darkness
and night, but was restored to life at the general request of the
gods.--_Scandinavian Mythology_.

Balder the beautiful,
God of the summer sun.

Longfellow, _Tegnier's Death_.

(Sydney Dobell has a poem entitled _Balder_, published in 1854.)

BALDERSTONE (_Caleb_), the favorite old butler of the master of
Ravenswood, at Wolf's Crag Tower. Being told to provide supper for
the laird of Bucklaw, he pretended that there were fat capon and good
store in plenty, but all he could produce was "the hinder end of a
mutton ham that had been three times on the table already, and the
heel of a ewe-milk kebbuck [_cheese_]" (ch. vii.).--Sir W. Scott,
_Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

BALDRICK, an ancestor of the lady Eveline Berenger "the betrothed." He
was murdered, and lady Eveline assured Rose Flammock that she had seen
his ghost frowning at her.--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry

BALDRINGHAM (_The lady Ermengarde of_), great-aunt of lady Eveline
Berenger "the betrothed."--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry

BALDWIN, the youngest and comeliest of Charlemagne's paladins, nephew
of sir Roland.

_Baldwin_, the restless and ambitious duke of Bologna, leader of 1200
horse in the allied Christian army. He was Godfrey's brother, and very
like him, but not so tall.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

He is introduced by sir Walter Scott in _Count Robert of Paris_.

_Baldwin_. So the Ass is called in the beast-epic entitled _Reynard
the Fox_ (the word means "bold friend"). In pt. iii. he is called
"Dr." Baldwin (1498).

_Baldwin_, tutor of Rollo ("the bloody brother") and Otto, dukes
of Normandy, and sons of Sophia. Baldwin was put to death by Rollo,
because Hamond slew Gisbert the chancellor with an axe and not with a
sword. Rollo said that Baldwin deserved death "for teaching Hamond no
better."--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Bloody Brother_ (1639).

_Baldwin (Count)_, a fatal example of paternal self-will. He doted on
his elder son Biron, but because he married against his inclination,
disinherited him, and fixed all his love on Carlos his younger son.
Biron fell at the siege of Candy, and was supposed to be dead. His
wife Isabella mourned for him seven years, and being on the point of
starvation, applied to the count for aid, but he drove her from his
house as a dog. Villeroy (2 _syl._) married her, but Biron returned
the following day. Carlos, hearing of his brother's return, employed
ruffians to murder him, and then charged Villeroy with the crime; but
one of the ruffians impeached, Carlos was arrested, and Isabella,
going mad, killed herself. Thus was the wilfulness of Baldwin the
source of infinite misery. It caused the death of his two sons, as
well as of his daughter-in-law.--Thomas Southern, _The Fatal Marriage_

_Baldwin_, archbishop of Canterbury (1184-1190), introduced by sir W.
Scott in his novel called _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

BALDWINDE OYLEY, esquire of sir Brian de Bois Guilbert (Preceptor of
the Knights Templars).--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

BALIN (_Sir_), or "Balin le Savage," knight of the two swords. He was
a Northumberland knight, and being taken captive, was imprisoned six
months by king Arthur. It so happened that a damsel girded with a
sword came to Camelot at the time of sir Balin's release, and told the
king that no man could draw it who was tainted with "shame, treachery,
or guile." King Arthur and all his knights failed in the attempt, but
sir Balin drew it readily. The damsel begged him for the sword, but he
refused to give it to any one. Whereupon the damsel said to him, "That
sword shall be thy plague, for with it shall ye slay your best friend,
and it shall also prove your own death." Then the Lady of the Lake
came to the king, and demanded the sword, but sir Balin cut off
her head with it, and was banished from the court. After various
adventures he came to a castle where the custom was for every guest to
joust. He was accommodated with a shield, and rode forth to meet his
antagonist. So fierce was the encounter that both the combatants were
slain, but Balin lived just long enough to learn that his antagonist
was his dearly beloved brother Balan, and both were buried in one
tomb.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 27-44 (1470).

"The Book of Sir Balin le Savage" is part i. ch. 27 to 44 (both
inclusive) of sir T. Malory's _History of Prince Arthur_.

BALINVERNO, one of the leaders in Agramant's allied army.--Ariosto,
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

BALIOL (_Edward_), usurper of Scotland, introduced in _Redgauntlet_,
a novel by sir W. Scott (time, George II.).

_Baliol (Mrs.)_, friend of Mr. Croftangry, in the introductory
chapter of _The Fair Maid of Perth_, a novel by sir W. Scott (time,
Henry IV.).

_Baliol (Mrs. Martha Bethune)_, a lady of quality and fortune, who
had a house called Baliol Lodging, Canongate, Edinburgh. At her death
she left to her cousin Mr. Croftangry two series of tales called _The
Chronicles of Canongate (q.v.)_, which he published.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Highland Widow_ (introduction, 1827).

BALISARDA, a sword made in the garden of Orgagna by the sorceress
Falerina; it would cut through even enchanted substances, and was
given to Rogero for the express purpose of "dealing Orlando's
death."--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, xxv. 15 (1516).

He knew with Balisarda's lightest blows,
Nor helm, nor shield, nor cuirass could avail,
Nor strongly tempered plate, nor twisted mail.

Book xxiii.

BALIVERSO, the basest knight in the Saracen army.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_, (1516).

BALK or BALKH ("_to embrace_"), Omurs, surnamed _Ghil-Shah_ ("earth's
king"), founder of the Paishdadian dynasty. He travelled abroad to
make himself familiar with the laws and customs of other lands. On his
return he met his brother, and built on the spot of meeting a city,
which he called Balk; and made it the capital of his kingdom.

BALKIS, the Arabian name of the queen of Sheba, who went from the
south to witness the wisdom and splendor of Solomon. According to the
Koran she was a fire-worshipper. It is said that Solomon raised her to
his bed and throne. She is also called queen of Saba or Aaziz.--_Al
Koran_, xxvi. (Sale's notes).

She fancied herself already more potent than
Balkis, and pictured to her imagination the genii
falling prostrate at the foot of her throne.--W.
Beckford, _Vathek_.

_Balkis queen of Sheba_ or _Saba_. Solomon being told that her
legs were covered with hair "like those of an ass," had the
presence-chamber floored with glass laid over running water filled
with fish. When Balkis approached the room, supposing the floor to be
water, she lifted up her robes and exposed her hairy ankles, of which
the king had been rightly informed.--_Jallalo'dinn_.

BALLENKEIROCH (_Old_), a Highland chief and old friend of Fergus
M'Ivor.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, Greorge II.).

BALMUNG, the sword of Siegfried forged by Wieland the smith of the
Scandinavian gods. In a trial of merit Wieland cleft Amilias (a
brother smith) to the waist; but so fine was the cut that Amilias
was not even conscious of it till he attempted to move, when he fell
asunder into two pieces.--_Niebelungen Lied_.

BALRUDDERY (_The laird of_), a relation of Godfrey Bertram, laird of
Ellangowan.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

BALTHAZAR, a merchant, in Shakespeare's _Comedy of Errors_ (1593).

_Balthazar_, a name assumed by Portia, in Shakespeare's _Merchant of
Venice_ (1598).

_Balthazar_, servant to Romeo, in Shakespeare's _Romeo and Juliet_

_Balthazar_, servant to don Pedro, in Shakespeare's _Much Ado about
Nothing_ (1600).

