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Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World by James Cook

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latitude 24 degrees 1 minute South, longitude 150 degrees 37 minutes
West; at noon, Ohetiroa North 1/2 West, 31 leagues; variation 6 degrees 7
minutes East.

NOTE. As we advanced to the Southward into Cold weather, and a troubled
Sea, the Hogs we got at Ulietea began to die apace. They cannot endure
the least cold, nor will they hardly eat anything but vegetables, so that
they are not at all to be depended upon at Sea. The fowls also have a
complaint general among them which affects their heads, so that they
continue holding it down betwixt their Legs until they die; this at least
was the fate of most of ours. This is necessary to be known to those who
come such Voyages as these, least they place too much dependance on the
live stock they get at the Islands.

Wednesday, 16th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy the first part; in the night,
Squally, with rain; remainder, moderate and fair weather. At 8 am, saw
the Appearances of high land to the Eastward; bore up towards it, but at
10 we discover'd it to be only Clouds, at which we hauld our wind to the
Southward. At Noon found the Ship by Observation 21 Miles to the
Northward of the Log, which may in some measure be owing to a South-West
swell we have had all the last 24 hours. Wind North by West, West, West
by South; course South 15 degrees East; distance 62 miles; latitude 25
degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 150 degrees 19 minutes West.

Thursday, 17th. A Gentle breeze with some flying showers of rain. Had a
large Swell from the South-West all this day, much larger than yesterday,
and this must be the reason why the observ'd Latitude differ'd from the
Log again to day 16 miles. Wind West by South to South-West by South;
course South-South-East; distance 76 miles; latitude 26 degrees 10
minutes South, longitude 149 degrees 46 minutes West.

Friday, 18th. The first part Calm; remainder light breezes and Clear.
Variation per Amplitude in the evening 8 degrees 8 minutes East; in the
Morning 7 degrees 56 minutes East. Carpenters employed repairing the
Boats. The South-West swell still Continues, but not so much as
Yesterday, and the observed Latitude and Log agrees. Wind Calm, North;
course South 18 degrees East; distance 38 miles; latitude 26 degrees 48
minutes South, longitude 149 degrees 42 minutes West.

Saturday, 19th. Little wind with much rain in the night, the South-West
swell still Continues, from which I conclude that there is no land near
us in that Quarter. Wind North-West; course South-East by South; distance
62 miles; latitude 27 degrees 40 minutes South; longitude 149 degrees 6
minutes West.

Sunday, 20th. Little wind all this day. Saw a large Albetross. Wind
North-West; course South-East by South; distance 57 miles; latitude 28
degrees 24 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 25 minutes West.

Monday, 21st. Fresh Gales and Hazey weather. Saw 2 Pintado Birds, the
first I have seen this Voyage; they are larger than a Pidgeon and
checquer'd black and white over their backs and wings, with white
Bellies, Black heads, and the end of their Tails black.* (* Cape pigeons,
Daption Capensis.) Wind North-North-West; course South by East; distance
80 miles; latitude 29 degrees 44 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 22
minutes West.

[Society Islands to New Zealand.]

Tuesday, 22nd. First part Strong Gales with much rain, Thunder, and
Lightning; remainder moderate and fair weather. About Noon saw some rock
weed, an Albetross, and some Smaller Sea Birds. Wind North by West,
South-West by West; course South 14 degrees East; distance 81 miles;
latitude 31 degrees 3 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 00 minutes

Wednesday, 23rd. Little wind for the most part, and pretty clear weather.
In the night had some Showers of rain. Saw a Grampus, and several Pintado
Birds. Wind South-West to West-South-West; course South-South-East;
distance 68 miles; latitude 31 degrees 6 minutes South; longitude 147
degrees 29 minutes West.

Thursday, 24th. The first part light Airs and Calm; Middle, moderate
breezes and Cloudy; latter part very squally with rain. A.M. Variation
per Azimuth 7 degrees 18 minutes East. At Noon took in the Topsails and
got down Topgallant yards. Saw a Water Spout in the North-West; it was
about the breadth of a Rainbow, of a dark Colour, the Upper end of the
Cloud from whence it came was about 8 degrees above the Horizon. Wind
Variable; course South-South-East; distance 41 miles; latitude 32 degrees
44 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 10 minutes West.

Friday, 25th. The first and middle part Strong Gales and Squally with
rain, remainder moderate and Cloudy. P.M. Unbent the Maintopsail being
Split and bent another; in the night lay too under the Foresail, and in
the morning made sail under the Courses and Topsails with one reef only.
Had a large Sea from the Southward, saw several Albetrosses, Pintado
Birds, and Sheer Waters; some of the Albetrosses were small, such as we
usually saw off Cape Horn; all these kinds of birds are generally seen at
a great distance from land. Wind, Southerly; course North-West; distance
26 miles; latitude 32 degrees 26 minutes South; longitude 147 degrees 32
minutes West.

Saturday, 26th. Moderate and cloudy weather, a Swell from the South-West.
By observation of the Sun and Moon made this morning, the Longitude of
the Ship at Noon is 147 degrees 18 minutes 40 seconds, which differs but
11 minutes from that given by the Log. Wind South-West; course South 6
degrees East; South distance 13 miles; latitude 32 degrees 39 minutes
South, longitude 147 degrees 30 minutes West.

Sunday, 27th. First part little wind and Cloudy; latter part, fresh Gales
and Clear weather. Variation per Azimuth 6 degrees 40 minutes East. Saw
several Albetrosses, Pintado Birds and Sheer Waters. Wind West,
North-North-West; course South 5 degrees East; distance 55 miles;
latitude 33 degrees 34 minutes, longitude 147 degrees 25 minutes.

Monday, 28th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy, with rain on the Latter part. At 10
departed this Life Jno. Rearden,* (* John Reading.) Boatswain's Mate; his
Death was occasioned by the Boatswain out of mere good Nature giving him
part of a Bottle of Rum last night, which it is supposed he drank all at
once. He was found to be very much in Liquor last night, but as this was
no more than what was common with him when he could get any, no farther
notice was taken of him than to put him to Bed, where this morning about
8 o'clock he was found Speechless and past recovery. Wind Northerly;
course South; distance 110 miles; latitude 35 degrees 34 minutes South,
longitude 147 degrees 25 minutes West.

Tuesday, 29th. Fore and Middle parts fresh Gales and Dark, Hazey weather
with some rain. At 5 a.m. saw a Comet in the North. Wind North-West to
South-West; course South 1/4 East; distance 96 miles; latitude 37 degrees
0 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 21 minutes West.

Wednesday, 30th. Fresh breeze and fair weather. At 1 a.m. saw the Comet a
little above the Horizon in the East. It pass'd the Meridian about 1/2
past 4; the Tail of the Comet Subtended an Angle of 42 degrees. At 8 a.m.
Variation per Azimuth 7 degrees 9 minutes East. Bent another suit of
Sails. Saw a piece of Rock weed, Some Pintado birds and Sheer Waters and
a Green bird something smaller than a Dove, but it was not near enough to
distinguish whether it was a Sea or Land bird; it was only seen by one
Person, and he probably was Mistaken in the Colour. A Swell from the
South-West, Wind Westerly; course South 3/4 East; distance 81 miles;
latitude 38 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 6 minutes

Thursday, 31st. The first part a fresh breeze and cloudy. At 6 p.m. hauld
the wind to the South-West and close reefd the Topsails. At 1 a.m. being
very squally with rain, took in the Topsails and brought too under the
Mainsail. At 6 made Sail under the Courses. Saw some seaweed, sounded,
but had no ground at 65 fathoms of Line. Some Albetrosses, Sheer Waters,
and a great many Pintado Birds about the Ship with some hundreds of Birds
that were smaller than Pidgeons, their backs were grey, their Bellies
white, and the ends of their Tails black, and have a blackish line along
the upper parts of the wings from the Tip of one to the other. We saw
birds very like those near Faulklands Islands on the Coast of Patagonia,
only they had not the black streak along the wings; they fly low like
sheer waters or mother Carys birds, and are perhaps of the same Tribe,
for Distinction sake I shall call them Doves.* (* Probably petrels of the
genus Prion.) Wind Westerly; course South 4 degrees 15 minutes East;
distance 68 miles; latitude 39 degrees 28 minutes South, longitude 147
degrees 0 minutes West.

[September 1769.]

Friday, September 1st. Very strong Gales and heavy Squalls with rain; at
6 p.m. brought too under the Main Sail. At 6 a.m. set the Foresail, a
Great Sea from the Westward. The same sort of Birds about the Ship as
Yesterday, but not in such great Numbers. Wind, Westerly; Course, South
29 degrees East; distance 50 miles; latitude 40 degrees 12 minutes South,
longitude 146 degrees 29 minutes West.

Saturday, 2nd. Very strong Gales, with heavy squalls of Wind, hail, and
rain. At 4 p.m., being in the Latitude of 40 degrees 22 minutes South,
and having not the least Visible signs of land, we wore, and brought too
under the Foresail, and reef'd the Mainsail, and handed it. I did intend
to have stood to the Southward if the winds had been Moderate, so long as
they continued Westerly, notwithstanding we had no prospect of meeting
with land, Rather than stand back to the Northward, on the same Track as
we came, but as the weather was so very Tempestious I laid aside this
design, and thought it more adviseable to stand to the Northward into
better weather, least we should receive such Damage in our Sails and
Rigging as might hinder the further Prosecutions of the Voyage.* (* This
long excursion to the south is a fine instance of Cook's thoroughness and
determination in exploration. The belief in a southern continent was
strong amongst most geographers; but it rested on nothing more than the
false idea that dry lands in the two hemispheres should balance one
another. Cook himself did not share the general belief; and few others in
his position would have struggled for 1500 miles out of his direct course
into bad weather, simply to disprove an idea, when so much unexplored
ocean lay before him to the westward, with a fair wind and fine weather.)
Some Albetrosses, Pintado birds, and Doves about the Ship, and a Bird
larger than a Duck, his plumage of a Dark Brown, with a Yellow beak. We
saw of these Birds in our Passage to the Northward, after doubling Cape
Horn. At Noon the weather was more moderate; set the Reefd Mainsail. A
great Sea from the West-South-West. Wind West; Course North 54 degrees 30
minutes East; distance 46 miles; latitude 39 degrees 45 minutes South,
longitude 145 degrees 39 minutes West.

Sunday, 3rd. The fore and Middle parts fresh gales, with hard Squalls;
Latter more moderate. At 5 a.m. loos'd the Reef out of the Mainsail, and
set the Topsail double reef'd, and before noon had all the Reefs out.
Wind Westerly; course North; distance 50 miles; latitude 38 degrees 54
minutes South, longitude 145 degrees 39 minutes West.

Monday, 4th. First and latter parts, little wind and Cloudy; in the night
Calm. Very few Birds about the Ship. Wind Westerly; course North by East;
distance 26 miles; latitude 38 degrees 29 minutes South, longitude 145
degrees 32 minutes West.

Tuesday, 5th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. At 2 p.m. saw a piece of
rock Weed. Variation, per Azimuth 7 degrees 0 minutes East. Wind West to
North-West; course North 32 West; distance 44 miles; latitude 37 degrees
52 minutes South, longitude 146 degrees 2 minutes West.

Wednesday, 6th. Fresh Gales and Squally, with rain. At Noon saw a Bird
which was all white, except the Tip of each Wing; it was nearly as big as
an Albetross. We saw 2 of these Birds in Latitude 19 degrees before we
Arrived at George's Island. Wind Westerly; course South 87 degrees 30
minutes West; distance 70 miles; latitude 37 degrees 49 minutes South,
longitude 147 degrees 30 West.

Thursday, 7th. Fresh Gales and hard squalls, with rain. At 3 p.m. saw
something upon the Water, which must either have been a Billet of Wood or
a Seal. At Noon a hard gale and Squally, which obliged us to take in the
Topsails. Wind Westerly; course South 80 degrees West; distance 15 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 52 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 49 minutes

Friday, 8th. P.M. very strong gales and Squally. A.M. more moderate; set
the Topsails. At Noon the Observed Latitude was 13 Miles to the North of
the Log. This I take to be owing to the great Sea we have had constantly
of Late from the South-West. Wind Westerly; course North 1/4 East;
distance 76 miles; latitude 36 degrees 36 minutes South, longitude 147
degrees 40 minutes West.

Saturday, 9th. Moderate breezes and dark, cloudy weather, sometimes
Hazey, with Drizling Rain. Wind South-East; course North 77 degrees West;
distance 76 miles; latitude 36 degrees 19 minutes South, longitude 149
degrees 12 minutes West.

Sunday, 10th. Fresh breezes and cloudy. At 9 a.m. we thought the Colour
of the Sea was paler than Usual, which occasioned us to sound, but had no
ground with 100 fathoms. Wind South-West, West-South-West; course North
52 degrees West; distance 97 miles; latitude 35 degrees 19 minutes South,
longitude 150 degrees 46 minutes West.

Monday, 11th. Fresh breezes, and for the most part thick, hazey weather,
with rain. Wind South-West; course North 43 degrees West; distance 87
miles; latitude 34 degrees 15 minutes South, longitude 152 degrees 00
minutes West.

Tuesday, 12th. Fresh breezes and cloudy; a swell from the
South-South-West. Some Albetrosses and Pintado Birds about the Ship. Wind
Westerly; course North 30 degrees West; distance 73 miles; latitude 33
degrees 12 minutes South, longitude 152 degrees 44 minutes West.

Wednesday, 13th. Gentle breezes, with some flying Showers. At 6 p.m.
Variation per Azimuth, 8 degrees 8 minutes East. Note, while we was
between the Latitude of 37 and 40 degrees we had constantly blowing
Tempestious weather, but since we have been to the Northward of 37
degrees, the weather hath been very moderate. Wind South-West and
West-South-West; course North-North-West; distance 74 miles; latitude 32
degrees 3 minutes South, longitude 153 degrees 16 minutes West.

Thursday, 14th. Gentle breezes, and sometimes Calm. A Swell from the
South-South-West. Wind Variable; course South 86 degrees West; distance
33 miles; latitude 32 degrees 5 minutes South, longitude 153 degrees 54
minutes West.

