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Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World by James Cook

Part 3 out of 11

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1st set : 8 30 0 : 6 12 53 : 71 27 40 : 15 14 20 : 24 6 0 : 15 22 39 : 23
43 0 : 66 7 45.

-- : 8 33 50 : -- : 71 30 0 : 14 43 0 : 23 38 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 35 39 : -- : - 31 0 : 14 25 0 : 23 42 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 37 46 : -- : - 30 30 : 14 10 0 : 23 32 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 107 15 : -- : - 91 30 : 43 18 0 : 23 112 0 : -- : -- : --.
2nd set : 8 35 45 : 6 18 41 : 71 30 30 : 14 26 0 : 23 37 20 : 14 34 00 :
23 14 0 : 66 19 45.

-- : 8 39 10 : -- : 71 31 30 : 13 56 0 : 23 26 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 41 20 : -- : - 32 00 : 13 40 0 : 23 20 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 43 49 : -- : - 33 00 : 13 18 0 : 23 6 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 124 19 : -- : - 96 30 : - 114 0 : - 52 0 : -- : -- : --.
3rd set : 8 41 26 : 6 24 26 : 71 32 10 : 13 38 0 : 23 17 20 : 13 46 0 :
22 55 0 : 66 0 45.

N.B. The mean of the three sets is 66 degrees 9 minutes 25 seconds, and
the mean of Mr. Green's Computations from the same Observations was 66
degrees 14 minutes 0 seconds, and the mean of his computations and mine
will be 66 degrees 11 minutes 32 seconds, and therefore the Longitude of
Cape St. Diego or the North-West entrance of Strait Le Maire will be 66
degrees 0 minutes 0 seconds West from Greenwich, and its Latitude 54
degrees 39 minutes South.* (* Modern determination is 54 degrees 40
minutes South, 65 degrees 8 minutes West.)

Note: The distance of the sun and moon was taken by Mr. Green alone, my
Quadrant being out of Order.

Cape St. Diego bore at this time South by East about 4 Leagues Distant.
At 1/2 past 7 Tackt and Stood to the South-East, Cape St. Diego bearing
South by East, distance 5 Leagues. At 1 a.m., Squally, wore Ship, Staten
Land extending from North to East. At 4, Moderate Weather, loosed a Reef
out of each Topsail, the Cape of Good Success West by South, and Cape St.
Diego North-North-West, being now in the Strait, but the Tide turning
against us soon carried us out. The Violence of the Tide of Ebb rose such
a Sea off Cape St. Diego, that it looked as if it was breaking Violently
on the ledge of Rocks, and would be taken for such by any who know'd not
the true cause. When the Ship was in this Torrent she frequently Pitched
her Bowsprit in the Water. By Noon we got under the Land between Cape St.
Diego and Cape St. Vincent, where I thought to have Anchored, but found
the Bottom every where hard and Rocky; the Depth of Water from 30 to 12
fathoms. Sent the Master to Examine a small Cove which appeared to our
View a little to the Eastward of Cape St. Vincent. Wind South-South-West
and South-West by South.

Sunday, 15th. Moderate breezes at South and South-East, and cloudy
weather, the greater part of this day. At 2 p.m. the Master return'd with
an account that there was Anchorage in 4 fathoms Water and a good bottom
close to the Eastward of the first black bluff point which is on the East
side of Cape St. Vincent, at the very Entrance of the Cove we saw from
the Ship (which I named Vincent Bay). Before this Anchoring ground lay
several Rocky Ledges covered with Sea Weed: on these Ledges I was
informed was not less than 8 or 9 fathoms, but in standing in with the
Ship the first we came upon had only 4 fathoms upon it. I therefore
thought that Anchoring here would be attended with some Risk, and that it
would be better to Endeavour to find some Port in the Strait, and there
Compleat our Wood and Water. However, I sent an Officer with a Boat on
shore to attend to Mr. Banks and people who was very desirous of being on
shore at any rate, while I keept plying as near the shore as possible
with the Ship. At 9 they return'd on board bringing with them several
Plants, Flowers, etc., most of them unknown in Europe, and in that Alone
consisted their whole Value; they saw none of the Natives, but meet with
several of their old Hutts. Hoisted the Boat in and made Sail into the
Straits and at 3 a.m. Anchord in 12 1/2 fathoms Water (the bottom Coral
rocks) before a small Cove which we took for Port Maurice, and near 1/2 a
Mile from the shore Cape St. Diego South-South-West, and Cape St.
Bartholomew (which is the south point of Staten Land) East-South-East.

Port Maurice appeared to afford so little Shelter for Shipping that I did
not think it worth while to hoist a Boat out to Examine it; we saw here 2
of the Natives come down to the Shore, who stay'd sometime, then retir'd
into the Woods againe. At 10 o'Clock got under Sail, Wind at South-East,
and plyed to Windward.

[In Success Bay.]

Monday, 16th. A Fresh breeze of Wind at South and South-West, with
frequent showers of Rain and Snow. At 2 p.m. Anchored in the Bay of
Success in 9 fathoms, the bottom Owse and sand.* (* The Endeavour was
three days and a half in getting through the Strait of Le Maire, as far
as Success Bay. It is a difficult passage for a sailing vessel even in
the present day, as the tides are strong and winds generally contrary,
but experience has enabled good directions to be given as to the best way
to pass the Strait. Cook himself gives capital advice farther on.) The
south point of the Bay bore South-East and the north point
East-North-East. This Bay I shall describe when I come to speake of the
rest of the Coast. Hoisted out the Boats and moor'd with the Stream
Anchor. While this was doing I went ashore accompanyed by Mr. Banks and
Dr. Solander to look for a Watering place and to speak with the Natives,
who were assembled on the Beach at the Head of the Bay to the Number of
30 or 40. They were so far from being afraid or surprised at our coming
amongst them that three of them came on board without the least
hesitation. They are something above the Middle size, of a Dark Copper
Colour with long black hair; they paint their Bodies in Streakes, mostly
Red and Black. Their Cloathing consists wholy in a Guanacoe Skin or that
of a Seal, in the same form as it came from the Animal's back.

The Women Wear a Piece of Skin over their Privy Parts, but the Men
observe no such decency. Their Hutts are made like a behive, and open on
one side where they have their fires; they are made of small Sticks and
covered with branches of trees, long Grass, etc., in such a manner that
they are neither Proof against Wind, Hail, rain or Snow, a sufficient
proof that these People must be a very hardy race. They live chiefly on
shell fish, such as Muscels, which they gather from off the Rocks along
the Sea Shore, and this seems to be the Work of the Women. Their Arms are
Bows and Arrows neatly made; their Arrows are bearded, some with glass
and others with fine flint; several Pieces of the former we saw amongst
them with other European things, such as rings, Buttons, Cloth, Canvas,
etc., which I think proves that they must sometimes travel to the
Northward, as we know of no Ship that hath been in these parts for many
Years; besides, they were not at all surprised at our Fire Arms; on the
Contrary, they seemed to know the use of them, by making signs to us to
fire at Seals or Birds that might come in the way. They have no Boats
that we saw or anything to go upon the Water with; their number doth not
Exceed 50 or 60 young and old, and there are fewer Women than Men. They
are Extreamly fond of any Red thing, and seemed to set more Value on
Beads than anything we could give them; in this Consists their whole
Pride, few, either Men or Women, are without a Necklace or String of
Beads made of Small Shells or bones about their Necks. They would not
taste any strong Liquor, neither did they seem fond of our Provisions. We
could not discover that they had any Head or Chief or Form of Government,
neither have they any useful or necessary Utensil except it be a Bag or
Basket to gather their Muscels into. In a word they are perhaps as
Miserable a sett of People as are this day upon Earth.* (* Cook's
description of the natives of Tierra del Fuego is good to the present
day, except that those who live farther westward are still more wretched.
Those of the main island, in which the Bay of Good Success lies, are able
to kill guanaco, and enjoy a better climate. They, as Cook observed,
never go on the water, whereas those westward practically live in
canoes.) Having found a convenient place on the south side of the Bay to
Wood and Water at, we set about that Work in the Morning, and Mr. Banks
with a Party went into the Country to gather Plants, etc.

Tuesday, 17th. Fresh Gales at South-South-West and West-South-West with
rain and Snow, and, of Course, very cold weather; notwithstanding we kept
geting on board Wood and Water, and finished the Survey of the Bay. Mr.
Banks and his Party not returning this Evening as I expected, gave me
great uneasiness, as they were not prepared for Staying out the Night.
However, about Noon they returned in no very Comfortable Condition, and
what was still worse 2 blacks, servants to Mr. Banks, had perished in the
Night with Cold. Great part of the day they landed was spent before they
got through the Woods, after which they advanced so far into the Country
that they were so far from being able to return that night, and with much
difficulty they got to a place of Tolerable Shelter where they could make
a fire: these 2 men being Intrusted with great part of the Liquor (that
was for the whole party) had made too free with it, and Stupified
themselves to that degree that they either could or would not Travel, but
laid themselves down in a place where there was not the least thing to
Shelter them from the inclemency of the night. This was about 1/4 of a
Mile from where the rest took up their Quarters, and notwithstanding
their repeated Endeavours, they could not get them to move one Step
farther, and the bad travelling made it impossible for any one to Carry
them, so that they were Obliged to leave them, and the next morning they
were both found dead.

Wednesday, 18th. All the Middle and Latter parts of this day it blow'd
very strong from the South-South-West and South-West, attended with Snow,
Hail and Rain, and brought such a Sea into the Bay, which rose the Surf
to such a Height that no Boat could land. The same Stormy weather and
Surf continued all

Thursday, 19th. All this time the Ship road very easy with her Broad side
to the swell. The great Surf that always will be upon the Shore when the
wind blows hard from the Southward makes Wooding and Watering tedious,
notwithstanding there are great plenty of both close to high water Mark.

Friday, 20th. Moderate gales and Cloudy with frequent Showers of rain all
this day. This Evening the Surf abated, and at 2 a.m. sent the People on
shore to Wood and Water and cut Brooms, all of which we Completed this
day. In this Service we lost our small Kedge Anchor, it having been laid
off the Watering Place to ride the Long-boat by, and the Gale had broke
away the Hawser and Buoy rope, and perhaps buried the Anchor in the Sand,
for notwithstanding our utmost Endeavours we were not able to Hook it.
Took up the Stream Anchor and made ready for Sailing.

[Sailed from Success Bay.]

Saturday, 21st. Wind from South-South-West to South-West; moderate
breezes the first part; latter, fresh Gales with Showers of Rain. P.M.
hoisted in the Boats, and made ready for Sailing; at 2 a.m. weighed and
made Sail out of the Bay. At 1/2 past 4 the Cape of good Success bore
West, and Cape Bartholomew East. Variation per Azimuth, 24 degrees 9
minutes East; at Noon the Cape of good Success bore North 36 degrees
West; distance, 11 leagues.

Sunday, 22nd. Wind between the South and the West first and Latter part,
fresh Gales and Squally, with rain; the Middle, little wind and rain.
A.M. found the Variation by several Azimuths to be 20 degrees 4 minutes
East. Unbent the Cables and Stowed the Anchors. At Noon, Latitude
observed 56 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude, made from the Cape of
Good Success, 42 minutes East.

Monday, 23rd. Winds variable from South-East round by the South-West to
North-West. First part, a fresh breeze and Squally, the remainder
moderate breezes and sometimes Calm and clear weather, which is more than
we have had for several days past. At 4 a.m. saw the Land in the
South-West Quarter, and a small Island bearing West; from this Time until
9 it was Calm, at which time the Ship drove very fast to the North-East
by North. At 9 Sprung up a light breeze at North, loos'd all the Reefs
out, and set the Steering sails. The Cape of good Success bore North-East
by North; Staten land seen from the Deck bearing North-East; the Sugar
Loaf on Terra Del Fuego North-North-East, and is the same Hill as is seen
from the North-East side of the Land; it appears to stand but a little
way in Land from the Shore; and the Mainland and Islands on the Coast
extending from the Cape of good Success to the South by West. The Country
Mountainous, of an indifferent height; the Tops were covered with Snow,
which had lately fell, as it did not lay long. There appeared to be
several Bays and inlets and Islands laying along the Coast; the 3rd view
in the Chart exhibits the appearance of this Coast where g is new Island,
c the Sugar Loaf, and h the Cape of good Success. At noon the West End of
New Island bore North-West by West, 5 leagues. Latitude observed 55
degrees 25 minutes South, this Island I named New Island because it is
not laid down in any Chart.* (* This island is still so called in the

Tuesday, 24th. The fore and Middle parts of these 24 Hours Moderate Gales
and Cloudy with some Showers of Rain; the Latter, fresh gales with flying
Showers. At 7 p.m. New Island bore North-West by North, and a small
Island laying to the Westward of it bore West by North. Variation per
Several Azimuths 21 degrees 0 minutes East, which is much less than we
have yet found it upon this Coast; yet I am satisfied with the Goodness
of the Observations. At 1/2 past 1 a.m. the Wind Shifted from
South-South-West to East-South-East. Tackt and stood South-West; at 6 Saw
the Land to the Westward making like several Islands. At 8 two Small
Islands laying off a low Point of Land bore West by South, distant 3
Leagues, and the small Island we saw last night bore North-North-West.
This I take to be the Island of Evouts, it is about one League in
Circuit, and of a Moderate height and lies 4 Leagues from the Main. Near
the South Point of it are some Peaked rocks pretty high above Water; the
wind coming to the Southward we did but just weather this Island; in
passing it, sounded and had 40 fathoms Water, sand, and broken Shells. At
Noon it bore North-East distance one League, and the low point of land
before mentioned South 17 degrees West distant 4 or 5 Leagues. Tackt and
Stood to the South-East, wind at South-South-West. From this low Point
the land trends to the North-West, about 4 Leagues, where it ends in a
low point round which to the Westward appears to be a Deep Bay, unless
this land should prove to be an Island or Islands, which is most likely.
It rises into high Craggy hills, and the Shore seems to form several
Bays; if so, they must afford good Shelter for Shipping against Southerly
and Westerly winds.