_Balthazar_, one of the three "kings" shown in Cologne Cathedral as
one of the "Magi" led to Bethlehem by the guiding star. The word means
"lord of treasures." The names of the other two are Melchior ("king of
light"), and Gaspar or Caspar ("the white one"). Klopstock, in _The
Messiah_, makes six "Wise Men," and none of the names are like these

_Balthazar_, father of Juliana, Volante, and Zamora. A proud,
peppery, and wealthy gentleman. His daughter Juliana marries the duke
of Aranza; his second daughter the count Montalban; and Zamora marries
signor Rinaldo.--J. Tobin, _The Honeymoon_ (1804).

BALUE (_Cardinal_), in the court of Louis XI. of France (1420-1491),
introduced by sir W. Scott in _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

BALUGANTES (4 _syl._), leader of the men from Leon, in Spain, and in
alliance with Agramant.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

BALVENY (_Lord_), kinsman of the earl of Douglas.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair
Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

BALWHIDDER [_Balwither_], a Scotch presbyterian pastor, filled with
all the old-fashioned national prejudices, but sincere, kind-hearted,
and pious. He is garrulous and loves his joke, but is quite ignorant
of the world, being "in it but not of it."--Galt, _Annals of the
Parish_ (1821).

The _Rev. Micah Balwhidder_ is a fine representation
of the primitive Scottish pastor; diligent,
blameless, loyal, and exemplary in his life, but
without the fiery zeal and "kirk-filling eloquence"
of the supporters of the Covenant.--R.
Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 591.

BALY, one of the ancient and gigantic kings of India, who founded the
city called by his name. He redressed wrongs, upheld justice, was
generous and truthful, compassionate and charitable, so that at death
he became one of the judges of hell. His city in time got overwhelmed
with the encroaching ocean, but its walls were not overthrown, nor
were the rooms encumbered with the weeds and alluvial of the sea. One
day a dwarf, named Vamen, asked the mighty monarch to allow him to
measure three of his own paces for a hut to dwell in. Baly smiled, and
bade him measure out what he required. The first pace of the dwarf
compassed the whole earth, the second the whole heavens, and the
third the infernal regions. Baly at once perceived that the dwarf was
Vishnu, and adored the present deity. Vishnu made the king "Governor
of Padalon" or hell, and permitted him once a year to revisit the
earth, on the first full moon of November.

Baly built
A city, like the cities of the gods,
Being like a god himself. For many an age
Hath ocean warred against his palaces,
Till overwhelmed they lie beneath the waves,
Not overthrown.

Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, xv. 1 (1809).

BAN, king of Benwick [_Brittany_], father of sir Launcelot, and
brother of Bors king of Gaul. This "shadowy king of a still more
shadowy kingdom" came over with his royal brother to the aid of
Arthur, when, at the beginning of his reign, the eleven kings leagued
against him (pt. i. 8).

Yonder I see the most valiant knight of the
world, and the man of most renown, for such
two brethren as are king Ban and king Bors are
not living.--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince
Arthur_, i. 14 (1470).

BANASTAR (_Humfrey_), brought up by Henry duke of Buckingham, and
advanced by him to honor and wealth. He professed to love the duke as
his dearest friend; but when Richard III. offered L1000 reward to
any one who would deliver up the duke, Banastar betrayed him to John
Mitton, sheriff of Shropshire, and he was conveyed to Salisbury, where
he was beheaded. The ghost of the duke prayed that Banastar's eldest
son, "reft of his wits might end his life in a pigstye;" that his
second son might "be drowned in a dyke" containing less than "half
a foot of water;" that his only daughter might be a leper; and that
Banastar himself might "live in death and die in life."--Thomas
Sackville, _A Mirrour for Magistraytes_ ("The Complaynt," 1587).

BANBERG (_The Bishop of_), introduced in Donnerhugel's narrative.--Sir
W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

BANBURY CHEESE. Bardolph calls Slender a "Banbury cheese" (_Merry
Wives of Windsor_, act i. sc. 1); and in _Jack Drum's Entertainment_
we read, "You are like a Banbury cheese, nothing but paring." The
Banbury cheese alluded to was a milk cheese, about an inch in

BANDY-LEGGED, Armand Gouffe (1775-1845), also called _Le panard du
dix-neuvieme siecle_. He was one of the founders of the "Caveau

BANKS, a farmer, the great terror of old mother Sawyer, the witch
of Edmonton.--_The Witch of Edmonton_ (by Rowley, Dekker, and Ford,

BANQUO, a Scotch general of royal extraction, in the time of Edward
the Confessor. He was murdered at the instigation of king Macbeth, but
his son Fleance escaped, and from this Fleance descended a race of
kings who filled the throne of Scotland, ending with James I. of
England, in whom were united the two crowns. The witches on the
blasted heath hailed Banquo as--

(1) Lesser than Macbeth, and greater.
(2) Not so happy, yet much happier.
(3) Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none.

Shakespeare, _Macbeth_, act i. sc. 3 (1606).

(Historically no such person as Banquo ever existed, and therefore
Fleance was not the ancestor of the house of Stuart.)

BANSHEE, a tutelary female spirit. Every chief family of Ireland has
its banshee, who is supposed to give it warning of approaching death
or danger.

BANTAM (_Angela Cyrus_), grand-master of the ceremonies at "Ba-ath,"
and a very mighty personage in the opinion of the _elite_ of Bath.--C.
Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

BAP, a contraction of _Bap'liomet, i.e._ Mahomet. An imaginary idol
or symbol which the Templars were accused of employing in their
mysterious religious rites. It was a small human figure cut in stone,
with two heads, one male and the other female, but all the rest of the
figure was female. Specimens still exist.

BAP'TES (2 _syl_.), priests of the goddess Cotytto, whose midnight
orgies were so obscene as to disgust even the very goddess of
obscenity. (Greek, _bapto_, "to baptize," because these priests bathed
themselves in the most effeminate manner.)

BAPTIS'TA, a rich gentleman of Padua, father of Kathari'na "the
shrew," and Bianca.--Shakespeare, _Taming of the Shrew_ (1594).

BAPTISTI DAMIOTTI, a Paduan quack, who shows in the enchanted mirror
a picture representing the clandestine marriage and infidelity of
sir Philip Forester.--Sir W. Scott, _Aunt Margaret's Mirror_ (time,
William III.).

BAR'ABAS, the faithful servant of Ealph Lascours, captain of the
_Uran'ia._ His favorite expression is "I am afraid;" but he always
acts most bravely when he is afraid. (See BARRABAS.)--E. Stirling,
_The Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).

BAR'ADAS (_Count_), the king's favorite, first gentleman of the
chamber, and one of the conspirators to dethrone Louis XIII., kill
Richelieu, and place the duc d'Orleans on the throne of France.
Baradas loved Julie, but Julie married the chevalier Adrien de
Mauprat. When Richelieu fell into disgrace, the king made count
Baradas his chief minister, but scarcely had he so done when a
despatch was put into his hand revealing the conspiracy, and Richelieu
ordered Baradas' instant arrest.--Lord Lytton, _Richelieu_ (1839).

BARAK EL HADGI, the fakir, an emissary from the court of Hyder
Ali.--Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon's Daughter_ (time, George II.).

BARBARA, the widowed heroine whose vacillations of devotion to her
buried husband and the living cousin who might be his twin, furnish
the _motif_ for Amelie Rives's story, _The Quick or the Dead?_ (1888).

BARBARA FLOYD, lonely-hearted wife in George Fleming's (Julia C.
Fletcher) novel, _The Head of Medusa_. The scene of the story is laid
in modern Rome; Barbara, married to an Italian nobleman, has an inner
and purer life with which the corruptions of the gay capital meddle

BARBARA FRIETCHIE, heroic old woman of Frederick, Maryland, who took
up the flag the men had hauled down at the command of Stonewall
Jackson.--John Greenleaf Whittier, _Barbara Frietchie_ (1864).