Friday, 15th. First part, moderate and Cloudy, remainder Strong Gales and
Squally. Several Albetrosses, Pintado Birds, and Sheer Waters about the
Ship; some of the Albetrosses were all White. Wind North-East to
South-East; course South 77 West; distance 139 miles; latitude 32 degrees
36 minutes South, longitude 156 degrees 34 minutes West.

Saturday, 16th. First part very strong Gales and Squally; remainder more
moderate, with a large Swell from the Southward. Wind South-South-East,
South, West-South-West; course North 60 degrees West; distance 100 miles;
latitude 31 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude 158 degrees 16 minutes

Sunday, 17th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy. Wind South-West; course North 25
West; distance 100 miles; latitude 31 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude
159 degrees 6 minutes West.

Monday, 18th. Moderate Gales and Cloudy, with a Swell from the Southward.
Wind Westerly; course North by West 1/2 West; distance 78 miles; latitude
29 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 159 degrees 32 minutes West.

Tuesday, 19th. Variable; light Airs and Calm. Variation per Amplitude at
sunset, 8 degrees 36 minutes East; per Azimuth in the morning, 8 degrees
29 minutes East; mean, 8 degrees 32 1/2 minutes East. A large hollow
swell from the Southward. Wind Variable; course East; distance 6 miles;
latitude 29 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 159 degrees 25 minutes

Wednesday, 20th. Light Airs and Calm. Wind Variable; course South-West by
South; distance 20 miles; latitude 29 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude
159 degrees 47 minutes West.

Thursday, 21st. Most part Gentle breezes and clear weather. Wind South
Easterly; course South 50 degrees West; distance 62 miles; latitude 30
degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 160 degrees 42 minutes West.

Friday, 22nd. Fresh breezes and Cloudy. The Southerly swell still
Continues, from which I conjecture that there is no land near in that
Direction. Wind South-East; course South 34 West; distance 81 miles;
latitude 31 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 161 degrees 35 minutes

Saturday, 23rd. Gentle breezes and Cloudy weather. Wind South-East;
course South-West by South; distance 62 miles; latitude 31 degrees 59
minutes South, longitude 162 degrees 44 minutes West.

Sunday, 24th. Moderate breezes and Cloudy. At Noon saw some sea-Weed. The
Southerly swell is now quite gone down. Wind South-East to North-East;
course South 35 West; distance 97 miles; latitude 33 degrees 18 minutes
South, longitude 162 degrees 51 minutes West.

Monday, 25th. Ditto weather. At 1 p.m. passed by a Piece of Wood, about 3
feet long and 7 or 8 Inches thick. Variation at 6 p.m. per Azimuth, 10
degrees 48 minutes East. A.M., got up all the Boatswain's Stores, to take
an account of them. Wind North-East; course South 43 1/2 West; distance
103 miles; latitude 34 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 165 degrees 10
minutes West.

Tuesday, 26th. Fresh breezes and fair weather. Wind North-North-East;
course South-West; distance 136 miles; latitude 36 degrees 9 minutes
South, longitude 167 degrees 14 minutes West.

Wednesday, 27th. Very strong Gales and hazey, with rain the First and
Middle part; Latter, moderate and clear weather. In the evening took in
the Topsails and Mainsail, and lay too with her head to the Westward
under the Foresail. During the night, at 4 a.m., made Sail. Saw several
Pieces of Sea Weed at different times this 24 Hours. Wind North by East,
Westerly; course South 28 West; distance 95 miles; latitude 37 degrees 33
minutes South, longitude 168 degrees 10 minutes West.

Thursday, 28th. First and Middle parts, fresh gales and Cloudy; Latter
part, very strong Gales and Squally. At 4 p.m. saw a Seal aSleep upon the
Water, and some Weed. A.M. saw several bunches of Sea Weed and a few
Albetrosses and Sheer Waters. Wind Westerly; course South 21 degrees
West; distance 92 miles; latitude 38 degrees 59 minutes South, longitude
169 degrees 5 minutes West.

Friday, 29th. The first part strong Gales and Squally; remainder a fresh
breeze and settled weather. At 1 p.m. was obliged to take in the
Topsails, but set them again at 4. At 11 a.m. saw a Bird something like a
Snipe, only it had a short bill; it had the appearance of a land bird.
Several Albetrosses, Pintado birds, and Sheer Waters about the Ship, and
a Number of Doves; of these we have seen more or less ever since the 31st
of last Month, the day we first saw them. Wind South-West; course North
59 degrees West; distance 60 miles; latitude 38 degrees 30 minutes South,
longitude 170 degrees 14 minutes West.

Saturday, 30th. Moderate breezes and Settled weather. Saw a dark brown
bird as big as a Raven; it is a Sea Fowl, and are seen in great Numbers
about the Faulkland Islands, as I am told. We likewise saw several pieces
of Sea Weed. Wind South Easterly; course North 87 1/2 West; distance 90
miles; latitude 38 degrees 26 minutes South, longitude 172 degrees 20
minutes West.

[October 1769.]

Sunday, October 1st. Little Wind in the day time and Calm in the Night.
At 8 a.m. sounded: no ground with 120 fathoms of line. Saw an immence
number of Birds, the most of them were Doves; saw likewise a Seal aSleep
upon the Water, which we at first took for a Crooked billet. These
creatures, as they lay upon the Water, hold their fins up in a very odd
manner, and very different to any I have seen before; we generally reckon
that seals never go out of Soundings or far from Land, but the few we
have seen in this Sea is certainly an exception to that rule. However,
one would think that we were not far from some land, from the Pieces of
Rock weed we see daily floating upon the Water. To-day we took up a small
Piece of Stick, but to all appearance it had been a long time at Sea. The
observ'd Latitude is considerable to the Northward of that given by the
Log, in so much that I think there must be some Current seting from the
Southward. Wind South to West by North; course North 16 degrees West;
distance 43 miles; latitude 37 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude 172
degrees 36 minutes West.

Monday, 2nd. Little wind. At 3 p.m. hoisted out a Boat to try the
Current, but found none. Saw several Grampusses. A.M. had a Boat in the
Water, and Mr. Banks shott an Albetross which measured 10 feet 8 Inches
from the tip of Wing to the other. He likewise shott 2 birds that were
very much like Ducks, excepting their head and Bill; their plumage were
dark brown. We first saw some of these birds in the Latitude of 40
degrees South, after our first coming into those Seas. Wind
West-South-West, South-West; course North-North-West; distance 35 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 10 minutes South, longitude 172 degrees 54 minutes

Tuesday, 3rd. Little wind and sometimes Calm. A.M. Variation per Azimuth
13 degrees 22 minutes East. Saw some fish like a Skip Jack, and a small
sort that appeared very Transparent. Took up a very small piece of wood
with Barnacles upon it, a proof that it hath been some time at Sea. Some
very large Albetrosses about the Ship and other birds. The observed
Latitude is 10 Miles to the Northward of that given by the Log, and it
was the same Yesterday, which I think is a Proof that there must be a
Current setting to the Northward, notwithstanding we did not find any
when we try'd it. Wind Southerly; course North 60 degrees West; distance
28 miles; latitude 36 degrees 56 minutes South, longitude 173 degrees 27
minutes West.

Wednesday, 4th. Gentle breezes and Cloudy weather. P.M. Variation per
Azimuth 12 degrees 48 minutes East; sounded twice, but found no ground,
with 120 fathoms of line. Saw some rock weed, but not in such plenty as
of late. Wind South-East; course South 52 1/2 West; distance 86 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 175 degrees 00 minutes

Thursday, 5th. Light, gentle breezes and Clear weather. P.M. saw one of
the same sort of Birds as we saw last Saturday. These birds are of a dark
brown or Chocolate Colour, with some white feathers under their wings,
and are as big as Ravens. Mr. Gore says that they are in great plenty at
Port Egmont in Faulklands Islands, and for that reason calls them Port
Egmont Hens. Saw a great many Porpoisses, large and Small; the small ones
had white bellies and Noses. A.M. saw 2 Port Egmont Hens, a Seal, some
sea Weed, and a Piece of wood with Barnacles upon it. Wind South-East to
East-North-East; course South 49 1/2 West; distance 63 miles; latitude 38
degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 176 degrees 3 minutes West.

Friday, 6th. Little wind, and fine pleasant weather. Saw some Seals, sea
weed, and Port Egmont Hens. P.M. Variation per Azimuth 12 degrees 50
minutes East. Per Amplitude 12 degrees 40 minutes. A.M. per Azimuth 14
degrees 2 minutes East; the difference is 1 degree 3 minutes, and the
Ship has only gone 9 Leagues in the Time. The Colour of the water appears
to be paler than common, and hath been so for some days past; this makes
us sound frequently, but can find no ground with 180 fathoms of Line.
Wind East-North-East; course South-West; distance 62 miles; latitude 39
degrees 11 minutes South, longitude 177 degrees 2 minutes West.

[Make New Zealand.]

Saturday, 7th. Gentle breezes and settled weather. At 2 p.m. saw land* (*
The North island of New Zealand.) from the Masthead bearing West by
North, which we stood directly for, and could but just see it of the Deck
at sunset. Variation per Azimuth and Amplitude 15 degrees 4 1/2 minutes
East; by observation of the Sun and Moon made this afternoon the
Longitude of the Ship is 180 degrees 55 minutes West, by the mean of
these and Subsequent observations the Error of the Ship's account in
Longitude from George's Island is 3 degrees 16 minutes; that is, so much
to the Westward of the Longitude resulting from the Log, which is what is
inserted in the Columns. At Midnight brought too and sounded, but had no
ground with 170 fathoms. At daylight made sail in for the Land, at Noon
it bore from South-West to North-West by North, distant 8 Leagues.
Latitude observed 38 degrees 57 minutes South; Wind North-East,
South-East, Variable; course South 70 degrees West; distance 41 miles;
latitude 38 degrees 57 minutes observed South; longitude 177 degrees 54
minutes West.

Sunday, 8th. Gentle breezes and clear weather. At 5 p.m., seeing the
opening of a Bay that appear'd to run pretty far inland, hauld our wind
and stood in for it; but as soon as night came on we keept plying on and
off until day light, when we found ourselves to leeward of the Bay, the
wind being at North. By Noon we fetch'd in with the South-West point, but
not being able to weather it we tacked and stood off. We saw in the Bay
several Canoes, People upon the Shore, and some houses in the Country.
The land on the Sea Coast is high, with Steep Cliffs; and back inland are
very high Mountains. The face of the Country is of a hilly surface, and
appears to be cloathed with wood and Verdure. Wind between the
East-North-East and North.


[October 1769. At Poverty Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

MONDAY, 9th October. Gentle breezes and Clear Weather. P.M. stood into
the Bay and Anchored on the North-East side before the Entrance of a
small River,* (* Tauranga nui. The township of Gisborne is now situated
on its eastern bank.) in 10 fathoms, a fine sandy bottom. The North-East
point of the Bay bore East by South 1/2 South, and the South-West point
South, distance from the Shore half a League. After this I went ashore
with a Party of men in the Pinnace and yawl accompanied by Mr. Banks and
Dr. Solander. We landed abreast of the Ship and on the East side of the
River just mentioned; but seeing some of the Natives on the other side of
the River of whom I was desirous of speaking with, and finding that we
could not ford the River, I order'd the yawl in to carry us over, and the
pinnace to lay at the Entrance. In the mean time the Indians made off.
However we went as far as their Hutts which lay about 2 or 300 Yards from
the water side, leaving 4 boys to take care of the Yawl, which we had no
sooner left than 4 Men came out of the woods on the other side the River,
and would certainly have cut her off had not the People in the Pinnace
discover'd them and called to her to drop down the Stream, which they
did, being closely persued by the Indians. The coxswain of the Pinnace,
who had the charge of the Boats, seeing this, fir'd 2 Musquets over their
Heads; the first made them stop and Look round them, but the 2nd they
took no notice of; upon which a third was fir'd and kill'd one of them
upon the Spot just as he was going to dart his spear at the Boat. At this
the other 3 stood motionless for a Minute or two, seemingly quite
surprised; wondering, no doubt, what it was that had thus kill'd their
Comrade; but as soon as they recovered themselves they made off, dragging
the Dead body a little way and then left it. Upon our hearing the report
of the Musquets we immediately repair'd to the Boats, and after viewing
the Dead body we return'd on board. In the morning, seeing a number of
the Natives at the same place where we saw them last night, I went on
shore with the Boats, mann'd and arm'd, and landed on the opposite side
of the river. Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself only landed at first,
and went to the side of the river, the natives being got together on the
opposite side. We called to them in the George's Island Language, but
they answer'd us by flourishing their weapons over their heads and
dancing, as we suppos'd, the War Dance; upon this we retir'd until the
Marines were landed, which I order'd to be drawn up about 200 yards
behind us. We went again to the river side, having Tupia, Mr. Green, and
Dr. Monkhouse along with us. Tupia spoke to them in his own Language, and
it was an agreeable surprize to us to find that they perfectly understood
him. After some little conversation had passed one of them swam over to
us, and after him 20 or 30 more; these last brought their Arms, which the
first man did not. We made them every one presents, but this did not
satisfy them; they wanted everything we had about us, particularly our
Arms, and made several attempts to snatch them out of our hands. Tupia
told us several times, as soon as they came over, to take care of
ourselves for they were not our friends; and this we very soon found, for
one of them snatched Mr. Green's hanger from him and would not give it
up; this encouraged the rest to be more insolent, and seeing others
coming over to join them, I order'd the man who had taken the Hanger to
be fir'd at, which was accordingly done, and wounded in such a manner
that he died soon after. Upon the first fire, which was only 2 Musquets,
the others retir'd to a Rock which lay nearly in the middle of the River;
but on seeing the man fall they return'd, probably to carry him off or
his Arms, the last of which they accomplished, and this we could not
prevent unless we had run our Bayonets into them, for upon their
returning from off the Rock, we had discharged off our Peices, which were
loaded with small shott, and wounded 3 more; but these got over the River
and were carried off by the others, who now thought proper to retire.
Finding nothing was to be done with the People on this side, and the
water in the river being salt, I embarked with an intent to row round the
head of the Bay in search of fresh water, and if possible to surprise
some of the Natives and to take them on board, and by good Treatment and
Presents endeavour to gain their friendship with this view.

