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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

Part 8 out of 10

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fyrena frōfre (_that she at last should expect from any earl comfort, help,
out of these troubles_), 628; sē þe him bealwa tō bōte gelȳfde (_who
trusted in him as a help out of evils_), 910; him tō anwaldan āre gelȳfde
(_relied for himself on the help of God_), 1273.

ā-lȳsan, w. v., _to loose, liberate_: pret. part. þā wæs of þǣm hrōran
helm and byrne lungre ā-lȳsed (_helm and corselet were straightway loosed
from him_), 1631.


maðelian, w. v. (sermocinari), _to speak, talk_: pret. sg. maðelode, 286,
348, 360, 371, 405, 456, 499, etc.; maðelade, 2426.

maga, w. m., _son, male descendant, young man_: nom. sg. maga Healfdenes
(Hrōðgār), 189, 1475, 2144; maga Ecgþēowes (Bēowulf), 2588: maga (Grendel),
979; se maga geonga (Wīglāf), 2676; Grendeles maga (_a relative of
Grendel_), 2007; acc. sg. þone magan, 944.

magan, v. with pret.-pres. form, _to be able_: pres. sg. I. III. mæg, 277,
478, 931, 943, 1485, 1734, etc.; II. meaht þū, 2048; subj. pres. mǣge,
2531, 2750; þēah ic eal mǣge (_even though I could_), 681; subj. pl. wē
mǣgen, 2655; pret. sg. meahte, 542, 755, 1131, 1660, 2465, etc.; mihte,
190, 207, 462, 511, 571, 657, 1509, 2092, 2610; mehte, 1083, 1497, 1516,
1878; pl. meahton, 649, 942, 1455, 1912, 2374, 3080; mihton, 308, 313,
2684, 3164; subj. pret. sg. meahte, 243, 763, 2521; pres. sg. mæg,
sometimes = licet, _may, can, will_ (fut.), 1366, 1701, 1838, 2865.

mago (Goth. magu-s), st. m., _male, son_: nom. sg. mago Ecglāfes (Hunferð),
1466; mago Healfdenes (Hrōðgār), 1868, 2012.

mago-dryht, st. f., _troop of young men, band of men_: nom. sg. mago-driht,

mago-rinc, st. m., _hero, man_ (preeminently): gen. pl. mago-rinca, hēap,

magu-þegn, mago-þegn, st. m., _vassal, war-thane_: nom. sg. 408, 2758; dat.
sg. magu-þegne, 2080; acc. pl. magu-þegnas, 293; dat. pl. mago-þegnum,
1481; gen. pl. mago-þegna ... þone sēlestan (_the best of vassals_), 1406.

man, mon, st. m.: 1) _man, human being_: nom. sg. man, 25, 503, 534, 1049,
1354, 1399, 1535, 1877, etc.; mon, 209, 510, 1561, 1646, 2282, etc.; acc.
sg. w. mannan, 297, 577, 1944, 2128, 2775; wīd-cūðne man, 1490; dat. sg.
men, 656, 753, 1880; menn, 2190; gen. sg. mannes, 1195 (?), 2081, 2534,
2542; monnes, 1730; nom. pl. men, 50, 162, 233, 1635, 3167; acc. pl. men,
69, 337, 1583, 1718; dat. pl. mannum, 3183; gen. pl. manna, 155, 201, 380,
702, 713, 736, etc.; monna, 1414, 2888.--2) indef. pron. = _one, they,
people_ (Germ. _man_): man, 1173, 1176; mon, 2356, 3177.--Comp.: fyrn-,
glēo-, gum-, iū-, lid-, sǣ-, wǣpned-man.

man. See munan.

man-cyn, st. n., _mankind_: dat. sg. man-cynne, 110; gen. sg. man-cynnes,
164, 2182; mon-cynnes, 196, 1956.

man-drēam, st. m., _human joy, mundi voluptas_: acc. sg. man-drēam, 1265;
dat. pl. mon-drēamum, 1716.

man-dryhten, st. m. (_lord of men_), _ruler of the people, prince, king_:
nom. sg. man-dryhten, 1979, 2648; mon-drihten, 436; mon-dryhten, 2866; acc.
sg. mon-dryhten, 2605; dat. sg. man-drihtne, 1230; man-dryhtne, 1250, 2282;
gen. sg. man-dryhtnes, 2850; mon-dryhtnes, 3150.

ge-mang, st. m., _troop, company_: dat. sg. on gemonge (_in the troop_ [of
the fourteen Gēatas that returned from the sea]), 1644.

manian, w. v., _to warn, admonish_: pres. sg. III. manað swā and myndgað
... sārum wordum (_so warneth and remindeth he with bitter words_), 2058.

manig, monig, adj., _many, many a, much_: 1) adjectively: nom. sg. rinc
manig, 399; geong manig (_many a young man_), 855; monig snellīc sǣ-rinc,
690; medu-benc monig, 777; so 839, 909, 919, 1511, 2763, 3023, etc.; acc.
sg. medo-ful manig, 1016; dat. sg. m. þegne monegum, 1342, 1420; dat. sg.
f. manigre mǣgðe, 75; acc. pl. manige men, 337; dat. pl. manegum māðmum,
2104; monegum mǣgðum, 5; gen. pl. manigra mēda, 1179.--2) substantively:
nom. sg. manig, 1861; monig, 858; dat. sg. manegum, 349, 1888; nom. pl.
manige, 1024; monige, 2983; acc. pl. monige, 1599; gen. pl. manigra,
2092.--3) with depend. gen. pl.: dat. manegum mǣgða, 1772; monegum fīra,
2002; hæleða monegum bold-āgendra, 3112; acc. pl. rinca manige, 729;
(māðm)-ǣhta monige, 1614.

manig-oft, adv., _very often, frequently_, 171 [if manig and oft are to be

man-līce, adv., _man-like, manly_, 1047.

man-þwǣre, adj., _kind, gentle toward men, philanthropic_: nom. sg. superl.
mon-þwǣrust, 3183.

mā, contracted compar., _more_: with partitive gen., 504, 736, 1056.

māðum, māððum, st. m., _gift, jewel, object of value_: acc. sg. māððum,
169, 1053, 2056, 3017; dat. instr. sg. māðme, 1529, 1903; nom. pl. māðmas,
1861; acc. pl. mādmas, 385, 472, 1028, 1483, 1757, 1868, etc.; dat. instr.
pl. māðmum, mādmum, 1049, 1899, 2104, 2789; gen. pl. māðma, 1785, 2144,
2167, etc.; mādma, 36, 41.--Comp.: dryht-, gold-, hord-, ofer-, sinc-,

māðm-ǣht, st. f., _treasure in jewels, costly objects_: gen. pl. māðm-ǣhta,
1614, 2834.

māððum-fæt, st. n., _treasure-casket_ or _cup, costly vessel_: nom. sg.,

māðm-gestrēon, st. n., _precious jewel_: gen. pl. māðm-gestrēona, 1932.

māðum-gifu, st. f., _gift of valuable objects, largess of treasure_: dat.
sg. æfter māððum-gife, 1302.

māðum-sigl, st. n., _costly, sun-shaped ornament, valuable decoration_:
gen. pl. māððum-sigla, 2758.

māðum-sweord, st. n., _costly sword_ (inlaid with gold and jewels): acc.
sg., 1024.

māðum-wela, w. m., _wealth of jewels, valuables_:: dat. sg.
æfter-māððum-welan (_after the sight of the wealth of jewels_), 2751.

māgas. See mǣg.

māge, w. f., _female relative_: gen. sg. Grendles māgan (_mother_), 1392.

mān, st. n., _crime, misdeed_: instr. sg. māne, 110, 979; adv.,
_criminally_, 1056.

mān-for-dǣdla, w. m., _evil-doer, criminal_: nom. pl. mān-for-dǣdlan, 563.

mān-scaða, w. m., _mischievous, hurtful foe, hostis nefastus_: nom. sg.
713, 738, 1340; mān-sceaða, 2515.

māra (comp. of micel), adj., _greater, stronger, mightier_: nom. sg. m.
māra, 1354, 2556; neut. māre, 1561; acc. sg. m. māran, 2017; mund-gripe
māran (_a mightier hand-grip_), 754; with following gen. pl. māran ...
eorla (_a more powerful earl_), 247; fem. māran, 533, 1012; neut. māre,
518; with gen. pl. morð-beala māre _(more, greater, deeds of murder_), 136;
gen. sg. f. māran, 1824.

mǣst (superl. of micel, māra), _greatest, strongest_: nom. sg. neut. (with
partitive gen.), mǣst, 78, 193; fem. mǣst, 2329; acc. sg. fem. fǣhðe mǣste,
459; mǣste ... worolde wynne (_the highest earthly pleasure_), 1080; neut.
n. (with partitive gen.) mǣst mǣrða, 2646; hond-wundra mǣst, 2769;
bǣl-fȳra mǣst, 3144; instr. sg. m. mǣste cræfte, 2182.

mæcg. See mecg.

mægð, st. f., _wife, maid, woman_: nom. sg., 3017; gen. pl. mægða hōse
(_accompanied by her maids of honor_), 925; mægða, 944, 1284.