Barbara Frietchie's work is o'er
And the Rebel rides on his raids no more.

Honor to her! and let a tear
Fall, for her sake, on Stonewall's bier.

Over Barbara Frietchie's grave
Flag of Freedom and Union wave.

Peace and order and beauty draw
Bound thy symbol of light and law,

And ever the stars above look down On thy stars below in Frederick Town.

BARBARA HOLABIRD, the rattle-pate of the Holabird sisters in
A.D.T. Whitney's _We Girls_. She coins words and bakes lace-edged
griddle-cakes and contrives rhymes, and tells on the last page of the
book how it was made. "We rushed in, especially I, Barbara, and did
little bits, and so it came to be a Song o' Sixpence, and at last four
Holabirds were 'singing in the pie.'"--(1868.)

BARBARA'S HISTORY, story of young, untrained but bright and attractive
girl who marries a man of the world. The conflict of two strong,
wayward natures is long and fierce, resulting in temporary separation,
and the discipline of sorrow and absence in reconciliation.--Amelia B.

BARBAROSSA ("_red beard_"), surname of Frederick I. of Germany
(1121-1190). It is said that he never died, but is still sleeping in
Kyffhauserberg in Thuringia. There he sits at a stone table with his
six knights, waiting the "fulness of time," when he will come from his
cave to rescue Germany from bondage, and give her the foremost place
of all the-world. His beard has already grown through the table-slab,
but must wind itself thrice round the table before his second advent.
similar legends are attached.)

Like Barbarossa, who sits in a cave,
Taciturn, sombre, sedate, and grave.

Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.

_Barbarossa_, a tragedy by John Brown. This is not Frederick
Barbarossa, the emperor of Germany (1121-1190), but Horne Barbarossa,
the corsair (1475-1519). He was a renegade Greek, of Mitylene, who
made himself master of Algeria, which was for a time subject to
Turkey. He killed the Moorish king; tried to cut off Selim the son,
but without success; and wanted to marry Zaphi'ra, the king's widow,
who rejected his suit with scorn, and was kept in confinement for
seven years. Selim returned unexpectedly to Algiers, and a general
rising took place; Barbarossa was slain by the insurgents; Zaphira was
restored to the throne; and Selim her son married Irene the daughter
of Barbarossa (1742).

BAR'BARA (_St._), the patron saint of arsenals. When her father was
about to strike off her head, she was killed by a flash of lightning.

BARBASON, the name of a demon. Amaimon sounds well; Lucifer well;
Barbason well; yet they are ... the names of fiends.--_Merry Wives of
Windsor_, ii. 2.

I am not Barbason, you cannot conjure me.--_Henry
V_. ii. 1.

BAR'BASON, the name of a demon mentioned in _The Merry Wives of
Windsor_, act ii. sc. 2 (1596).

I am not Barbason; you cannot conjure me.--Shakespeare,
_Henry V_. act ii. sc. I (1599).

BARBY ELSTER, sharp-tongued and sweet-hearted "help" in the Rossiter
family in Susan Warner's _Queechy_. She considers herself her
employers' more-than-equal and loses no opportunity of expressing the

BARCLAY OF URY, an Aberdeen laird, persecuted as a "Quaker coward"
by a mob of former friends and dependents, offers no resistance and
refuses defence from the sword of an ancient henchman.

"Is the sinful servant more
Than his gracious Lord who bore
Bonds and stripes in Jewry?"

J.G. Whittier, _Barclay of Ury_.

BARCO'CHEBAH, an antichrist.

Shared the fall of the antichrist Barcochebar.--Professor
Selwin, _Ecce Homo_.

BARD OF AVON, Shakespeare, born and buried at Stratford-upon-Avon

_Bard of Ayrshire_, Robert Burns, a native of Ayrshire (1759-1796).

_Bard of Hope_, Thomas Campbell, author of _The Pleasures of Hope_

_Bard of the Imagination_, Mark Akenside, author of _The Pleasures of
the Imagination_ (1721-1770).

_Bard of Memory_, S. Rogers, author of _The Pleasures of Memory_

_Bard of Olney_, W. Cowper _[Coo'-per]_, who lived for many years at
Olney, in Bucks (1731-1800).

_Bard of Prose_, Boccaccio.

He of the hundred tales of love.

Byron, _Childe Harold_, iv. 56 (1818).

_Bard of Rydal Mount_, William Wordsworth, who lived at Rydal
Mount; also called "Poet of the Excursion," from his principal poem

_Bard of Twickenham_, Alexander Pope, who lived at Twickenham

BARDELL _(Mrs.)_, landlady of "apartments for single gentlemen" in
Groswell Street. Here Mr. Pickwick lodged for a time. She persuaded
herself that he would make her a good second husband, and on one
occasion was seen in his arms by his three friends. Mrs. Bardell put
herself in the hands of Messrs. Dodson and Fogg (two unprincipled
lawyers), who vamped up a case against Mr. Pickwick of "breach of
promise," and obtained a verdict against the defendant. Subsequently
Messrs. Dodson and Fogg arrested their own client, and lodged her in
the Fleet.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

BARDE'SANIST (4 _syl_.), a follower of Barde'san, founder of a Gnostic
sect in the second century.

BARDO BARDI, aged blind scholar, father of Romola. She is his
colaborer in the studies he pursues despite his infirmity.--George
Eliot, _Romola_.

BAR'DOLPH, corporal of captain sir John Falstaff, in 1 and 2 _Henry
IV._ and in _The Merry Wives of Windsor_. In _Henry V._ he is promoted
to lieutenant, and Nym is corporal. Both are hanged. Bardolph is a
bravo, but great humorist; he is a lowbred, drunken swaggerer, wholly
without principle, and always poor. His red, pimply nose is an
everlasting joke with sir John and others. Sir John in allusion
thereto calls Bardolph "The Knight of the Burning Lamp." He says to
him, "Thou art our admiral, and bearest the lantern in the poop."
Elsewhere he tells the corporal he had saved him a "thousand marks in
links and torches, walking with him in the night betwixt tavern and

We are much of the mind of Falstaff's tailor.
We must have better assurance for sir John than

(The reference is to 2 _Henry IV_. act i. sc. 2. When Falstaff asks
Page, "What said Master Dumbleton about the satin for my short cloak
and slops!" Page replies, "He said, sir, you should procure him better
assurance than Bardolph. He ... liked not the security.")

BARDON _(Hugh)_, the scout-master in the troop of lieutenant
Fitzurse.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

BAREFOOT BOY, reminiscence of the author's own boyhood in Whittier's
poem, _The Barefoot Boy_.

Prince thou art,--the grown-up man
Only is republican.

BARERE (2 _syl_.), an advocate of Toulouse, called "The Anacreon of
the Guillotine." He was president of the Convention, a member of the
Constitutional Committee, and chief agent in the condemnation to death
of Louis XVI. As member of the Committee of Public Safety, he decreed
that "Terror must be the order of the day." In the first empire Barere
bore no public part, but at the restoration he was banished from
France, and retired to Brussels (1755-1841).

The filthiest and most spiteful Yahoo of the
fiction was a noble creature compared with the
Barere of history.--Lord Macaulay.