Tuesday, 10th. P.M., I rowed round the head of the bay, but could find no
place to land on account of the Great Surf which beat everywhere upon the
Shore. Seeing 2 Boats or Canoes coming in from Sea I rowed to one of
them, in order to Seize upon the People; and came so near before they
took notice of us that Tupia called to them to come alongside and we
would not hurt them; but instead of doing this they endeavour'd to get
away, upon which I order'd a Musquet to be fir'd over their Heads,
thinking this would either make them surrender, or jump overboard; but
here I was mistaken, for they immediately took to their Arms or whatever
they had in the Boat, and began to attack us. This obliged us to fire
upon them, and unfortunately either 2 or 3 were kill'd and one wounded,
and 3 jumped overboard. These last we took up and brought on board, where
they was Cloathed and Treated with all imaginable kindness; and to the
Surprise of everybody became at once as cheerful and as merry as if they
had been with their own Friends. They were all 3 Young, the eldest not
above 20 years of Age, and the youngest about 10 or 12. I am aware that
most Humane men who have not experienced things of this nature will
Censure my Conduct in firing upon the People in their Boat, nor do I
myself think that the reason I had for seizing upon her will at all
justify me; and had I thought that they would have made the Least
Resistance I would not have come near them; but as they did, I was not to
stand still and suffer either myself or those that were with me to be
knocked on the head.

In the morning, as I intended to put our 3 Prisoners ashore, and stay
here the day to see what effect it might have upon the other Natives, I
sent an Officer ashore with the Marines and a party of men to cut wood,
and soon after followed myself, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander,
and Tupia, taking the 3 Natives with us, whom we landed on the West side
of the River before mentioned. They were very unwilling to leave us,
pretending that they should fall into the hands of their Enemies, who
would kill and Eat them. However, they at last of their own accord left
us and hid themselves in some bushes. Soon after this we discover'd
several bodys of the Natives marching towards us, upon which we retir'd
aCross the River, and joind the wooders; and with us came the 3 Natives
we had just parted with, for we could not prevail upon them to go to
their own people. We had no sooner got over the River than the others
assembled on the other side to the Number of 150 or 200, all Arm'd. Tupia
now began to Parly with them, and the 3 we had with us shew'd everything
we had given them, part of which they laid and left upon the Body of the
Man that was Kill'd the day before. These things seem'd so far to
Convince them of our friendly intentions that one man came over to us,
while all the others sat down upon the Sand. We everyone made this man a
present, and the 3 Natives that were with us likewise presented him with
such things as they had got from us, with which, after a short Stay, he
retir'd aCross the River. I now thought proper to take everybody on
board, to prevent any more Quarrels, and with us came the 3 Natives, whom
we could not prevail upon to stay behind; and this appear'd the more
strange as the man that came over to us was Uncle to one of them. After
we had return'd on board we saw them Carry off the Dead Man; but the one
that was Kill'd the first evening we Landed remain'd in the very spot
they had left him.

[Leave Poverty Bay.]

Wednesday, 11th. In the P.M., as I intended to sail in the Morning, we
put the 3 Youths ashore, seemingly very much against their inclination;
but whether this was owing to a desire they had to remain with us, or the
fear of falling into the hands of their Enemies, as they pretended, I
know not. The latter, however, seemed to be ill-founded, for we saw them
carried aCross the River in a Catamaran, and walk Leasurely off with the
other Natives. At 6 a.m. we weighed and stood out of the Bay, which I
have named Poverty Bay, because it afforded us no one thing we wanted
(Latitude 38 degrees 42 minutes South, Longitude 181 degrees 36 minutes
West).* (* Latitude correct. Longitude is 181 degrees 57 minutes West.)
It is in the form of a Horse Shoe, and is known by an Island lying close
under the North-East point. The 2 points which forms the Entrance are
high, with Steap white Cliffs, and lay a League and a half or 2 Leagues
from Each other, North-East by East and South-West by West. The Depth of
Water in this Bay is from 12 to 6 and 5 fathoms, a sandy bottom and good
Anchorage, but you lay open to the winds between the South and East.
Boats can go in and out of the river above mentioned at any time of Tide
in fine weather; but as there is a Bar at the Entrance, on which the Sea
Sometimes runs so high that no Boat can either get in or out, which
hapned while we laid here; however, I believe that Boats can generally
land on the North-East side of the river. The shore of this Bay, from a
little within each Entrance, is a low, flat sand; but this is only a
Narrow Slip, for the face of the Country appears with a variety of hills
and Vallies, all cloathed with woods and Verdure, and to all appearance
well inhabited, especially in the Vallies leading up from the Bay, where
we daily saw Smoke at a great distance inland, and far back in the
Country are very high Mountains. At Noon the South-West point of Poverty
Bay, which I have named Young Nicks head (after the Boy who first saw
this land),* (* In Mr. Molineux's Log, his name is given as Nicholas
Young, but no such name appears in the official lists.) bore North by
West, distance 3 or 4 leagues, being at this time about 3 Miles from the
Shore, and had 25 fathoms Water, the Main Land extending from North-East
by North to South. My intention is to follow the direction of the Coast
to the Southward, as far as the Latitude of 40 or 41 degrees, and then to
return to the Northward, in case we meet with nothing to incourage us to
proceed farther.

[Off Portland Island, North Island, New Zealand.]

Thursday, 12th. Gentle breezes at North-West and North, with frequent
Calms. In the Afternoon, while we lay becalm'd, several Canoes came off
to the Ship, but keept at a distance until one, who appeared to come from
a different part, came off and put alongside at once, and after her all
the rest. The people in this boat had heard of the Treatment those had
met with we had had on board before, and therefore came on board without
hesitation; they were all kindly treated, and very soon entered into a
Traffick with our People for George's Island Cloth, etc.; giving in
Exchange their Paddles, having little else to dispose of, and hardly left
themselves a sufficient number to paddle ashore; nay, the people in one
Canoe, after disposing of their Paddles, offer'd to sell the Canoe. After
a stay of about 2 hours they went away, but by some means or other 3 were
left on board, and not one boat would put back to take them in, and, what
was more surprizing, those aboard did not seem at all uneasy with their
situation. In the evening a light breeze springing up at North-West, we
steer'd along Shore, under an easy sail, until midnight, then brought
too. Soon after it fell Calm, and continued so until 8 o'Clock a.m., when
a breeze sprung up at North, with which we stood along shore
South-South-West. At and after sunrise found the variation to be 14
degrees 46 minutes East. About this time 2 Canoes came off to the Ship,
one of which was prevailed upon to come along side to take in the 3
people we had had on board all night, who now seem'd glad of the
opportunity to get ashore. As the People in the Canoe were a little shy
at first, it was observed that one Argument those on board made use on to
intice the others alongside, was in telling them that we did not Eat men;
from which it should seem that these people have such a Custom among
them. At the time we made sail we were abreast of the Point of Land set
yesterday at Noon, from which the Land trends South-South-West. This
point I have named Cape Table, on account of its shape and figure. It
lies 7 Leagues to the Southward of Poverty Bay, in the Latitude of 39
degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 181 degrees 36 minutes West, it is of
a moderate height, makes in a sharpe Angle, and appears to be quite flat
at Top. In steering along shore to the Southward of the Cape, at the
distance of 2 or 3 miles off, our soundings were from 20 to 30 fathoms,
having a Chain of Rocks that appears at different heights above water,
laying between us and the Shore. At Noon, Cape Table bore North 20
degrees East, distant 4 Leagues, and a small Island (being the
Southermost land in sight) bore South 70 degrees West, distant 3 miles.
This Island I have named Isle of Portland, on account of its very great
resemblance to Portland in the English Channel. It lies about a mile from
a Point on the Main, but there appears to be a ledge of Rocks extending
nearly, if not quite, aCross from the one to the other. North 57 degrees
East, 2 Miles from the South point of Portland, lies a sunken rock
whereon the sea breaks; we passed between this Rock and the land having
17, 18, and 20 fathom Water. We saw a great Number of the Natives
assembled together on the Isle of Portland; we likewise saw some on the
Main land, and several places that were Cultivated and laid out in square

Friday, 13th. At 1 p.m. we discover'd land behind or to the Westward of
Portland, extending to the Southward as far as we could see. In hauling
round the South end of Portland we fell into Shoal Water and broken
ground, which we, however, soon got clear of. At this time 4 Canoes came
off to us full of People, and keept for sometime under our stern
threatning of us all the while. As I did not know but what I might be
obliged to send our Boats ahead to sound, I thought these Gentry would be
as well out of the way. I order'd a Musquet shott to be fir'd close to
one of them, but this they took no notice of. A 4 Pounder was then fir'd
a little wide of them; at this they began to shake their Spears and
Paddles at us, but notwithstanding this they thought fit to retire.
Having got round Portland, we hauled in for the Land North-West, having a
Gentle breeze at North-East, which died away at 5 o'Clock and obliged us
to Anchor in 21 fathoms, a fine sandy bottom: the South Point of Portland
bore South-East 1/2 South distant about 2 Leagues, and a low Point on the
Main bore North 1/2 East. In this last direction there runs in a deep bay
behind the Land on which is Table Cape, which makes this Land a
Peninsula, joined to the Main by a low, narrow neck of land; the Cape is
the North Point of the Peninsula, and Portland the South. While we lay at
Anchor 2 Boats came off to us, and so near as to take up some things we
throw'd them out of the Ship, but would not come alongside. At 5 a.m. a
breeze springing northerly we weigh'd and steer'd in for the Land. The
shore here forms a very large Bay, of which Portland is the North-East
Point, and the Bay above mentioned is an Arm of it. I would gladly have
examin'd this Arm, because there appear'd to be safe Anchorage in it, but
as I was not certain of this, and the wind being right an End, I did not
care to spend time in Turning up to it. At Noon Portland bore South 50
degrees East, and the Southermost land in sight bore South-South-West,
distant 10 or 12 Leagues, being about 3 miles from the Shore, and in this
situation had 12 fathoms water--24 fathoms have been the most Water we
have had since we have been within Portland, every where clear ground.
The land near the Shore is of a moderate height, with white Cliffs and
Sandy beaches. Inland are several Pretty high Mountains, and the whole
face of the Country appears with a very hilly surface, and for the most
part Covered with wood, and hath all the appearances of a very pleasant
and fertile Country.

Saturday, 14th. P.M. had Gentle breezes between the North-East and
North-West. Kept running down along shore at the distance of 2 or 3 miles
off. Our sounding was from 20 to 13 fathoms, an even sandy bottom. We saw
some Canoes or Boats in shore, and several houses upon the Land, but no
harbour or Convenient watering place--the Main thing we were looking for.
In the night had little wind, and Sometimes Calm with Dirty, rainy
weather. A.M. had Variable light Airs next to a Calm and fair weather. In
the morning, being not above 2 Leagues from the South-West corner of the
great Bay we have been in for the 2 days past, the Pinnace and Long boat
were hoisted out in order to search for Fresh Water; but just as they
were ready to put off we observed several Boats full of People coming off
from the Shore, and for that reason I did not think it prudent to send
our own from the Ship. The first that came were 5 in Number, in them were
between 80 and 90 men. Every Method was tried to gain their Friendship,
and several things were thrown overboard to them; but all we could do was
to no purpose, neither would they accept of any one thing from us, but
seem'd fully bent on attacking us. In order to prevent this, and our
being obliged to fire upon them, I order'd a 4 Pounder Loaded with grape
to be fir'd a little wide of them, letting them know at the same time by
Means of Tupia what we were going to do; this had the desir'd effect, and
not one of these would afterwards trust themselves abreast of the Ship.
Soon after 4 more came off; one of these put what Arms they had into
another Boat, and then came alongside so near as to take what things we
gave them, and I believe might have been Prevailed upon to come on board
had not some of the first 5 came up under our Stern and began again to
threaten us, at which the people in this one Boat seem'd displeased;
immediately after this they all went ashore. At Noon Latitude in per
Observation 39 degrees 37 minutes South. Portland bore by our run from it
East by North, distant 14 Leagues; the Southermost land in sight, and
which is the South point of the Bay, South-East by South, distant 4 or 5
Leagues; and a Bluff head lying in the South-West corner of the Bay South
by West 2 or 3 Miles. On each side of this bluff head is a low narrow
sand or stone beach; between these beaches and the Main land is a pretty
large lake of Salt Water, as I suppose. On the South-East side of this
head is a very large flatt, which seems to extend a good way inland to
the Westward; on this flatt are Several groves of Streight, tall Trees,
but there seems to be a great Probability that the lake above mentiond
extends itself a good way into this flatt Country. Inland are a Chain of
Pretty high Mountains extending North and South; on the Summits and Sides
of these Mountains were many Patches of Snow, but between them and the
Sea the Land is Cloathed with wood.* (* The Endeavour was now off what is
called Ahuriri Bay. The bluff head is known as Ahuriri Bluff, and the
town of Napier, of 8000 inhabitants, lies at the back of it. The large
sheet of salt water is called Manganui-o-rotu. There was no sheltered
harbour for a vessel in the Endeavour's situation, but at present,
harbour works have improved the entrance to the lagoon into which vessels
drawing 12 feet can enter. Produce of the value of over a million pounds
per annum is now exported from Napier.)