[Off Cape Horn.]

Wednesday, 25th. Winds from the South to the West-North-West, the first
part fresh Gales and Squally with some Rain; Middle, little wind with
Hail and Rain; latter, fresh Gales and Hazey, with Showers of Rain. At 8
p.m. the Island of Evouts North-West, distant 3 or 4 miles. Variation,
per morning Amplitude 21 degrees 16 minutes East. At 8 a.m. the
Southermost low point of land seen Yesterday Bore South 74 degrees West,
and a remarkable Peaked Hill to the Southward of it South-West; and soon
after we discovered that the land which we took Yesterday to be a part of
the Main or an Island, was three Islands, which I take to be Hermites. At
Noon the South Point of the Southermost Island bore North-West by West
distant 3 leagues, having then 58 fathoms Peble Stones. This Point is
pretty high and consists of Peaked Craggy rocks, and not far from it lay
several others high above Water. It lies in the Latitude of 55 degrees 53
minutes South and South-West 26 Leagues from Straits La Mair, and by some
on board thought to be Cape Horn; but I was of another Opinion, and with
good reason, because we saw land to the Southward of it about 3 or 4
leagues. It appeared not unlike an Island with a very high round Hummock
upon it; this I believe to be Cape Horn, for after we had stood about 3
Leagues the weather cleared up for about a quarter of an hour, which gave
us a sight of the land bearing West-South-West, but we could see no land
to the southward or Westward of it, and therefore conclude that it must
be the Cape, but whether it be an Island of itself, a part of the
Southermost of Hermits Islands, or a part of Terra del Fuego, I am not
able to determine. However, this is of very little Consequence to
Navigation: I only wished to be Certain whether or no it was the
Southermost Land on or near to Terra del Fuego; but the thick foggy
weather and the westerly winds which Carried us from the land prevented
me from satisfying my Curiosity in this point, but from its Latitude and
the reasons before given I think it must, and if so it must be Cape Horn,
and lies in the latitude of 55 degrees 53 minutes South and Longitude 68
degrees 13 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich,* (* No doubt this
was Cape Horn, but it lies in 55 degrees 58 minutes South, 67 degrees 16
minutes West.) being the Mean result of Several Observations of the sun
and moon made the day after we left the land, and which agreed with those
made at Straits Le Mair, allowing for the distance between one place and
the other, which I found means very accurately to determine. As we are
now about taking our departure from the Land, which we are not likely to
fall in with again, I shall give a more full Description of such parts of
the Coasts of Terra del Fuego as hath fallen under my inspection.

We fell in with this Coast 21 Leagues to the Westward of Straits Le Mair,
and ranged the coast from thence to the Strait within 2 or 3 Leagues of
the Land, and had soundings all the way from 40 to 20 fathoms, a Gravelly
and Sandy Bottom. The land near the Shore is in general low but hilly,
the face of the Country appears Green and Woody, but in land are Craggy
Mountains; they appeared to be of no great height, nor were they Covered
with Snow. The most remarkable land on Terra Del Fuego is a high Mountain
in form of a Sugar Loaf, situated not far from the sea on the South-West
side of the Land, and 3 hills called the 3 Brothers. They lay near the
Shore and nine Miles to the Westward of Cape St. Diego, which is a low
point that forms the North-West Entrance of Strait Le Mair, and are
Contiguous to Each other. The Sugar Loaf lies from these Hills
South-South-West, and when it was in this situation the Appearances of
the Land is represented in the first View in the Chart, but it must be
observed that from this point of View the Three Brothers appear far more
Conspicuous than from any other; these land Marks are by some Voyagers
thought very necessary to know Strait Le Mair by, but whoever coasts
Terra Del Fuego within sight of land cannot possibly miss the Strait, it
being of itself so very Conspicuous; and Staten Land, which forms the
East side, is still more so from its very rugged appearance. One League
and a half to the Westward of Cape St. Diego lies Cape St. Vincent,
between these two Capes lies Vincent's Bay,* (* Now called Thetis Bay, it
is a very poor anchorage.) a Small Cove wherein is Wood and Water, and
before which a Ship might Anchor with a Southerly or South-West wind, but
the ground is none of the best, unless you go into the very Mouth of the
Cove, which is on the East side of the first Bluff point from Cape St.
Vincent, where there is Anchorage in 4 fathoms, a Sandy Bottom. In going
in keep clear of the Sea Weed, and send a Boat Ahead to sound, and at
best this is but a bad place for Shipping, and only recommended to such
as are in want of Wood and Water, and have no Opportunity to put into the
Strait, which in Prudence ought not to be attempted but with a fair wind
or Moderate weather, and upon the very first of the Tide of Flood, which
hapens here at the full and Change of the Moon about 1 or 2 o'clock, and
then to keep as near to Terra Del Fuego Shore as the winds will permit.
By using these Precautions you will be sure of either getting quite
through the Straits in one Tide or to the Southward of Success Bay; and
it may be more Prudent to put in there should the wind be Southerly, than
to attempt to weather Staten Land with a Lee Wind and Current, for I
believe this to be the Chief reason why Ships have run a Risk of being
drove on that Island.

Strait Le Maire is formed on the West by part of Terra Del Fuego, and on
the East by the West end of Staten Land or Island; its Length and Breadth
is about 5 Leagues each; about the Middle of the Strait is Success Bay,
on Terra Del Fuego side, and about a 1/4 of a League more to the
Northwards is Port Maurice, a little Cove, before which we Anchored in 12

[Description of Strait of Le Maire.]

The Bay of Success is discovered immediately upon entring the Strait from
the Northward; there is likewise a good Land Mark near the South head to
know it by, which is a Mark on the land like a lane or broad road leading
up from the Sea into the Country; this Bay is 1/2 a League Wide at the
Entrance, and lies in West 2 1/2 Miles, and hath good Anchorage in every
part of it, in 10, 8, and 7 fathoms clear ground, and affords plenty of
exceeding good Wood and Water. The Wood is of the Birch kind, but of a
diffrent Quality to that in England or North America; here are likewise
of the Winter Bark tree and some few others, Wild Selary, some Berrys
like Cranberrys, but growing on Bushes, very few Wild Fowls of any Sort,
and no Fish Except Shell Fish, such as Muscels, Limpets, etc.; and what
we saw of the interior parts of the Country is still more barren of the
necessaries of Life than the Sea. The few days we stay'd here we had
constant bad weather, the Winds from the South-West and West-South-West
with rain, Hail and Snow. Snow generally fell on the Hills everywhere
with these winds when we had rain in the Bay or upon the Sea Coast. I
observed the same in respect to Staten Land, but as it never froze it did
not lay long; yet it must render the Country Cold and barren, and unfit
for Cultivation. The Tides in Success Bay flows at the full and Change of
the Moon, about 4 or 5 o'Clock, and riseth between 5 and 6 feet
Perpendicular, but in the Strait the flood runs 2 or 3 Hours longer, and
there the Ebb or Southerly Current runs near Double the strength of the
Flood or Northerly Current.

Staten Island lies nearest East and West, and from what I could see and
judge of it may be about 12 Leagues in length and 5 in breadth. On the
North side are the appearances of Bays or Harbours, and the land is not
destitute of Wood and Verdure, nor covered with Snow any more than Terra
del Fuego.

On the South-West side of the Cape of good Success (which forms the
South-West entrance of Strait Le Mair, and is known by some rocks off it)
lies Valentine's Bay, the entrance of which we only saw. From this Bay
the land Trends to the West-South-West; for 20 or 30 Leagues it appears
High and Mountainous, and forms several Bays and inlets South-West 1/2
South 14 Leagues from the Cape of good Success, and 2 or 3 Leagues from
the Shore lies New Island; it is 2 leagues in length, North-East and
South-West, the North-East end is terminated by a remarkable Hillock.
South-West 7 Leagues from New Island lies the Isle Evouts, and South, a
little Westerly from this island, lies Barnevelts, two small flatt
Islands close to each other; they are partly Environ'd with rocks of
Different height above water, and lay South-West 24 leagues from Strait
le Mair. From Barnevelts Island to the South-East point of Hermites
island is South-West by South, distance 3 Leagues. These Islands lay
South-East and North-West, and are pretty high, and will, from most
points of view, be taken for one Island or a part of the Main; from the
South-East point of Hermites Isles to Cape Horn, the Course is South-West
by South, distance 3 Leagues. The Appearance of this Cape and Hermites
Islands is represented in the last View in the chart which I have drawn
of this Coast from our first making the land unto Cape Horn, in which is
included Strait Le Mair and part of Staten Land. In this chart I have
laid down no land nor figured out any Shore, but what I saw myself and
thus far the Chart may be depended upon. The Bays and inlets are left
voide, the openings of which we only see from the Ship. It cannot be
doubted but what there is Anchorage, Wood and Water in those Bays, and it
must have been in some of them that the Dutch Squadron commanded by
Hermites put into in the year 1624. It was the Vice Admiral Chapenham, of
this Squadron, who first discovered that the land of Cape Horn was
consisted of a Number of Islands, but the account they have given of
those parts is very short and imperfect, and that of Schouton and Le
Maire still worse, that it is no wonder that the Charts hitherto
published should be found incorrect, not only in laying down the Land,
but in the Latitude and Longitude of the places they contain, but I can
now venture to Assert that the Longitude of few parts of the World are
better Ascertained than that of Strait Le Maire and Cape Horn, being
determined by several Observations of the Sun and moon made both by
myself and Mr. Green, the Astronomer.

We found the Variation of the Compass on this Coast to be from 23 to 25
degrees east, except near Barnevelts Islands and Cape Horn, where we
found it less and unsettled; it is likely that it is here disturbed by
the land, as the Dutch Squadron before mentioned found in this very place
all their Compasses to differ from each other. The declination of the
South point of the Dipping Needle when set up ashore in Success Bay was
68 degrees 15 minutes below the horizon. Between Strait Le Maire and Cape
Horn we found a Current setting generally pretty strong to the North-East
when we were in with the Shore, but when 15 or 20 Leagues off we were not
sencible of any.


[Off Cape Horn.]

Thursday, 26th. Fresh Gales and thick Hazey weather, with small rain. At
2 p.m., the weather clearing up a little, saw Cape Horn bearing
West-South-West, distance about 6 leagues, and from which I take my
departure. Its Latitude and Longitude have before been taken notice of.
Wind South-West by West to West-North-West; course South 15 degrees West;
distance, 63 miles; latitude 56 degrees 57 minutes South; longitude 68
degrees 13 minutes West; at noon, Cape Horn North, 58 miles.

Friday, 27th. First part, moderate breezes and thick Hazey weather; the
Middle, fair and Cloudy; and the Latter, fresh Gales with some rain. At 8
a.m. took two Setts of Observations of the sun and moon; the first gave
68 degrees 15 minutes; the second, 68 degrees 9 minutes; the Mean of the
2 is 68 degrees 12 minutes West. The Longitude of the Ship at Noon by
these Observations is 68 degrees 42 minutes less 14 minutes, the
Longitude made from Cape Horn, equal to 68 degrees 28 minutes, the
longitude of Cape Horn according to the Observation. A Great many large
Albetrosses about the Ship. Wind, South-West, West and North; course,
South and West; distance, 32 miles; latitude 57 degrees 2 minutes South,
longitude 68 degrees 27 minutes West.

Saturday, 28th. Fresh Gales the most part of this day; first and Middle
parts cloudy; latter, clear with a Sharp cold air. At 2 p.m. saw the
land, bearing North, distant about 8 Leagues; it made in 2 Hummocks, and
appeared to be an Island, which I take to be the Isle of Diego Ramirez.
It lays in the Latitude of 56 degrees 38 minutes South and Longitude 68
degrees 47 minutes West from Greenwich.* (* Diego Ramirez is in 56
degrees 31 minutes South, 68 degrees 43 minutes West.) Found the
Variation this Evening to be 22 degrees East. A.M. had 3 sets of
Observations of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 69 degrees 7
minutes 15 seconds West. The Longitude of the Ship at Noon by the
Observation is 69 degrees 24 minutes, from which take 1 degree 48
minutes, the longitude made from Cape Horn, the remainder is 67 degrees
36 minutes, the Longitude of the Cape, which is 52 minutes less than the
result of Yesterday's Observations.* (* This was the best observation.)
This difference may arise partly from the Observations and partly from
the Ship's runs; the mean of the 2 gives 68 degrees 2 minutes and 68
degrees 24 minutes, the Longitude of the Cape from the Observations taken
at Strait Maire 136 degrees 26 minutes/2 = 68 degrees 13 minutes West
from Greenwich. The Longitude of Cape Horn being deduced from no less
than 24 Observations taken at no very great distance from the Cape, and
on both sides of it, and when the Sun was both to the East and West of
the Moon; for in this case the Errors arising from the Observations are
most likely to Correct one another. Wind, North and West by North to
North-West by West; course, South 39 degrees West; distance, 80 miles;
latitude 58 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 70 degrees 1 minute West.

Sunday, 29th. First and Latter parts, fresh Gales and Squally, with
flying Showers of rain and Hail; the Middle, strong Gales with heavy
Squalls and showers of rain. At 8 p.m. took 2nd Reef Topsails, at 6 a.m.
Close reefd the Foretopsails and took in the Mizen Topsl, and at 10 set
it again and let the reef out of the Fore top-sails. Wind, West
Northerly; course South-West; distance, 79 miles; latitude 59 degrees 0
minutes South, longitude 72 degrees 48 minutes West.