mægen, st. n.: 1) _might, bodily strength, heroic power_: acc. sg. mægen,
518, 1707; instr. sg. mægene, 780(?), 2668; gen. sg. mægenes, 418, 1271,
1535, 1717, etc.; mægnes, 671, 1762; mægenes strang, strengest (_great in
strength_), 1845, 196; mægenes rōf (id.), 2085.--2) _prime, flower_ (of a
nation), _forces available in war_: acc. sg. swā hē oft (i.e. etan) dyde
mægen Hrēðmanna (_the best of the Hreðmen_), 445; gen. sg. wið manna hwone
mægenes Deniga (_from(?) any of the men of the Danes_), 155.--Comp.

mægen-āgend, pres. part., _having great strength, valiant_: gen. pl.
-āgendra, 2838.

mægen-byrðen, st. f., _huge burthen_: acc. sg. mægen-byrðenne, 3092; dat.
(instr.) sg., 1626.

mægen-cræft, st. m., _great, hero-like, strength_: acc. sg., 380.

mægen-ellen, st. n. (the same), acc. sg., 660.

mægen-fultum, st. m., _material aid_: gen. pl. næs þæt þonne mǣtost
mægen-fultuma (_that was not the least of strong helps_, i.e. the sword
Hrunting), 1456.

mægen-rǣs, st. m., _mighty attack, onslaught_: acc. sg., 1520.

mægen-strengo, st. f., _main strength, heroic power_: acc. sg., 2679.

mægen-wudu, st. m., _might-wood_, i.e. the spear, lance: acc. sg., 236.

mæst, st. m., _mast_: nom. sg., 1899; dat. sg. be mæste (_beside the
mast_), 36; _to the mast_, 1906.

mǣðum. See māðum, hyge-mǣðum.

mǣg, st. m., _kinsman by blood_: nom. sg. mǣg, 408, 738, 759, 814, 915,
1531, 1945, etc; (_brother_), 468, 2605? acc. sg. mǣg (_son_), 1340;
(_brother_), 2440, 2485, 2983; dat. sg. mǣge, 1979; gen. sg. mǣges, 2629,
2676, 2699, 2880; nom. pl. māgas, 1016; acc. pl. māgas, 2816; dat. pl.
māgum, 1179, 2615, 3066; (_to brothers_), 1168; mǣgum, 2354; gen. pl. māga,
247, 1080, 1854, 2007, 2743.--Comp.: fæderen-, hēafod-, wine-mǣg.

mǣg-burh, st. f., _borough of blood-kinsmen, entire population united by
ties of blood_; (in wider sense) _race, people, nation_: gen. sg.
lond-rihtes ... þǣre mǣg-burge (_of land possessions among the people_,
i.e. of the Gēatas), 2888.

mǣgð, st. f., _race, people_: acc. sg. mǣgðe, 1012; dat. sg. mǣgðe, 75;
dat. pl. mǣgðum, 5; gen. pl. mǣgða, 25, 1772.

mǣg-wine, st. m., _blood kinsman, friend_, 2480 (nom. pl.).

mǣl, st. n.: l) _time, point of time_: nom. sg. 316; þā wæs sǣl and mǣl
(_there was_ [appropriate] _chance and time_), 1009; acc. sg. mǣl, 2634;
instr. pl. ǣrran mǣlum, 908, 2238, 3036; gen. pl. mǣla, 1250; sǣla and
mǣla, 1612; mǣla gehwylce (_each time, without intermission_), 2058.--2)
_sword, weapon_: nom. sg. brōden (brogden) mǣl (_the drawn sword_), 1617,
1668 (cf. Grimm, Andreas and Elene, p. 156).--3) _mole, spot,
mark_.--Comp.: grǣg-, hring-, sceaðen-, wunden-mǣl.

mǣl-cearu, st. f., _long-continued sorrow, grief_: acc. sg. mǣl-ceare, 189.

mǣl-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, appointed time_: acc. pl. ie on earde bād
mǣl-gesceafta (_awaited the time allotted for me by fate_), 2738.

mǣnan, w. v., with acc. in the sense of (1) _to remember, mention,
proclaim_: inf. mǣnan, 1068; pret. part. þǣr wæs Bēowulfes mǣrðo mǣned,
858.--2) _to mention sorrowfully, mourn_: inf. 3173; pret. sg. giohðo mǣnde
(_mourned sorrowfully_), 2268; pret. pl. mǣndon, 1150, 3150.

ge-mǣnan (see mān), w. v. with acc., _to injure maliciously, break_: subj.
pret. pl. ge-mǣnden, 1102.

ge-mǣne, adj., _common, in common_: nom. sg. gemǣne, 2474; þǣr unc hwīle
wæs hand gemǣne (i.e. in battle), 2138; sceal ūrum þæt sweord and helm bām
gemǣne (i.e. wesan), 2661; nom. pl. gemǣne, 1861; dat. pl. þæt þām folcum
sceal ... sib gemǣnum (attraction for gemǣne, i.e. wesan), 1858; gen. pl.
unc sceal (i.e. wesan) fela māðma gemǣnra (_we two shall share many
treasures together_), 1785.

mǣrðu, st. f.: 1) _glory, a heroes fame_: nom. sg. 858; acc. sg. mǣrðo,
660, 688; acc. pl. mǣrða, 2997; instr. pl. mǣrðum (_gloriously_), 2515:
gen. pl. mǣrða, 504, 1531.--2) _deed of glory, heroism_: acc. sg. mǣrðo,
2135; gen. pl. mǣrða, 408, 2646.--Comp. ellen-mǣrðu.

mǣre, adj., _memorable; celebrated, noble; well known, notorious_: nom. sg.
m. mǣre, 103, 129, 1716, 1762; se mǣra, 763, 2012, 2588; also as vocative
m. se mǣra, 1475; nom. fem. mǣru, 2017; mǣre, 1953; neut. mǣre, 2406; acc.
sg. m. mǣrne, 36, 201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2789, 3099; neut. mǣre, 1024;
dat. sg. mǣrum, 345, 1302, 1993, 2080, 2573; tō þǣm mǣran, 270; gen. sg.
mǣres, 798; mǣran, 1730; nom. pl. mǣre, 3071; superl. mǣrost, 899,--Comp.:
fore-, heaðo-mǣre.

mǣst. See māra.

mǣte, adj., _moderate, small_: superl. nom. sg. mǣtost, 1456.

mecg, mæcg, st. m., _son, youth, man_. in comp. hilde-, ōret-mecg,

medla. See on-medla.

medu, st. m., _mead_: acc. sg. medu, 2634; dat. sg. tō medo, 605.

medo-ærn, st. n., _mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-ærn (Heorot), 69.

medu-benc, st. f., _mead-bench, bench in the mead-hall_: nom. sg.
medu-benc, 777; dat. sg. medu-bence, 1053; medo-bence, 1068, 2186;
meodu-bence, 1903.

medu-drēam, st. m., _mead-joy, joyous carousing during mead-drinking_: acc.
sg. 2017.

medo-ful, st. n., _mead-cup_: acc. sg. 625, 1016.

medo-heal, st. f., _mead-hall_: nom. sg., 484; dat. sg. meodu-healle, 639.

medu-scenc, st. m., _mead-can, vessel_: instr. pl. meodu-scencum, 1981.

medu-seld, st. n., _mead-seat, mead-house_: acc. sg., 3066.

medo-setl, st. n., _mead-seat upon which one sits mead-drinking_: gen. pl.
meodo-setla, 5.

medo-stīg, st. f., _mead-road, road to the mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-stīg,

medo-wang, st. m., _mead-field_ (where the mead-hall stood): acc. pl.
medo-wongas, 1644.

meðel, st. n., _assembly, council_: dat. sg. on meðle, 1877.

meðel-stede, st. m., (properly _place of speech, judgment-seat_), here
_meeting-place, battle-field_ (so, also 425, the battle is conceived under
the figure of a parliament or convention): dat. sg. on þǣm meðel-stede,

meðel-word, st. n., _words called forth at a discussion; address_: instr.
pl. meðel-wordum, 236.

melda, w. m., _finder, informer, betrayer_: gen. sg. þæs meldan, 2406.

meltan, st. v. intrans., _to consume by fire, melt or waste away_: inf.,
3012; pret. sg. mealt, 2327; pl. multon, 1121.

ge-meltan, the same: pret. sg. gemealt, 898, 1609, 1616; ne gemealt him se
mōd-sefa (_his courage did not desert him_), 2629.

men. See man.

mene, st. m., _neck ornament, necklace, collar_: acc. sg., 1200.

mengan, w. v., _to mingle, unite, with_, w. acc. of thing: inf. sē þe
mere-grundas mengan scolde, 1450.

ge-mengan, _to mix with, commingle_: pret. part. 849, 1594.

menigu, st. f., _multitude, many_: nom. and acc. sg. māðma menigeo
(_multitude of treasures, presents_), 2144; so, mænigo, 41.

mercels, st. m., _mark, aim_: gen. sg. mercelses, 2440.

mere, st. m., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg. se mere, 1363; acc. sg. on mere, 1131,
1604; on nicera mere, 846; dat. sg. fram mere, 856.

mere-dēor, st. n., _sea-beast_: acc. sg., 558.

mere-fara, w. m., _seafarer_: gen. sg. mere-faran, 502.