[In Hawkes Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 15th. P.M. stood over for the Southermost Land or South point of
the Bay, having a light breeze at North-East, our soundings from 12 to 8
fathoms. Not reaching this point before dark, we stood Off and on all
night, having Variable light Airs next to a Calm; depth of water from 8
to 7 fathoms; Variation 14 degrees 10 minutes East. At 8 a.m., being
abreast of the South-West point of the Bay, some fishing Boats came off
to us and sold us some stinking fish; however it was such as they had,
and we were glad to enter into Traffick with them upon any Terms. These
People behaved at first very well, until a large Arm'd boat, wherein were
22 Men, came alongside. We soon saw that this Boat had nothing for
Traffick, yet as they came boldly alongside we gave them 2 or 3 pieces of
Cloth, Articles they seem'd the most fond off. One Man in this Boat had
on him a black skin, something like a Bear Skin, which I was desirous of
having that I might be a better judge what sort of an Animal the first
Owner was. I offer'd him for it a piece of Red Cloth, which he seem'd to
jump at by immediately putting off the Skin and holding it up to us, but
would not part with it until he had the Cloth in his possession and after
that not at all, but put off the Boat and went away, and with them all
the rest. But in a very short time they return'd again, and one of the
fishing Boats came alongside and offer'd us some more fish. The Indian
Boy Tiata, Tupia's Servant, being over the side, they seiz'd hold of him,
pull'd him into the Boat and endeavoured to carry him off; this obliged
us to fire upon them, which gave the Boy an opportunity to jump
overboard. We brought the Ship too, lower'd a Boat into the Water, and
took him up unhurt. Two or 3 paid for this daring attempt with the loss
of their lives, and many more would have suffer'd had it not been for
fear of killing the Boy. This affair occasioned my giving this point of
land the name of Cape Kidnapper. It is remarkable on account of 2 White
rocks in form of Haystacks standing very near it. On each side of the
Cape are Tolerable high white steep Cliffs, Latitude 39 degrees 43
minutes South; Longitude 182 degrees 24 minutes West; it lies South-West
by West, distant 13 Leagues from the Island of Portland. Between them is
a large Bay wherein we have been for these 3 days past; this Bay I have
named Hawkes Bay in Honour of Sir Edward, first Lord of the Admiralty; we
found in it from 24 to 8 and 7 fathoms, everywhere good Anchoring. From
Cape Kidnapper the Island Trends South-South-West, and in this direction
we run along shore, keeping about a League off, having a steady breeze
and Clear weather. At Noon the above Cape bore from us North 9 degrees
East, distant 2 Leagues, and the Southermost land in sight South 25
degrees West Latitude in Per Observation 39 degrees 50 minutes South.

Monday, 16th. First and latter part, fresh breezes, Northerly; in the
night, Variable and sometimes calm. At 2 p.m. passed by a Small but a
Pretty high white Island lying close to the Shore. On this Island we saw
a good many Houses, Boats, and Some People. We concluded that they must
be fishers, because the Island was quite barren; we likewise saw several
people upon the Shore in a small Bay on the Main within the Island. At 7
the Southermost land in sight bore South-West by South, and Cape
Kidnapper North 3/4 East, distant 8 leagues, being then about 2 Leagues
from the Shore, and had 55 fathoms. At 11 brought too until daylight,
then made Sail along shore to the Southward. At 7 passed a pretty high
point of Land, which lies South-South-West, 12 Leagues from Cape
Kidnapper. From this point the Land Trends 3/4 of a point more to the
Westward. At 10 saw more land appear to the Southward, at South-West by
South. At Noon the Southermost land in sight bore South 39 degrees West,
distant 8 or 10 Leagues, and a high Bluff head with Yellowish Cliffs bore
West, distant 2 miles, Latitude observed 40 degrees 34 minutes South;
depth of water 32 fathoms.

[Returning North from Cape Turnagain.]

Tuesday, 17th. P.M. winds at West, a fresh breeze; in the night, Variable
light Airs and Calm; a.m. a Gentle breeze between the North-West and
North-East. Seeing no likelyhood of meeting with a Harbour, and the face
of the Country Visibly altering for the worse, I thought that the
standing farther to the South would not be attended with any Valuable
discovery, but would be loosing of Time, which might be better employ'd
and with a greater Probability of success in examining the Coast to the
Northward. With this View, at 1 p.m. Tack'd and stood to the Northward,
having the Wind at West, a fresh breeze.* (* If Cook had known the exact
shape of New Zealand, he could scarcely have taken a better resolve, in
view of saving time, than to turn northward again when he did.) At this
time we could see the land extending South-West by South, at least 10 or
12 Leagues. The Bluff head or high point of land we were abreast off at
Noon I have called Cape Turnagain because here we returned. It lies in
the Latitude of 40 degrees 34 minutes South, Longitude 182 degrees 55
West, and 18 Leagues South-South-West and South-South-West 1/2 West from
Cape Kidnapper. The land between them is of a very unequal height; in
some places it is high, with White Cliffs next the Sea--in others low,
with sandy beaches. The face of the Country is not nearly so well
Cloathed with wood as it is about Hawkes Bay, but for the most part looks
like our high Downs in England, and to all appearance well inhabited, for
we saw several Villages as we run along shore, not only in the Vallies,
but on the Tops and sides of the Hills, and Smokes in other places. The
ridge of Mountains before mentioned extends to the Southward farther than
we could see, and are every where Checquer'd with Snow. This night saw 2
Large fires up in the inland Country, a sure sign that it must be
inhabited. At Noon Cape Kidnapper bore North 56 degrees West, distant 7
Leagues; latitude observed 39 degrees 52 minutes South.

Wednesday, 18th. Variable light winds and fine weather. At 4 a.m. Cape
Kidnapper bore North 32 degrees West, distant 2 Leagues. In this
situation had 62 fathoms; and when the said Cape bore West by North,
distant 3 or 4 Leagues, had 45 fathoms; Midway between the Isle of
Portland and Cape Kidnapper had 65 fathoms. At Noon the Isle of Portland
bore North-East 1/2 East, distant 4 Leagues; latitude observ'd 39 degrees
34 minutes South.

Thursday, 19th. The first part had Gentle breezes at East and
East-North-East; in the night, fresh Gales between the South and
South-West; dark, Cloudy weather, with Lightning and rain. At 1/2 past 5
P.M. Tack'd and stood to the South-East: the Isle of Portland bore
South-East, distant 3 Leagues. Soon after we Tacked a boat or Canoe came
off from the Shore, wherein were 5 People. They came on board without
shewing the least signs of fear, and insisted upon staying with us the
whole night; indeed, there was no getting them away without turning them
out of the Ship by force, and that I did not care to do; but to prevent
them playing us any Trick I hoisted their Canoe up alongside. Two
appear'd to be Chiefs, and the other 3 their Servants. One of the Chiefs
seem'd to be of a free, open, and Gentle disposition; they both took
great notice of everything they saw, and was very thankful for what was
given them. The 2 Chiefs would neither Eat nor Drink with us, but the
other 3 Eat whatever was offer'd them. Notwithstanding that these people
had heard of the Treatment the others had meet with who had been on board
before, yet it appear'd a little strange that they should place so much
Confidence in us as to put themselves wholy in our power wether we would
or no, especially as the others we had meet with in this bay had upon
every occasion behaved in quite a different manner. At 11 brought too
until daylight (the night being dark and rainy), then made sail. At 7
a.m. brought too under Cape Table, and sent away the Indian Canoe. At
this Time some others were putting off from the Shore, but we did not
wait their coming, but made sail to the Northward. At Noon the
Northermost land in sight North 20 degrees East, and Young Nicks head, or
the South point of Poverty Bay, West-Northerly, near 4 Leagues. Latitude
observed 38 degrees 44 minutes 30 seconds South.

Friday, 20th. P.M. a fresh breeze at South-South-West; in the night,
variable light breezes, with rain; A.M. a fresh breeze at South-West. At
3 p.m. passed by a remarkable head, which I called Gable end Foreland on
account of the very great resemblance the white cliff at the very point
hath to the Gable end of a House. It is made still more remarkable by a
Spir'd Rock standing a little distance from it. This head land lies from
Cape Table North 24 degrees East, distant 12 Leagues. Between them the
Shore forms a Bay, wherein lies Poverty Bay, 4 Leagues from the former
and 8 Leagues from the Latter. From Gable end Foreland the land trends
North by East as far as we could see. The land from Poverty Bay to this
place is of a moderate but very unequal height, distinguished by Hills
and Vallies that are Cover'd with woods. We saw, as we run along shore,
several Villages, cultivated lands, and some of the Natives. In the
evening some Canoes came off to the Ship, and one Man came on board to
whom we gave a few Trifles and then sent him away. Stood off and on until
daylight, and then made sail in shore in order to look into 2 Bays that
appear'd to our view about 2 Leagues to the Northward of the Foreland.
The Southermost we could not fetch, but in the other we Anchor'd about 11
o'Clock in 7 fathoms, a black sandy bottom. The North point bore
North-East 1/2 North, distant 2 Miles, and the South Point South-East by
East, distant one Mile, and about 3/4 of a Mile from the Shore. This Bay
is not so much Shelter'd from the Sea as I at first thought it was; but
as the Natives, many of whom came about us in their Canoes, appear'd to
be of a friendly disposition, I was willing to try if we could not get a
little water on board, and to see a little into the Nature of the Country
before we proceeded further to the Northward.

Saturday, 21st. We had no sooner come to an Anchor, as mentioned above,
than perceiving 2 old Men in the Canoes, who from their Garbe appear'd to
be Chiefs, these I invited on board, and they came without Hesitation. To
each I gave about 4 Yards of linnen and a Spike Nail; the linnen they
were very fond of, but the Nails they seem'd to set no Value upon. Tupia
explain'd to them the reasons of our Coming here, and that we should
neither hurt nor Molest them if they did but behave in the same peaceable
manner to us; indeed, we were under very little apprehension but what
they would, as they had heard of what hapned in Poverty Bay. Between 1
and 2 p.m. I put off with the Boats mann'd and Arm'd in order to land to
look for fresh Water, these 2 Men along with us; but the surf running
very high, and it begun to blow and rain at the same time, I returned
back to the Ship, having first put the 2 Chiefs into one of their Canoes.
In the evening it fell moderate, and we landed and found 2 Small Streams
of Fresh Water, and the Natives to all appearance very friendly and
peaceable; on which account I resolved to Stay one day at least, to fill
a little water and to give Mr. Banks an opportunity to Collect a little
of the Produce of the Country. In the morning Lieutenant Gore went on
shore to superintend the Watering with a Strong party of Men, but the
getting the Casks off was so very difficult, on account of the Surf, that
it was noon before one Turn came on board.

[At Tegadoo Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 22nd. P.M. light breezes and Cloudy. About or a little after Noon
several of the Natives came off to the Ship in their Canoes and began to
Traffick with us, our people giving them George's Island Cloth for
theirs, for they had little else to dispose of. This kind of exchange
they seem'd at first very fond of, and prefer'd the Cloth we had got at
the Islands to English Cloth; but it fell in its value above 500 p. ct.
before night. I had some of them on board, and Shew'd them the Ship, with
which they were well pleased. The same friendly disposition was observed
by those on shore, and upon the whole they behaved as well or better than
one could expect; but as the getting the Water from the Shore proved so
very Tedious on account of the Surf, I resolved upon leaving this place
in the morning, and accordingly, at 5 a.m., we weighed and put to Sea.
This Bay is called by the Natives Tegadoo;* (* Anaura Bay.) it lies in
the Latitude of 38 degrees 16 minutes South, but as it hath nothing to
recommend it I shall give no discription of it. There is plenty of Wild
Sellery, and we purchased of the Natives 10 or 15 pounds of sweet
Potatoes. They have pretty large plantations of these, but at present
they are scarce, it being too Early in the Season. At Noon the Bay of
Tegadoo bore West 1/2 South, distant 8 Leagues, and a very high double
peak'd Mountain some distance in land bore North-West by West. Latitude
observed 38 degrees 13 minutes South; Wind at North, a fresh Gale.

Monday, 23rd. P.M. fresh Gales at North, and Cloudy weather. At 1 Tack'd
and stood in shore; at 6 Sounded, and had 56 fathoms fine sandy bottom;
the Bay of Tegadoo bore South-West 1/2 West, distance 4 Leagues. At 8
Tack'd in 36 fathoms, being then about 2 Leagues from land; stood off and
on all night, having Gentle breezes. At 8 a.m., being right before the
Bay of Tegadoo and about a League from it, some of the Natives came off
to us and inform'd us that in a Bay a little to the Southward (being the
same that we could not fetch the day we put into Tegadoo) was fresh Water
and easey getting at it; and as the wind was now against us, and we
gain'd nothing by beating to windward, I thought the time would be better
spent in this Bay* (* Tolaga.) in getting on board a little water, and
forming some Connections with the Natives, than by keeping the Sea. With
this view we bore up for it, and sent 2 Boats in, Mann'd and Arm'd, to
Examine the Watering Place, who returned about noon and conform'd the
account the Natives had given. We then Anchor'd in 11 fathoms, fine sandy
bottom; the North point of the Bay North by East and the South point
South-East, and the watering place, which was in a Small Cove a little
within the South point of the Bay, distance one Mile.

Tuesday, 24th. Winds Westerly and fine weather. This afternoon, as soon
as the Ship was moor'd, I went ashore to Examine the watering place,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. I found the Water good and the
Place pretty Convenient, and plenty of Wood close to high Water Mark, and
the Natives to all appearance not only very friendly but ready to
Traffick with us for what little they had. Early in the morning I sent
Lieutenant Gore ashore to Superintend the Cutting wood and filling of
Water, with a Sufficient number of men for both purposes, and all the
Marines as a Guard. After breakfast I went myself, and remain'd there the
whole day; but before this Mr. Green and I took several observations of
the Sun and Moon. The mean result of them gave 180 degrees 47 minutes
West Longitude from the Meridian of Greenwich; but as all the
observations made before exceeded these, I have laid down this Coast
agreeable to the means of the whole. At noon I took the Sun's Meridian
Altitude with the Astronomical Quadrant, and found the Latitude 38
degrees 22 minutes 24 seconds South.

Wednesday, 25th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. P.M. set up the
Armourer's Forge to repair the Tiller braces, they being broke. By night
we had got on board 12 Tons of Water and two or 3 Boats' loads of Wood,
and this I looked upon to be a good day's work. The Natives gave us not
the least disturbance, but brought us now and then different sorts of
Fish out to the Ship and Watering place, which we purchased of them with
Cloth, beads, etc.

Thursday, 26th. P.M. had the winds from between the South and South-West,
fair weather; the remainder, rainy, dirty weather. Notwithstanding we
continued getting on board Wood and Water.

Friday, 27th. Winds at South-West; first part rainy weather, the
remainder fair. A.M. sent the Pinnace to drudge, but she met with no
success; after this, I went and sounded the Bay. I made a Shift to land
in 2 Places, the first time in the bottom of the bay, where I went a
little way into the Country, but met with nothing extraordinary. The
other place I landed at was at the North point of the Bay, where I got as
much Sellery and Scurvy grass as loaded the Boat. This day we compleated
our Water to 70 Tons, but not wood Enough.