Monday, 30th. Fore part, fresh Gales and Squally with Hail and rain,
remainder moderate and Cloudy. At 6 a.m. loosed the 2nd reef out of the
Topsails and set Top-gallant Sails. At 11 Longitude per 3 sets of
Observations of the sun and moon, 1st set 73 degrees 38 minutes 15
seconds; second set 73 degrees 25 minutes 45 seconds; and 3rd, 73 degrees
19 minutes 30 seconds; the mean of the whole is 73 degrees 27 minutes 50
seconds West, and 35 minutes less than the Longitude by Dead reckoning,
which is only 6 Leagues in this Latitude, and therefore not worth taking
notice of. Latitude per Observation 60 degrees 4 minutes South. Wind West
by North and West-North-West; course, South 33 degrees West; distance, 76
miles; latitude 60 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 74 degrees 10
minutes West.

Tuesday, 31st. First part moderate and Cloudy, with some rain; in the
night, little wind and Calm; towards Noon, fresh Gales and Cloudy.
Between 7 and 8 p.m., being then in the Latitude of 60 degrees 10
minutes, which was the farthest south we were, and in the Longitude of 74
degrees 30 minutes found the Variation of the Compass by the mean of
Azimuth to be 27 degrees 9 minutes East. At 3 a.m. wind at
East-South-East, and Moderate breeze. Set the Steeringsails, and soon
after 2 Birds like Penguins were seen by the Mate of the Watch. Wind
West-North-West, calm, East-South-East, South-South-East; course North 71
degrees West; distance, 55 miles; latitude 59 degrees 46 minutes South,
longitude 75 degrees 54 minutes West.

[February 1769.]

Wednesday, February 1st. First part, fresh Gales; latter, light Airs and
Cloudy; P.M. found the Variation by several Azimuth to be 24 degrees 53
minutes East. At Noon sounded, but had no ground with 240 fathoms of
line; hoisted a Boat out to try if there was any Current, but found none.
The weather was such as to admit Mr. Banks to row round the Ship in a
Lighterman's Skiff shooting birds. Wind, South-East by East,
South-South-East, East; course, North-West by West; distance, 106 miles;
latitude 58 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 78 degrees 42 minutes

Thursday, 2nd. First part, light breezes and Cloudy; remainder, sometimes
a fresh breeze and at other times little wind and hazey, rainy, Cold
weather. Took in the Steeringsls and a reef in each Topsail. Wind
variable, North-North-West, South-West and South; course, West by North;
distance, 82 miles; latitude 58 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 80
degrees 58 minutes West.

Friday, 3rd. Calm and Light Airs, and for the most part Cloudy and
sometimes drizling rain. Variation 24 degrees 4 minutes East. Wind, West
by North, North-West by West; course South 82 West; distance 30 miles;
latitude 58 degrees 33 minutes South, longitude 81 degrees 55 minutes

Saturday, 4th. Fore and Middle parts, little wind and dark cloudy
weather; latter, fresh Gales and Cloudy with some rain. P.M. had a Boat
out and Shott several sorts of Birds, one of which was an Albetross as
large as a Goose, whose wings when Extended measured 10 feet 2 inches;
this was grey, but there are of them all White except the very tip end of
their Wings. Another sort, in size between an Albetross and a large Gull,
of a grey Colour, with a white Spot above their Tail about the Breadth of
one's hand, and several other sorts. Wind Westerly; course North 13
degrees West; distance 48 miles; latitude 57 degrees 45 minutes South,
longitude 82 degrees 16 minutes West.

Sunday, 5th. Fresh gales with heavy squalls the first part; remainder,
little wind and Cloudy. Very cold weather. Wind, West-South-West, West by
North and South-West by West; course North; distance 49 miles; latitude
56 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 82 degrees 16 minutes West.

Monday, 6th. A moderate breeze of Wind with some flying showers of hail
and rain; close upon a Wind all this day. Wind South-West by West to West
by North; course North 1/4 East; distance 86 miles; latitude 55 degrees
20 minutes South, longitude 82 degrees 23 minutes West.

Tuesday, 7th. A fresh breeze and dark cloudy weather, with some showers
of rain; the wind, varying from West to North by West, obliged us to Tack
several times. Wind North-West by West, West by South; course North 20
degrees West; distance 46 miles; latitude 54 degrees 40 minutes South,
longitude 82 degrees 54 minutes West.

Wednesday, 8th. First part, cloudy with Squalls of wind and Showers of
rain and hail; Latter part thick hazey weather, with frequent Showers.
Wind, Westerly, South by West; course North 14 degrees 43 minutes West;
distance 58 miles; latitude 53 degrees 36 minutes South, longitude 83
degrees 19 minutes West.

Thursday, 9th. Fresh gales all this day, sometimes squally with rain;
under Double-reef Topsails in the night, and Single-reeft Topsail in the
day. Wind Southerly; course North 55 degrees West: distance 130 miles;
latitude 52 degrees 22 minutes South, longitude 86 degrees 17 minutes

Friday, 10th. The former part of this day had fresh breezes and Dark
cloudy weather; in the night hard Squalls with rain, and afterwards hazy,
rainy weather. Wind Westerly; course North 22 degrees West; distance 67
miles; latitude 51 degrees 16 minutes South, longitude 86 degrees 37
minutes West.

Saturday, 11th. Former part Light Airs with drizling rain; remainder, a
Moderate breeze and Cloudy. Wind, variable, southerly; course, North 54
degrees West; distance 36 miles; latitude 50 degrees 55 minutes South,
longitude 87 degrees 24 minutes West.

Sunday, 12th. First and Middle parts, fresh gales and cloudy; latter,
little wind and clear. Having for some time past generally found the Ship
by Observation to the Northward of the Log, which is not owing to a
Current as I at first imagined, but to a wrong Division of the Log line,
being 2 1/2 feet in each Knot--but this is now rectified. Wind South-West
by South; course North 48 degrees West; distance 113 miles; latitude 49
degrees 41 minutes South, longitude 89 degrees 36 minutes West.

Monday, 13th. The first part of these 24 Hours, moderate breezes and
Cloudy; remainder, fresh Gales and cloudy. P.M saw a great many
Albetrosses and other Birds about the Ship; some were all white and about
the size of Teal. Took several Observations of the sun and moon, the
result of which gave 90 degrees 13 minutes West Longitude from Greenwich.
The Variation of the Compass by the Mean of several Azimuths 17 degrees
East. The Longitude by account is less than that by Observation, 37
minutes, which is about 20 Miles in these high Latitudes, and nearly
equal to the Error of the Log line before mentioned. This near Agreement
of the 2 Longitudes proves to a Demonstration that we have had no Western
Current since we left the Land. Wind West, Northerly; course North 75
degrees West; distance 35 miles; latitude 49 degrees 35 minutes,
longitude 90 degrees 37 minutes.

[Remarks on Passage round Cape Horn.]

From the Foregoing observations it will appear that we are now advanced
about 12 degrees to the westward of the Strait of Magellan, and 3 1/2
degrees to the Northward of it, having been 33* (* N.B. 23 days only from
Success Bay.) days in Doubling Cape Horn or the Land of Terra del Fuego,
and Arriving into the Degree of Latitude and Longitude we are now in, and
without being brought once under our close Reef'd Topsails since we left
Strait Le Maire, a Circumstance that perhaps never hapned before to any
ship in those Seas so much dreaded for Hard gales of Wind; in so much
that the doubling of Cape Horn is thought by some to be a mighty thing,
and others to this day prefer the Straits of Magellan. As I have never
been in those Straits I can only form my Judgement on a Carefull
Comparison of the Different Ships' Journals that have passed them, and
those that have sail'd round Cape Horn, particularly the Dolphin's two
last Voyages and this of ours, being made at the same season of the Year,
when one may reasonable expect the same Winds to prevail. The Dolphin in
her last Voyage was three Months in getting through the Straits, not
reckoning the time she lay in Port Famine; and I am firmly perswaided
from the Winds we have had, that had we come by that Passage we should
not have been in these Seas, besides the fatiguing of our People, the
damage we must have done to our Anchors, Cables, Sails, and Rigging, none
of which have suffer'd in our passage round Cape Horn.

From what I have said it will appear that I am no advocate for the
Straits of Magellan, but it should be expected that I should say
something of Strait le Mair, through which we passed, and this is the
more incumbant on me as it was by choice and contrary to the Advice given
by Mr. Walter, the ingenious Author of Lord Anson's Voyage, who advised
all Ships not to go through this Strait but to go to the Eastward of
Staten Land, and likewise to stand to the Southward as far as 61 or 62
degrees south before any Endeavour is made to get to the Westward. With
respect to the Passing of Strait le Mair or going round Staten Land, I
look upon of little Consequence, and either one or the other to be
pursued according to Circumstances; for if you happen to fall in with the
land to the Westward of the Strait, and the winds favourable for going
through, it certainly must be a piece of folly to lose time in going
round Staten Land, for by paying a little Attention to the Directions I
have already given no ill Consequences can attend; but on the Contrary if
you should fall in with the land to the eastward of the Straits or the
wind should prove Boisterous, or unfavourable, in any of these Cases the
going to the eastward of Staten Land is the most Advisable. And next, as
to running into the Latitude of 61 or 62 degrees South before any
Endeavour is made to get to the Westward, is what I think no man will
ever do that can avoid it, for it cannot be supposed that anyone will
steer south mearly to get into a high Latitude, when at the same time he
can steer west, for it is not Southing but Westing that is wanting. But
this way you cannot Steer because the Wind blows almost Constantly from
that Quarter, so that you have no other Choice but to stand to the
Southward, close upon a Wind, and by keeping upon that Tack you not only
make Southing but Westing also, and sometimes not a little when the wind
Varies to the Northward of West; and the farther you advance to the
Southward the better Chance you have of having the Winds from that
Quarter or Easterly, and likewise of meeting with finer weather, both of
which we ourselves Experienced. Prudence will direct every man when in
those high Latitudes to make sure of sufficient Westing to double all the
lands before he thinks of standing to the Northward. When the winds was
Westerly the Mountains on Terra Del Fuego were generally covered with
dense Clouds, formed, as one may reasonably suppose, by Westerly
Exhalations and by Vapours brought thither by the Westerly winds. From
that Quarter come frequent Showers of rain, hail, and Snow; and after we
had left the land and were standing to the Southward, with the winds
westerly, dark dence clouds were Continually forming in the Horizon, and
rose to about 45 degrees, where they began to dissipate. These were
generally attended with Showers of Rain, or hail, and Squals of Wind, but
as we advanced to the Southward, these Clouds became less dence, and in
the Latitude of 60 degrees 10 minutes, when we got the winds Easterly,
the weather was more serene and Milder; again as we advanced to the
Northward we had a constant Clouded sky and dark gloomy weather, the
whole time exceeding Cold.

[Cape Horn to Tahiti.]

Tuesday, 14th. The first part, fresh Gales and Hazey with rain; the
remainder moderate and Cloudy, with frequent rain. Wind, Westerly, South;
course South-West; distance 32 miles; latitude 49 degrees 6 minutes
South, longitude 91 degrees 12 minutes West.

Wednesday, 15th. Little wind and Cloudy the most part of this day.
Variation per Azimuth in the Evening 12 degrees East, and in the morning
both by an Amplitude and an Azimuth 11 degrees East. A.M. Shifted the
Mainsail, Mizen, Fore, and Main topsail. Wind, South-South-West,
South-West, West by North; course North 46 degrees West; distance 86
miles; latitude 48 degrees 27 minutes South, longitude 92 degrees 5
minutes West.

Thursday, 16th. The first part of this day had fresh Gales and Cloudy; in
the night thick hazey weather with heavy squalls of wind and rain, which
obliged us to close-reef our Topsails. In the morning and all the
forenoon had strong gales and cloudy weather, and very heavy Seas from
the South-South-West, one of which broke upon the Quarter and carried
away the Driver Boom. Wind North-West, West, and South; course North 74
degrees West; distance 97 miles; latitude 48 degrees 0 minutes South,
longitude 94 degrees 25 minutes West.

Friday, 17th. Strong Gales and Cloudy the most part of this day. Split
the Maintopsail and unbent it, and bent another. Wind South-South-West;
course North-West by West 1/2 West; distance 132 miles; latitude 46
degrees 48 minutes South, longitude 97 degrees 17 minutes West.

Saturday, 18th. Fresh gales all this day. The weather Variable, sometimes
fair and Cloudy, other times hazey, with drizzling rain. Saw some Birds
nearly as big as Albetrosses; they were all black, with Yellow Beaks.
Wind South-West by West; course North 32 degrees 30 minutes West;
distance 140 miles; latitude 44 degrees 50 minutes South, longitude 99
degrees 7 minutes West.

Sunday, 19th. First part, fresh Gales and Hazey; the Middle part, hazey,
with drizling rain; the latter, gentle breezes and fine Clear weather,
yet the Air is still Cold. Wind South-West by West to West by South;
course North-North-West 3/4 West; distance 103 miles; latitude 43 degrees
21 minutes South, longitude 100 degrees 21 minutes West.

Monday, 20th. Moderate breezes and fine weather the greater part of this
day, and the Sea very smooth. Found by repeated trials that the South
point of the Dipping Needle Dip'd 65 degrees 52 minutes below the
Horizon. Wind Westerly; course South 65 degrees West; distance 58 miles;
latitude 43 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 101 degrees 34 minutes

Tuesday, 21st. Fresh breezes and pretty Clear weather. Variation 6
degrees 30 minutes East. Wind North-West; course South 62 degrees West;
distance 115 miles; latitude 44 degrees 39 minutes South, longitude 103
degrees 54 minutes West.