mere-fix, st. m., _sea-fish_: gen. pl. mere-fixa (_the whale_, cf. 540,

mere-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom_: acc. sg., 2101; acc. pl. mere-grundas,

mere-hrægl, st. n., _-sea-garment_, i.e., sail: gen. pl. mere-hrægla sum,

mere-līðend, pres. part., _moving on the sea, sailor_: nom. pl.
mere-līðende, 255.

mere-strǣt, st. f., _sea-street, way over the sea_: acc. pl. mere-strǣta

mere-strengo, st. f., _sea-power, strength in the sea_: acc. sg., 533.

mere-wīf, st. n., _sea-woman, mer-woman_: acc. sg. (of Grendel's mother),

mergen. See morgen.

met, st. n., _thought, intention_ (cf. metian = meditari): acc. pl. onsǣl
meoto, 489 (meaning doubtful; see Bugge, Journal 8, 292; Dietrich, Haupt's
Zeits. 11, 411; Körner, Eng. Stud. 2, 251).

ge-met, st. n., _an apportioned share; might, power, ability _: nom. sg.
nis þæt ... gemet mannes nefne mīn ānes (_nobody, myself excepted, can do
that_), 2534; acc. sg. ofer mīn gemet (_beyond my power_), 2880; dat. sg.
mid gemete, 780.

ge-met, adj., _well-measured, meet, good_: nom. sg. swā him gemet þince
(þūhte), (_as seemed meet to him_), 688, 3058. See un-gemete, adv.

metan, st. v., _to measure, pass over_ or _along_: pret. pl. fealwe strǣte
mēarum mǣton (_measured the yellow road with their horses_), 918; so, 514,

ge-metan, the same: pret. sg. medu-stīg gemæt.(_measured, walked over, the
road to the mead-hall_), 925.

metod, st. m. (the measuring, arranging) _Creator, God_: nom. sg., 110,
707, 968, 1058, 2528; scīr metod, 980; sōð metod, 1612; acc. sg. metod,
180; dat. sg. metode, 169, 1779; gen. sg. metodes, 671.--Comp. eald-metod.

metod-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _the Creator's determination, divine purpose,
fate_: acc. sg. -sceaft, 1078.--2) _the Creators glory_: acc. sg.
metod-sceaft sēon (i.e. die), 1181; dat. sg. tō metod-sceafte, 2816.

mēce, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg., 1939; acc. sg. mēce, 2048; brādne mēce,
2979; gen. sg. mēces, 1766, 1813, 2615, 2940; dat. pl. instr. mēcum, 565;
gen. pl. mēca, 2686.--Comp.: beado-, hæft-, hilde-mēce.

mēd, st. f., _meed, reward_: acc. sg. mēde, 2135; dat. sg. mēde, 2147; gen.
pl. mēda, 1179.

ge-mēde, st. n., _approval, permission_ (Grein): acc. pl. ge-mēdu, 247.

mēðe, adj., _tired, exhausted, dejected_: in comp. hyge-, sǣ-mēðe.

mētan, w. v., _to meet, find, fall in with_: with acc., pret. pl. syððan
Æscheres ... hafelan mētton, 1422; subj. pret. sg. þæt hē ne mētte ... on
elran man mundgripe māran (_that he never met, in any other man, with a
mightier hand-grip_), 752.

ge-mētan, with acc., the same: pret. sg. gemētte, 758, 2786; pl. næs þā
long tō þon, þæt þā āglǣcean hȳ eft gemētton (_it was not long after that
the warriors again met each other_), 2593.

ge-mēting, st. f., _meeting, hostile coming together_: nom. sg., 2002.

mēagol, adj., _mighty, immense; formal, solemn_: instr. pl. mēaglum wordum,

mearc, st. f., _frontier, limit, end_: dat. sg. tō mearce (_the end of
life_), 2385.--Comp. Weder-mearc, 298.

ge-mearc, st. n., _measure, distance_: comp. fōt-, mīl-ge-mearc.

mearcian, w. v., _to mark, stain_: pres. ind. sg. mearcað mōrhopu (_will
stain, mark, the moor with the blood of the corpse_), 450.

ge-mearcian, the same: pret. part. (Cain) morðre gemearcod (_murder-marked_
[cf. 1 Book Mos. IV. 15]), 1265; swā wæs on þǣm scennum ... gemearcod ...
hwām þæt sweord geworht wǣre (_engraved for whom the sword had been
wrought_), 1696.

mearc-stapa, w. m., _march-strider, frontier-haunter_ (applied to Grendel
and his mother): nom. sg., 103; acc. pl. mearc-stapan, 1349.

mearh, st. m., _horse, steed_: nom. pl. mēaras, 2164; acc. pl. mēaras, 866,
1036; dat. pl. inst. mēarum, 856, 918; mēarum and māðmum, 1049, 1899; gen.
pl. mēara and māðma, 2167.

mearn. See murnan.

meodu. See medu.

meoto. See met.

meotud. See metod.

meowle, w. f., _maiden_: comp. geō-meowle.

micel, adj., _great, huge, long_ (of time): nom. sg. m., 129, 502; fem.,
67, 146, 170; neut., 772; acc. sg. m. micelne, 3099; fem, micle, 1779,
3092; neut. micel, 270, 1168. The comp. māre must be supplied before þone
in: medo-ærn micel ... (māre) þone yldo beam ǣfre ge-frūnon, 69; instr. sg.
ge-trume micle, 923; micle (_by much, much_); micle lēofre (_far dearer_),
2652; efne swā micle (lǣssa), (_[less] even by so much_), 1284; oftor micle
(_much oftener_), 1580; dat. sg, weak form miclan, 2850; gen. sg. miclan,
979. The gen. sg. micles is an adv. = _much, very_: micles wyrðne gedōn
(_deem worthy of much_, i.e. honor very highly), 2186; tō fela micles (_far
too much, many_), 695; acc. pl. micle, 1349. Compar., see māra.

mid, I. prep. w. dat., instr., and acc., signifying preëminently _union,
community, with_, hence: 1) w. dat.: a) _with, in company, community,
with_; mid Finne, 1129; mid Hrōðgāre, 1593; mid scip-herge, 243; mid
gesīðum (_with his comrades_), 1314; so, 1318, 1964, 2950, etc.; mid his
frēo-drihtne, 2628; mid þǣm lācum (_with the gifts_), 1869; so, 2789, 125;
mid hǣle (_with good luck!_), 1218; mid bǣle fōr (_sped off amid fire_),
2309. The prep. postponed: him mid (_with him, in his company_), 41; _with
him_, 1626; ne wæs him Fitela mid (_was not with him_), 890. b) _with,
among_: mid Gēatum (_among the Gēatas_), 195, 2193, 2624; mid Scyldingum,
274; mid Eotenum, 903; mid yldum (eldum), 77, 2612; mid him (_with, among,
one another_), 2949. In temporal sense: mid ǣr-dæge (_at dawn_), 126.--2)
_with, with the help of, through_, w. dat.: mid ār-stafum (_through his
grace_), 317; so, 2379; mid grāpe (_with the fist_), 438; so, 1462, 2721;
mid his hete-þoncum (_through his hatred_), 475; mid sweorde, 574; so,
1660, 2877; mid gemete (_through, by, his power_), 780; so, 1220, 2536,
2918; mid gōde (_with benefits_), 1185; mid hearme (_with harm, insult_),
1893; mid þǣre sorge (_with [through?] this sorrow_), 2469; mid rihte (_by
rights_), 2057. With instr.: mid þȳ wīfe (_through [marriage with] the
woman_), 2029.--3) w. acc., _with, in community, company, with_: mid his
eorla gedriht, 357; so, 634, 663, 1673; mid hine, 880; mid mīnne
gold-gyfan, 2653.

II. adv., mid, _thereamong, in the company_, 1643; _at the same time,
likewise_, 1650.

middan-geard, st. m., _globe, earth_: acc. sg., 75, 1772; dat. sg. on
middan-gearde, 2997; gen. sg. middan-geardes, 504, 752.

midde, w. f., _middle = medius_: dat. sg. on middan (_through the middle,
in two_), 2706; gen. sg. (adv.) tō-middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

middel-niht, st. f., _midnight_: dat. pl. middel-nihtum, 2783, 2834.

miht, st. f., _might, power, authority_: acc. sg. þurh drihtnes miht
(_through the Lord's help, power_), 941; instr. pl. selfes mihtum, 701.

mihtig, adj.: 1) _physically strong, powerful_: acc. sg. mihtig mere-dēor,
558; mere-wīf mihtig, 1520.--2) _possessing authority, mighty_: nom. sg.
mihtig god, 702, 1717, 1726; dat. sg. mihtigan drihtne, 1399.--Comp.: æl-,

milde, adj., _kind, gracious, generous_: nom. sg. mōdes milde
(_kind-hearted_), 1230; instr. pl. mildum wordum (_graciously_), 1173.
Superl. nom. sg. worold-cyning mannum mildust (_a king most liberal to
men_), 3183.

milts, st. f., _kindness, benevolence_: nom. sg., 2922.

missan, w. v. with gen., _to miss, err in_: pret. sg. miste mercelses
(_missed the mark_), 2440.