Saturday, 28th. Gentle breezes Southerly and fine weather. Employ'd
wooding, cutting, and making of Brooms, there being a Shrub here very fit
for that purpose; and as I intended to sail in the morning some hands
were employ'd picking of Sellery to take to Sea with us. This is found
here in great plenty, and I have caused it to be boiled with Portable
Soup and Oatmeal every morning for the people's breakfast; and this I
design to continue as long as it will last, or any is to be got, and I
look upon it to be very wholesome and a great Antiscorbutick.

[At Tolaga Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Monday, 29th. P.M. Gentle breezes with Thunder and Lightning up the
Country; in the night had light Airs off the land and very foggy; in the
forenoon had a gentle breeze at North-North-East and Clear weather. At 4
a.m. unmoor'd, and at 6 weigh'd and put to Sea. At Noon the bay sail'd
from bore North 63 degrees West, distant 4 Leagues. This bay is called by
the Natives Tolaga;* (* It still goes by this name.) it is moderately
large, and hath in it from 13 to 8 and 7 fathoms, clean sandy bottom and
good Anchorage, and is shelterd from all winds except those that blow
from the North-East Quarter. It lies in the Latitude of 38 degrees 22
minutes South, and 4 1/2 Leagues to the Northward of Gable end Foreland.
Off the South point lies a small but high Island, so near to the Main as
not to be distinguished from it. Close to the North end of this Island,
at the Entrance into the Bay, are 2 high Rocks; one is high and round
like a Corn Stack, but the other is long with holes thro' it like the
Arches of a Bridge. Within these rocks is the Cove, where we cut wood and
fill'd our Water. Off the North point of the Bay is a pretty high rocky
Island, and about a Mile without it are some rocks and breakers. The
variation of the Compass is here 14 degrees 31 minutes East, and the Tide
flows at full and change of the Moon about 6 o'Clock, and rises and falls
upon a Perpendicular 5 or 6 feet, but wether the flood comes from the
Southward or Northward I have not been able to determine.

During our stay in this bay we had every day more or less Traffick with
the Natives, they bringing us fish, and now and then a few sweet Potatoes
and several trifles which we deemd Curiosities; for these we gave them
Cloth, Beads, Nails, etc. The Cloth we got at King George's Island and
Ulietea, they valued more than anything we could give them, and as every
one in the Ship were provided with some of this sort of Cloth, I suffer'd
every body to purchase what ever they pleased without limitation; for by
this means I knew that the Natives would not only sell but get a good
Price for every thing they brought. This I thought would induce them to
bring to Market whatever the Country afforded, and I have great reason to
think that they did, yet it amounted to no more than what is above
mentioned. We saw no 4 footed Animals, either Tame or Wild, or signs of
any, except Dogs and Rats,* (* Cook's powers of observation are here
evident. There were no other quadrupeds in New Zealand.) and these were
very Scarce, especially the latter. The flesh of the former they eat, and
ornament their clothing with their skins as we do ours with furs, etc.
While we lay here I went upon some of the Hills in order to View the
Country, but when I came there I could see but very little of it, the
sight being interrupted by still higher hills. The Tops and ridges of the
Hills are for the most part barren, at least little grows on them but
fern; but the Valleys and sides of many of the Hills were luxuriously
clothed with woods and Verdure and little Plantations of the Natives
lying dispers'd up and down the Country. We found in the Woods, Trees of
above 20 different sorts; Specimens of each I took on board, as all of
them were unknown to any of us. The Tree which we cut for firing was
something like Maple and yeilded a whitish Gum. There was another sort of
a deep Yellow which we imagin'd might prove useful in dying. We likewise
found one Cabage Tree* (* Palm.) which we cut down for the sake of the
cabage. The Country abounds with a great Number of Plants, and the woods
with as great a variety of beautiful birds, many of them unknown to us.
The soil of both the hills and Valleys is light and sandy, and very
proper for producing all kinds of Roots, but we saw only sweet potatoes
and Yams among them; these they plant in little round hills, and have
plantations of them containing several Acres neatly laid out and keept in
good order, and many of them are fenced in with low paling which can only
serve for Ornament.

Monday, 30th. P.M. little wind and cloudy weather. At 1 Tack'd and stood
in shore; at 7 o'Clock Tolaga Bay bore West-North-West, distant one
League. Tack'd and lay her head off; had it calm until 2 a.m., when a
breeze sprung up at South-West, and we made Sail to the Northward. At 6,
Gable end Foreland bore South-South-West, and Tolaga bay South-South-West
1/4 West, distance 3 Leagues. At 8, being about 2 Miles from the shore,
some Canoes that were fishing came after the Ship; but we having a fresh
of wind they could not come up with us, and I did not chuse to wait for
them. At Noon, Latitude per observation 37 degrees 49 minutes South, a
small Island lying off the Northernmost land in sight, bore North 16
degrees East, distant 4 Miles; course from Tolaga bay North by East 1/2
East, distance 13 Leagues. The Land from thence is of a moderate but
unequal height, forming several small bays wherein are sandy beaches.
Hazey, cloudy weather prevented us from seeing much of the inland
country, but near the Shore we could see several Villages and Plantations
of the Natives. Soundings from 20 to 30 fathoms.

[Off Cape Runaway, North Island, New Zealand.]

Tuesday, 31st. At half-past one p.m. hauled round the Island above
mentioned, which lies East 1 Mile from the North-East point of the land.
The lands from hence Trends North-West by West, and West-North-West, as
far as we could see. This point of Land I have called East Cape, because
I have great reason to think that it is the Eastermost land on this whole
Coast; and for the same reason I have called the Island which lays off
it, East Island. It is but of a small circuit, high and round, and
appears white and barren. The Cape is of a moderate height with white
cliffs, and lies in the Latitude of 37 degrees 42 minutes 30 seconds
South, and Longitude 181 degrees 00 minutes West from the Meridian of
Greenwich. After we had rounded the East Cape we saw, as we run along
shore, a great number of Villages and a great deal of Cultivated land;
and in general the country appear'd with more fertility than what we had
seen before; it was low near the Sea, but hilly inland. At 8, being 8
leagues to the Westward of Cape East, and 3 or 4 miles from the shore,
shortned sail and brought too for the night, having at this Time a fresh
Gale at South-South-East and squally weather; but it soon fell moderate,
and at 2 a.m. made Sail again to the South-West as the land now Trended.
At 8 saw land which made like an Island bearing West. At the same time
the South-Westermost part of the Main bore South-West. At 9, five Canoes
came off to us, in one of which were upwards of 40 Men all Arm'd with
Pikes, etc.; from this and other Circumstances it fully appear'd that
they came with no friendly intentions; and I at this Time being very
buisey, and had no inclination to stay upon deck to watch their Motions,
I order'd a Grape shot to be fir'd a little wide of them. This made them
pull off a little, and then they got together either to consult what to
do or to look about them. Upon this I order'd a round shott to be fir'd
over their heads, which frightend them to that degree that I believe they
did not think themselves safe until they got ashore. This occasion'd our
calling the Point of land off which this hapned, Cape Runaway. Latitude
37 degrees 32 minutes South, longitude 181 degrees 50 minutes West, and
17 or 18 Leagues to the Westward of East Cape. 4 Leagues to the Westward
of East Cape is a bay which I have named Hicks's bay, because Lieutenant
Hicks was the first who discover'd it.

[November 1769.]

Wednesday, 1st November. P.M., as we stood along shore (having little
wind, and Variable), we saw a great deal of Cultivated land laid out in
regular inclosures, a sure sign that the Country is both fertile and well
inhabited. Some Canoes came off from the shore, but would not come near
the Ship. At 8 brought to 3 Miles from the Shore, the land seen yesterday
bearing West, and which we now saw was an Island, bore South-West,* (*
This should evidently be North-West.) distant 8 leagues. I have named it
White Island,* (* White Island is an active volcano. It was evidently
quiescent at the time of the Endeavour passing.) because as such it
always appear'd to us. At 5 a.m. made Sail along shore to the South-West,
having little wind at East-South-East and Cloudy weather. At 8 saw
between 40 and 50 Canoes in shore. Several of them came off to the Ship,
and being about us some time they ventur'd alongside and sold us some
Lobsters, Muscels, and 2 Conger Eales. After these were gone some others
came off from another place with Muscels only, and but few of these they
thought proper to part with, thinking they had a right to everything we
handed them into their Canoes without making any return. At last the
People in one Canoe took away some linnen that was towing over the side,
which they would not return for all that we could say to them. Upon this
I fir'd a Musket Ball thro' the Canoe, and after that another musquet
load with Small Shott, neither of which they minded, only pulled off a
little, and then shook their paddles at us, at which I fir'd a third
Musquet; and the ball, striking the Water pretty near them, they
immediately apply'd their Paddles to another use; but after they thought
themselves out of reach they got altogether, and Shook their Paddles
again at us. I then gave the Ship a Yaw, and fir'd a 4 Pounder. This sent
them quite off, and we keept on our course along shore, having a light
breeze at East-South-East. At noon we were in the Latitude of 37 degrees
55 minutes, White Island bearing North 29 degrees West, distant 8

Thursday, 2nd. Gentle breezes from North-West round Northerly to
East-South-East and fair weather. At 2 p.m. saw a pretty high Island
bearing West from us, and at 5 saw more Islands and Rocks to the Westward
of it. Hauld our wind in order to go without them, but, finding that we
could not weather them before dark, bore up, and run between them and the
Main. At 7 was close under the first Island, from whence a large double
Canoe full of People came off to us. This was the first double Canoe we
had seen in this Country. They staid about the Ship until it was dark,
then left us; but not before they had thrown a few stones. They told us
the name of the Island, which was Mowtohora.* (* Motuhora, called also
Whale Island.) It is but of a small Circuit, but high, and lies 6 Miles
from the Main. Under the South side is Anchorage in 14 fathoms.
South-West by South from this Island on the Main land, seemingly at no
great distance from the Sea, is a high round Mountain, which I have named
Mount Edgcombe. It stands in the middle of a large Plain, which make it
the more Conspicuous. Latitude 37 degrees 59 minutes South, Longitude 183
degrees 07 minutes West. In standing to the Westward we Shoalded our
Water from 17 to 10 fathoms, and knowing that we were not far from some
Small Islands and Rocks that we had seen before dark, after Passing of
which I intended to have brought too for the night, but I now thought it
more prudent to tack, and spend the Night under the Island of Mowtohora,
where I knew there was no danger. And it was well we did, for in the
morning, after we had made Sail to the Westward, we discovered Rocks
ahead of us Level with and under the Water.* (* Rurima Rocks.) They lay 1
1/2 Leagues from the Island Mowtohora, and about 9 Miles from the Main,
and North-North-East from Mount Edgecumbe. We passed between these Rocks
and the Main, having from 7 to 10 fathoms. The double Canoe which we saw
last night follow'd us to-day under Sail, and keept abreast of the Ship
near an hour talking to Tupia, but at last they began to pelt us with
stones. But upon firing one Musquet they dropt aStern and left us. At 1/2
past 10 Passed between a low flat Island and the Main, the distance from
one to the other being 4 Miles; depth of Water 10, 12, and 15 fathoms. At
Noon the flat Island* (* Motunau.) bore from North-East to East 1/2
North, distance 5 or 6 Miles; Latitude in per Observation 37 degrees 39
minutes South, Longitude 183 degrees 30 minutes West. The Main land
between this and the Island of Mowtohara, which is 10 Leagues, is of a
moderate height, and all a level, flat Country, pretty clear of wood and
full of Plantations and Villiages. These Villiages are built upon
Eminences Near the Sea, and are Fortified on the land side with a Bank
and a Ditch, and Pallisaded all round. Besides this, some of them
appear'd to have out-works. We have before now observed, on several parts
of the Coast, small Villiages inclosed with Pallisades and works of this
kind built on Eminences and Ridges of hills, but Tupia had all along told
us that they were Mories, or places of worship; but I rather think they
are places of retreat or strong hold where they defend themselves against
the Attack of an Enemy, as some of them seem'd not ill design'd for that
Purpose.* (* In the contests with the Maories in after years, these Pahs,
or forts, proved to be no despicable defences.)

[In Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand.]

Friday, 3rd. P.M. Fresh Gales at North-East by East and hazey weather. At
2 pass'd a small high Island lying 4 Miles from a high round head on the
Main* (* The island was Moliti; the high round head was Maunganui, which
marks the entrance to Tauranga harbour, a good port, where now stands a
small town of the same name.) from this head the land Trends North-West
as far as we could see, and appeared to be very rugged and hilly. The
weather being very hazey, and the Wind blowing fresh on shore, we hauled
off close upon a wind for the weathermost Island in sight, which bore
from us North-North-East, distant 6 or 7 Leagues. Under this Island we
spent the Night, having a fresh gale at North-East and North-East by
East, and hazey weather with rain; this Island I have called the Mayor.
At 7 a.m. it bore South 47 degrees East, distant 6 Leagues, and a Cluster
of small Islands and Rocks bore North 1/2 East, distant one League. At
the time had a Gentle breeze at East-North-East and clear weather. The
Cluster of Islands and Rocks just mentioned we named the Court of
Aldermen; they lay in the Compass of about half a League every way, and 5
Leagues from the Main, between which and them lay other Islands. The most
of them are barren rocks, and of these there is a very great Variety,
some of them are of as small a Compass as the Monument in London, and
Spire up to a much greater height; they lay in the Latitude of 36 degrees
57 minutes, and some of them are inhabited. At Noon they bore South 60
degrees East, distant 3 or 4 Leagues, and a Rock like a Castle lying not
far from the Main, bore North 40 degrees West, one League. Latitude
observed 36 degrees 58 minutes South; Course and distance since Yesterday
noon is North-North-West 1/2 West, about 20 Leagues. In this Situation
had 28 fathoms water, and a great many small Islands and Rocks on every
side of us. The Main land appears here with a hilly, rugged, and barren
surface, no Plantations to be seen, nor no other signs of its being well

Saturday, 4th. The first and middle parts, little wind at East-North-East
and Clear weather; the Latter had a fresh breeze at North-North-West and
hazey with rain. At 1 p.m. 3 Canoes came off from the Main to the Ship,
and after Parading about a little while they darted 2 Pikes at us. The
first was at one of our Men as he was going to give them a rope, thinking
they were coming on board; but the 2nd they throw'd into the Ship; the
firing of one musquet sent them away. Each of these Canoes were made out
of one large Tree, and were without any sort of Ornament, and the people
in them were mostly quite naked. At 2 p.m. saw a large op'ning or inlet
in the land, which we bore up for with an intent to come to an Anchor. At
this time had 41 fathoms, which gradually decreased to 9 fathoms, at
which time we were 1 1/2 Mile from a high Tower'd Rock lying near the
South point of the inlet; the rock and the Northermost of the Court of
Aldermen being in one bearing South 61 degrees East. At 1/2 past 7
Anchor'd in 7 Fathoms a little within the South Entrance of the Bay or
inlet. We were accompanied in here by several Canoes, who stay'd about
the Ship until dark; and before they went away they were so generous as
to tell us that they would come and attack us in the morning; but some of
them paid us a Visit in the night, thinking, no doubt, but what they
should find all hands asleep, but as soon as they found their Mistake
they went off. My reasons for putting in here were the hopes of
discovering a good Harbour, and the desire I had of being in some
convenient place to observe the Transit of Mercury, which happens on the
9th Instant, and will be wholy Visible here if the day is clear. If we be
so fortunate as to obtain this observation, the Longitude of this place
and Country will thereby be very accurately determined. Between 5 and 6
o'Clock in the morning several Canoes came off to us from all parts of
the Bay; in them were about 130 or 140 People. To all appearances their
first design was to attack us, being all Completely Arm'd in their way;
however, this they never attempted, but after Parading about the Ship
near 3 Hours, sometimes trading with us, and at other times Tricking of
us, they dispersed; but not before we had fir'd a few Musquets and one
great gun, not with any design to hurt any of them, but to shew them what
sort of Weapons we had, and that we could revenge any insult they offer'd
to us. It was observable that they paid but little regard to the Musquets
that were fir'd, notwithstanding one ball was fir'd thro' one of their
Canoes, but what Effect the great gun had I know not, for this was not
fir'd until they were going away.