Wednesday, 22nd. Hazey, rainy weather the most part of this Day. Wind
North-Westerly; course South 86 degrees West; distance 91 miles; latitude
44 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 106 degrees 1 minute West.

Thursday, 23rd. Little wind and Calm, and some Lightning, a thing we have
not seen for some time past, and therefore suppose not common in these
Seas in high Latitudes. Variation 5 degrees 34 minutes East. Wind
North-West, calm; course North 30 degrees East; distance 13 miles;
latitude 44 degrees 35 minutes South, longitude 105 degrees 52 minutes

Friday, 24th. First part, Calm; Middle, light breezes; latter, fresh
breezes and hazey. P.M. had several Azimuths, all of which gave the
Variation less than 4 degrees East, but they were a little doubtful on
account of the Rowling of the Ship. What winds we have had this day hath
been from the Eastward, and are the first we have had from that Quarter
since we left the Latitude 58 degrees 46 minutes. Wind calm,
East-North-East and East-South-East; course North 42 degrees 45 minutes
West; distance 79 miles: latitude 43 degrees 37 minutes South, longitude
107 degrees 6 minutes West.

Saturday, 25th. First and Middle parts, fresh Gales and Cloudy, with some
rain; the Latter, little Wind and Cloudy. Wind South-East by East,
South-South-East; course North 48 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 112
miles; latitude 42 degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 109 degrees 0
minutes West.

Sunday, 26th. First part, Calm and light Airs; remainder, very strong
gales and Squally, with Showers of rain, which at length brought us under
our two Courses, and close-reefed Maintopsail. Wind calm, North-West and
West-South-West; course North 26 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 88
miles; latitude 41 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 109 degrees 52
minutes West.

Monday, 27th. First part, Strong Gales and Cloudy; the remainder, Gentle
Breezes and clear weather. P.M. set the topsail one Reef out. A large
swell from the South-West. Wind westerly; course North 18 degrees West;
distance 85 miles; latitude 39 degrees 43 minutes South, 110 degrees 26
minutes West.

Tuesday, 28th. The former part little wind and fine clear weather; the
Air full as warm as in the same Degree of North Latitude at the
Correspondent Season of the Year. The South-West swells still keep up,
notwithstanding the Gale hath been over about 30 Hours, a proof that
there is no land near in that Quarter.* (* These are instances of Cook's
observation and seamanlike perspicacity. The prevailing belief of the
time was in a great southern continent.) The remainder part of this day
fresh breezes and clear. At 9 a.m. took 3 Sets of Observations of the sun
and moon in order to find the Longitude of the Ship. Wind West to
North-West; course North 13 degrees West; distance 42 miles; latitude 39
degrees 33 minutes 30 seconds South, longitude 110 degrees 38 minutes

[March 1769.]

Wednesday, March 1st. First part fresh breezes, the remainder moderate
breezes and clear weather. The result of the Forementioned Observations
gives 110 degrees 33 minutes West Longitude from Greenwich, and exactly
agrees with the Longitude given by the Log from Cape Horn. This Agreement
of the two Longitudes after a Run of 660 leagues is surprizing, and much
more than could be expected; but, as it is so, it serves to prove, as
well as the repeated trials we have made when the weather would permit,
that we have had no Current that hath Affected the Ship since we came
into these Seas. This must be a great Sign that we have been near no land
of any extent, because near land are generally found Currents. It is well
known that on the East side of the Continent in the North Sea we meet
with Currents above 100 Leagues from the Land, and even in the Middle of
the Atlantic Ocean, between Africa and America, are always found
Currents; and I can see no reason why Currents should not be found in
this Sea, supposing a Continent or lands lay not far West from us, as
some have imaggin'd, and if such land was ever seen we cannot be far from
it, as we are now 560 leagues West of the Coast of Chili.* (* These are
instances of Cook's observation and seamanlike perspicacity. The
prevailing belief of the time was in a great southern continent.) Wind
West by South; course North 76 degrees West; distance 52 miles; latitude
38 degrees 44 minutes South, longitude 111 degrees 43 minutes West; at
noon, Cape Horn South 60 degrees East 660 leagues.

Thursday, 2nd. Former part, fresh gales and hazey, with much rain; the
remainder, a Strong fresh gale and pretty clear weather. Wind Westerly;
course North by West; distance 87 miles; latitude 37 degrees 16 minutes
South, longitude 112 degrees 5 minutes West.

Friday, 3rd. First part, moderate breezes; remainder, calm and clear
weather. A.M. employed filling salt Water in the Fore Hold and airing all
the Spare Sails. Wind West, calm; course North 17 degrees East; distance
31 miles; latitude 36 degrees 49 minutes South, longitude 111 degrees 34
minutes West.

Saturday, 4th. First part, Calm; remainder, a fine genteel breeze and
clear weather. Variation per Azimuth and Amplitude this Evening 2 degrees
26 minutes East. The South-West swell still keeps up, notwithstanding it
hath been Calm 24 hours. Wind calm, North-East, North; course North 50
degrees West; distance 58 miles; latitude 36 degrees 12 minutes South,
longitude 112 degrees 50 minutes West.

Sunday, 5th. First and latter parts, fine Clear weather; the Middle,
fresh gales and Hazey, with rain. Wind North-West by North and
North-West; course South 81 degrees 40 minutes West; distance 64 miles;
latitude 36 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 114 degrees 9 minutes

Monday, 6th. Moderate breezes and Tolerable clear weather all this day.
The wind a little Variable, which caused us to Tack several Times. Wind
North-West by North to West-North-West; course South 57 degrees West;
distance 20 miles; latitude 36 degrees 32 minutes South, longitude 114
degrees 30 minutes West.

Tuesday, 7th. A Moderate steady breeze and clear weather. Wind
North-West; course South 64 degrees 15 minutes West; distance, 83 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 8 minutes South, longitude 116 degrees 8 minutes

Wednesday, 8th. The first and Middle parts moderate breezes and Cloudy;
the Latter Part Variable winds and much Rain. Wind North-West, variable;
course South 78 degrees West; distance, 76 miles; latitude 37 degrees 24
minutes South, longitude 117 degrees 41 minutes West.

Thursday, 9th. First part, moderate and Hazey, with Drizling rain; the
remainder fresh breezes and clear weather. Variation 4 degrees 41 minutes
east. Wind South-West by West to South by East; course North 38 degrees
West; distance 123 miles; latitude 35 degrees 47 minutes South, longitude
119 degrees 18 minutes West.

Friday, 10th. Moderate breezes and fine Pleasant weather. Wind
South-East; course North 40 degrees West; distance 121 miles; latitude 34
degrees 14 minutes South, longitude 120 degrees 54 minutes West.

Saturday, 11th. A Steady gale and fine weather. Variation 4 degrees 12
minutes East. Wind South-East; course North 46 degrees 15 minutes West;
distance 116 miles; latitude 32 degrees 54 minutes South, longitude 122
degrees 35 minutes West.

Sunday, 12th. Ditto weather. Variation 4 degrees 12 minutes East. Put the
Ship's Company to three Watches, they having been at Watch and Watch
since our first arrival on the coast of Terra del Fuego. Wind South-East;
course North 49 degrees West; distance 122 miles; latitude 31 degrees 34
minutes South, longitude 124 degrees 25 minutes West.

Monday, 13th. First part a Steady, fresh Gale; the remainder, little wind
and fine Clear weather. Wind South-East; course North 48 degrees 15
minutes West; distance 72 miles; latitude 30 degrees 46 minutes South,
longitude 125 degrees 28 minutes West.

Tuesday, 14th. Little wind and fine Pleasant weather. At 3 p.m. took
several Observations of the sun and moon; the mean result of which gave
126 degrees 20 minutes 45 seconds, the Longitude of the Ship West of
Greenwich, and is 47 degrees Longitude West of account carried on from
Cape Horn. Wind South, East-South-East, East-North-East; course North 50
degrees West; distance 47 miles; latitude 30 degrees 17 minutes South,
longitude 126 degrees 10 minutes West.

Wednesday, 15th. Light breezes and clear weather. Variation, p.m. 3
degrees 45 minutes East, a.m. 3 degrees 22 minutes East. Saw a Tropic
Bird. Wind, East-North-East and East-South-East; course, North 47 degrees
15 minutes West; distance, 50 miles; latitude 29 degrees 43 minutes
South, longitude 126 degrees 53 minutes West.

Thursday, 16th. Light Airs next to a Calm and clear Weather. Variation by
the mean result of 21 Azimuths, 1 degree 30 minutes East. This evening
observed an Occultation of h by the [crescent],* (* h is Saturn,
[crescent] the Moon.) Immersion at ---- hours ---- minutes and Emersion
at ---- hours ---- minutes ---- seconds a.m.* (* Blanks in manuscript.)
Variation per several Azimuths 2 degrees East. Wind East-South-East,
South-South-East, South-West; course North-North-West; distance 34 miles;
latitude 29 degrees 22 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 8 minutes

Friday, 17th. Little wind and fine Pleasant weather. Variation, p.m. 3
degrees 27 minutes East. Wind, South-East by South; course, North 20
degrees West; distance, 55 miles; latitude 28 degrees 30 minutes South,
longitude 127 degrees 29 minutes West.

Saturday, 18th. First part, little wind and Cloudy; latter, fresh gales
and hard Squalls, with much rain. Took 2 Reefs in the Topsails. Wind
North-East North; course North 60 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 78
miles; latitude 27 degrees 52 minutes South, longitude 128 degrees 44
minutes West.

Sunday, 19th. First part fresh Gales and Squally, with rain; remainder
more moderate and cloudy. Variation, a.m. per Means of several Azimuths,
3 degrees 14 minutes East. Loosed the 2d reefs out of the Topsails. Wind
between the North and West; course North 52 degrees West; distance 50
miles; latitude 27 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 28
minutes West.

Monday, 20th. A Fine breeze and pleasant weather. Saw several Tropic
Birds. Wind West; course North; distance 95 miles; latitude 25 degrees 44
minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 28 minutes West.

Tuesday, 21st. First part little wind, the remainder Calm. Variation, 3
degrees 43 minutes East. Saw some rock weed and a great many Tropic
Birds. Wind West by North, calm; course North; distance 23 miles;
latitude 25 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 28 minutes

Wednesday, 22nd. First part Calm, in the night Squally, with rain. A.M. a
fresh breeze and Cloudy. Variation per Amplitude 3 degrees 10 minutes
East. Saw some Egg Birds. Wind North by East to North-North-West; course
West; distance 57 miles; latitude 25 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude
129 degrees 52 minutes West.

Thursday, 23rd. Fresh gales and Squally, with rain, the first part;
remainder fresh Gales and Cloudy. P.M. saw some Men-of-War Birds, and Egg
Birds, and in the Morning saw more Egg Birds and Tropic Birds. The
Man-of-War and Tropic Birds are pretty well known, but the Egg Bird (as
it is called in the Dolphin's Journal) requires some discription to know
it by that Name. It is a small slender Bird of the Gull kind, and all
white, and not much unlike the small white Gulls we have in England, only
not so big.* (* Terns.) There are also Birds in Newfoundland called
Stearings that are of the same shape and Bigness, only they are of a
Greyish Colour. These Birds were called by the Dolphin Egg Birds on
account of their being like those known by that name by Sailors in the
Gulph of Florida; neither they nor the Man-of-War Birds are ever reckoned
to go very far from Land. Wind North by West to West by North: course
North 13 degrees West; distance 49 miles; latitude 24 degrees 43 minutes
South, longitude 130 degrees 8 minutes West.

[Passing Low Archipelago.]

Friday, 24th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy, with some rain in the forepart of
this day. All the forepart of these 24 hours the Sea was smooth, but at
12 at night it was more so, and about 3 in the Morning one of the people
saw, or thought he saw, a Log of Wood pass the Ship. This made us think
that we were near some land,* (* The Endeavour was now passing to the
northward of the easternmost islands of the Paumotu or Low Archipelago,
though out of sight of them.) but at daylight we saw not the least
appearance of any, and I did not think myself at liberty to spend time in
searching for what I was not sure to find, although I thought myself not
far from those Islands discovered by Quiros in 1606; and very probably we
were not, from the birds, etc., we have seen for these 2 or 3 days past.
Wind West-North-West to North-West; course North-East by North 1/4 East;
distance 99 miles; latitude 22 degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 129
degrees 2 minutes West.

Saturday, 25th. First part dark cloudy weather, with rain and a fresh
breeze of wind; remainder fair and Cloudy. Wind North-West by North, to
West by North; course North-East 1/2 North; distance 95 miles; latitude
22 degrees 11 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 55 minutes West.

Sunday, 26th. Squally weather, with rain. At 5 p.m. saw some sea Weed
pass the Ship, and at 7 William Greenslade, Marine, either by Accident or
design, went overboard and was Drowned. The following circumstances makes
it appear as tho' it was done design'dly. He had been Centinel at the
Steerage door between 12 and 4 o'clock, where he had taken part of a Seal
Skin put under his charge, and which was found upon him. The other
Marines thought themselves hurt by one of their party commiting a crime
of this nature, and he being a raw young fellow, and, as very probable,
made him resolve upon commiting this rash Action, for the Serjeant not
being willing that it should pass over unknown to me, was about 7 o'clock
going to bring him aft and have it inquired into, when he gave him the
Slip between Decks, and was seen to go upon the Forecastle, and from that
time was seen no more. I was neither made acquainted with the Theft or
the Circumstances attending it, until the Man was gone. Wind, North-West
to West; longitude 127 degrees 43 minutes West.