BARFUeSLE, pretty German child, left an orphan at a tender age, and
cast upon the world. She maintains herself reputably and resists
many temptations until she is happily married.--Bernard Auerbach,

BAR'GUEST, a goblin armed with teeth and claws. It would sometimes set
up in the streets a most fearful scream in the "dead waste and middle
of the night." The faculty of seeing this monster was limited to a
few, but those who possessed it could by the touch communicate the
"gift" to others.--_Fairy Mythology, North of England_.

BAR'GULUS, an Illyrian robber or pirate.

Bargulus, Illyrius latro, de quo est apud Theopompum
magnas opes habuit.--Cicero, _De Officiis_,
ii. 11.

BARICONDO, one of the leaders of the Moorish army. He was slain by the
duke of Clarence.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

BARKER (.Mr.), friend to Sowerberry. _Mrs. Barker_, his wife.--W.
Brough, _A Phenomenon in a Smock Frock_.

BAR'KIS, the carrier who courted [Clara] Peggot'ty, by telling
David Copperfield when he wrote home to say to his nurse "Barkis is
willin'." Clara took the hint and became Mrs. Barkis.

He dies when the tide goes out, confirming the
superstition that people can't die till the tide goes
out, or be born till it is in. The last words he
utters are "Barkis is willin'."--C. Dickens, _David
Copperfield_, xxx. (1849).

(Mrs. Quickly says of sir John Falstaff, "'A parted even just between
twelve and one, e'en at the turning o' the tide."--_Henry V_. act ii.
sc. 3, 1599.)

BAR'LAHAM AND JOSAPHAT, the heroes and title of a minnesong, the
object of which was to show the triumph of Christian doctrines over
paganism. Barlaham is a hermit who converts Josaphat, an Indian
prince. This "lay" was immensely popular in the Middle Ages, and
has been translated into every European language.--Rudolf of Ems (a
minnesinger, thirteenth century).

BARLEY _(Bill)_, Clara's father. Chiefly remarkable for drinking rum,
and thumping on the floor.--C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

BARLEYCORN (_Sir John_), Malt-liquor personified. His neighbors vowed
that sir John should die, so they hired ruffians to "plough him with
ploughs and bury him;" this they did, and afterwards "combed him with
harrows and thrust clods on his head," but did not kill him. Then with
hooks and sickles they "cut his legs off at the knees," bound him like
a thief, and left him "to wither with the wind," but he died not. They
now "rent him to the heart," and having "mowed him in a mow," sent two
bravos to beat him with clubs, and they beat him so sore that "all his
flesh fell from his bones," but yet he died not. To a kiln they next
hauled him, and burnt him like a martyr, but he survived the burning.
They crushed him between two stones, but killed him not. Sir John bore
no malice for this ill-usage, but did his best to cheer the flagging
spirits even of his worst persecutors.

[Illustration] This song, from the _English Dancing-Master_ (1651), is
generally ascribed to Robert Burns, but all that the Scotch poet did
was slightly to alter parts of it. The same may be said of "Auld lang
Syne," "Ca' the Yowes," "My Heart is Sair for Somebody," "Green grow
the Rashes, O!" and several other songs, set down to the credit of

BARLOW, the favorite archer of Henry VIII. He was jocosely created
by the merry monarch "Duke of Shoreditch," and his two companions
"Marquis of Islington" and "Earl of Pancras."

_Barlow (Billy)_, a jester, who fancied himself a "mighty potentate."
He was well known in the east of London, and died in Whitechapel
workhouse. Some of his sayings were really witty, and some of his
attitudes truly farcical.

BAR'MECIDE. Schacabac "the hare-lipped," a man in the greatest
distress, one day called on the rich Barmecide, who in merry jest
asked him to dine with him. Barmecide first washed in hypothetical
water, Schacabac followed his example. Barmecide then pretended to eat
of various dainties, Schacabac did the same, and praised them highly,
and so the "feast" went on to the close. The story says Barmecide was
so pleased that Schacabac had the good sense and good temper to enter
into the spirit of the joke without resentment, that he ordered in
a real banquet, at which Schacabac was a welcome guest.--_Arabian
Nights_ ("The Barber's Sixth Brother").

BAR'NABAS _(St.)_, a disciple of Gamaliel, cousin of St. Mark, and
fellow-laborer with St. Paul. He was martyred at Salamis, A.D. 63.
_St. Barnabas' Day_ is June 11.--_Acts_ iv. 36, 37.

BAR'NABY _(Widow)_, the title and chief character of a novel by Mrs.
Trollope (1839). The widow is a vulgar, pretentious husband-hunter,
wholly without principle. _Widow Barnaby_ has a sequel called _The
Barnabys in America, or The Widow Married_, a satire on America and
the Americans (1840).

BARNABY RUDGE, a half-witted whose companion is a raven. He is enticed
into joining the Gordon rioters.--C. Dickens, _Barnaby Budge_ (1841).
(See RUDGE.)

BARNACLE, brother of old Nicholas Cockney, and guardian of Priscilla
Tomboy of the West Indies. Barnacle is a tradesman of the old school,
who thinks the foppery and extravagance of the "Cockney" school
inconsistent with prosperous shop-keeping. Though brusque and
even ill-mannered, he has good sense and good discernment of
character.--_The Romp_ (altered from Bickerstaff's _Love in the

BARNADINE, malefactor, condemned to death, "who will not die that day,
upon any man's persuasion."--Shakespeare, _Measure for Measure_.

BARNES (1 _syl_.), servant to colonel Mannering, at Woodburne.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

BARNEY, a repulsive Jew, who waited on the customers at the low
public-house frequented by Fagin and his associates. Barney always
spoke through his nose.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

BARN'STABLE (_Lieutenant_), in the British navy, in love with Kate
Plowden, niece of colonel Howard of New York. The alliance not being
approved of, Kate is removed from England to America, but Barnstable
goes to America to discover her retreat. In this he succeeds, but
being seized as a spy, is commanded by colonel Howard to be hung to
the yardarm of an American frigate called the _Alacrity_. Scarcely is
the young man led off, when the colonel is informed that Barnstable is
his own son, and he arrives at the scene of execution just in time
to save him. Of course after this he marries the lady of his
affection.--E. Fitzball, _The Pilot_ (a burletta).

BARNWELL (_George_), the chief character and title of a tragedy by
George Lillo. George Barnwell is a London apprentice, who falls in
love with Sarah Millwood of Shoreditch, who leads him astray. He first
robs his master of L200. He next robs his uncle, a rich grazier at
Ludlow, and murders him. Having spent all the money of his iniquity,
Sarah Millwood turns him off and informs against him. Both are
executed (1732).

[Illustration] For many years this play was acted on boxing-night, as
a useful lesson to London apprentices. BARON (_The old English_), a
romance by Clara Reeve (1777).

BAR'RABAS, the rich "Jew of Malta." He is simply a human monster,
who kills in sport, poisons whole nunneries, and invents infernal
machines. Shakespeare's "Shylock" has a humanity in the very whirlwind
of his resentment, but Marlowe's "Barrabas" is a mere ideal of
that "thing" which Christian prejudice once deemed a Jew. (See
BARABAS.)--Marlowe, _The Jew of Malta_ (1586).

_Bar'rabas_, the famous robber and murderer set free instead of Christ
by desire of the Jews. Called in the New Testament _Barab'has_.
Marlowe calls the word "Barrabas" in his _Jew of Malta_, and
Shakespeare says:

"Would any of the stock of Bar'rabas
Had been her husband, rather than a Christian."

_Merchant of Venice_, act iv. sc. 1 (1598).

BARRY CORNWALL, the _nom de plume_ of Bryan Waller Procter. It is an
imperfect anagram of his name (1788-1874).