[At Mercury Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

At 10, the weather Clearing up a little, I went with 2 Boats to sound the
Bay and to look for a more convenient Anchoring place, the Master being
in one Boat, and I in the other. We pull'd first over the North Shore,
where some Canoes came out to meet us, but as we came near them they
retir'd to the Shore and invited us to follow them, but seeing they were
all Arm'd I did not think fit to Except of their Invitation; but after
Trading with them out of the Boat for a few Minutes we left them and went
towards the head of the Bay. I observed on a high Point a fortified
Village, but I could only see a part of the works, and as I intend to see
the whole, shall say no more about it at this time. After having fix'd
upon an Anchoring place not far from where the Ship lay I return'd on

Sunday, 5th. Winds at North-North-West, Hazey weather with rain in the
night. At 4 p.m. weigh'd and run in nearer the South shore and Anchor'd
in 4 1/2 fathoms, a soft sandy bottom, the South point of the Bay bearing
East, distant 1 Mile, and a River (into which the boats can go at low
Water) South-South-East, distant 1 1/2 Miles.* (* The bight in which the
Endeavour anchored is now known as Cook Bay.) In the morning the Natives
came off again to the Ship, but their behaviour was very different to
what it was Yesterday morning, and the little traffick we had with them
was carried on very fair and friendly. Two came on board the Ship--to
each I gave a Piece of English Cloth and some Spike Nails. After the
Natives were gone I went with the Pinnace and Long boat into the River to
haul the Sean, and sent the Master to sound the Bay and drudge for fish
in the Yawl. We hauled the Sean in several places in the River, but
caught only a few Mullet, with which we returned on board about Noon.

Monday, 6th. Moderate breezes at North-North-West, and hazey weather with
rain in the night. P.M. I went to another part of the Bay to haul the
Sean, but meet with as little Success as before; and the Master did not
get above 1/2 a Bucket full of Shells with the Drudge. The Natives
brought to the Ship, and sold to our People, small Cockles, Clams, and
Mussels, enough for all hands. These are found in great plenty upon the
Sand Banks of the River. In the morning I sent the Long boat to Trawl in
the Bay, and one Officer with the Marines and a party of men to Cut wood
and haul the Sean, but neither the Sean nor the Trawl meet with any
success; but the Natives in some measure made up for this by bringing
several Baskets of dry'd or ready dress'd fish; altho' it was none of the
best I order'd it all to be bought up in order to encourage them to

Tuesday, 7th. The first part moderate and fair; the remainder a fresh
breeze, northerly, with dirty, hazey, raining Weather. P.M. got on board
a Long boat Load of Water, and Caught a dish of fish in the Sean. Found
here a great Quantity of Sellery, which is boild every day for the Ship's
Company as usual.

Wednesday, 8th. P.M. fresh breeze at North-North-West and hazey, rainy
weather; the remainder a Gentle breeze at West-South-West and Clear
Weather. A.M. heeld and Scrubb'd both sides of the Ship and Sent a Party
of Men ashore to Cutt wood and fill Water. The Natives brought off to the
Ship, and Sold us for Small pieces of Cloth, as much fish as served all
hands; they were of the Mackrell kind, and as good as ever was Eat. At
Noon I observ'd the Sun's Meridian Zenith distance, by the Astronomical
Quadrant, which gave the Latitude 36 degrees 47 minutes 43 seconds South;
this was in the River before mentioned, that lies within the South
Entrance of the Bay.

Thursday, 9th. Variable light breezes and Clear weather. As soon as it
was daylight the Natives began to bring off Mackrell, and more than we
well know what to do with; notwithstanding I order'd all they brought to
be purchased in order to encourage them in this kind of Traffick. At 8,
Mr. Green and I went on shore with our Instruments to observe the Transit
of Mercury, which came on at 7 hours 20 minutes 58 seconds Apparent time,
and was observed by Mr. Green only.* (* Mr. Green satirically remarks in
his Log, "Unfortunately for the seamen, their look-out was on the wrong
side of the sun." This probably refers to Mr. Hicks, who was also
observing. It rather seems, however, as if Cook, on this occasion, was
caught napping by an earlier appearance of the planet than was expected.)
I, at this time, was taking the Sun's Altitude in order to Ascertain the
time. The Egress was observed as follows:--

By Mr. Green:
Internal Contact at 12 hours 8 minutes 58 seconds Afternoon.
External Contact at 12 hours 9 minutes 55 seconds Afternoon.

By myself:
Internal Contact at 12 hours 8 minutes 45 seconds Afternoon.
External Contact at 12 hours 9 minutes 43 seconds Afternoon.

Latitude observed at noon 36 degrees 48 minutes 28 seconds, the mean of
this and Yesterday's observation gives 36 degrees 48 minutes 5 1/2
seconds South; the Latitude of the Place of Observation, and the
Variation of the Compass was at this time found to be 11 degrees 9
minutes East. While we were making these observations 5 Canoes came
alongside the Ship, 2 Large and 3 Small ones, in one were 47 People, but
in the other not so many. They were wholy strangers to us, and to all
appearance they came with a Hostile intention, being compleatly Arm'd
with Pikes, Darts, Stones, etc.; however, they made no attempt, and this
was very probable owing to their being inform'd by some other Canoes (who
at this time were alongside selling fish) what sort of people they had to
Deal with. When they first came alongside they begun to sell our people
some of their Arms, and one Man offer'd to Sale a Haahow, that is a
Square Piece of Cloth such as they wear. Lieutenant Gore, who at this
time was Commanding Officer, sent into the Canoe a piece of Cloth which
the Man had agreed to Take in Exchange for his, but as soon as he had got
Mr. Gore's Cloth in his Possession he would not part with his own, but
put off the Canoe from alongside, and then shook their Paddles at the
People in the Ship. Upon this, Mr. Gore fir'd a Musquet at them, and,
from what I can learn, kill'd the Man who took the Cloth; after this they
soon went away. I have here inserted the account of this Affair just as I
had it from Mr. Gore, but I must own it did not meet with my approbation,
because I thought the Punishment a little too severe for the Crime, and
we had now been long Enough acquainted with these People to know how to
Chastise Trifling faults like this without taking away their Lives.

Friday, 10th. P.M., Gentle breezes and Variable; the remainder, a Strong
breeze at East-North-East, and hazey weather. A.M., I went with 2 Boats,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and the other Gentlemen into the River which
Emptys itself into the head of the Bay, in order to Examine it; none of
the Natives came off to the Ship this morning, which we think is owing to
bad weather.

[Pahs in Mercury Bay, New Zealand.]

Saturday, 11th. Fresh Gales at East-North-East, and Cloudy, hazey weather
with rain. Between 7 and 8 o'Clock p.m. I returnd on board from out the
River, having been about 4 or 5 Miles up it, and could have gone much
farther had the weather been favourable. I landed on the East side and
went upon the Hills, from whence I saw, or at least I thought I saw, the
head of the River. It here branched into several Channels, and form'd a
Number of very low flat Islands, all cover'd with a sort of Mangrove
Trees, and several places of the Shores of both sides the River were
Cover'd with the same sort of wood. The sand banks were well stored with
Cockles and Clams, and in many places were Rock Oysters. Here is likewise
pretty plenty of Wild Fowl, such as Shags, Ducks, Curlews, and a Black
bird, about as big as a Crow, with a long, sharp bill of a Colour between
Red and Yellow; we also saw fish in the River, but of what sort I know
not. The Country especially on the East side is barren, and for the most
part destitute of wood, or any other signs of Fertility; but the face of
the country on the other side looked much better, and is in many places
cover'd with wood. We meet with some of the Natives and saw several more,
and Smokes a long way inland, but saw not the least signs of Cultivation,
either here or in any other part about the Bay, so that the inhabitants
must live wholy on shell and other fish, and Fern roots, which they Eat
by the way of Bread. In the Entrance of this river, and for 2 or 3 Miles
up, it is very safe and Commodious Anchoring in 3, 4, and 5 fathoms, and
Convenient places for laying a Ship aShore, where the Tide rises and
falls about 7 feet at full and Change. I could not see whether or no any
considerable fresh Water Stream came out of the Country into this river,
but there are a number of small Rivulets which come from the Adjacent
hills. [Pahs in Mercury Bay, New Zealand.] A little within the Entrance
of the River on the East side is a high point or peninsula juting out
into the River on which are the Remains of one of their Fortified towns.
The Situation is such that the best Engineer in Europe could not have
Chose a better for a Small Number of men to defend themselves against a
greater; it is strong by Nature and made more so by Art. It is only
Accessible on the land Side, and there have been cut a Ditch and a Bank
raised on the inside. From the Top of the Bank to the Bottom of the Ditch
was about 22 feet, and depth of the Ditch on the land side 14 feet; its
breadth was in proportion to its depth, and the whole seem'd to have been
done with great Judgment. There had been a row of Pickets on the Top of
the Bank, and another on the outside of the Ditch; these last had been
set deep in the ground and Sloping with their upper ends hanging over the
Ditch. The whole had been burnt down, so that it is probable that this
place had been taken and destroy'd by an Enemy. The people on this side
of the Bay seem now to have no houses or fix'd habitations, but Sleep in
the open Air, under Trees and in small Temporary shades; but to all
appearance they are better off on the other side, but there we have not
set foot. In the morning, being dirty rainy weather, I did not Expect any
of the Natives off with fish, but thinking that they might have some
ashore I sent a Boat with some Trade, who return'd about noon loaded with
Oysters, which they got in the River which is abreast of the Ship, but
saw no fish among the Natives.

Sunday, 12th. P.M. had Strong Gales at North-East, and hazey, rainy
weather; A.M. a fresh breeze at North-West, and Clear weather. In the
morning got on board a Turn of Water, and afterwards sent the Long boat
into the River for Oysters to take to sea with us; and I went with the
Pinnace and Yawl, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, over to the
North side of the Bay in order to take a View of the Country and the
Fortified Village which stands there. We landed about a mile from it, and
were meet by the inhabitants in our way thither, who, with a great deal
of good nature and friendship, conducted us into the place and shew'd us
everything that was there.

This village is built upon a high Promontory or point on the North side
and near the head of the Bay. It is in some places quite inaccessible to
man, and in others very difficult, except on that side which faced the
narrow ridge of the hill on which it stands. Here it is defended by a
double ditch, a bank and 2 rows of Picketing, the inner row upon the
Bank; but not so near the Crown but what there was good room for men to
Walk and handle their Arms between the Picketing and the inner Ditch. The
outer Picketing was between the 2 Ditches, and laid sloping with their
upper ends hanging over the inner Ditch. The Depth of this Ditch from the
bottom to the Crown of the bank was 24 feet. Close within the inner
Plcketing was erected by strong Posts a stage 30 feet high and 40 in
length and 6 feet broad. The use of this stage was to stand upon to throw
Darts at the Assailants, and a number of Darts lay upon it for that
purpose. At right angles to this Stage and a few paces from it was
another of the same Construction and bigness; this stood likewise within
the Picketing, and was intended for the same use as the other--viz., to
stand upon to throw stones and darts upon the Enemy as they advanc'd up
the side of the Hill where lay the Main way into the place. It likewise
might be intended to defend some little outworks and hutts that lay at
the Skirts and on this side of the Hill. These outworks were not intended
as advanced Posts, but for such of the Inhabitants to live in as had not
room in the Main works, but had taken Shelter under it. Besides the works
on the land side, above described, the whole Villiage was Pallisaded
round with a line of pretty strong Picketing run round the Edge of the
hill. The ground within having not been level at first, but laid Sloping,
they had divided it into little squares and Leveled each of these. These
squares lay in the form of an Amphitheatre, and were each of them
Pallisaded round, and had communication one with another by narrow lanes
and little gateways, which could easily be stoped up, so that if an Enemy
had forced the outer Picketing he had several others to incounter before
the place could be easily reduced, supposing them to defend everyone of
the places one after another. The main way leading into this
fortification was up a very steep part of the Hill and thro' a narrow
passage about 12 feet long and under one of the Stages. I saw no door nor
gate, but it might very soon have been barricaded up. Upon the whole I
looked upon it to be very strong and well choose Post, and where a small
number of resolute men might defend themselves a long time against a vast
superior force, Arm'd in the manner as these People are. These seem'd to
be prepared against a Siege, having laid up in store an immense quantity
of Fern roots and a good many dry'd fish; but we did not see that they
had any fresh Water nearer than a brook which runs close under the foot
of a hill, from which I suppose they can at times get water, tho'
besiged, and keep it in gouards until they use it. Under the foot of the
point on which the Village stands are 2 Rocks, the one just broke off
from the Main and other detatched a little from it. They are both very
small, and more fit for Birds to inhabit than men; yet there are houses
and places of defence on each of them, and about a Mile to Eastward of
these is another of these small Fortified rocks, which communicates with
the Main by a Narrow pathway, where there is a small Villiage of the
Natives. Many works of this kind we have seen upon small Islands and
Rocks and Ridges of hills on all parts of the Coast, besides a great
number of Fortified towns, to all appearances Vastly superior to this I
have described. From this it should seem that the People must have long
and frequent Warrs, and must have been long accustomed to it, otherwise
they never would have invented such strong holds as these, the Erecting
of which must cost them immense labour, considering the Tools they have
to work with, which are only made of Wood and Stone. It is a little
strange that with such a Warlike People, as these undoubtedly are, no
Omissive weapons are found among them, such as bows and Arrows, Slings,
etc., things in themselves so easily invented, and are common in every
other part of the world. The Arms they use are long spears or Lances, a
Staff about 5 feet long. Some of these are pointed at one end like a
Serjeant's Halberd, others are round and Sharp; the other ends are broad,
something like the blade of an Oar. They have another sort about 4 1/2
feet long; these are shaped at one End like an Axe, and the other is made
with a Sharp point. They have short Truncheons about a foot long, which
they call Pattoo Pattoas; some made of wood, some of bone, and others of
Stone. Those made of wood are Variously shaped, but those made of bone
and Stone are of one shape, which is with a round handle, a broadish
blade, which is thickest in the Middle and taper'd to an Edge all round.
The use of these are to knock Men's brains out, and to kill them outright
after they are wounded; and they are certainly well contrived things for
this purpose. Besides these Weapons they Throw stones and Darts; the
Darts are 10 or 12 feet long, are made of hard wood, and are barbed at
one end. They handle all their Arms with great Agility, particularly
their long Pikes or Lances, against which we have no weapon that is an
equal match except a Loaded Musquet.