missēre, st. n., _space of a semester, half a year_: gen. pl. hund missēra
(_fifty winters_), 2734, 2210; generally, _a long period of time, season_,
1499, 1770; fela missēra, 153, 2621.

mist-hlið, st. n., _misty cliff, cloud-capped slope_: dat. pl. under
mist-hleoðum, 711.

mistig, adj., _misty_: acc. pl. mistige mōras, 162.

mīl-gemearc, st. n., _measure by miles_: gen. sg. mīl-gemearces, 1363.

mīn: 1) poss. pron., _my, mine_, 255, 345, etc.; Hygelāc mīn (_my lord_, or
_king, H._), 2435.--2) gen. sg. of pers. pron. ic, _of me_, 2085, 2534,

molde, w. f., _dust; earth, field_: in comp. græs-molde.

mon. See man.

ge-mong. See ge-mang.

morð-bealu, st. n., _murder, deadly hale_ or _deed of murder_: gen. pl.
morð-beala, 136.

morðor, st. n., _deed of violence, murder_: dat. instr. sg. morðre, 893,
1265, 2783; gen. sg. morðres, 2056; morðres scyldig (_guilty of murder_),

morðor-bed, st. n., _bed of death, murder-bed_: acc. sg. wæs þām yldestan
... morðor-bed strēd (_a bed of death was spread for the eldest_, i.e.
through murder his death-bed was prepared), 2437.

morðor-bealu, st. n., _death-bale, destruction by murder_: acc. sg.
morðor-bealo, 1080, 2743.

morðor-hete, st. m., _murderous hate_: gen. sg. þæs morðor-hetes, 1106.

morgen, morn, mergen, st. m., _morning, forenoon_; also _morrow_: nom. sg.
morgen, 1785, 2125; (_morrow_), 2104; acc. sg. on morgen (_in the
morning_), 838; dat. sg. on morgne, 2485; on mergenne, 565, 2940; gen. pl.
morna gehwylce (_every morning_), 2451.

morgen-ceald, adj., _morning-cold, dawn-cold_: nom. sg. gār morgen-ceald
(_spear chilled by the early air of morn_), 3023.

morgen-lang, adj., _lasting through the morning_: acc. sg. morgen-longne
dæg (_the whole forenoon_), 2895.

morgen-lēoht, st. n., _morning-light_: nom. sg., 605, 918.

morgen-swēg, st. m., _morning-cry, cry at morn_: nom. sg., 129.

morgen-tīd, st. f., _morning-tide_: acc. sg. on morgen-tīde, 484, 818(?)

morn. See morgen.

mōd, st. n.: 1) _heart, soul, spirit, mood, mind, manner of thinking_: nom.
sg., 50, 731; wǣfre mōd (_the flicker ing spirit, the fading breath_),
1151; acc. sg. on mōd (_into his mind_), 67; dat. instr. sg. mōde geþungen
(_of mature, lofty spirit_), 625; on mōde (_in heart, mind_), 754, 1845,
2282? 2528; on hrēoum mōde (_fierce of spirit_), 2582; gen. sg. modes, 171,
811, 1707; modes blīðe (_gracious-minded, kindly disposed_), 436; so, mōdes
milde, 1230; mōdes sēoce (_depressed in mind_), 1604.--2) _boldness,
courage_: nom. and acc. sg., 1058, 1168. 3) _passion, fierceness_: nom.
sg., 549.--Comp. form adj.: galg-, geōmor-, glæd-, gūð-, hrēoh-, sārig-,
stīð-, swīð-, wērig-, yrre-mōd.

mōd-cearu, st. f., _grief of heart_: acc. sg. mōd-ceare, 1993, 3150.

mōd-gehygd, st. f ., _thought of the heart; mind_: instr. pl. mōd-gehygdum,

mōd-ge-þanc, st. n., _mood-thought, meditation_: acc. sg. mōd-ge-þonc,

mōd-giōmor, adj., _grieved at heart, dejected_: nom. sg., 2895.

mōdig, adj., _courageous_: nom. sg., 605, 1644, 1813, 2758; hē þæs (þǣm,
MS.) mōdig wæs (_had the courage for it_), 1509; se mōdega, 814; dat. sg.
mid þām mōdigan, 3012; gen. sg. mōdges, 502; mōdiges, 2699; Gēata lēod
georne truwode mōdgan mægnes (_trusted firmly in his bold strength_), 671;
nom. pl. mōdge, 856; mōdige, 1877; gen. pl. mōdigra, 312, 1889.--Comp,

mōdig-līc, adj., _of bold appearance_: compar. acc. pl. mōdiglīcran, 337.

mōd-lufe, w. f., _hearts affection, love_: gen. sg. þīnre mōd-lufan, 1824.

mōd-sefa, w. m., _thought of the heart; brave, bold temper; courage_: nom.
sg., 349, 1854, 2629; acc. sg. mōd-sefan, 2013; dat. sg. mōd-sefan, 180.

mōd-þracu, st. f., _boldness, courage, strength of mind_: dat. sg. for his
mōd-þræce, 385.

mōdor, f., _mother_: nom. sg., 1259, 1277, 1283, 1684, 2119; acc. sg.
mōdor, 1539, 2140, 2933.

mōna, w. m., _moon_: gen. sg. mōnan, 94.

mōr, st. m., _moor, morass, swamp_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mōr, 1406; dat.
sg. of mōre, 711; acc. pl. mōras, 103, 162, 1349.

mōr-hop, st. n., _place of refuge in the moor, hiding-place in the swamp_:
acc. pl. mōr-hopu, 450.

ge-mōt, st. n., _meeting_: in comp. hand-, torn-ge-mōt.

mōtan, pret.-pres. v.: 1) _power_ or _permission to have something, to be
permitted; may, can_: pres. sg. I., III. mōt, 186, 442, 604; II. mōst,
1672; pl. mōton, 347, 365, 395; pres. subj. ic mōte, 431; III. sē þe mōte,
1388; pret sg. mōste, 168, 707, 736, 895, 1488, 1999, 2242, 2505, etc.; pl.
mōston, 1629, 1876, 2039, 2125, 2248; pres. subj. sg. II. þæt þū hine
selfne gesēon mōste (_mightest see_), 962.--2) _shall, must, be obliged_:
pres. sg. mōt, 2887; pret. sg. mōste, 1940; þǣr hē þȳ fyrste forman dōgore
wealdan mōste, swā him Wyrd ne gescrāf, hrēð æt hilde (_if he must for the
first time that day be victorious, as Fate had denied him victory_, cf.
2681, 2683 seqq.), 2575.

ge-munan, pret.-pres. v., _to have in mind, be mindful; remember, think
of_, w. acc.: pres. sg. hine gearwe geman witena wēl-hwylc (_each of the
knowing ones still remembers him well_), 265; ic þē þæs lēan geman (_I
shall not forget thy reward for this_), 1221; ic þæt eall gemon (_I
remember all that_), 2428; so, 1702, 2043; gif hē þæt eall gemon hwæt ...
(_if he is mindful of all that which_ ...), 1186; ic þæt mǣl gemon hwǣr...
(_I remember the time when_...), 2634; pret. sg. w. gemunde... ǣfen-sprǣce
(_recalled his evening speech_), 759; so, 871, 1130, 1260, 1271, 1291,
2115, 2432, 2607, 2679; sē þæs lēod-hryres lēan ge-munde (_was mindful of
reward for the fall of the ruler_), 2392; þæt hē Eotena bearn inne gemunde
(_that he in this should remember, take vengeance on, the children of the
Eotens_), 1142; so, hond gemunde fǣhðo genōge (_his hand remembered strife
enough_), 2490; ne ge-munde mago Ecglāfes þæt ... (_remembered not that
which_ ...), 1466; pret. pl. helle gemundon in mōd-sefan (_their thoughts_
[as heathens] _fixed themselves on, remembered, hell_), 179.

on-munan, w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to admonish, exhort_: pret. sg.
onmunde ūsic mǣrða (_exhorted us to deeds of glory_), 2641.

mund, st. f., _hand_: instr. pl. mundum, mid mundum, 236, 514, 1462, 3023,

mund-bora, w. m., _protector, guardian, preserver_: nom. sg., 1481, 2780.

mund-gripe, st. m., _hand-grip, seizure_: acc. sg. mund-gripe, 754; dat.
sg. mund-gripe, 380, 1535; æfter mund-gripe (_after having seized the
criminal_), 1939.

murnan, st. v., _to shrink from, be afraid of, avoid_: pret. sg. nō mearn
fore fǣhðe and fyrene, 136; so, 1538; nalles for ealdre mearn (_was not
apprehensive for his life_), 1443.--2) _to mourn, grieve_: pres. part. him
wæs ... murnende mōd, 50; pres. subj., þonne hē fela murne (_than that he
should mourn much_), 1386.

be-murnan, be-meornan, with acc., _to mourn over_: pret. be-mearn, 908,

murn-līce. See un-murn-līce.

mūð-bana, w. m., _mouth-destroyer_: dat. sg. tō mūð-bonan (of Grendel
because he bit his victim to death), 2080.

mūða, w. m., _mouth, entrance_: acc. sg. recedes mūðan (_mouth of the
house, door_), 725.

ge-mynd, st. f., _memory, memorial, remembrance_: dat. pl. tō gemyndum,
2805, 3017. See weorð-mynd.