BARSAD (_John), alias_ Solomon Pross, a spy.

He had an aquiline nose, but not straight,
having a peculiar inclination towards the left
cheek; expression, therefore, sinister.--C. Dickens,
_A Tale of Two Cities_, ii. 16 (1859).

BARSIS'A (_Santon_), in _The Guardian_, the basis of the story called
_The Monk_, by M. G. Lewis (1796).

BARSTON, _alias_ captain Fenwicke, a jesuit and secret correspondent
of the conntess of Derby.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time,
Charles II.).

BARTHOL'OMEW (_Brother_), guide of the two Philipsons on their way to

--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Bartholomew (St.)._ His day is August 24, and his symbol a knife, in
allusion to the knife with which he is said to have been flayed alive.

BARTLEY HUBBARD, the "smart" newspaper-man in _A Modern Instance_, by
William Dean Howells (1883). He also plies his trade and exhibits his
assurance in _The Rise of Silas Lapham_ (1885).

BARTOLDO, a rich old miser, who died of fear and want of sustenance.
Fazio rifled his treasures, and on the accusation of his own wife was
tried and executed.--Dean Milman, _Fazio_ (1815).

_Bartoldo_, same as _Bertoldo_ (_q.v._).

BARTOLI (in French _Barthole_, better known, however, by the Latin
form of the name, _Bartolus_) was the most famous master of the
dialectical school of jurists (1313-1356). He was born at Sasso
Ferrata in Italy, and was professor of Civil Law at the University of
Perugia. His reputation was at one time immense, and his works were
quoted as authority in nearly every European court. Hence the French
proverb, applied to a well-read lawyer, _He knows his "Barthole" as
well as a Cordelier his "Dormi_" (an anonymous compilation of sermons
for the use of the Cordelier monks). Another common French expression,
_Resolu comme Barthole_ ("as decided as Barthole"), is a sort of
punning allusion to his _Resolutiones Bartoli_, a work in which the
knottiest questions are solved with _ex cathedra_ peremptoriness.

BAR'TOLUS, a covetous lawyer, husband of Amaran'ta.--Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Spanish Curate_ (1622).

BARTON (_Sir Andrew_), a Scotch sea-officer, who had obtained in 1511
letters of marque for himself and his two sons, to make reprisals upon
the subjects of Portugal. The council-board of England, at which the
earl of Surrey presided, was daily pestered by complaints from British
merchants and sailors against Barton, and at last it was decided to
put him down. Two ships were, therefore, placed under the commands of
sir Thomas and sir Edward Howard, an engagement took place, and sir
Andrew Barton was slain, bravely fighting. A ballad in two parts,
called "Sir Andrew Barton," is inserted in Percy's _Reliques_, II. ii.

BARTRAM, the lime-burner, an obtuse, middle-aged clown in _Ethan
Brand_ by Nathaniel Hawthorne. When he finds the suicide's skeleton in
the kiln, the heart whole within the ribs, he congratulates himself
that "his kiln is half a bushel richer for him" (1846).

BARUCH. _Dites, donc, avez-vous lu Baruch?_ Said when a person puts
an unexpected question, or makes a startling proposal. It arose thus:
Lafontaine went one day with Racine to _tenebrae_, and was given a
Bible. He turned at random to the "Prayer of the Jews," in Baruch, and
was so struck with it that he said aloud to Racine, "Dites, donc, who
was this Baruch? Why, do you know, man, he was a fine genius;" and
for some days afterwards the first question he asked his friends was,
_Diles, done, Mons., avez-vous lu Baruch?_

BARZIL'LAI (3 _syl_.), the duke of Ormond, a friend and firm adherent
of Charles II. As Barzillai assisted David when he was expelled by
Absalom from his kingdom, so Ormond assisted Charles II. when he was
in exile.

Barzillai, crowned with honors and with years,...
In exile with his god-like prince he mourned,
For him he suffered, and with him returned.

Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i.

BASA-ANDRE, the wild woman, a sorceress, married to Basa-Jaun, a
sort of vampire. Basa-Andre sometimes is a sort of land mermaid (a
beautiful lady who sits in a cave combing her locks with a golden
comb). She hates church bells. (See BASA-JAUN.)

BASA-JAUN, a wood-sprite, married to Basa-Andre, a sorceress. Both
hated the sound of church bells. Three brothers and their sister
agreed to serve him, but the wood-sprite used to suck blood from the
finger of the girl, and the brothers resolved to kill him. This they
accomplished. The Basa-Andre induced the girl to put a tooth into each
of the footbaths of her brothers, and lo! they became oxen. The girl
crossing a bridge saw Basa-Andre, and said if she did not restore her
brothers she would put her into a red-hot oven, so Basa-Andre told the
girl to give each brother three blows on the back with a hazel wand,
and on so doing they were restored to their proper forms.--Rev. W.
Webster, _Basque Legends_, 49 (1877).

BAS BLEU, nickname applied to literary women in the days succeeding
the French Revolution, made familiar in America by J. K. Paulding's
_Azure Hose_.

BASHABA, sachem in J. G.L. Whittier's poem, _The Bridal of Pennacock_.
His beautiful daughter, scorned by the chief to whom Bashaba gave her
in marriage, and detained against her will by her angry father, steals
away by night in a canoe and IS drowned in a vain attempt

To seek the wigwam of her chief once more.

BASHFUL MAN (_The_), a comic drama by

W. T. Moncrieff. Edward Blushington, a young man just come into a
large fortune, is so bashful and shy that life is a misery to him. He
dines at Friendly Hall, and makes all sorts of ridiculous blunders.
His college chum, Frank Friendly, sends word to say that he and his
sister Dinah, with sir Thomas and lady Friendly, will dine with him
at Blushington House. After a few glasses of wine, Edward loses his
shyness, makes a long speech, and becomes the accepted suitor of Dinah

BASIL, the blacksmith of Grand Pre, in Acadia (now _Nova Scotia_), and
father of Gabriel the betrothed of Evangeline. When, the colony was
driven into exile in 1713 by George II., Basil settled in Louisiana,
and greatly prospered; but his son led a wandering life, looking for
Evangeline, and died in Pennsylvania of the plague.--Longfellow,
_Evangeline_ (1849).

BASIL MARCH, a clever, cynical, and altogether charming man of letters
who takes one of the leading parts in William Dean Howells's _Their
Wedding Journey. A Chance Acquaintance_, and _A Hazard of New

BA'SILE (2 _syl_.), a calumniating, niggardly bigot in _Le Mariage de
Figaro_, and again in _Le Barbier de Seville_, both by Beaumarchais.
Basile and Tartuffe are the two French incarnations of religious
hypocrisy. The former is the clerical humbug, and the latter the
lay religious hypocrite. Both deal largely in calumny, and trade in

BASILIS'CO, a bully and a braggart, in _Solyman and Perseda_ (1592).
Shakespeare has made Pistol the counterpart of Basilisco.

Knight, knight, good mother, Basilisco-like.

Shakespeare, _King John_, act i. sc. 1 (1596).

(That is, "my boasting like Basilisco has made me a knight, good

BASILISK, supposed to kill with its gaze the person who looked on it.
Thus Henry VI. says to Suffolk, "Come, basilisk, and kill the innocent
gazer with thy sight."

Natus in ardente Lydiae basiliscus arena,
Vulnerat aspectu, luminibusque nocet.