Monday, 13th. P.M., Gentle Breezes at North-West and Clear weather. After
taking a Slight View of the Country and Loaded both boats with Sellery,
which we found in Great plenty near the Sea beach, we return'd on board
about 5 o'Clock. The Long boat at the same time return'd out of the River
Loaded as deep as she could swim with Oysters. And now I intended to put
to Sea in the morning if wind and weather will permit. In the night had
the wind at South-East, with rainy, dirty, hazey weather, which continued
all day, so that I could not think of Sailing, but thought myself very
happy in being in a good Port. Samuel Jones, Seaman, having been confin'd
since Saturday last for refusing to come upon deck when all hands were
called, and afterwards refused to Comply with the orders of the officers
on deck, he was this morning punished with 12 lashes and remited back to

Tuesday, 14th. Fresh Gales, Easterly, and rainy, Dirty weather.

Wednesday, 15th. In the evening I went in the Pinnace and landed upon one
of the Islands that lies off of the South Head of the Bay, with a view to
see if I could discover any sunken rocks or other Dangers lying before
the Entrance of the Bay, as there was a pretty large swell at this Time.
The Island we landed upon was very small, yet there were upon it a
Village, the inhabitants of which received us very friendly. This little
Village was laid out in small Oblong squares, and each pailisaded round.
The Island afforded no fresh Water, and was only accessible on one side:
from this I concluded that it was not choose for any Conveniency it could
afford them, but for its Natural Strength.

[Sail from Mercury Bay, New Zealand.]

At 7 A.M. weigh'd, with a light breeze at West, and clear weather, and
made Sail out of the Bay, steering North-East, for the Northermost of a
Number of Islands lying off the North point of the Bay. These Islands are
of Various extents, and lye Scattered to the North-West in a parallel
direction with the Main as far as we could see. I was at first afraid to
go within them, thinking that there was no safe Passage, but I afterwards
thought that we might; and I would have attempted it, but the wind,
coming to the North-West, prevented it, so that we were obliged to stand
out to Sea. At Noon was in the Latitude of 36 degrees 4 minutes South.
The Northermost Island, above mentioned, bore North, distant half a
League; the Court of Aldermen, South-East by South, distant 6 Leagues;
and the Bay Sail'd from, which I have named Mercury Bay, on account of
the observation being made there, South-West by West, distant 6 Miles.

Mercury Bay* (* At the head of Mercury Bay is a small settlement called
Whitianga.) lies in the Latitude of 36 degrees 47 minutes South, and the
Longitude of 184 degrees 4 minutes West, from the Meridian of Greenwich.
It lies in South-West between 2 and 3 Leagues. There are several Islands
lying both to the Southward and Northward of it, and a Small high Island
or Rock in the Middle of the Entrance. Within this Island the depth of
water doth no were Exceed 9 or 8 fathoms; the best Anchorage is in a
sandy Bay which lies just within the South head in 5 and 4 fathoms,
bringing a high Tower Rock, which lies without the head, in one with the
head, or just shut in behind it. Here it is very Convenient Wooding and
Watering, and in the River are an immense quantity of Oysters and other
small Shell fish; and this is the only thing it is remarkable for, and
hath occasioned my giving it the Name of Oyster River. But the Snugest
and Safest place for a Ship to lay in that wants to stay there any time
is in the River at the head of the Bay, and where there is every
conveniency the place can afford. To sail up and into it keep the South
shore all the way on board. As we did not learn that the Natives had any
name for this River, I have called it the River of Mangroves,* (* Still
so called.) because of the great quantity of these Trees that are found
in it. The Country on the South-East side of this River and Bay is very
barren, producing little else but Fern, and such other plants as delight
in a Poor Soil. The land on the North-West side is pretty well cover'd
with wood, the Soil more fertile, and would no doubt produce the
Necessarys of Life, was it Cultivated. However, this much must be said
against it, that it is not near so Rich nor fertile as the lands we have
seen to the Southward; and the same may be said of its inhabitants, who,
although pretty numerous, are poor to the highest degree when Compar'd to
others we have seen. They have no Plantations, but live only on Fern
roots and fish; their Canoes are mean, and without ornament, and so are
their Houses, or Hutts, and in general everything they have about them.
This may be owing to the frequent wars in which they are Certainly
ingaged; strong proofs of this we have seen, for the people who resided
near the place where we wooded, and who Slept every night in the Open
Air, placed themselves in such a manner when they laid down to sleep as
plainly shew'd that it was necessary for them to be always upon their
Guard. They do not own Subjection to Teeratie, the Earadehi,* (* Cook did
not realize that the New Zealanders were divided into independent
tribes.) but say that he would kill them was he to come Among them; they
confirm the Custom of Eating their Enemies, so that this is a thing no
longer to be doubted. I have before observed that many of the People
about this bay had no fix'd habitations, and we thought so then, but have
since learnt that they have strong holds--or Hippas, as they call
them--which they retire to in time of danger.

We found, thrown upon the Shore in several places in this Bay, a quantity
of Iron Sand, which is brought down out of the Country by almost every
little fresh-water brook. This proves that there must be of that Ore not
far inland. Neither of the Inhabitants of this Place, nor any other where
we have been, know the use of Iron or set the least Value upon it,
preferring the most Trifling thing we could give them to a Nail, or any
sort of Iron Tools. Before we left this bay we cut out upon one of the
Trees near the Watering Place the Ship's Name, date, etc., and, after
displaying the English Colours, I took formal possession of the place in
the Name of His Majesty.

[Off Cape Colville, North Island, New Zealand.]

Thursday, 16th. Fresh breezes between the North-West and South-West, and
fair weather. At 1 P.M., having got within the Group of Islands which
lies of the North head of Mercury Bay, hauld our wind to the Northward,
and Kept plying to windward all the day between these Islands and some
others laying to the Northward of them, with a View to get under the Main
land, the Extream North-West point of which we could see, at Noon, bore
West by North, distant 6 or 8 Leagues; Latitude in Per Observation 36
degrees 33 minutes South.

Note, in speaking of Mercury Bay, I had forgot to mention that the
Mangrove Trees found there produce a resinous substance very much like
Rosin. Something of this kind, I am told, is found in both the East and
West Indies. We found it, at first, in small Lumps upon the Sea Beach,
but afterwards found it sticking to the Mangrove Trees, and by that means
found out from whence it came.

Friday, 17th. The fore and Middle parts had fresh Gales between the
South-West and West by South, and Squally. Kept plying to windward in
order to get under the land. At 6 A.M. fetched close under the lee of the
Northernmost Island in sight, then Tackd and Stood to the Southward until
11, when we tack'd and Stood to the Northward. At this time the North
head of Mercury Bay, or Point Mercury, bore South-East by East, distant 3
Leagues, being at this time between 2 and 3 Leagues from the Main land,
and abreast of a place where there appear'd to be a Harbour;* (* Probably
Waikawau Bay) but the heavy squalls which we had from the Land would not
permit us to take a nearer View of it, but soon brought us under our
Close reeft Topsails. At Noon Point Mercury bore South-East, distant 4
Leagues, and the weathermost point of the Main land in sight bore North
60 degrees West, distant 5 Leagues. Over the North-West side of Mercury
Bay is a pretty high round hill, rising sloping from the Shore of the
Bay. This hill is very conspicuous from where we now are.

Saturday, 18th. First part strong Gales at South-West and
South-South-West, with heavy squalls: in the morning had Gentle breezes
at South and South-East, towards noon had Whifling light Airs all round
the Compass. Kept plying to windward under close Reeft Topsails until
daylight, at which time we had got close under the Main, and the wind
coming at South-East we made sail and steer'd North-West by West, as the
land lays, keeping close in shore. At 6 we passed a small Bay* (* Charles
Cove.) wherein there appear'd to be Anchorage, and pretty good Shelter
from the Sea Winds, at the Entrance of which lies a Rock pretty high
above water. 4 Miles farther to the West-North-West is a very Conspicuous
promontory or point of land which we got abreast of about 7 o'Clock; it
lies in the Latitude of 36 degrees 26 minutes South and North 48 degrees
West, 9 Leagues from Point Mercury. From this point the Land trends West
1/2 South near one League, then South-South-East as far as we could see.
Besides the Islands laying without us we could see land round by the
South-West as far as North-West, but whether this was the Main or Islands
was not possible for us at this Time to determine; the fear of loosing
the Main land determin'd me to follow its direction. With this View we
hauld round the point* (* Cape Colville.) and Steer'd to the Southward,
but meeting with Whifling light Airs all round the Compass, we made but
little progress untill noon, when we found ourselves by Observation in
the Latitude of 36 degrees 29 minutes South; a small Island* (* Channel
Island.) which lays North-West 4 Miles from the Promontory
above-mentioned bore North by East, distant 6 1/2 Miles, being at this
time about 2 Miles from the Shore. While we lay under the land 2 large
Canoes came off to us; in one of them were 62 people; they staid about us
some time, then began to throw stones into the Ship, upon which I fir'd a
Musquet ball thro' one of the Canoes. After this they retir'd ashore.

Sunday, 19th. At 1 p.m. a breeze sprung up at East, which afterwards came
to North-East, and with it we steer'd along shore South by East and
South-South-East, having from 25 to 18 fathoms Water. At 1/2 past 7,
having run 7 or 8 Leagues since Noon, we Anchor'd in 23 fathoms, not
choosing to run any farther in the Dark, having the land on both sides of
us forming the Entrance of a Streight, Bay or River, lying in South by
East, for on that point of the Compass we could see no land. At daylight
A.M., the wind being still favourable, we weighed and run under an Easy
sail up the inlet, keeping nearest the East side. Soon after we had got
under Sail 3 large Canoes came off to the Ship, and several of the people
came on board upon the very first invitation; this was owing to their
having heard of our being upon the Coast and the manner we had treated
the Natives. I made each of those that came on board a small present, and
after about an Hour's stay they went away well Satisfied. After having
run 5 Leagues from the place where we Anchor'd last night our Depth of
Water gradually decreased to 6 fathoms, and into less I did not choose to
go, and as the wind blew right up the inlet and tide of flood, we came to
an Anchor nearly in the middle of the Channell, which is here about 11
Miles over, and after this sent 2 Boats to sound, the one on one side and
the other on the other side.

[At Frith of Thames, North Island, New Zealand.]

Monday, 20th. Moderate breezes at South-South-East and fair weather. At 2
p.m. the boats return'd from sounding, not having found above 3 feet more
water than were we now lay; upon this I resolved to go no farther with
the Ship but to examine the head of the Bay in the Boat, for as it
appeard to run a good way inland, I thought this a good opportunity to
see a little of the interior part of the Country and its produce.
Accordingly at daylight in the morning I set out with the Pinnace and
Long boat accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Tupia. We found the
inlet end in a River, about 9 miles above the Ship, into which we Enter'd
with the first of the flood, and before we had gone 3 Miles up it found
the Water quite fresh. We saw a number of Natives and landed at one of
their Villages, the inhabitants of which received us with open Arms. We
made but a Short stay with them but proceeded up the river until near
Noon, when finding the face of the country to continue pretty much the
same, and no alteration in the Course or stream of the River or the least
probability of seeing the end of it, we landed on the West side in order
to take a View of the lofty Trees which Adorn its banks, being at this
time 12 or 14 Miles within the Entrance, and here the Tide of Flood runs
as strong as it does in the River Thames below bridge.