Monday, 27th. Variable winds and weather, with frequent showers of rain.
At Noon saw a Bird like a Gannet. Wind variable; course North 1/4 East;
distance 30 miles; latitude 21 degrees 2 minutes South, longitude 127
degrees 38 minutes West.

Tuesday, 28th. Little wind and Cloudy. Variation per Amplitude 3 degrees
56 minutes East. Wind Easterly; course North-North-West; distance 37
miles; latitude 20 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 50
minutes West.

Wednesday, 29th. Little winds and Cloudy weather. Variation per Azimuth 2
degrees 27 minutes East. Saw a Bird like a Dove and several fish about
the Ship. Employed worming the Best Br. Cable, repairing and Painting the
Boats. Wind Easterly; course North 75 degrees West; distance 50 miles;
latitude 20 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 27 minutes

Thursday, 30th. First part, Calm and close Cloudy weather; in the night
had Variable winds and weather, with rain. A.M. Genteel Breezes and
Cloudy weather. Between 10 and 11 a.m. took several Observations of the
sun and moon; the mean result of them gave the Longitude of the Ship at
Noon to be 127 degrees 38 minutes, and is 1 degree 49 minutes East of the
Longitude given by the Log; but on the 4th Instant the ship by
Observation was 47 minutes West of the Log, therefore she must have lost
2 degrees 36 minutes of the Log since the last Observation--an Error too
great to be accounted for. Wind calm, variable, South-South-East; course
North 40 degrees West; distance 53 miles; latitude 19 degrees 34 minutes
South, longitude 129 degrees 27 minutes West.

Friday, 31st. A Steady breeze and fine pleasant weather. A.M. took
several Observations of the sun and moon, the mean result of them came
within 8 Miles of Yesterday's Observations computed both by Mr. Green and
myself, and yet cannot think so great an error can have been committed in
the ship's run in so short a time as these observations seem to point
out, and therefore I shall abide by the Longitude given by the Log unless
from subsequent Observations this error should be found to be just. Wind
South; course North 75 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 111 miles;
latitude 19 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 131 degrees 21 minutes

[April 1769.]

Saturday, April 1st. A steady fresh Trade and fine Weather. Variation per
several Azimuths 2 degrees 32 minutes East. Wind South-East to East 1/2
North; course West; distance 122 miles; latitude 19 degrees 7 minutes
South, longitude 133 degrees 28 minutes West.

Sunday, 2nd. A fresh Trade wind and fine pleasant weather. At Noon saw a
Large flock of Birds; they had brown backs and white Bellies. They fly
and make a noise like Stearings, and are shaped like them, only something
larger. Saw likewise some black Sheerwaters and Several Man-of-War birds.
Wind East; course North 86 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 118 miles;
latitude 19 degrees 0 minutes South, longitude 135 degrees 33 minutes

Monday, 3rd. First and Latter parts a steady fresh Breeze and cloudy; the
Middle, sometimes squally with rain, at other times little wind. P.M. saw
2 Birds like Albetrosses; they were all white except the Tip of their
wings and Tails. Wind East; course North 82 degrees 45 minutes West;
distance 110 miles; latitude 18 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 137
degrees 29 minutes West.

Tuesday, 4th. A Steady fresh Trade and clear weather. At 1/2 past 10 a.m.
saw land bearing south, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. Haul'd up for it, and
soon found it to be an Island of about 2 Leagues in Circuit and of an
Oval form, with a Lagoon in the Middle, for which I named it Lagoon
Island. The Border of land Circumscribing this Lagoon is in many places
very low and narrow, particularly on the south side, where it is mostly a
Beach or Reef of rocks; it is the same on the North side in 3 places, and
these disjoins the firm land and make it appear like so many Islands
covered with wood. On the West end of the Island is a large Tree which
looks like a large Tower, and about the Middle of the Island are two
Cocoa Nutt Trees that appears above all the other wood, which as we
approached the Island looked very much like a flag. We approached the
north side of this Island within a Mile, and found no Bottom with 130
fathoms of line, nor did there appear to be Anchorage about it. We saw
several of the Inhabitants, the most of them men, and these Marched along
the shore abreast of the Ships with long Clubs in their hands as tho'
they meant to oppose our landing. They were all naked except their Privy
parts, and were of a Dark Copper Colour with long black Hair, but upon
our leaving the Island some of them were seen to put on a Covering, and
one or two we saw in the Skirts of the Wood was Cloathed in White; these
we supposed to be Women. This Island lies in the Latitude of 18 degrees
47 minutes and Longitude 139 degrees 28 minutes West from the Meridian of
Greenwich;* (* This island is Vahitahi, one of the Paumotu or Low
Archipelago.) variation 2 degrees 54 minutes East. Wind East, East by
South; course North 88 degrees West; distance 114 miles; latitude 18
degrees 42 minutes South, longitude 139 degrees 29 minutes West.

Wednesday, 5th. A fresh steady gale and fine weather. At 1 p.m. made Sail
to the Westward, and at 1/2 past 3 saw land to the North-West, which we
got up with at Sun sett and proved to be a low woody Island of a Circular
form, and not much above a Mile in Compass. This Island I called Thrum
Cap* (* Akiaki. It is inhabited.); it lies in the Latitude of 18 degrees
35 minutes South and in the Longitude of 139 degrees 48 minutes West from
Greenwich, and North 62 degrees West, 7 Leagues from Lagoon Island. We
saw no inhabitants, nor the appearance of any, and yet we were within 1/2
a Mile of the Shore. I observed by the Shore that it was near low Water,
and at Lagoon Island I observed that it was either high Water or else
there was no Ebbing and flowing of the Sea. From these Circumstances I
infer that a South by East or South Moon makes high Water. Here we caught
a King Fish, being the first fish we have got in these Seas. Wind East;
course North 77 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 79 miles; latitude 18
degrees 25 minutes South, longitude 140 degrees 51 minutes West.

Thursday, 6th. A fresh Trade and fine Pleasant weather. At 3 p.m. Saw
land to the Westward, which proved to be an Island of about 12 or 15
Leagues in Compass; is very low and entirely drown'd in the Middle,
forming there a large lake, into which there appeared to be no inlet. The
border of land and Reef surrounding this lake like a wall appeared to be
of a Bow-like figure, for which reason I named it Bow Island. The South
side, along which we sail'd, was one continued low narrow Beach or Reef
like a Causeway for 4 Leagues and upwards, and lies East by North and
West by South. The East and West Ends and North side of this Island are
wooded-in Groves, and the firm Land appeared disjoined and like a Number
of Islands, and very probably is so. The North-West parts of the Island
we only saw across the Lake, and not very distinct on account of its
great extent, and night coming on before we had run the whole length of
the Island. This description must be imperfect, and the whole Island may
form a Different figure to what I have here described.* (* Hao. It is a
large atoll, thirty miles in length. Cook only saw a portion of it.) The
east end lies in the Latitude of 18 degrees 23 minutes South, and
Longitude 141 degrees 12 minutes West from Greenwich. Variation 5 degrees
38 minutes East. This Island is Inhabited; we not only saw smook in
Different Parts, but people also. At Noon saw Land to the Westward. Wind
east; course North 85 degrees West; distance 94 miles; latitude 18
degrees 19 minutes South, longitude 142 degrees 29 minutes West.

Friday, 7th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy. At 1/2 past 2 p.m. got up with the
East end of the Land seen yesterday at Noon, and which proved to be an
assemblage of Islands join'd together by Reef, and extending themselves
North-West by North and South-East by South in 8 or 9 Leagues and of
various breadths; but there appeared to be a total Seperation in the
middle by a Channell of half a Mile broad, and on this account they are
called the two Groups.* (* Marokau and Ravahare. Two atolls close
together.) The South Eastermost of them lies in the Latitude of 18
degrees 12 minutes and Longitude of 142 degrees 42 minutes West from
Greenwich, and West 1/2 North distant 25 Leagues from the West end of Bow
Island. We ranged along the South-West side of this Island, and hauled
into a Bay which lies to the North-West of the Southermost point of them,
and where there appeared to be Anchorage and the Sea was smooth and not
much Surf on the Shore; but we found no ground with 100 fathoms 3/4 of a
Mile from the Shore, and nearer we did not go. Here several of the
Inhabitants assembled together with their Canoes, with a design, as we
thought, to come off to us, as they hauld one of them over the reef
seemingly for that purpose; but after waiting near 1/2 an hour, and they
not attempting to come, we bore away and made Sail, and presentley the
Canoe put off after us; but, as we did not stop, they soon went back
again. They were in all respects like those we had seen on Lagoon Island,
and Armed with Clubs and long Pikes like them. At 1/2 past 6 a.m. Saw a
small Island to the Northward, hauled our wind for it, and soon got close
in with it. It is about 3 or 4 Miles in Circuit, and very low, with a
Pond in the Middle. There is some wood upon it, but no inhabitants but
Birds, and for this reason is called Bird Island.* (* Reitoru.) It lies
in the latitude 17 degrees 48 minutes and longitude 143 degrees 35
minutes West, and West 1/2 North 10 Leagues from the West end of the two
Groups. The birds we saw were Men-of-War Birds and several other sorts.
Wind East; course North 66 degrees West; distance 66 miles; latitude 17
degrees 48 minutes South, longitude 143 degrees 31 minutes West.

Saturday, 8th. Fresh Trade and pleasant weather, but about noon had a few
flying showers of rain. Variation 6 degrees 32 minutes East. Wind East by
South and East; course North 87 degrees West; distance 100 miles;
latitude 17 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 145 degrees 16 minutes

Sunday, 9th. A steady fresh gale and pleasant weather. At 2 p.m. saw Land
to the Northward, hauld up for it, and found it to be a double range of
low woody islands joined together by reefs, by which means they make one
Island in form of an Ellipsis or Oval, in the Middle of which is a Salt
water lake. The small Islands and reefs circumscribes or bounds this lake
like a Chain; it is therefore called Chain Island.* (* Anaa.) It is in
length, North-West and South-East, about 5 Leagues, and in breadth about
5 Miles. The middle of it lies in the Latitude of 17 degrees 23 minutes
South, and Longitude 145 degrees 54 minutes West, and West by North 45
Leagues from Bird Island. Variation per Several Azimuths 4 degrees 54
minutes East. Wind East by North to North by East; course West,
Northerly; distance 81 miles; latitude 17 degrees 42 minutes South,
longitude 146 degrees 40 minutes West.

Monday, 10th. P.M. moderate breezes and cloudy; in the Night, dark,
cloudy, unsettled weather, with very much Thunder, Lightning, and rain.
A.M. little wind and fair. P.M. variation per Several Azimuths 5 degrees
41 minutes East. At 8 a.m. saw Osnaburg Island* (* Maitea, the
easternmost of the Society Islands, which are all high, and a great
contrast to the low coral atolls of the Paumotus.) (so called by Captain
Wallis, the first discoverer) bearing North-West by West, distance 4 or 5
Leagues. It is a high round Island, and appears to be not above a League
in Circuit, and when it bears as above it looks like a high Crown'd Hatt,
but when it bears North the Top is more like the roof of a House. It lies
in the Latitude of 17 degrees 48 minutes South and Longitude 148 degrees
10 minutes West, and West by South, 44 Leagues, from Chain Island. Wind
North-North-West, variable, North-West by North; course South 13 degrees
West; distance 67 miles; latitude 18 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude
147 degrees 47 minutes West; at noon, Osnaburg Island North by West 1/2
West, 5 leagues.

[Arrive at Tahiti.]

Tuesday, 11th. First part, little wind and cloudy; the remainder, little
wind and very Variable; unsettled weather, with some rain. P.M. took
several Observations of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude of the
ship to be 148 degrees 18 minutes West, and differs but little from that
given by the Log. At 6 a.m. saw King George's Island* (* So named by
Captain Wallis. The native name was ascertained by Cook, who spelt it
Otaheite. Now known as Tahiti. It is the chief island of the Society
Group, and was annexed by the French in 1844.) Extending from West by
South 1/2 South to West by North 1/2 North. It appeared very high and
Mountainous. Wind variable; course North 66 degrees West; distance 54
miles; latitude 17 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 39
minutes West; Osnaburg Island East 1/2 South, 13 leagues.

Wednesday, 12th. Variable, light Airs all these 24 Hours, and Hot sultry
weather. At 5 p.m. King George's Island extending from North-West by West
to South-West, distance 6 or 7 Leagues; and at 6 a.m. it bore from
South-South-West to West by North, being little wind with Calms. Several
of the Natives came off to us in their Canoes, but more to look at us
than anything else. We could not prevail with any of them to come on
board, and some would not come near the ship. Wind variable; course West;
distance 18 miles; latitude 17 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 148
degrees 58 minutes West; at noon, King George's Island, from South to
West by North, 5 leagues.

Thursday, 13th. The first part Cloudy and Squally, with Showers of rain;
remainder, genteel breezes and clear weather. At 4 p.m. the North-East
point of Royal Bay West 1/2 North; run under an easy sail all night, and
had soundings from 22 to 12 fathoms 2 or 3 Miles from the Shore. At 5
a.m. made sail for the bay, and at 7 anchored in 13 fathoms.* (* Matavai
Bay.) At this time we had but very few men upon the sick list, and these
had but slite complaints. The Ship's company had in general been very
healthy, owing in a great measure to the Sour kroutt, Portable Soup and
Malt; the two first were served to the People, the one on Beef Days and
the other on Banyan Days. Wort was made of the Malt, and at the
discretion of the Surgeon given to every man that had the least simptoms
of Scurvy upon him. By this means, and the Care and Vigilance of Mr.
Monkhouse, the Surgeon, this disease was prevented from getting a footing
in the Ship. The Sour Kroutt, the Men at first would not eat it, until I
put it in practice--a method I never once Knew to fail with seamen--and
this was to have some of it dressed every day for the Cabin Table, and
permitted all the Officers, without exception, to make use of it, and
left it to the Option of the men either to take as much as they pleased
or none at all; but this practice was not continued above a Week before I
found it necessary to put every one on board to an allowance; for such
are the Tempers and disposition of Seamen in general that whatever you
give them out of the common way--altho' it be ever so much for their
good--it will not go down, and you will hear nothing but murmurings
against the Man that first invented it; but the moment they see their
superiors set a value upon it, it becomes the finest stuff in the world
and the inventor an honest fellow. Wind easterly.