BASILIUS, a neighbor of Quiteria, whom he loved from childhood, but
when grown up the father of the lady forbade him the house, and
promised Quiteria in marriage to Camacho, the richest man of the
vicinity. On their way to church they passed Basilius, who had fallen
on his sword, and all thought he was at the point of death. He prayed
Quiteria to marry him, "for his soul's peace," and as it was deemed
a mere ceremony, they were married in due form. Up then started the
wounded man, and showed that the stabbing was only a ruse, and the
blood that of a sheep from the slaughter-house. Camacho gracefully
accepted the defeat, and allowed the preparations for the general
feast to proceed.

Basilius is strong and active, pitches the bar
admirably, wrestles with amazing dexterity, and
is an excellent cricketer. He runs like a buck,
leaps like a wild goat, and plays at skittles like
a wizard. Then he has a fine voice for singing,
he touches the guitar so as to make it speak, and
handles a foil as well as any fencer in Spain.--Cervantes,
_Don Quixote_, II. ii. 4 (1615).

BASRIG or BAGSECG, a Scandinavian king, who with Halden or Halfdene
(2 _syl_.) king of Denmark, in 871, made a descent on Wessex. In this
year Ethelred fought nine pitched battles with the Danes. The first
was the battle of Englefield, in Berkshire, lost by the Danes; the
next was the battle of Beading, won by the Danes; the third was the
famous battle of AEscesdun or Ashdune (now _Ashton_), lost by the
Danes, and in which king Bagsecg was slain.

And Ethelred with them [_the Danes_] nine sundry fields that fought ...
Then Reading ye regained, led by that valiant lord,
Where Basrig ye outbraved, and Halden sword to sword.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. (1613).

Next year (871) the Danes for the first time entered Wessex.... The
first place they came to was Reading.... Nine great battles, besides
smaller skirmishes, were fought this year, in some of which the
English won, and in others the Danes. First, alderman AEthelwulf fought
the Danes at Englefield, and beat them. Four days after that there was
another battle at Reading ... where the Danes had the better of it,
and AEthelwulf was killed. Four days afterwards there was another more
famous battle at AEscesdun ... and king AEthelred fought against the
two kings, and slew Bagsecg with his own hand.--E. A. Freeman, _Old
English History_ (1869); see Asser, _Life of Alfred_ (ninth century).

BASSA'NIO, the lover of Portia, successful in his choice of the three
caskets, which awarded her to him as wife. It was for Bassanio that
his friend Antonio borrowed 3000 ducats of the Jew Shylock, on the
strange condition that if he returned the loan within three months no
interest should be required, but if not, the Jew might claim a pound
of Antonio's flesh for forfeiture.--Shakespeare, _Merchant of Venice_

BAS'SET _(Count)_, a swindler and forger, who assumes the title of
"count" to further his dishonest practices.--C. Cibber, _The Provoked
Husband_ (1728).

BASSIA'NUS, brother of Satur'nius emperor of Rome, in love with
Lavin'ia daughter of Titus Andron'icus (properly _Andronicus_). He
is stabbed by Deme'trius and Chiron, sons of Tam'ora queen of the
Goths.--(?) Shakespeare, _Titus Andronicus_ (1593).

BASSI'NO _(Count)_, the "perjured husband of Aurelia" slain by
Alonzo.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Perjured Husband_ (1700).

BASSANIO, a youth of noble birth but crippled fortunes, whose desire
to win the hand of Portia, a rich heiress, is the moving spring of the
action of Shakespeare's _The Merchant of Venice_. Portia's father has
left three caskets, and has ordered in his will that his daughter is
to marry only the man who chooses the casket that holds her portrait.
That Bassanio may enter the list of Portia's suitors, his friend
Antonio borrows money of Shylock, a Jew, who, out of hatred to the
merchant, entraps him into pledging a pound of his flesh as surety for
the loan. Bassanio marries Portia, but misfortune overtakes Antonio,
he forfeits his bond, and his life is only saved by a quibble devised
by Portia.

BASTARD OF ORLEANS, in Shakespeare's _Henry VI_ Part 1, is Jean Dunois
a natural son of Louis of Orleans, brother of Charles VI.

BAT (_Dr_.), naturalist in Cooper's _Prairie_, who mistakes his ass at
night for a monster described in his note-book.

BATES (1 _syl_.), a soldier in the army of Henry V. He with Court and
Williams are sentinals before the English camp at Agincourt, and the
king disguised comes to them during the watch, and talks with them
respecting the impending battle,--Shakespeare, _Henry V_.

_Bates (Charley)_, generally called "Master Bates," one of Fagin's
"pupils," training to be a pickpocket. He is always laughing
uproariously, and is almost equal in artifice and adroitness to "The
Artful Dodger" himself.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

_Bates (Frank)_, the friend of Whittle. A man of good plain sense, who
tries to laugh the old beau out of his folly.--Garrick, _The Irish
Widow_ (1757).

BATH (_King of_), Richard Nash, generally called _Beau_ Nash,
master of-the ceremonies for fifteen years in that fashionable city

_Bath (The Maid of_), Miss Linley, a beautiful and accomplished
singer, who married Richard B. Sheridan, the statesman and dramatist.

_Bath (The Wife of_), one of the pilgrims travelling from Southwark
to Canterbury, in Chaucer's _Canterbury Tales_. She tells her tale in
turn, and chooses "Midas" for her subject (1388).

BATHSHEBA in Dryden's _Absalom and Achitophel_ is Louisa de
Queronailles, a young French lady brought into England by the Duchess
of Orleans, and who became the mistress of Charles II. The King made
her Duchess of Portsmouth.

My father [_Charles II._] whom with reverence I name ...
Is grown in Bathsheba's embraces old.

Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, ii.

BATHSHEBA EVERDEIIE, handsome heiress of an English farmstead, beloved
by two honest men and one knave. She marries the knave in haste, and
repents it at leisure for years thereafter. Released by his death,
she marries Gabriel Oak.--Thomas Hardy, _Far from the Madding Crowd_

BATTAR _(Al), i.e. the trenchant_, one of Mahomet's swords.

BATTUS, a shepherd of Arcadia. Having witnessed Mercury's theft of
Apollo's oxen, he received a cow from the thief to ensure his
secrecy; but, in order to test his fidelity, Mercury re-appeared soon
afterwards, and offered him an ox and a cow if he would blab. Battus
fell into the trap, and was instantly changed into a touchstone.

When Tantalus in hell sees store and starves;
And senseless Battus for a touchstone serves.

Lord Brooke, _Treatise on Monarchie_, iv.

BAU'CIS AND PHILEMON, an aged Phrygian woman and her husband, who
received Jupiter and Mercury hospitably when every one else in the
place had refused to entertain them. For this courtesy the gods
changed the Phrygians' cottage into a magnificent temple, and
appointed the pious couple over it. They both died at the same time,
according to their wish, and were converted into two trees before the
temple.--_Greek and Roman Mythology_.

BAUL'DIE (2 _syl._), stable-boy of Joshua Geddes the quaker.--Sir W.
Scott, _Red-gauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Baul'die_ (2 _syl._), the old shepherd in the introduction of the
story called _The Black Dwarf_, by sir W. Scott (time, Anne).

BAVIAN FOOL (_The_), one of the characters in the old morris-dance. He
wore a red cap faced with yellow, a yellow "slabbering-bib," a blue
doublet, red hose, and black shoes. He represents an overgrown baby,
but was a tumbler, and mimicked the barking of a dog. The word Bavian
is derived from _bavon_, a "bib for a slabbering child" (see Cotgrave,
_French Dictionary_). In modern French _bave_ means "drivel,"
"slabbering," and the verb _baver_ "to slabber," but the bib is now
called _bavette_. (See MORRIS-DANCE.)