myhdgian, w. v., _to call to mind, remember_: pres. sg. myndgað, 2058;
pres. part. w. gen. gif þonne Frēsna hwylc ... þæs morðor-hetes myndgiend
wǣre (_were to call to mind the bloody feud_), 1106.

ge-myndgian, w. v. w. acc., _to remember_: bið gemyndgad ... eaforan
ellor-sīð (_is reminded of his son's decease_), 2451.

ge-myndig, adj., _mindful_: nom. sg. w. gen., 614, 869, 1174, 1531, 2083,

myne, st. m.: 1) _mind, wish_: nom. sg., 2573.--2) _love_(?): nē his myne
wisse (_whose_ [God's] _love he knew not_), 169.

ge-mynian, w. v. w. acc., _to be mindful of_: imper. sg. gemyne mǣrðo! 660.

myntan, w. v., _to intend, think of, resolve_: pret. sg. mynte ... manna
cynnes sumne besyrwan (_meant to entrap all_(?) [see sum], _some one of
(?), the men_), 713; mynte þæt hē gedǣlde ... (_thought to sever_), 732;
mynte se mǣra, þǣr hē meahte swā, wīdre gewindan (_intended to flee_), 763.

myrce, adj., _murky, dark_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mōr, 1406.

myrð, st. f., _joy, mirth_: dat. (instr.) sg. mōdes myrðe, 8n.


naca, w. m., _vessel, ship_: acc. sg. nacan, 295; gen. sg. nacan,
214.--Comp.: hring-, ȳð-naca.

nacod, adj., _naked_: nom. and acc. sg. swurd, gūð-bill nacod, 539, 2586;
nacod nīð-draca, 2274.

nalas, nales, nallas. See nealles.

nama, w. m., _name_: nom. sg. Bēowulf is mīn nama, 343; wæs þǣm hæft-mēce
Hrunting nama, 1458; acc. sg. scōp him Heort naman (_gave it the name
Hart_), 78.

nā (from ne-ā), strength, negative, _never, not all_, 445, 567, 1537.

nāh, from ne-āh. See āgan.

nān (from ne-ān), indef. pron., _none, no_: with gen. pl. gūð-billa nān,
804; adjectively, nān ... īren ǣrgōd, 990.

nāt, from ne-wāt: _I know not=nescio_. See witan.

nāt-hwylc (nescio quis, ne-wāt-hwylc, _know not who, which_, etc.), indef.
pron., _any, a certain one, some or other_: 1) w. partitive gen.: nom. sg.
gumena nāt-hwylc, 2234;. gen. sg. nāt-hwylces (þāra banena), 2054; niða
nāt-hwylces(?), 2216; nāt-hwylces hæleða bearna, 2225.--2) adjectively:
dat. sg. in nið-sele nāt-hwylcum, 1514.

næbben, from ne-hæbben (subj. pres.). See habban.

næfne. See nefne.

nægel, st. m., _nail_: gen. pl. nægla (of the finger-nails), 986.

nægled, part., _nailed?, nail-like?, buckled?_: acc. sg. neut. nægled (MS.
gled) sinc, 2024.

næs, st. m., _naze, rock projecting into the sea, cliff, promontory_: acc.
sg. næs, 1440, 1601, 2899; dat. sg. næsse, 2244, 2418; acc. pl. windige
næssas, 1412; gen. pl. næssa, 1361.

næs, from ne-wæs (_was not_). See wesan.

næs, neg. adv., _not, not at all_, 562, 2263.

næs-hlið, st. n., _declivity, slope of a promontory that sinks downward to
the sea_: dat. pl. on næs-hleoðum, 1428.

nǣfre, adv., _never_, 247, 583, 592, 656, 719, 1042, 1049, etc.; also
strengthened by ne: nǣfre ne, 1461.

ge-nǣgan, w. v. w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to attack, press_; pret.
pl. nīða genǣgdan nefan Hererīces (_in combats pressed hard upon H.'s
nephew_), 2207; pret. part. wearð ... nīða genǣged, 1440.

nǣnig (from ne-ǣnig), pron., _not any, none, no_: 1) substantively w. gen.
pl.: nom. sg., 157, 242, 692; dat. sg. nǣnegum, 599; gen. pl. nǣnigra,
950.--2) adjectively: nom. sg. ōðer nǣnig, 860; nǣnig wæter, 1515; nǣnig
... dēor, 1934; acc. sg. nǣnigne ... hord-māððum, 1199.

nǣre, from ne-wǣre (_were not, would not be_). See wesan.

ne, simple neg., _not_, 38, 50, 80, 83, 109, etc.; before imper. ne sorga!
1385; ne gȳm! 1761, etc. Doubled =_certainly not, not even that_: nē gē
... gearwe ne wisson (_ye certainly have not known_, etc.), 245; so, 863;
ne ic ... wihte ne wēne (_nor do I at all in the least expect_), 2923; so,
182. Strengthened by other neg.: nōðer ... ne, 2125; swā hē ne mihte nō ...
(_so that he absolutely could not_), 1509.

nē ... nē, _not ... and not, nor; neither ... nor_, 154-157, 511,
1083-1085, etc. Another neg. may supply the place of the first ne: so, nō
... ne, 575-577, 1026-1028, 1393-1395, etc.; nǣfre ... ne, 583-584; nalles
... nē, 3016-3017. The neg. may be omitted the first time: ǣr nē siððan
(_neither before nor after, before nor since_), 719; sūð nē norð (_south
nor north_), 859; ādl nē yldo (_neither illness nor old age_), 1737; wordum
nē worcum (_neither by word nor deed_), 1101; wiston and ne wēndon (_knew
not and weened not_), 1605.

nefa, w. m., _nephew, grandson_: nom. sg. nefa (_grandson_), 1204; so,
1963; (_nephew_), 2171; acc. sg. nefan (_nephew_), 2207; dat. sg. nefan
(_nephew_), 882.

nefne, næfne, nemne (orig. from ne-gif-ne): 1) subj.: a) with depend.
clause = _unless_: nefne him wītig god wyrd forstōde (_if fate, the wise
God, had not prevented him_), 1057; nefne god sylfa ... sealde (_unless God
himself_, etc.), 3055; næfne him his wlite lēoge (MS. nǣfre) (_unless his
face belie him_), 250; næfne hē wæs māra (_except that he was huger_),
1354; nemne him heaðo-byrne helpe ge-fremede, 1553; so, 2655.--b) w.
follow. substantive = _except, save, only_: nefne sin-frēa (_except the
husband_), 1935; ic lȳt hafo hēafod-māga nefne Hygelāc þec (_have no near
kin but thee_), 2152; nis þæt ēower (gen. pl.) sīð ... nefne mīn ānes,
2534.--2) Prep. with dat., _except_: nemne fēaum ānum, 1082.

ge-nehost. See ge-neahhe.

nelle, from ne-wille (_I will not_). See willan.

nemnan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to name, call_: pres. pl. þone yldestan
ōret-mecgas Bēowulf nemnað (_the warriors call the most distinguished one
Bēowulf_), 364; so inf. nemnan, 2024; pret. pl. nemdon, 1355.--2) _to
address_, as in

be-nemnan, _to pronounce solemnly, put under a spell_: pret. sg. Fin
Hengeste ... āðum be-nemde þæt (_asserted, promised under oath that_ ...),
1098; pret. pl. swā hit oð dōmes dæg dīope benemdon þēodnas mǣre (_put
under a curse_), 3070.

nemne. See nefne.

nerian, ge-nerian, w. v., _to save, rescue, liberate_: pres. sg. Wyrd oft
nereð unfǣgne eorl, 573; pret. part. hæfde ... sele Hrōðgāres ge-nered wið
nīðe (_saved from hostility_), 828.

ge-nesan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to remain over, be preserved_: pret. sg.
hrōf āna genæs ealles ansund (_the roof alone was quite sound_), 1000.--2)
w. acc., _to endure successfully, survive, escape from_: pret. sg. sē þā
sæcce ge-næs, 1978; fela ic ... gūð-rǣsa ge-næs, 2427; pret. part. swā hē
nīða gehwane genesen hæfde, 2398.

net, st. n., _net_: in comp. brēost-, here-, hring-, inwit-, searo-net.

nēdla, w. m., _dire necessity, distress_: in comp. þrēa-nēdla.

nēðan (G. nanþjan), w. v., _to venture, undertake boldly_: pres. part.
nearo nēðende (_encountering peril_), 2351; pret. pl. þǣr git ... on dēop
water aldrum nēðdon (_where ye two risked your lives in the deep water_),
510; so, 538.

ge-nēðan, the same: inf. ne dorste under ȳða gewin aldre ge-nēðan, 1470.
With depend. clause: nǣnig þæt dorste genēðan þæt (_none durst undertake
to_ ...), 1934; pret. sg. hē under hārne stān āna genēðde frēcne dǣde (_he
risked alone the bold deed, venturing under the grey rock_), 889; (ic)
wigge under wætere weorc genēðde earfoð-līce (_I with difficulty stood the
work under the water in battle_, i.e. could hardly win the victory), 1657;
ic genēðde fela gūða (_ventured on, risked, many contests_), 2512; pres.
pl. (of majesty) wē ... frēcne genēðdon eafoð uncūðes (_we have boldly
risked, dared, the monster's power_), 961.