[At Tahiti.]

NOTE. The way of reckoning the day in Sea Journals is from Noon to Noon,
but as the most material transaction at this Island must hapen in the Day
time, this method will be attended with ill conveniences in inserting the
transactions of each day; for this reason I shall during our stay at this
Island, but no longer, reckon the day according to the Civil account that
is to begin and end at Midnight.

We had no sooner come to an Anchor in Royal Bay, as before-mentioned,
than a great number of the Natives in their Canoes came off to the Ship
and brought with them Cocoa Nuts, etc.; these they seem'd to set a great
value upon. Amongst those that came off to the Ship was an elderly man
whose Name was Owhaa, him the Gentlemen that had been here before in the
Dolphin* (* Lieutenant Gore and Mr. Molineux, the Master.) knew and had
often spoke of as one that had been of Service to them. This man
(together with some others) I took on board and made much of, thinking
that he might on some occasions be of use to us. As our stay at this
place was not likely to be very short, I thought it very necessary that
some order should be observed in Traficking with the Natives, that such
Merchandize as we had on board for that purpose might continue to bear a
proper value, and not leave it to everyone's own particular fancy, which
could not fail to bring on Confusion and Quarrels between us and the
Natives, and would infallibly lessen the value of such Articles as we had
to trafick with. In Order to prevent this, the following rules were
ordered to be Observed; viz.:--

Rules to be observed by every person in or belonging to His Majesty's
Bark the Endeavour for the better Establishing a regular and uniform
Trade for Provisions, etc., with the Inhabitants of George's Island:--

1. To endeavour by every fair means to Cultivate a Friendship with the
Natives, and to treat them with all imaginable humanity.

2. A Proper Person or Persons will be appointed to Trade with the Natives
for all manner of Provisions, Fruits, and other Productions of the Earth;
and no Officer or Seaman or other person belonging to the Ship, excepting
such as are so appointed, shall Trade or offer to Trade for any sort of
Provisions, Fruit or other Productions of the Earth, unless they have my
leave so to do.

3. Every Person employ'd on shore on any duty whatsoever is strictly to
attend to the same, and if by neglect he looseth any of His Arms or
working Tools, or suffers them to be stole, the full value thereof will
be charged against his pay, according to the Custom of the Navy in such
Cases, and he shall receive such further punishment as the nature of the
Offence may deserve.

4. The same Penalty will be inflicted upon every person who is found to
Embezzle, Trade, or Offer to Trade with any of the Ship's Stores of what
Nature so ever.

5. No sort of Iron or anything that is made of Iron, or any sort of Cloth
or other useful or necessary Articles, are to be given in Exchange for
anything but Provisions.


As soon as the Ship was properly secured I went on shore, accompanied by
Mr. Banks and the other Gentlemen,* (* Cook generally uses this term for
the civilians on board.) with a Party of Men under Arms; we took along
with us Owhaa--who took us to the place where the Dolphin watered, and
made signs to us as well as we could understand that we might Occupy that
ground, but it hapned not to be fit for our purpose. No one of the
Natives made the least opposition at our landing, but came to us with all
imaginable Marks of Friendship and Submission. We Afterwards made a
Circuit through the Woods, and then came on board. We did not find the
inhabitants to be numerous, and we imagin'd that several of them had fled
from their habitations upon our Arrival in the Bay.

Friday, 14th. This morning we had a great many Canoes about the Ship; the
most of them came from the Westward, and brought nothing with them but a
few Cocoa Nuts, etc. Two that appeared to be Chiefs we had on board,
together with several others, for it was a hard matter to keep them out
of the Ship, as they Climb like Munkeys; but it was still harder to keep
them from Stealing but everything that came within their reach; in this
they are Prodigious Expert. I made each of these two Chiefs a present of
a Hatchet, things that they seemed mostly to value. As soon as we had
partly got clear of these People I took 2 Boats and went to the Westward,
all the Gentlemen being along with me. My design was to see if there was
not a more commodious Harbour, and to try the disposition of the Natives,
having along with us the 2 Chiefs above mentioned; the first place we
landed at was in great Canoe Harbour (so called by Captain Wallis); here
the Natives Flocked about us in great numbers, and in as friendly a
manner as we could wish, only that they show'd a great inclination to
Pick our Pockets. We were conducted to a Chief, who for distinction sake
we called Hurcules. After staying a short time with him, and distributing
a few Presents about us, we proceeded farther, and came to a Chief who I
shall call Lycurgus; this man entertained us with broil'd fish, Cocoa
Nutts, etc., with great Hospitality, and all the time took great care to
tell us to take care of our Pockets, as a great number of People had
crowded about us. Notwithstanding the care we took, Dr. Solander and Dr.
Monkhouse had each of them their Pockets picked: the one of his spy glass
and the other of his snuff Box. As soon as Lycurgus was made acquainted
with the Theft he dispers'd the people in a moment, and the method he
made use of was to lay hold on the first thing that came in his way and
throw it at them, and happy was he or she that could get first out of his
way. He seem'd very much concern'd for what had hapned, and by way of
recompence offered us but everything that was in his House; but we
refused to accept of anything, and made signs to him that we only wanted
the things again. He had already sent people out after them, and it was
not long before they were return'd. We found the Natives very numerous
wherever we came, and from what we could judge seemed very peacably
inclin'd. About six o'Clock in the evening we return'd on board, very
well satisfied with our little Excursion.

Saturday, 15th. Winds at East during the day, in the Night a light breeze
off the land; and as I apprehend it be usual here for the Trade wind to
blow during a great part of the day from the Eastern Board, and to have
it Calm or light breezes from the land that is Southerly during the night
with fair weather, I shall only mention the wind and weather when they
deviate from this rule. This morning several of the Chiefs we had seen
Yesterday came on board, and brought with them Hogs, Bread fruit, etc.,
and for these we gave them Hatchets, Linnen, and such things as they
valued. Having not met with yesterday a more Convenient situation for
every purpose we wanted than the place we now are, I therefore, without
delay, resolved to pitch upon some spot upon the North-East point of the
Bay, properly situated for observing the Transit of Venus, and at the
same time under the command of the Ship's Guns, and there to throw up a
small fort for our defence. Accordingly I went ashore with a party of
men, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Mr. Green. We took along
with us one of Mr. Banks's Tents, and after we had fix'd upon a place fit
for our purpose we set up the Tent and marked out the ground we intended
to Occupy. By this time a number of the Natives had got collected
together about us, seemingly only to look on, as not one of them had any
weapon, either Offensive or defensive. I would suffer none to come within
the lines I had marked out, excepting one who appeared to be a chief and
old Owhaa--to these 2 men we endeavour'd to explain, as well as we could,
that we wanted that ground to Sleep upon such a number of nights and then
we should go away. Whether they understood us or no is uncertain, but no
one appeared the least displeased at what we was about; indeed the Ground
we had fixed upon was of no use to them, being part of the sandy Beach
upon the shore of the Bay, and not near to any of their Habitations. It
being too late in the day to do anything more, a party with a petty
officer was left to guard the Tent, while we with another party took a
Walk into the woods, and with us most of the natives. We had but just
crossed the River when Mr. Banks shott three Ducks at one shott, which
surprised them so much that most of them fell down as though they had
been shott likewise. I was in hopes this would have had some good effect,
but the event did not prove it, for we had not been long from the Tent
before the natives again began to gather about, and one of them more
daring than the rest pushed one of the Centinels down, snatched the
Musket out of his hand and made a push at him, and then made off, and
with him all the rest. Immediately upon this the Officer ordered the
party to fire, and the Man who took the musket was shot Dead before he
had got far from the Tent, but the musquet was carried quite off when
this hapned. I and Mr. Banks with the other party was about half a Mile
off, returning out of the woods, upon hearing the firing of Muskets, and
the Natives leaving us at the same time, we Suspected that something was
the matter and hastened our march, but before we arrived the whole was
over, and every one of the Natives fled except old Owhaa, who stuck by us
the whole time, and I believe from the first he either knew or had some
suspicion that the People would attempt something at the Tent, as he was
very much against our going into the Woods out of sight of the Tent.
However, he might have other reasons, for Mr. Hicks, being ashore the day
before, the natives would not permit him to go into the Woods. This made
me resolved to go and see whether they meant to prescribe bounds to us or
no. Old Owhaa, as I have said before, was the only one of the Natives
that stayed by us, and by his means we prevail'd on about 20 of them to
come to the Tent and there sit down with us, and Endeavour'd by every
means in our power to Convince them that the Man was kill'd for taking
away the Musket, and that we still would be friends with them. At sunset
they left us seemingly satisfied, and we struck our Tent and went on

Sunday, 16th. This day worked the Ship nearer the Shore and moored her in
such a manner as to command all the shore of the North-East part of the
Bay, but more particularly the place where we intended to Erect a Fort.
Punished Richard Hutchins, seaman, with 12 lashes for disobeying
commands. Several of the Natives came down to the shore of the Bay, but
not one of them came off to the Ship during the whole day. In the evening
I went on shore with only a Boat's crew and some of the Gentlemen. The
Natives gathered about us to the Number of about 30 or 40, and brought us
Cocoa Nuts, etc., and seemed as friendly as ever.

Monday, 17th. At two o'Clock this morning, departed this life, Mr. Alex
Buchan, Landskip Draftsman to Mr. Banks, a Gentleman well skill'd in his
profession and one that will be greatly missed in the Course of this
Voyage. He had long been subject to a disorder in his Bowels, which had
more than once brought him to the very point of Death, and was at one
time subject to fits, of one of which he was taken on Saturday morning;
this brought on his former disorder, which put a Period to his life. Mr.
Banks thought it not so advisable to Inter the Body ashore in a place
where we were utter strangers to the Custom of the Natives on such
occasions; it was therefore sent out to sea and committed to that Element
with all the decency the Circumstance of the place would admit of. This
morning several of the Chiefs from the westward made us a Visit: they
brought with them Emblems of Peace, which are Young Plantain Trees. These
they put on board the Ship before they would venture themselves. They
brought us a present of 2 Hogs (an Article we find here very Scarce) and
some Bread Fruit; for these they had Hatchets and other things. In the
afternoon we set up one of the Ship's Tents ashore, and Mr. Green and
myself stay'd there the night to observe an eclipse of Jupiter's first
Satilite, which we was hinder'd from seeing by Clouds.

Tuesday, 18th. Cloudy weather with some showers of rain. This morning
took as many people out of the Ship as could possibly be spared, and set
about Erecting a Fort. Some were employ'd in throughing up intrenchment,
while others was cutting facines, Picquets, etc. The Natives were so far
from hindering us that several of them assisted in bringing the Picquets
and facines out of the woods, and seemed quite unconcern'd at what we was
about. The wood we made use of for this occasion we purchased of them,
and we cut no Tree down before we had first obtained their Consent. By
this time all the Ship's sails were unbent and the Armourer's Forge set
up to repair the Ironwork, etc. Served fresh Pork to the Ship's Company
to-day for the first time. This is like to be a very scarce Article with
us, but as to Bread fruit, Cocoa Nutts and Plaintains, the Natives supply
us with as much as we can destroy.

Wednesday, 19th. This morning Lycurgus, whose real name is
Toobouratomita, came with his family from the Westward in order, from
what we could understand, to live near us. He brought with him the cover
of a House, with several other Materials for building one. We intend to
requite the confidence this man seems to put in us by treating him with
all imaginable kindness. Got on shore some Empty Casks, which we placed
in a double row along the Bank of the River, by way of a breast work on
that side.

Thursday, 20th. Wind at South-East and Squally, with rain. All hands
employ'd on shore, and nothing remarkable, excepting a Hog weighing about
90 pound was brought alongside the Ship for Sale, but those who brought
it would not part with it for anything we could offer them but a
Carpenter's broad axe, and this was what we could not part with; they
carried it away. Thus we see those very People who but 2 years ago
prefer'd a spike Nail to an Axe of any Sort, have so far learnt the use
of them that they will not part with a Pig of 10 or 12 pounds weight for
anything under a Hatchet, and even those of an inferior or small sort are
of no great esteem with them, and small Nails such as 10 penny, 20 penny,
or any under 40 penny, are of no value at all; but beads, particularly
white cut glass beads, are much valued by them. Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander lays ashore to-night for the first time, their Markee's being
set up within the Walls of the Fort and fit for their reception.