BAVIE'CA, the Cid's horse. He survived his master two years and a
half, and was buried at Valencia. No one was ever allowed to mount him
after the death of the Cid.

BAVIUS, any vile poet. (See MAEVIUS.)

BAWTRY. _Like the saddler of Baivtry, who was hanged for leaving his
liquor_. (_Yorkshire Proverb_.) It was customary for criminals on
their way to execution to stop at a certain tavern in York for a
"parting draught." The saddler of Bawtry refused to accept the liquor,
and was hanged, whereas if he had stopped a few minutes at the tavern
his reprieve, which was on the road, would have arrived in time to
save him.

BA'YARD, _Le chevalier sans peur et sans reproche_; born in France in
1475. He served under Charles VIII. and Louis XII.; bore a gallant
part in the "Battle of the Spurs," and died in 1524 of wounds received
while in action.

_The British Bayard_, sir Philip Sidney (1554-1584).

_The Polish Bayard_, prince Joseph Poniatowski (1763-1814).

_The Bayard of India_, sir James Outram (1803-1863). So called by sir
Charles Napier.

_Ba'yard_, a horse of incredible speed, belonging to the four sons of
Aymon. If only one mounted, the horse was of the ordinary size, but
increased in proportion as two or more mounted. (The word means
"bright bay color.")--Villeneuve, _Les Quatre fils Aymon_.

_Bayard_, the steed of Fitz-James.--Sir W. Scott, _Lady of the Lake_,
v. 18 (1810).

BAYAR'DO, the famous steed of Rinaldo, which once belonged to Amadis
of Gaul. It was found in a grotto by the wizard Malagigi, along with
the sword Fusberta, both of which he gave to his cousin Rinaldo.

His color bay, and hence his name he drew--
Bayardo called. A star of silver hue
Emblazed his front.

Tasso, _Rinaldo_, ii. 220 (1562).

BAYES (1 _syl._), the chief character of _The Rehearsal_, a farce by
George Villiers, duke of Buckingham (1671). Bayes is represented
as greedy of applause, impatient of censure, meanly obsequious,
regardless of plot, and only anxious for claptrap. The character is
meant for John Dryden.

[Illustration] C. Dibdin, in his _History of the Stage_, states that
Mrs. Mountford played "Bayes" "with more variety than had ever been
thrown into the part before."

No species of novel-writing exposes itself to a
severer trial, since it not only resigns all Bayes'
pretensions "to elevate the imagination," ... but
places its productions within the range
of [general] criticism.--_Encyc. Brit._ Art. "Romance."

BAYNARD (_Mr._), introduced in an episode in the novel called
_Humphrey Clinker_, by Smollett (1771).

BEA'CON (_Tom_), groom to Master Chiffinch (private emissary of
Charles II.).--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles

BEA'GLE (_Sir Harry_), a horsy country gentleman, who can talk of
nothing but horses and dogs. He is wofully rustic and commonplace. Sir
Harry makes a bargain with lord Trinket to give up Harriet to him in
exchange for his horse. (See GOLDFINCH.)--George Colman, _The Jealous
Wife_ (1761).

BEAK. Sir John Fielding was called "The Blind Beak" (died 1780). BEAN
LEAN (_Donald_), _alias_ Will Ruthven, a Highland robber-chief.
He also appears disguised as a peddler on the roadside leading to
Stirling. Waverley is rowed to the robber's cave and remains there all

_Alice Bean_, daughter of Donald Bean Lean, who attends on Waverley
during a fever.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

BEAR (_The Brave_). Warwick is so called from his cognizance, which
was _a bear and ragged staff_.

BEARCLIFF (_Deacon_), at the Gordon Arms or Kippletringam inn, where
colonel Mannering stops on his return to England, and hears of
Bertram's illness and distress.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time,
George II.).

BEARDED (_The_). (1) Geoffrey the crusader. (2) Bouchard of the house
of Montmorency. (3) Constantine IV. (648-685). (4) Master George
Killingworthe of the court of Ivan _the Terrible_ of Russia, whose
beard (says Hakluyt) was five feet two inches long, yellow, thick, and
broad. Sir Hugh Willoughby was allowed to take it in his hand.

_The Bearded Master_. Soc'rates was so called by Persius (B.C.

_Handsome Beard_, Baldwin IV. earl of Flanders (1160-1186).

_John the Bearded_, John Mayo, the German painter, whose beard touched
the ground when he stood upright.

BEARNAIS (_Le_), Henri IV. of France, so called from his native
province, Le Bearr. (1553-1610).

BEATON, the artist of _Every Other Week_, the story of which
periodical is told in W. D. Howells's _A Hazard of New Fortunes_

His name was Beaton--Angus Beaton. His father was a Scotchman, but
Beaton was born in Syracuse, New York, and it had taken only three
years to obliterate many traces of native and ancestral manner in him.
He wore his thick beard cut shorter than his moustache, and a little
pointed; he stood with his shoulders well thrown back, and with a
lateral curve of his person when he talked about art which would alone
have carried conviction, even if he had not had a thick, dark bang
coming almost to the brows of his mobile gray eyes, and had not spoken
English with quick, staccato impulses, so as to give it the effect of
epigrammatic and sententious French.

BE'ATRICE (3 _syl_.), a child eight years old, to whom Dante at the
age of nine was ardently attached. She was the daughter of Folco
Portina'ri, a rich citizen of Florence. Beatrice married Simoni de
Bardi, and died before she was twenty-four years old (1266-1290).
Dante married Gemma Donati, and his marriage was a most unhappy one.
His love for Beatrice remained after her decease. She was the fountain
of his poetic inspiration, and in his _Divina Commedia_ he makes her
his guide through paradise.

Dante's Beatrice and Milton's Eve Were not drawn from their spouses
you conceive. Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. 10 (1820).

(Milton, who married Mary Powell, of Oxfordshire, was as unfortunate
in his choice as Dante.)

_Beatrice_, wife of Ludov'ico Sforza.

_Beatrice_, daughter of Ferdinando king of Naples, sister of Leonora
duchess of Ferrara, and wife of Mathias Corvi'nus of Hungary.

_Beatrice_, niece of Leonato governor of Messina, lively and
light-hearted, affectionate and impulsive. Though wilful she is not
wayward, though volatile she is not unfeeling, though teeming with wit
and gaiety she is affectionate and energetic. At first she dislikes
Benedick, and thinks him a flippant conceited coxcomb; but overhearing
a conversation between her cousin Hero and her gentlewoman, in which
Hero bewails that Beatrice should trifle with such deep love as that
of Benedick, and should scorn so true and good a gentleman, she cries,
"Sits the wind thus? then, farewell, contempt. Benedick, love on; I
will requite you." This conversation of Hero's was a mere ruse, but
Benedick had been caught by a similar trick played by Claudio, don
Pedro, and Leonato. The result was they sincerely loved each other,
and were married.--Shakespeare, _Much Ado about Nothing_ (1600).

BEATRICE CENCI, the _Beautiful Parricide (q.v.)._

BEATRICE D'ESTE, canonized at Rome.

BEATRICE GIORGINI, an Italian contessa whose parents contract a secret
marriage, an unequal match as to birth and fortune, and, dying young,
one by violence, leave their child in charge of Betta, a faithful
nurse, who takes her to her mother's mother, an old peasant. At her
grandmother's death she becomes companion to a relative of her father;
marries don Leonardo, her father's cousin and one of the witnesses to
the secret marriage, and uses him to prove her legitimacy and his own
treachery.--Mary Agnes Tincker, _Two Coronets_ (1889).