nēh. See nēah.

ge-neahhe, adv., _enough, sufficiently_, 784, 3153; superl. genehost brægd
eorl Bēowulfes ealde lāfe (_many an earl of B.'s_), 795.

nealles (from ne-ealles), adv., _omnino non, not at all, by no means_:
nealles, 2146, 2168, 2180, 2223, 2597, etc.; nallas, 1720, 1750; nalles,
338, 1019, 1077, 1443, 2504, etc.; nalas, 43, 1494, 1530, 1538; nales,

nearo, st. n., _strait, danger, distress_: acc. sg. nearo, 2351, 2595.

nearo, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. f. nearwe, 1410.

nearwe, adv., _narrowly_, 977.

nearo-cræft, st. m., _art of rendering difficult of access?,
inaccessibility_ (see 2214 seqq.): instr. pl. nearo-cræftum, 2244.

nearo-fāh, m., _foe that causes distress, war-foe_: gen. sg. nearo-fāges,

nearo-þearf, st. f., _dire need, distress_: acc. sg. nearo-þearfe, 422.

ge-nearwian, w. v., _to drive into a corner, press upon_: pret. part.
genearwod, 1439.

nēah, nēh: 1) adj., _near, nigh_: nom. sg. nēah, 1744, 2729. In superl.
also = _last_: instr. sg. nȳhstan sīðe (_for the last time_), 1204;
nīehstan sīðe, 2512.

2) adv., _near_: feor and (oððe) nēah, 1222, 2871; 3) prep, sǣ-grunde nēah,
564; so, 1925, 2243; holm-wylme nēh, 2412. Compar. nēar, 746.

nēan, adv., _near by, (from) close at hand_, 528; (neon, MS.), 3105;
feorran and nēan, 840; nēan and feorran, 1175, 2318.

ge-nēat, st. m., _comrade, companion_: in comp. bēod-, heorð-genēat.

nioðor. See niðer.

neowol, adj., _steep, precipitous_: acc. pl. neowle, 1412.

nēod, st. f., _polite intercourse regulated by etiquette?, hall-joy?_: acc.
sg. nīode, 2117; inst. (= _joy_), 2216.

nēod-laðu, st. f., _polite invitation; wish_: dat. sg. æfter nēod-laðu
(_according to his wishes_), 1321.

nēosan, nēosian, w. v. w. gen., _to seek out, look for; to attack_: inf.
nēosan, 125, 1787, 1792, 1807, 2075; nīosan, 2389, 2672; nēosian, 115,
1126; nīosian, 3046; pret. sg. nīosade, 2487.

nēotan, st. v., _to take, accept_, w. gen.; _to use, enjoy_: imper. sg.
nēot, 1218.

be-nēotan, w. dat., _to rob, deprive of_: inf. hine aldre be-nēotan, 681;
pret. sg. cyning ealdre bi-nēat (_deprived the king of life_), 2397.

nicor, st. m., _sea-horse, walrus, sea-monster_ (cf. Bugge in Zacher's
Journal, 4, 197): acc. pl. niceras, 422, 575; nicras, 1428; gen. pl.
nicera, 846.

nicor-hūs, st. n., _house_ or _den of sea-monsters_: gen. pl. nicor-hūsa,

nið st. m., _man, human being_: gen. pl. niðða, 1006; niða? (passage
corrupt), 2216.

niðer, nyðer, neoðor, adv., _down, downward_: niðer, 1361; nioðor, 2700;
nyðer, 3045.

nið-sele, st. m., _hall, room, in the deep_ (Grein): dat. sg. [in] nið-sele
nāt-hwylcum, 1514.

nigen, num., _nine_: acc. nigene, 575.

niht, st. f. _night_: nom. sg., 115, 547. 650, 1321, 2117; acc. sg. niht,
135, 737, 2939; gystran niht (_yester-night_), 1335; dat. sg. on niht, 575,
684; on wanre niht, 703; gen. sg. nihtes hwīlum (_sometimes at night, in
the hours of the night_), 3045; as adv. = _of a night, by night_, G.
nachts, 422, 2274; dæges and nihtes, 2270; acc. pl. seofon niht
(_se'nnight, seven days_, cf. Tac. Germ, 11), 517; dat. pl. sweartum
nihtum, 167; deorcum nihtum, 275, 221; gen. pl. nihta, 545, 1366.--Comp.:
middel-, sin-niht.

niht-bealu, st. n., _night-bale, destruction by night_: gen. pl.
niht-bealwa, 193.

niht-helm, st. m., _veil_ or _canopy of night_: nom. sg., 1790.

niht-long, adj., _lasting through the night_: acc. sg. m. niht-longne fyrst
(_space of a night_), 528.

niht-weorc, st. n., _night-work, deed done at night_: instr. sg.
niht-weorce, 828.

niman, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to take, hold, seize, undertake_: pret. sg. nam
þā mid handa hige-þīhtigne rinc, 747; pret. pl. wē . . . nīode nāman,
2117.--2) _to take, take away, deprive of_: pres. sg. sē þe hine dēað nimeð
(_he whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 447; nymeð, 1847; nymeð nȳd-bāde,
599; subj. pres. gif mec hild nime, 452, 1482; pret. sg. ind. nam on
Ongenþīo īren-byrnan, 2987; ne nom hē ... māðm-ǣhta mā (_he took no more of
the rich treasures_), 1613; pret. part. þā wæs ... sēo cwēn numen (_the
queen carried off_), 1154.

be-niman, _to deprive of_: pret. sg. oð þæt hine yldo benam mægenes wynnum
(_till age bereft him of joy in his strength_), 1887.

for-niman, _to carry off_: pres. sg. þē þā dēað for-nam (_whom death
carried off_), 488; so, 557, 696, 1081, 1124, 1206, 1437, etc. Also, dat.
for acc.: pret. pl. him īrenna ecge fornāmon, 2829.

ge-niman: 1) _to take, seize_: pret. sg. (hine) be healse ge-nam (_clasped
him around the neck, embraced him_), 1873.--2) _to take, take away_: pret.
on reste genam þrītig þegna, 122; hēo under heolfre genam cūðe folme, 1303;
segn ēac genom, 2777; þā mec sinca baldor ... æt mīnum fæder genam (_took
me at my father's hands, adopted me_), 2430; pret. part. genumen, 3167.

ge-nip, st. n., _darkness, mist, cloud_: acc. pl. under næssa genipu, 1361;
ofer flōda genipu, 2809.

nis, from ne-is (_is not_): see wesan.

nīwe, nīowe, adj., _new, novel; unheard-of_: nom. sg. swēg up ā-stāg nīwe
geneahhe (_a monstrous hubbub arose_), 784; beorh ... nīwe (_a
newly-raised(?) grave-mound_), 2244; acc. sg. nīwe sibbe (_the new
kinship_), 950; instr. sg. nīwan stefne (properly, novā voce; here = de
novo, iterum, _again_), 2595; nīowan stefne (_again_), 1790; gen. pl. nīwra
spella (_new tidings_), 2899.

ge-nīwian, w. v., _to renew_: pret. part. ge-nīwod, 1304, 1323; genīwad,

nīw-tyrwed, pret. part., _newly-tarred_: acc. sg. nīw-tyrwedne (-tyrwydne,
MS.) nacan, 295.

nīð, st. m., properly only _zeal, endeavor_; then _hostile endeavor,
hostility, battle, war_: nom. sg., 2318; acc. sg. nīð, 184, 276; Wedera nīð
(_enmity against the W., the sorrows of the Weders_), 423; dat. sg. wið
(æt) nīðe, 828, 2586; instr. nīðe, 2681; gen. pl. nīða, 883, 2351, 2398,
etc.; also instr. = _by, in, battle_, 846, 1440, 1963, 2171, 2207.--Comp.:
bealo-, fǣr-, here-, hete-, inwit-, searo-, wæl-nīð.

nīð-draca, w. m., _battle-dragon_: nom. sg., 2274.

nīð-gast, st. m., _hostile alien, fell demon_: acc. sg. þone nīð-gæst (_the
dragon_), 2700.

nīð-geweorc, st. n., _work of enmity, deed of evil_: gen. pl. -geweorca,

nīð-grim, adj., _furious in battle, savage_: nom. sg., 193.

nīð-heard, adj., _valiant in war_: nom. sg., 2418.

nīð-hȳdig, adj., _eager for battle, valorous_: nom. pl. nīð-hȳdige men,

ge-nīðla, w. m., _foe, persecutor, waylayer_: in comp. ferhð-,

nīð-wundor, st. n., _hostile wonder, strange marvel of evil_: acc. sg.,

nīpan, st. v., _to veil, cover over, obscure_; pres. part. nīpende niht,
547, 650.

nolde, from ne-wolde (_would not_); see willan.

norð, adv., _northward_, 859.

norðan, adv., _from the north_, 547.

nose, w. f., _projection, cliff, cape_: dat. sg. of hlīðes nosan, 1893; æt
brimes nosan, 2804.

nō (strengthened neg.), _not, not at all, by no means_, 136, 244, 587, 755,
842, 969, 1736, etc.; strengthened by following ne, 459(?), 1509; nō ... nō
(_neither ... nor_), 541-543; so, nō ... ne, 168. See ne.