Friday, 21st. Got the Copper Oven ashore and fixed it in the bank of the
breastwork. Yesterday, as Mr. Green and Dr. Monkhouse were taking a walk,
they happened to meet with the Body of the Man we had shott, as the
Natives made them fully understand; the manner in which the body was
interred being a little extraordinary. I went to-day, with some others,
to see it. Close by the House wherein he resided when living was built a
small shed, but whether for the purpose or no I cannot say, for it was in
all respects like some of the Sheds or Houses they live in. This shed was
about 14 or 16 feet long, 10 or 12 broad, and of a proportionable height.
One end was wholy open, the other end and two sides was partly inclosed
with a kind of wicker'd work. In this Shed lay the Corps, upon a Bier or
frame of wood, with a matted bottom, like a Cott frame used at Sea, and
Supported by 4 Posts about 5 feet from the Ground. The body was cover'd
with a Matt, and over that a white Cloth; alongside of the Body lay a
wooden Club, one of their Weapons of War. The Head of the Corps lay next
the close end of the Shed, and at this end lay 2 Cocoa Nutt Shells, such
as they sometimes use to carry water in; at the other end of the Shed was
a Bunch of Green leaves, with some dry'd twigs tied all together and
stuck in the Ground, and a stone lying by them as big as a Cocoa Nutt.
Near to these lay a young Plaintain Tree, such as they use as Emblems of
Peace, and by it lay a stone Axe. At the open end of the Shed was stuck
upwright in the ground the Stem of a Plaintain Tree about 5 feet high, on
the Top of which stood a Cocoa Nutt shell full of fresh water, and on the
side of the post hung a small Bag, wherein was a few pieces of Bread
Fruit roasted ready for eating. Some of the pieces were fresh and others
Stale. The Natives did not seem to like that we should go near the body,
and stood at a little distance themselves while we examin'd these
matters, and appeared to be pleased when we came away. It certainly was
no very agreeable place, for it stunk intollerably, and yet it was not
above 10 yards from the Huts wherein several of the living resided. The
first day we landed we saw the Skeleton of a human being laying in this
manner under a shade that was just big enough to cover it, and some days
after that, when some of the Gentlemen went with a design to examine it
more narrowly, it was gone. It was at this time thought that this manner
of interring their Dead was not common to all ranks of People, as this
was the first we had seen Except the Skeleton just mentioned; but various
were the opinions concerning the Provisions, etc., laid about the Dead.
Upon the whole, it should seem that these people not only believe in a
Supreem being, but in a future state also, and this must be meant either
as an Offering to some Deitie or for the use of the Dead in the other
world; but this latter is not very probable, as there appeared to be no
Priest Craft in the thing, for whatever Provisions were put there it
appeared very plain to us that there it remain'd until it consumed away
of itself. It is most likely that we shall see more of this before we
leave the Island, but if it is a Religious ceremony we may not be able to
understand it, for the Misteries of most Religions are very Dark and not
easily understood, even by those who profess them.

Saturday, 22nd, to Thursday, 27th. Nothing worthy of Note Hapned. The
people were Continually at work upon the Fort,* (* Near the site of this
Fort is still a Tamarind Tree, planted by Captain Cook. All visitors to
Tahiti go to see "Cook's Tamarind.") and the Natives were so far
reconciled to us that they rather assisted us than not. This day we
mounted 6 Swivels at the Fort, which was now nearly finished. This struck
the Natives with some fear, and some fishermen who lived upon the point
moved farther off, and old Owhaa told us by signs that after 4 days we
should fire Great Guns from the Ship. There were some other Circumstances
co-operated with this man's prophecy, whether an opinion hath prevailed
amongst them that after that time we intend to fire upon them, or that
they intend to Attack us, we know not: the first we do not intend unless
the latter takes place, which is highly improbable.

Friday, 28th. This morning a great number of the natives came to us in
their Canoes from differant parts of the Island, several of whom we had
not seen before. One of these was the Woman called by the Dolphins the
Queen of this Island; she first went to Mr. Banks's tent at the fort,
where she was not known, till the Master, happening to go ashore, who
knew her, and brought her on board with 2 Men and several Women, who
seem'd to be all of her family. I made them all some presents or other,
but to Oberiea (for that is this Woman's name) I gave several things, in
return for which, as soon as I went on shore with her, she gave me a Hog
and several Bunches of plaintains. These she caused to be carried from
her Canoes up to the Fort in a kind of Procession, she and I bringing up
the rear. This Woman is about 40 years of Age, and, like most of the
other Women, very Masculine. She is head or chief of her own family or
Tribe, but to all appearance hath no Authority over the rest of the
Inhabitants, whatever she might have when the Dolphin was here. Hercules,
whose real Name is Tootaha, is, to all appearance, the Chief Man of the
Island, and hath generally visited us twice a week since we have been
here, and came always attended by a number of Canoes and people; and at
those times we were sure to have a supply, more or less, of everything
the Island afforded, both from himself and from those that came with him,
and it is a Chance thing that we get a Hog at any other time. He was with
us at this Time, and did not appear very well pleased at the Notice we
took of Oberiea.

Saturday, 29th. This day got the 4 guns out of the Hold, and Mounted 2 of
them on the Quarter Deck and the other 2 in the Fort on the Bank of the

Sunday, 30th. This being the day that Owhaa told us that we should fire
our Guns, no one of us went from the Fort; however, the day passed over
without any Visible alteration in the behaviour of any one of the

[May 1769.]

Monday, 1st May. This morning Tootaha came on board the Ship, and was
very Desireous of seeing into every Chest and Drawer that was in the
Cabin. I satisfied his curiosity so far as to open most of those that
belong'd to me. He saw several things that he took a fancy to, and
collected them together; but at last he Cast his eyes upon the Adze I had
from Mr. Stephens* (* The Secretary of the Admiralty.) that was made in
imitation of one of their Stone Adzes or Axes.* (* The stone adzes of
Tahiti were of excellent workmanship.) The Moment he lays his hands upon
it he of his own accord put away everything he had got before, and ask'd
me if I would give him that, which I very readily did, and he went away
without asking for any one thing more, which I by experience knew was a
sure sign that he was well pleased with what he had got.

This day one of the Natives, who appeared to be a Chief, dined with us,
as he had done some days before; but then there were always some Women
present, and one or another of them put the Victuals into his Mouth, but
this day there hapned to be none to Perform that Office. When he was
help'd to victuals and desir'd to eat, he sat in the Chair like a
Statute, without once attempting to put a Morsel to his mouth, and would
certainly have gone without his dinner if one of the Servants had not fed
him. We have often found the women very officious in feeding us, from
which it would seem that it is the Custom on some occasions for them to
feed the Chiefs. However, this is the only instance of that kind we have
seen, or that they could not help themselves as well as any of us.

This afternoon we set up the Observatory and took the Astronomical
Quadrant ashore for the first time, together with some other Instruments,
the fort being now finished and made as Tenantable as the time, Nature,
and situation of the Ground and Materials we had to work upon would admit
of. The North and South parts consisted of a Bank of Earth 4 1/2 feet
high on the inside, and a Ditch without, 10 feet broad and 6 feet deep;
on the West side facing the Bay a Bank of Earth 4 feet high, and
Palisades upon that, but no Ditch, the works being at high-water mark. On
the East side upon the Bank of the river was placed a double row of
Casks, and, as this was the weakest side, the 2 four Pounders were
planted there, and the whole was defended, beside these 2 Guns, with 6
Swivels, and generally about 45 Men with small Arms, including the
Officers and Gentlemen who resided ashore. I now thought myself perfectly
secure from anything these people would attempt.

Tuesday, 2nd. This morning, about 9 o'Clock, when Mr. Green and I went to
set up the Quadrant, it was not to be found. It had never been taken out
of the Packing Case (which was about 18 Inches square) since it came from
Mr. Bird, the Maker; and the whole was pretty heavy, so that it was a
matter of Astonishment to us all how it could be taken away, as a
Centinal stood the whole night within 5 Yards of the door of the Tent,
where it was put, together with several other Instruments; but none of
them was missing but this. However, it was not long before we got
information that one of the Natives had taken it away and carried it to
the Eastward. Immediately a resolution was taken to detain all the large
Canoes that were in the Bay, and to seize upon Tootaha and some others of
the principal people, and keep them in Custody until the Quadrant was
produced; but this last we did not think proper immediately to put in
Execution, as we had only Oberiea in our power, and the detaining of her
by force would have alarm'd all the rest. In the meantime, Mr. Banks (who
is always very alert upon all occasions wherein the Natives are
concern'd) and Mr. Green went into the Woods to enquire of Toobouratomita
which way and where the Quadrant was gone. I very soon was inform'd that
these 3 was gone to the Eastward in quest of it, and some time after I
followed myself with a small party of Men; but before I went away I gave
orders that if Tootaha came either to the Ship or the Fort he was not to
be detain'd, for I found he had no hand in taking away the Quadrant, and
that there was almost a Certainty of getting it again. I met Mr. Banks
and Mr. Green about 4 miles from the Fort, returning with the Quadrant.
This was about Sun set, and we all got back to the Fort about 8 o'Clock,
where I found Tootaha in Custody, and a number of the Natives crowding
about the Gate of the Fort. My going into the Woods with a party of Arm'd
men so alarmed the Natives that in the evening they began to move off
with their Effects, and a Double Canoe putting off from the Bottom of the
Bay was ohserv'd by the Ship, and a Boat sent after her. In this Canoe
hapned to be Tootaha, and as soon as our Boat came up with her, he and
all the people that were in the Canoe jump'd overboard, and he only was
taken up and brought on board the Ship, together with the Canoe; the rest
were permitted to swim to the Shore. From the Ship Tootaha was sent to
the Fort, where Mr. Hicks thought proper to detain him until I return'd.
The Scene between Toobouratomita and Tootaha, when the former came into
the Fort and found the latter in Custody, was really moving. They wept
over each other for some time. As for Tootaha, he was so far prepossessed
with the thought that he was to be kill'd that he could not be made
sencible to the Contrary till he was carried out of the Fort to the
people, many of whom Expressed their joy by embracing him; and, after
all, he would not go away until he had given us two Hogs, notwithstanding
we did all in our power to hinder him, for it is very certain that the
Treatment he had meet with from us did not merit such a reward. However,
we had it in our power to make him a present of equal value whenever we

Wednesday, 3rd. Very early this morning Tootaha sent for the Canoe we had
detained yesterday, and in the Afternoon sent a man for an Axe and a
Shirt in return for the Hogs he gave us last night; but as this man told
us that Tootaha would not come near us himself in less than 10 days, we
thought proper not to send them, to try if he would not come himself for
them sooner.

Thursday, 4th. Some people came to the Fort to-day from York Island; one
of them gave us an account of 22 Islands lying in this Neighbourhood. Set
up the 2 Clocks; one in the Tent wherein Mr. Green and I lay, and the
other in the Observatory. This evening Tootaha sent a man again for the
Axe and Shirt, and we sent him word by the same man that Mr. Banks and I
would come and see him to-morrow and bring them along with us, for it now
became necessary that we should take some steps to reconcile this man to
us in order to procure a sufficient supply of Bread fruit, and Cocoa
Nuts, which we have not had for these 2 days past, owing, as we
apprehend, to Tootaha not being reconciled to us, or otherwise the people
take this method to shew their resentment of the Treatment their Chief
meet with.

Friday, 5th. Early this morning Tootaha sent some of his people to put us
in mind of our promise, and these seem'd very uneasy until we set out,
which Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself did about 10 o'clock in the
Pinnace, having one of these men with us. As soon as we came to Appara,
the place where Tootaha resided, we saw a great number of People at the
landing place near his House; one among them, who had a large Turban
about his Head, and a long white stick in his Hand, drove the others from
the landing place by beating them with his Stick, and throwing stones at
them, and at the same time directed us whereabouts to land. After we had
landed he conducted us to the Chief, but in this there was no order,
everyone crowded upon us crying out "Tyo Tootaha," this Tootaha was our
Friend. We found the chief setting in the shade under a large Tree, with
a Circle of old men round him; he made us set down by him, and
immediately asked for the Axe. I then gave him one, together with an
upper Garment made of Broad Cloth after their Fashion, and a Shirt. The
Garment he put on, but the Shirt he gave to the man who first received us
at landing, who was now seated by us, and the Chief seemed desirous that
we should take particular notice of him. By that Time Obaria, and several
other women whom we knew, came and sat down by us. Tootaha did not stay
long before he went away, as we thought to show himself to the people in
his new Dress. He was not gone long before he return'd and took his seat
again for a few minutes, then went away again, as we was told, to order
something to be got for us to Eat, and at this time we gladly would have
gone too, being almost Suffocated with the Crowd that was about us.
However, here we remained for about 10 Minutes longer, when word was
brought us that the Chief wanted us. We were then conducted to our own
Boat, where we found him setting alone under the Awning. He made signs to
us to come to him, which we did, and as many with us as the Boat would
hold. Here he ordered some Bread fruit and Cocoa Nut to be brought, of
both of which we tasted.

After we had set here sometime, a Message was brought to the Chief, who
immediately went out of the Boat, and we was desired to follow, and was
conducted to a large Aria or Court Yard on one side of his House, where
we were entertained with Public wrestling. Tootaha seated himself at one
end of the place, and several of his Principal men sat round him in a
Semicircle. We were desir'd to sit down here likewise, but we rather
chose to walk about. Everything being now ready, several men entered the
Theater, 8, 10, or 12, sometimes more. These walked about in a Stooping
Poster, with their left hand upon their right breast, and with their
Right hand Open struck with a smack their left Arm and fore-arm. In this
manner they walked about until one Challenged another, which was done by
motion and jesture, without speaking one word. The 2 Antagonists would
then meet and endeavour to seize each other by the thighs, but if that
fail'd they would seize each other by the Hair of the Head or wherever
they could, and then Wrestle together until by main Strength the one or
the other was thrown on his back. This was always (Except once) followed
by three Huzzas from some old men who sat in the House, and at the same
time another Company of men would dance for about a Minute, the Wrestlers
all the time continuing their game without taking the least notice of
anything else. The only dexterity the Wrestlers seemed to make use of was
in first seizing each other, for after they had closed it was all decided
by Main strength. It would sometimes happen that neither the one nor the
other could throw his Antagonist; in this Case they would either part by
mutual consent or were parted by others. The Conqueror never exulted over
the Conquer'd, neither did the Conquer'd ever repine at his ill luck, but
the whole was carried on with great good Humour. There were present,
Young and old, near 500 People. The women do not seem to partake of this
diversion, only some few of the Principal ones were present, and that
appeared to be owing to us being there.