Tuesday, 21st. After Landing as above-mention'd, we had not gone a
hundred yards into the woods before we found a Tree that girted 19 feet 8
inches, 6 feet above the ground, and having a Quadrant with me, I found
its length from the root to the first branch to be 89 feet; it was as
Streight as an Arrow and Taper'd but very little in proportion to its
length, so that I judged that there was 356 Solid feet of timber in this
Tree, clear of the branches. We saw many others of the same sort, several
of which were Taller than the one we measured, and all of them very
stout; there were likewise many other sorts of very Stout Timber Trees,
all of them wholy unknown to any of us. We brought away a few specimens,
and at 3 o'Clock we embarqued in order to return (but not before we had
named this river the Thames,* (* The flourishing town of Thames now
stands at the eastern entrance of the river: population nearly 5000. Gold
is found in the vicinity.) on account of its bearing some resemblance to
that River in England) on board with the very first of the Ebb. In our
return down the river, the inhabitants of the Village where we landed in
going, seeing that we return'd by another Channell, put off in their
Canoes and met us and Trafficked with us in the most friendly manner
immaginable, until they had disposed of the few Trifles they had. The
tide of Ebb just carried us out of the narrow part of the River into the
Sea reach, as I may call it, where meeting with the flood and a Strong
breeze at North-North-West obliged us to come to a Grapnel, and we did
not reach the Ship until 7 o'Clock in the A.M. Intending to get under
Sail at high water the Long boat was sent to take up the Kedge Anchor,
but it blow'd so strong that she could not reach the Buoy, and the gale
increasing soon obliged us to vear away more Cable and Strike Top Gallant

Wednesday, 22nd. Winds at North-North-West. The A.M. fresh Gales and
hazey with rain; the remainder, moderate and Clear. At 3 p.m. the Tide of
Ebb making, we took up our Anchors and got under Sail and ply'd down the
River until 8 o'Clock, when we again came to an Anchor in 7 fathoms,
muddy bottom. At 3 a.m. weigh'd with the first of the Ebb and keept
plying until the flood obliged us to anchor again. After this I went in
the Pinnace over to the Western Shore, but found there neither
inhabitants or anything else worthy of Note. At the time I left the Ship
a good many of the Natives were alongside and on board Trafficking with
our people for such Trifles as they had, and seem'd to behave as well as
people could do, but one of them took the 1/2 hour glass out of the
Bittacle, and was caught in the very fact, and for which Mr. Hicks, who
was Commanding Officer, brought him to the Gangway and gave him a Dozen
lashes with a Catt of nine Tails. The rest of the people seem'd not
displeased at it when they came to know what it was for, and some old man
beat the fellow after he had got into his Canoe; however, soon after this
they all went away.

Thursday, 23rd. P.M. Gentle breezes at North-North-West and fair weather.
Between 3 and 4 o'Clock got under Sail with the first of the Ebb and
ply'd to windward until 9 when we anchor'd in 16 fathoms over upon the
East shore. In the night had light Airs and Calm; at 3 A.M. weighed but
had little or no wind until near noon, when a light breeze sprung up at
North-North-West. At this time we were close under the West shore in 7
fathoms Water; Latitude 36 degrees 51 minutes South.

[Description of Frith of Thames, New Zealand.]

Friday, 24th. P.M., Fresh Gales and dark, Cloudy, squally weather, with
Thunder, Lightning, and rain. Winds from the North-West to the
South-West, and this last carried us by 7 o'Clock without the North-West
point of the River, but the weather being bad and having land on all
sides of us, and a Dark night coming on, I thought it most adviseable to
Tack and stretch in under ye Point where we Anchor'd in 19 fathoms. At 5
a.m. weighed and made Sail to the North-West under our Courses and double
Reef'd Topsails, the wind being at South-West by West and
West-South-West, a strong Gale and Squally blowing right off the land,
which would not permit us to come near it, so that from the time of our
getting under Sail until' Noon (during which time we ran 12 Leagues) we
had but a slight and distant View of the Coast and was not able to
distinguish wether the points we saw were parts of the Main or Islands
laying before it, for we never once lost sight of the Main Land.* (* The
Endeavour was now in Hauraki Gulf and had passed the harbour where
Auckland now stands, which is hidden behind a number of islands.) At noon
our Latitude by observation was 36 degrees 15 minutes 20 seconds South,
being at this time not above 2 Miles from a Point of Land on the Main and
3 1/2 Leagues from a very high Island* (* Little Barrier Island, now
(1892) about to be made a reserve to protect native fauna.) which bore
North-East by East of us; in this Situation had 26 fathoms Water. The
farthest point we could see on the Main bore from us North-West, but we
could see several small Islands laying to the Northward of that
direction. The point of land we are now abreast off, I take to be the
North-West Extremity of the River Thames, for I shall comprehend under
that Name the Deep Bay we have been in for this week past, the North-East
point of which is the Promontory we past on Saturday morning last, and
which I have named Cape Colvill in honour of the Right hon'ble the Lord
Colvill;* (* Cook had served under Rear Admiral Lord Colville in
Newfoundland.) Latitude 36 degrees 26 minutes South; Longitude 184
degrees 27 minutes West. It rises directly from the Sea to a Considerable
height, but what makes it most remarkable is a high Rock standing close
to the pitch of the point, and from some points of view may be
distinguished at a very great distance. From the South-West point of this
Cape the river Extends itself in a direct line South by East, and is no
where less than 3 Leagues broad until' you are 14 Leagues above the Cape,
there it is at once Contracted to a Narrow stream. From this place it
still continues the same South by East Course thro' a low flat Country or
broad Valley that lies Parrallel with the Sea Coast, the End of which we
could not see. The land on the East side of the Broadest part of this
river is Tollerable high and hilly, that on the West side is rather low,
but the whole is cover'd with woods and Verdure and looks to be pretty
fertile, but we saw but a few small places that were Cultivated. About
the Entrance of the narrow part of the River the land is mostly Cover'd
with Mangroves and other Shrubs, but farther in are immense woods of as
stout lofty timber as is to be found perhaps in any other part of the
world. In many places the woods grow close upon the very banks of the
River, but where it does not the land is Marshey such as we find about
the Thames in England. We saw poles stuck up in many places in the River
to set nets for Catching of fish; from this we immagin'd that there must
be plenty of fish, but of what sort we know not for we saw none. The
Greatest Depth of Water we found was 26 fathoms and decreaseth pretty
gradually as you run up to 1 1/2 and 1 fathom. In the mouth of the
fresh-water Stream or narrow part is 3 and 4 fathoms, but before this are
sand banks and large flatts; Yet, I believe, a Ship of a Moderate draught
of Water may go a long way up this River with a flowing Tide, for I
reckon that the Tides rise upon a perpendicular near 10 feet, and is high
water at the full and Change of the Moon about 9 o'Clock. Six Leagues
within Cape Colvill, under the Eastern Shore, are several small Islands,
these Islands together with the Main seem'd to form some good Harbours.*
(* Coromandel Harbour.) Opposite to these Islands under the Western Shore
lies some other Islands, and it appear'd very probable that these form'd
some good Harbours likewise.* (* Auckland Harbour is one of them.) But
even supposing there were no Harbours about this River, it is good
anchoring in every part of it where the depth of Water is Sufficient,
being defended from the Sea by a Chain of Large and Small Islands which I
have named Barrier Isles, lying aCross the Mouth of it extending
themselves North-West and South-East 10 Leagues. The South end of these
Islands lies North-East 4 1/2 Leagues from the North-West point of the
River, which I have named point Rodney; it lies West-North-West 9 leagues
from Cape Colvill, Latitude 36 degrees 15 minutes; Longitude 184 degrees
58 minutes West. The Natives residing about this River do not appear to
be very numerous considering the great Extent of Country; at least not
many came off to the Ship at one Time, and as we were but little ashore
ourselves we could not so well judge of their numbers. They are a Strong,
well made, active People as any we have seen yet, and all of them Paint
their Bodys with Red Oker and Oil from Head to foot, a thing that we have
not seen before. Their Canoes are large, well built and Ornamented with
Carved work in general as well as most we have seen.

Saturday, 25th. P.M., had fresh Gales at South-West, and Squally weather.
We kept standing along Shore to the North-West, having the Main land on
the one side and Islands on the other; our Soundings were from 26 to 12
fathoms. At 1/2 past 7 p.m. we Anchor'd in a Bay in 14 fathoms, sandy
bottom. We had no sooner come to an Anchor than we caught between 90 and
100 Bream (a fish so called), this occasioned my giving this place the
Name of Bream Bay.* (* Whangarei Bay.) The 2 points which forms this Bay
lie North and South 5 Leagues from each other. The Bay is every where
pretty broad and between 3 and 4 Leagues deep; at the bottom of it their
appears to be a fresh water River.* (* Whangarei River. The district is
very fertile. Coal mines are in the vicinity, and coal is exported.) The
North head of the Bay, called Bream head, is high land and remarkable on
account of several peaked rocks ranged in order upon the top of it; it
lies in the Latitude 35 degrees 46 minutes South and North 41 degrees
West, distant 17 1/2 Leagues from Cape Colvill. This Bay may likewise be
known by some Small Islands lying before it called the Hen and Chickens,
one of which is pretty high and terminates at Top in 2 peaks. The land
between Point Rodney and Bream Head, which is 10 Leagues, is low and
wooded in Turfs, and between the Sea and the firm land are white sand
banks. We saw no inhabitants but saw fires in the Night, a proof that the
Country is not uninhabited. At daylight A.M. we left the Bay and directed
our Course along shore to the northward, having a Gentle breeze at South
by West and Clear weather. A little after sunrise found the Variation to
be 12 degrees 42 minutes Easterly. At Noon, our Latitude by observation
was 36 degrees 36 minutes South; Bream head bore South distant 10 Miles;
some small Islands (Poor Knights) at North-East by North distant 3
Leagues, and the Northermost land in sight bore North-North-West, being
at this Time 2 miles from the Shore, and in this Situation had 26
fathoms; the land here about is rather low and pretty well cover'd with
wood and seems not ill inhabited.

[Off Cape Brett, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 26th. P.M., Gentle breezes between the East-North-East and North,
kept ranging along shore to the Northward. At the distance of 4 or 5
Miles off saw several Villages and some Cultivated lands; towards evening
several Canoes came off to us, and some of the Natives ventur'd on board;
to 2, who appear'd to be Chiefs, I gave presents. After these were gone
out of the Ship, the others became so Troublesome that in order to get
rid of them we were at the expence of 2 or 3 Musquet Balls, and one 4
pound Shott, but as no harm was intended them, none they received, unless
they hapned to over heat themselves in pulling on shore. In the Night had
variable light Airs, but towards morning had a light breeze at South, and
afterward at South-East; with this we proceeded slowly to the Northward.
At 6 a.m. several Canoes came off from the place where they landed last
night, and between this and noon many more came from other parts. Had at
one time a good many of the people on board, and about 170 alongside;
their behaviour was Tolerable friendly, but we could not prevail upon
them to Traffic with us. At noon, the Mainland Extending from South by
East to North-West by West; a remarkable point of land bore West, distant
4 or 5 miles. Latitude Observed 35 degrees 11 minutes South.

Monday, 27th. P.M., Gentle breezes Easterly, and Clear weather. At 3
passed the point of land afore-mentioned, which I have named Cape Brett
in honour of Sir Piercy.* (* Rear Admiral Sir Piercey Brett was one of
the Lords of the Admiralty when the Endeavour sailed.) The land of this
Cape is considerable higher than any part of the Adjacent Coast. At the
very point of the Cape is a high round Hillock, and North-East by North,
near one Mile from this is a small high Island or Rock with a hole
pierced thro' it like the Arch of a Bridge, and this was one reason why I
gave the Cape the above name, because Piercy seem'd very proper for that
of the Island. This Cape, or at least some part of it, is called by the
Natives Motugogogo; Latitude 35 degrees 10 minutes 30 seconds South,
Longitude 185 degrees 25 minutes West. On the West side of Cape Brett is
a large and pretty deep Bay* (* The Bay of Islands.) lying in South-West
by West, in which there appear'd to be several small Islands. The point
that forms the North-West entrance I have named Point Pocock; it lies
West 1/4 North, 3 or 4 Leagues from Cape Brett. On the South-West side of
this Bay we saw several Villages situated both on Islands and on the Main
land, from whence came off to us several large Canoes full of People,
but, like those that had been alongside before, would not Enter into a
friendly Traffick with us, but would Cheat whenever they had an
opportunity. The people in these Canoes made a very good appearance,
being all stout well-made men, having their Hair--which was black--comb'd
up and tied upon the Crown of their heads, and there stuck with white
feathers; in each of the Canoes were 2 or 3 Chiefs, and the Habits of
these were rather superior to any we had yet seen. The Cloth they wore
was of the best sort, and cover'd on the outside with Dog Skins put on in
such a manner as to look Agreeable enough to the Eye. Few of these people
were Tattow'd or marked in the face, like those we have seen farther to
the South, but several had their Backsides Tattow'd much in the same
manner as the inhabitants of the Islands within the Tropics. In the
Course of this day, that is this afternoon and Yesterday forenoon, we
reckoned that we had not less than 400 or 500 of the Natives alongside
and on board the ship, and in that time did not range above 6 or 8
Leagues of the Sea Coast, a strong proof that this part of the Country
must be well inhabited. In the Evening, the Wind came to the Westward of
North, and we Tack'd and stood off North-East until 11 o'Clock, when the
wind coming more favourable we stood again to the Westward. At 8 a.m we
were within a Mile of Groups of Islands lying close under the Mainland
and North-West by West 1/2 West, distance 22 Miles from Cape Brett. Here
we lay for near 2 Hours, having little or no wind. During this time
several Canoes came off to the Ship, and 2 or 3 of them sold us some
fish--Cavallys as they are called--which occasioned my giving the Islands
the same name. After this some others began to Pelt us with Stones, and
would not desist at the firing of 2 Musquet Balls thro' one of their
Boats; at last I was obliged to pepper 2 or 3 fellows with small Shott,
after which they retir'd, and the wind coming at North-West we stood off
to Sea. At Noon, Cavally Islands bore South-West by South, distant 4
Miles; Cape Brett South-East, distant 7 Leagues, and the Westermost land
in sight, making like Islands, bore West by North; Latitude in per
Observation 34 degrees 55 minutes South.

Tuesday, 28th. A Fresh breeze from the Westward all this day, which being
right in our teeth, we kept beating to windward with all the sail we
could Crowd, but instead of Gaining we lost ground. A.M., being close in
with the land to the Westward of the Bay, which lies on this side of Cape
Brett, we saw at some distance inland 2 pretty large Villages Pallisaded
in the same manner as others we have seen. At noon, Cape Brett South-East
by East 1/2 East, distant 6 Leagues; Latitude observed 35 degrees 0
minutes South.

[At Bay of Islands, North Island, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 29th. Fresh Gales at North-West and West-North-West, kept
plying to Windward until 7 A.M., and finding that we lost ground every
board we made, I thought I could not do better than to bear up for the
Bay, which lies to the Westward of Cape Brett, it being at this Time not
above 2 Leagues to Leeward of us, for by putting in there we should gain

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