nōðer (from nā-hwæðer), neg., _and not, nor_, 2125.

ge-nōh, adj., _sufficient, enough_: acc. sg. fǣhðo genōge, 2490; acc. pl.
genōge ... bēagas, 3105.

nōn, st. f., [Eng. _noon_], _ninth hour of the day, three o'clock in the
afternoon of our reckoning_ (the day was reckoned from six o'clock in the
morning; cf. Bouterwek Scrēadunga, 24 _2_: wē hātað ǣnne dæg fram sunnan
upgange oð ǣfen): nom. sg. nōn, 1601.

nū, adv.: l) _now, at present_, 251, 254, 375, 395, 424, 426, 489, etc.: nū
gȳt (_up to now, hitherto_), 957; nū gēn (_now still, yet_), 2860; (_now
yet, still_), 3169.--2) conj., _since, inasmuch as_: nū þū lungre geong ...
nū se wyrm ligeð (_go now quickly, since the dragon lieth dead_), 2746; so,
2248; þæt þū mē ne forwyrne ... nū ic þus feorran cōm (_that do not thou
refuse me, since I am come so far_), 430; so, 1476; nū ic on māðma hord
mīne bebohte frōde feorh-lege, fremmað gē nū (_as I now..., so do ye_),
2800; so, 3021.

nymðe, conj. w. subj., _if not, unless_, 782; nymðe mec god scylde (_if God
had not shielded me_), 1659.

nyt, st. f., _duty, service, office, employment_: acc. sg. þegn nytte
behēold (_did his duty_), 494; so, 3119.--Comp.: sund-, sundor-nyt.

nyt, adj., _useful_: acc. pl. m. nytte, 795; comp. un-nyt.

ge-nyttian, w. v., _to make use of, enjoy_: pret. part. hæfde eorð-scrafa
ende ge-nyttod (_had enjoyed, made use of_), 3047.

nȳd, st. f., _force, necessity, need, pain_: acc. sg. þurh dēaðes nȳd,
2455; instr. sg. nȳde, 1006. In comp. (like nȳd-maga, consanguineus, in
AEthelred's Laws, VI. 12, Schmid, p. 228; nēd-maga, in Cnut's Laws, I. 7,
ibid., p. 258); also, _tie of blood._--Comp. þrēa-nȳd.

ge-nȳdan, w. v.: 1) _to force, compel_: pret. part. nīðe ge-nȳded
(_forced by hostile power_), 2681.--2) _to force upon_: pret. part. acc.
sg. f. nȳde genȳdde ... gearwe stōwe (_the inevitable place prepared for
each_, i.e. the bed of death), 1006.

nȳd-bād, st. f., _forced pledge, pledge demanded by force_: acc. pl.
nȳd-bāde, 599.

nȳd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade in need_ or _united by ties of blood_: nom.
pl. nȳd-gesteallan, 883.

nȳd-gripe, st. m., _compelling grip_: dat. sg. in nȳd-gripe (mid-gripe,
MS.), 977.

nȳd-wracu, st. f., _distressful persecution, great distress_: nom. sg.,

nȳhst. See nēah.


oððe, conj.: 1) _or; otherwise_, 283, 437, 636, 638, 694, 1492, 1765,
etc.--2) _and_(?), _till_(?), 650, 2476, 3007.

of, prep. w. dat., _from, off from_: 1) _from some point of view_: ge-seah
of wealle (_from the wall_), 229; so, 786; of hefene scīneð (_shineth from
heaven_), 1572; of hlīðes nosan gæstas grētte (_from the cliff's
projection_), 1893; of þām lēoma stōd (_from which light streamed_), 2770;
þǣr wæs māðma fela of feorwegum ... gelǣded (_from distant lands_), 37; þā
cōm of mōre (_from the moor_), 711, 922.--2) _forth from, out of_: hwearf
of earde (_wandered from his home, died_), 56; so, 265, 855, 2472; þā ic of
searwum cōm (_when I had escaped from the persecutions of the foe_), 419;
þā him Hrōðgār gewāt ... ūt of healle (_out of the hall_), 664; so, 2558,
2516; 1139, 2084, 2744; wudu-rēc ā-stāh sweart of (ofer) swioðole (_black
wood-reek ascended from the smoking fire_), 3145; (icge gold) ā-hæfen of
horde (_lifted from the hoard_), 1109; lēt þā of brēostum ... word ūt faran
(_from his breast_), 2551; dyde ... helm of hafelan (_doffed his helmet_),
673; so, 1130; sealdon wīn of wunder-fatum (_presented wine from wondrous
vessels_), 1163; siððan hyne Hæðcyn of horn-bogan ... flāne geswencte
(_with an arrow shot from the horned bow_), 2438; so, 1434. Prep.
postponed: þā hē him of dyde īsern-byrnan (_doffed his iron corselet_),

ofer, prep. w. dat. and acc., _over, above_: 1) w. dat, _over_ (rest,
locality): Wīglāf siteð ofer Bīowulfe, 2908; ofer æðelinge, 1245; ofer
eorðan, 248, 803, 2008; ofer wer-þēode (_over the earth, among mankind_),
900; ofer ȳðum, 1908; ofer hron-rāde (_over the sea_), 10; so, 304, 1287,
1290, etc.; ofer ealowǣge (_over the beer-cup, drinking_), 481.--2) w. acc.
of motion: a) _over_ (local): ofer ȳðe (_over the waves_), 46, 1910; ofer
swan-rāde (_over the swan-road, the sea_), 200; ofer wǣgholm, 217; ofer
geofenes be-gang, 362; so, 239, 240, 297, 393, 464, 471, etc.; ofer bolcan
(_over the gangway_), 231; ofer landa fela (_over many lands_), 311; so,
1405, 1406; ofer hēahne hrōf (_along upon (under?) the high roof_), 984;
ofer eormen-grund (_over the whole earth_), 860; ofer ealle (_over all, on
all sides_), 2900, 650; so, 1718;--606, 900, 1706; ofer borda gebræc
(_over, above, the crashing of shields_), 2260; ofer bord-(scild) weall,
2981, 3119. Temporal: ofer þā niht (_through the night, by night_), 737. b)
w. verbs of saying, speaking, _about, of, concerning_: hē ofer benne spræc,
2725. c) _beyond, over_: ofer mīn ge-met (_beyond my power_), 2880;--hence,
_against, contrary to_: hē ofer willan gīong (_went against his will_),
2410; ofer ealde riht (_against the ancient laws_, i.e. the ten
commandments), 2331;--also, _without_: wīg ofer wǣpen (_war sans,
dispensing with, weapons_), 686;--temporal = _after_: ofer eald-gewin
(_after long, ancient, suffering_), 1782.

ofer-hygd, st. n., _arrogance, pride, conceit_: gen. pl. ofer-hygda, 1741;
ofer-hȳda, 1761.

ofer-māðum, st. m., _very rich treasure_: dat. pl. ofer-māðmum, 2994.

ofer-mægen, st. n., _over-might, superior numbers_: dat. sg. mid
ofer-mægene, 2918.

ofer-þearf, st. f., _dire distress, need_: dat. sg. [for ofer] þea[rfe],

oft, adv., _often_, 4, 165, 444, 572, 858, 908, 1066, 1239, etc.; oft [nō]
seldan, 2030; oft nalles ǣne, 3020; so, 1248, 1888. Compar. oftor, 1580.
Superl. oftost, 1664.

om-, on-. see am-, an-.

ombiht. See ambiht.

oncer. See ancer.

ond. See and.

onsȳn. See ansȳn.