After this was over we were given to understand that we were to go to
Dinner, and were desired to follow Tootaha, who led us into our own Boat,
and soon after came a small Pig ready roasted, with some Bread Fruit and
Cocoa Nuts. Here we thought we were to have dined, but Tootaha, after
waiting about 10 Minutes, made signs to us to put off the Boat and go a
Board, which we did, and bring him and Toobouratomida along with us. As
soon as we got on board we all dined on the Cheer the Chief had provided.
We soon found the good effects of having made friends with this man, for
it was no sooner known to the Natives that he was on board the Ship than
they brought Bread Fruit, Cocoa Nuts, etc., to the Fort.

Saturday, 6th; Sunday, 7th. Nothing remarkable, only that the Natives
supply us with as much bread fruits and Cocoa Nuts as we can destroy.

Monday, 8th. Early this morning the Master went to the Eastward in the
Pinnace to try if he could procure some Hogs and Fowls from that Quarter;
but he return'd in the evening without success. He saw but very few, and
those the inhabitants pretended belonged to Tootaha; so great is this
man's influence or authority over them that they dare part with nothing
without his Consent, or otherwise they use his Name to Excuse themselves
from parting with the few they have, for it is very certain these things
are in no great plenty with them.

Tuesday, 9th; Wednesday, 10th; Thursday, 11th. Nothing remarkable hapned
for these three days. Oberiea, the Dolphin's queen, made us a Visit for
the first time since the Quadrant was Stolen. She introduced herself with
a Small Pig, for which she had a Hatchet, and as soon as she got it she
Lugg'd out a Broken Axe, and several pieces of Old Iron. These, I
believe, she must have had from the Dolphin; the Axe she wanted to be
mended, and Axes made of the old iron. I obliged her in the first, but
excused myself in the latter: since the Natives had seen the Forge at
work they have frequently brought pieces of Iron to be made into one sort
of Tool or other, which hath generally been done whenever it did not
hinder our own work--being willing to Oblige them in everything in my
power. These Pieces of old Iron the Natives must have got from the
Dolphin, as we know of no other Ship being here;* (* M. de Bougainville,
in the French ships La Boudeuse and L'Etoile, had visited Tahiti the year
before, after its discovery by the Dolphin. He was unfortunate in his
choice of anchorage, and his ships lost anchors and got into various
difficulties. The crews were also much afflicted with scurvy.) and very
probable some from us, for there is no species of Theft they will not
commit to get this Article, and I may say the same of the common Seamen
when in these parts.

Friday, 12th. Cloudy weather with Showers of rain. This morning a Man and
2 Young Women, with some others, came to the Fort, whom we had not seen
before, and as their manner of introducing themselves was a little
uncommon, I shall insert it. Mr. Banks was as usual at the gate of the
Fort trading with the people, when he was told that some Strangers were
coming, and therefore stood to receive them. The Company had with them
about a Dozen young Plantain Trees, and some other small Plants, these
they laid down about 20 feet from Mr. Banks; the people then made a Lane
between him and them. When this was done the Man (who appeared to be only
a Servant to the two Women) brought the young Plantains singly, together
with some of the other plants, and gave them to Mr. Banks, and at the
delivery of each pronounced a Short sentence which we understood not.
After he had thus disposed of all his plantain trees, he took several
pieces of Cloth and spread them on the ground. One of the Young women
then stepp'd upon the Cloth, and with as much innocency as one could
possibly conceive, exposed herself, entirely naked, from the waist
downwards; in this manner she turn'd herself once or twice round, I am
not certain which, then stepped off the cloth, and dropp'd down her
Cloaths. More Cloth was then spread upon the former, and she again
performed the same Ceremony. The Cloth was then rowled up and given to
Mr. Banks, and the two Young women went and Embraced him, which ended the

Saturday, 13th. Nothing worthy of Note hapned during the day; in the
Night one of the Natives attempted to get into the Fort by Climbing over
the Wall, but, being discovered by the Centinel, he made off. The Iron
and Iron Tools daily in use at the Armourer's Forge are Temptations that
these people cannot possibly withstand.

Sunday, 14th. This day we performed divine Service in one of the Tents in
the fort, where several of the Natives attended and behaved with great
decency the whole time. This day closed with an odd sceen at the Gate of
the Fort, where a young Fellow above 6 feet high made love to a little
Girl about 10 or 12 years of Age publickly before several of our people
and a number of the Natives. What makes me mention this is because it
appear'd to be done according to Custom, for there were several women
present, particularly Obariea and several others of the better sort, and
these were so far from showing the least disapprobation that they
instructed the Girl how she should Act her part, who, young as she was,
did not seem to want it.

Monday, 15th. Winds variable and cloudy weather. Last Night one of our
Water Casks was taken away from the outside of the Fort, where they stood
full of water. In the morning there was not one of the Natives but what
knew it was gone; yet, Contrary to what we had always met with on these
Occasions, not one of them would give us any information about it, and I
thought it of too little Consequence to take any methods to Oblige them.
In the evening Toobouratomida and his Wife, and a Man belonging to
Tootaha, would needs lay all Night by the Casks to prevent any more from
being taken away; but, as we had placed a Centinel there, this care of
theirs became unnecessary, and they were prevailed upon to go home; but
before they went away they made signs to the Centinel to keep his Eyes
open. From this it should seem that they knew that an attempt would be
made in the night to take away more, which would have been done had not
the Centinel prevented it.

Tuesday, 16th. Winds Westerly. The morning cloudy, with heavy showers of
rain; the Remainder of the day fair weather. From this day nothing
remarkable hapned until

Monday, 22nd, which was usher'd in with thick Cloudy weather, and
Excessive hard Showers of rain and very much Thunder and Lightning, which
Continued the Greater part of the day.

Tuesday, 23rd. Wind Southerly and fair weather in the Forenoon, but in
the Afternoon Showers. We have had a Scarcity of all sorts of Fruit for
these 2 days past, which we immagine to be owing to the Wet weather.

Wednesday, 24th. Fine clear weather all this day. Having found the Long
boat Leakey for these few days past, we hauld her ashore to-day to stop
the leakes, when, to our great surprise, we found her bottom so much
Eaten by the Worms that it was necessary to give her a new one, and all
the Carpenters were immediately set to work upon her.

Thursday, 25th. Most part of these 24 hours Cloudy, with frequent Showers
of Rain.

Friday, 26th. Some flying showers again. This morning we hauled the
pinnace a Shore to examine her bottom, and had the Satisfaction to find
that not one worm had touched it, notwithstanding she hath been in the
water nearly as long as the Long Boat. This must be owing to the White
Lead with which her bottom is painted, the Long boats being paid with
Varnish of Pine, for no other reason can be assign'd why the one should
be preserved and the other destroy'd, when they are both built on the
Same sort of Wood and have been in equal use. From this Circumstance
alone the Bottom of all Boats sent into Countrys where these worms are
ought to be painted with White Lead, and the Ships supply'd with a good
stock in order to give them a New Coat whenever it's necessary. By this
means they would be preserved free from these destructive Vermin. The
Long boat's Bottom being so much destroy'd appear'd a little
extraordinary, as the Dolphin's Launch was in the Water at this very
place full as long, and no such thing happened to her, as the Officers
that were in the Dolphin say.

Saturday, 27th. Winds variable and fair weather.

Sunday, 28th. Winds Southerly and clear weather. This morning myself, Mr.
Banks, and Dr. Solander set out in the Pinnace to pay Tootaha a Visit,
who had moved from Apparra to the South-West part of the island. What
induced us to make him this visit was a Message we had received from him
some days ago importing that if we would go to him he would give us
several Hogs. We had no great faith in this, yet we were resolved to try,
and set out accordingly. It was Night before we reached the place where
he was, and, as we had left the Boat about half-way behind us, we were
obliged to take up our Quarters with him for the Night. The Chief
received us in a Friendly manner, and a Pig was ordered to be killed and
dressed for Supper; but we saved his Life for the present, thinking it
would do us more service in another place, and we supped on Fruit and
what else we could get. Here was, along with the Chief, Obariea and many
more that we knowd. They all seem'd to be travellers like ourselves, for
neither the Canoes they had along with them, nor the Houses where they
were, were sufficient to contain the one half of them. We were in all Six
of us, and after supper began to look out for Lodgings. Mr. Banks went to
one place, Dr. Solander to another, while I and the other 3 went to a
third. We all of us took as much care of the little we had about us as
possible, knowing very well what sort of People we were among; yet,
notwithstanding all the care we took, before 12 o'clock the most of us
had lost something or other. For my own part I had my Stockings taken
from under my head, and yet I am certain that I was not a Sleep the whole
time. Obariea took charge of Mr. Banks's things, and yet they were stol'n
from her, as she pretended. Tootaha was acquainted with what had hapned,
I believe by Obariea herself, and both him and her made some stir about
it; but this was all meer shew, and ended in nothing. A little time after
this Tootaha came to the Hutt where I and those that were with me lay,
and entertain'd us with a Consort of Musick consisting of 3 Drums, 4
Flutes, and Singing. This lasted about an Hour, and then they retir'd.
The Music and Singing was so much of a piece that I was very glad when it
was over. We stay'd with them till near noon the next day in hopes of
getting some of our things again, and likewise some Hogs; but we were at
last obliged to come away with the one we had saved out of the Fire last
Night, and a promise from Tootaha that he would come to the Ship in a Day
or two with more, and bring with him the things that are lost, a promise
we had no reason to expect he would fulfill. Thus ended our Visit, and we
got to the Fort late in the evening.

Tuesday, 30th. We are now very buisey in preparing our Instruments, etc.,
for the Observations, and Instructing such Gentlemen in the use of them,
as I intend to send to other parts to observe, for fear we should fail

Wednesday, 31st. Late this Evening the Carpenters finished the Long boat.

[June 1769.]

Thursday, June 1st. This day I sent Lieutenant Gore in the Long boat to
York Island* (* Eimeo, westward of, and near to Tahiti.) with Dr.
Monkhouse and Mr. Sporing (a Gentleman belonging to Mr. Banks) to Observe
the Transit of Venus, Mr. Green having furnished them with Instruments
for that purpose. Mr. Banks and some of the Natives of this Island went
along with them.

Friday, 2nd. Very early this morning Lieutenant Hicks, Mr. Clark, Mr.
Pickersgill and Mr. Saunders went away in the Pinnace to the Eastward,
with orders to fix upon some Convenient situation upon this Island, and
there to Observe the Transit of Venus, they being likewise provided with
Instruments for that purpose.

Saturday, 3rd. This day proved as favourable to our purpose as we could
wish. Not a Cloud was to be seen the whole day, and the Air was perfectly
Clear, so that we had every advantage we could desire in observing the
whole of the Passage of the planet Venus over the Sun's Disk. We very
distinctly saw an Atmosphere or Dusky shade round the body of the planet,
which very much disturbed the times of the Contact, particularly the two
internal ones. Dr. Solander observed as well as Mr. Green and myself, and
we differ'd from one another in Observing the times of the Contact much
more than could be expected. Mr. Green's Telescope and mine where of the
same Magnifying power, but that of the Doctor was greater than ours. It
was nearly calm the whole day, and the Thermometer Exposed to the Sun
about the Middle of the day rose to a degree of heat we have not before
met with.

Sunday, 4th. Punished Archd. Wolf with 2 Dozen lashes for Theft, having
broken into one of the Storerooms and stol'n from thence a large quantity
of Spike Nails; some few of them where found upon him. This evening the
Gentlemen that were sent to observe the Transit of Venus, return'd with
success; those that were sent to York Island were well received by the
Natives. That Island appear'd to them not to be very fruitful.

Monday, 5th. Got some of the Bread ashore out of the Bread Room to dry
and Clean. Yesterday being His Majesty's birthday, we kept it to-day and
had several of the Chiefs to dine with us.

Tuesday, 6th. This day and for some days past we have been informd by
several of the Natives that about 10 or 15 months ago Two Ships touched
at this Island and stayed 10 days in a Harbour to the Eastward, called
Ohidea, the Commander's name was Tootteraso,* (* M. de Bougainville, who
laid at Hitiaa from April 6th to April 16th, 1768.)--so at least the
Natives call him--and that one of the Natives, Brother to the Chief of
Ohidea, went away with him. They likewise say these ships brought the
venerial distemper to this Island, where it is now as Common as in any
part of the world, and which the people bear with as little concern as if
they have been accustom'd to it for Ages past. We had not been here many
days before some of our People got this disease, and as no such thing
hapned to any of the Dolphin's people while she was here, that I ever
heard of, I had reason (notwithstanding the improbability of the thing)
to think that we had brought it along with us, which gave me no small
uneasiness, and did all in my power to prevent its progress, but all I
could do was to little purpose, as I was obliged to have the most part of
the Ship's Company ashore every day to work upon the Fort, and a Strong
Guard every Night; and the Women were so very liberal with their
favours--or else Nails, Shirts, etc., were temptations that they could
not withstand, that this distemper very soon spread itself over the
greatest part of the Ship's company, but now I have the satisfaction to
find that the Natives all agree that we did not bring it here.

We have several times seen Iron tools and other Articles with these
people that we suspected came not from the Dolphin, and these they now
say they had from these two Ships.

Wednesday, 7th; Thursday, 8th; Friday, 9th. These three days we have been
employ'd in Careening both sides of the Ship, and paying them with Pitch
and Brimstone. We found her Bottom in good order, and that the worm had
not got into it.

Saturday, 10th. Wind Variable, with very much rain all day and last

Sunday, 11th. Cloudy, with rain last night and this morning; the
remainder of the day fair weather. This day Mr. Banks and I took

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