BEAU BRUMMEL, George Bryan Brummel, son of a London pastry-cook, who
became the fashion at the court of George III. and reigning favorite
of the Prince of Wales. His story has been made the foundation of a
brilliant American play by Clyde Fitch, in which Richard Mansfield
takes the part of Brummel (1890).

BEAU CLARK, a billiard-maker at the beginning of the nineteenth
century. He was called "The Bean," assumed the name of _Beauelerc_,
and paid his addresses to a _protegee_ of lord Fife.

BEAU FIELDING, called "Handsome Fielding" by Charles II., by a play on
his name, which was Hendrome Fielding. He died in Scotland Yard.

BEAU HEWITT was the original of sir George Etherege's "Sir Fopling
Flutter," in the comedy called _The Man of Mode or Sir Fopling
Flutter_ (1676).

BEAU NASH, Richard Nash, called also "King of Bath;" a Welsh
gentleman, who for fifteen years managed the bath-rooms of Bath, and
conducted the balls with unparalleled splendor and decorum. In his old
age he sank into poverty (1674-1761).

BEAU D'ORSAY _(Le)_, father of count d'Orsay, whom Byron calls "_Jeune

BEAU SEANT, the Templars' banner, half white and half black; the white
signified that the Templars were good to Christians, the black, that
they were evil to infidels.

BEAU TIBBS, in Goldsmith's _Citizen of the World_, a dandy noted for
his finery, vanity, and poverty.

BEAUCLERK, Henry I. king of England (1068, 1100-1135).

BEAUFORT, the lover of Maria Wilding, whom he ultimately marries.--A.
Murphy, _The Citizen_ (a farce).

BEAUJEU (_Mons. le chevalier de_), keeper of a gambling-house to which
Dalgarno takes Nigel.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James

_Beaujeu_ (_Mons. le comte de_), a French officer in the army of the
Chevalier Charles Edward, the Pretender.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_
(time, George II.).

BEAUMAINS ("_big hands_"), a nickname which sir Key (Arthur's steward)
gave to Gareth when he was kitchen drudge in the palace. "He had the
largest hands that ever man saw." Gareth was the son of king Lot and
Margawse (king Arthur's sister). His brothers were sir Gaw'ain, sir
Agravain, and sir Gaheris. Mordred was his half-brother.--Sir T.
Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 120 (1470).

[Illustration] His achievements are given under the name "Gareth"

Tennyson, in his _Gareth and Lynette_, makes sir Key tauntingly
address Lancelot thus, referring to Gareth:

Fair and fine, forsooth!
Sir Fine-face, sir Fair-hands? But see thou to it
That thine own fineness, Lancelot, some fine day,
Undo thee not.

Be it remembered that Key himself called Gareth "Beaumain" from the
extraordinary size of the lad's hands; but the taunt put into the
mouth of Key by the poet indicates that the lad prided himself on his
"fine" face and "fair" hands, which is not the case. If "fair hands"
is a translation of this nickname, it should be "fine hands," which
bears the equivocal sense of _big_ and _beautiful_.

BEAU'MANOIR (_Sir Lucas_), Grand-Master of the Knights Templars.--Sir
W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

BEAUPRE [_Bo-pray_'], son of judge Vertaigne (2 _syl_.) and brother of
Lami'ra.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Little French Lawyer_ (1647).

BEAUTE (2 _syl_). _La dame de Beaute_. Agnes Sorel, so called from the
chateau de Beaute, on the banks of the Marne, given to her by Charles
VII. (1409-1450).

BEAUTIFUL CORISANDE (3 _syl_). Diane comtesse de Guiche et de
Grammont. She was the daughter of Paul d'Andouins, and married
Philibert de Grammont, who died in 1580. The widow outlived her
husband for twenty-six years. Henri IV., before he was king of
Navarre, was desperately smitten by La belle Corisande, and when Henri
was at war with the League, she sold her diamonds to raise for him a
levy of 20,000 Gascons (1554-1620).

(The letters of Henri to Corisande are still preserved in the
_Bibliotheque de l'Arsenal_, and were published in 1769.)

BEAUTIFUL PARRICIDE (_The_), Beatrice Cenci, daughter of a Roman
nobleman, who plotted the death of her father because he violently
defiled her. She was executed in 1605. Shelley has a tragedy on the
subject, entitled _The Cenci_. Guido Reni's portrait of Beatrice is
well known through its numberless reproductions.

BEAUTY (_Queen of_). So the daughter of Schems'edeen' Mohammed, vizier
of Egypt, was called. She married her cousin, Bed'redeen' Hassan, son
of Nour'edeen' Ali, vizier of Basora.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Nouredeen
Ali," etc.).

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST (_La Belle et la Bete_'), from _Les Contes
Marines_ of Mde. Villeneuvre (1740), the most beautiful of all nursery
tales. A young and lovely woman saved her father by putting herself in
the power of a frightful but kind-hearted monster, whose respectful
affection and melancholy overcame her aversion to his ugliness, and
she consented to become his bride. Being thus freed from enchantment,
the monster assumed his proper form and became a young and handsome

BEAUTY OF BUTTERMERE (3 syl.), Mary Robinson, who married John
Hatfield, a heartless impostor executed for forgery at Carlisle in

BEAUX' STRATAGEM (_The_), by George Farquhar. Thomas viscount Aimwell
and his friend Archer (the two beaux), having run through all their
money, set out fortune-hunting, and come to Lichfield as "master and
man." Aimwell pretends to be very unwell, and as lady Bountiful's
hobby is tending the sick and playing the leech, she orders him to
be removed to her mansion. Here he and Dorinda (daughter of lady
Bountiful) fall in love with each other, and finally marry. Archer
falls in love with Mrs. Sullen, the wife of squire Sullen, who had
been married fourteen months but agreed to a divorce on the score of
incompatibility of tastes and temper. This marriage forms no part
of the play; all we are told is that she returns to the roof of her
brother, sir Charles Freeman (1707).

BEDE (_Adam_ and _Seth_), brothers, carpenters. Seth loves the fair
gospeller Dinah Morris, but she marries Adam.--George Eliot, _Adam

_Bede (Cuthbert_), the Rev. Edward Bradley, author of _The Adventures
of Mr. Verdant Green, an Oxford Freshman_ (1857).

BED'ER ("_the full moon_"), son of Gulna're (3 syl.), the young king
of Persia. As his mother was an under-sea princess, he was enabled to
live under water as well as on land. Beder was a young man of handsome
person, quick parts, agreeable manners, and amiable disposition. He
fell in love with Giauha're, daughter of the king of Samandal, the
most powerful of the under-sea empires, but Giauhare changed him into
a white bird with red beak and red legs. After various adventures,
Beder resumed his human form and married Giauhare.--_Arabian Nights_
("Beder and Giauhare").

BED'IVERE (_Sir_) or BED'IVER, king Arthur's butler and a knight of
the Round Table. He was the last of Arthur's knights, and was sent by
the dying king to throw his sword Excalibur into the mere. Being cast
in, it was caught by an arm "clothed in white samite," and drawn into
the stream.--Tennyson, _Morte d'Arthur_.

Tennyson's _Morte d'Arthur_ is a very close and in many parts a verbal
rendering of the same tale in sir Thomas Malory's _Morte d'Arthur_,
iii. 168 (1470).

BEDLOE (_Augustus_), an eccentric Virginian, an opium-eater, and
easily hypnotized, in Edgar Allan Poe's _Tale of the Ragged Mountains_

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