on, prep. w. dat. and acc., signifying primarily _touching on, contact
with_: I. local, w. dat.: a) _on, upon, in at_ (of exterior surface): on
hēah-stede (_in the high place_), 285; on mīnre ēðel-tyrf (_in my native
place_), 410; on þǣm meðel-stede, 1083; so, 2004; on þām holmclife, 1422;
so, 1428; on foldan (_on earth_), 1197; so, 1533, 2997; on þǣre medu-bence
(_on the mead-bench_), 1053; beornas on blancum (_the heroes on the
dapple-greys_), 857, etc.; on ræste (_in bed_), 1299; on stapole (_at,
near, the pillar_), 927; on wealle, 892; on wāge (_on the wall_), 1663; on
þǣm wæl-stenge (_on the battle-lance_), 1639; on eaxle (_on his shoulder_),
817, 1548; on bearme, 40; on brēostum, 552; on hafelan, 1522; on handa (_in
his hand_), 495, 540; so, 555, 766; on him byrne scān (_on him shone the
corselet_), 405; on ōre (_at the front_), 1042; on corðre (_at the head of,
among, his troop_), 1154; scip on ancre (_the ship at anchor_), 303; þæt hē
on heoðe ge-stōd (_until he stood in the hall_), 404; on fæder stǣle (_in a
father's place_), 1480; on ȳðum (_on the waves, in the water_), 210, 421,
534, 1438; on holme, 543; on ēg-strēamum, 577; on segl-rāde, 1438, etc.; on
flōde, 1367. The prep. postponed: Frēslondum on, 2358.--b) _in, inside of_
(of inside surface): secg on searwum (_a champion in armor_), 249; so, 963;
on wīg-geatwum, 368; (reced) on þǣm se rīca bād (_in which the mighty one
abode_), 310; on Heorote (_in Heorot_), 475, 497, 594, 1303; on bēor-sele,
492, 1095; on healle, 615, 643; so, 639, 1017, 1026, etc.; on burgum (_in
the cities, boroughs_), 53; on helle, 101; on sefan mīnum (_in my mind_),
473; on mōde, 754; so, 755, 949, 1343, 1719, etc.; on aldre (_in his
vitals_), 1435; on middan (in medio), 2706.--c) _among, amid_: on searwum
(_among the arms_), 1558; on gemonge (_among the troop_), 1644; on þām
lēod-scipe (_among the people_), 2198; nymðe līges fæðm swulge on swaðule
(_unless the embracing flame should swallow it in smoke_), 783;--_in, with,
touched by, possessing something_: þā wæs on sālum sinces brytta (_then was
the dispenser of treasure in joy_), 608; so, 644, 2015; wæs on hrēon mōde,
1308; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582, 2296; hēo wæs on ofste (_she was in
haste_), 1293; so, 1736, 1870; þā wæs on blōde brim weallende (_there was
the flood billowing in, with, blood_), 848; (hē) wæs on sunde (_was
a-swimming_), 1619; wæs tō fore-mihtig fēond on fēðe (_too powerful in
speed_), 971; þǣr wæs swīgra secg ... on gylpsprǣce (_there was the
champion more silent in his boasting speech_), 982;--_in; full of,
representing, something_: on weres wæstmum (_in man's form_), 1353.--d)
_attaching to_, hence _proceeding from; from something_: ge-hȳrde on
Bēowulfe fæst-rǣdne ge-þōht (_heard in, from, B. the fixed resolve_), 610;
þæt hē ne mētte ... on elran men mund-gripe māran, 753;--hence, with verbs
of taking: on ræste genam (_took from his bed_), 122; so, 748, 2987; hit ǣr
on þē gōde be-geāton (_took it before from thee_), 2249.--e) _with_: swā
hit lungre wearð on hyra sinc-gifan sāre ge-endod (_as it, too, soon
painfully came to an end with the dispenser of treasure_), 2312.--f) _by_:
mæg þonne on þǣm golde ongitan Gēata dryhten (_the lord of the Geatas may
perceive by the gold_), 1485.--g) _to_, after weorðan: þæt hē on fylle
wearð (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.

With acc.: a) w. verbs of moving, doing, giving, seeing, etc., _up to, on,
upon, in_: ā-lēdon þā lēofne þēoden ... on bearm scipes, 35; on stefn (on
wang) stigon, 212, 225; þā him mid scoldon on flōdes ǣht feor ge-wītan, 42;
sē þe wið Brecan wunne on sīdne sǣ (_who strovest in a swimming-match with
B. on the broad sea_), 507, cf. 516; þæt ic on holma ge-þring eorlscipe
efnde (_that I should venture on the sea to do valiant deeds_), 2133; on
fēonda geweald sīðian, 809; þāra þe on swylc starað, 997; so, 1781; on
lufan lǣteð hworfan (_lets him turn his thoughts to love?, to
possessions?_), 1729; him on mōd bearn (_came into his mind, occurred to
him_), 67; rǣsde on þone rōfan (_rushed on the powerful one_), 2691; (cwōm)
on worðig (_came into the palace_), 1973; so, 27, 242, 253, 512, 539, 580,
677, 726, etc.; on weg (_away_), 764, 845, 1383, 1431, 2097.--b) _towards,
on_: gōde gewyrcean ... on fæder wine (pl.), 21.--c) aim or object, _to,
for the object, for, as, in, on_: on þearfe (_in his need, in his strait_),
1457; so, on hyra man-dryhtnes miclan þearfe, 2850; wrāðum on andan (_as a
terror to the foe_), 709; Hrōðgār maðelode him on andsware (_said to him in
reply_), 1841; betst beado-rinca wæs on bǣl gearu (_on the pyre ready_),
1110; wīg-heafolan bær frēan on fultum (_for help_), 2663; wearð on bīd
wrecen (_forced to wait_), 2963.--d) ground, reason, _according to, in
conformity with_: rodera rǣdend hit on ryht gescēd (_decided it in
accordance with right_), 1556; nē mē swōr fela āða on unriht (_swore no
oaths unjustly, falsely_), 2740; on spēd (_skilfully_), 874; nallas on gylp
seleð fǣtte bēagas (_giveth no gold-wrought rings as he promised_), 1750;
on sīnne selfes dōm (_boastingly, at his own will_), 2148; him eal worold
wendeð on willan (_according to his will_), 1740.--e) w. verbs of buying,
_for, in exchange for_: mē ic on māðma hord mīne be-bohte frōde feorh-lege
(_for the hoard of jewels_), 2800.--f) _of, as to_: ic on Higelāce wāt,
Gēata dryhten (_I know with respect to, as to, of, H._), 1831; so, 2651;
þæt hēo on ǣnigne eorl ge-lȳfde fyrena frōfre (_that she should rely on
any earl for help out of trouble_), 628; þā hīe ge-truwedon on twā healfa
(_on both sides, mutually_), 1096; so, 2064; þæt þū him ondrǣdan ne þearft
... on þā healfe (_from, on this side_), 1676.--g) after superlatives or
virtual superlatives = _among_: næs ... sinc-māððum sēlra (= þæt wæs
sinc-māðma sēlest) on sweordes hād (_there was no better jewel in sword's
shape_, i.e. among all swords there was none better), 2194; sē wæs Hrōðgāre
hæleða lēofost on ge-sīðes hād (_dearest of men as, in the character of,
follower_, etc.), 1298.

II. Of time: a) w. dat., _in, inside of, during, at_: on fyrste (_in time,
within the time appointed_), 76; on ūhtan (_at dawn_), 126; on mergenne
(_at morn, on the morrow_), 565, 2940; on niht, 575; on wanre niht, 703; on
tȳn dagum, 3161; so, 197, 719, 791, 1063, etc.; on geogoðe (_in youth_),
409, 466; on geogoð-fēore, 537; so, 1844; on orlege (_in, during, battle_),
1327; hū lomp ēow on lāde (_on the way_), 1988; on gange (_in going, en
route_), 1885; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582.--b) w. acc., _towards,
about_: on undern-mǣl (_in the morning, about midday_), 1429; on
morgen-tīd, 484, 518; on morgen, 838; on ende-stæf (_toward the end, at
last_), 1754; oftor micle þonne on ǣnne sīð (_far oftener than once_),

III. With particles: him on efn (_beside, alongside of, him_), 2904; on
innan (_inside, within_), 71, 1741, 1969, 2453, 2716; þǣr on innan (_in
there_), 2090, 2215, 2245. With the relative þē often separated from its
case: þē ic hēr on starie (_that I here look on, at_), 2797; þē gē þǣr on
standað (_that ye there stand in_), 2867.

on-cȳð (cf. Dietrich in Haupt's Zeits. XI., 412), st. f., _pain,
suffering_: nom. sg., 1421; acc. sg. or pl. on-cȳððe, 831.

on-drysne, adj., _frightful, terrible_: acc. sg. firen on-drysne, 1933.

ōnettan (for anettan, from root an-, Goth. inf. anan, _to breathe, pant_),
w. v., _to hasten_: pret. pl. ōnetton, 306, 1804.

on-līcnes, st. f., _likeness, form, figure_: nom. sg., 1352.

on-mēdla, w. m., _pride, arrogance_: dat. sg. for on-mēdlan, 2927. Cf.
Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 218 seqq.

on-sǣge, adj., _tending to fall, fatal_: nom. sg. þā wæs Hondscīo (dat.)
hild on-sǣge, 2077; Hæðcynne wearð ... gūð on-sǣge, 2484.

on-weald, st. m., _power, authority_: acc. sg. (him) bēga ge-hwæðres ...
onweald ge-tēah (_gave him power over, possession of, both_), 1044.

open, adj., _open_: acc. sg. hord-wynne fond ... opene standan, 2272.

openian, w. v., _to open_, w. acc.: inf. openian, 3057.

orc (O.S. orc, Goth. aúrkei-s), st. m., _crock, vessel, can _: nom. pl.
orcas, 3048; acc. pl. orcas, 2761.

orcnē, st. m., _sea-monster_: nom. pl. orcnēas, 112.

ord, st. n. _point_: nom. sg. oð þæt wordes ord brēost-hord þurh-bræc
(_till the word-point broke through his breast-hoard, came to utterance_),
2792; acc. sg. ord (_sword-point_), 1550; dat. instr. orde (id.), 556; on
orde (_at the head of, in front_ [of a troop]), 2499, 3126.

ord-fruma, w. m., _head lord, high prince_: nom. sg., 263.

ōret-mecg, st. m., _champion, warrior, military retainer_: nom. pl.
ōret-mecgas, 363, 481; acc. pl. ōret-mecgas, 332.

ōretta, w. m., _champion, fighter, hero_: nom. sg., 1533, 2539.

or-leg, st. n., _war, battle_: dat. sg. on orlege, 1327; gen. sg. or-leges,

or-leg-hwīl, st. f., _time of battle, war-time_: nom. sg. [or-leg]-hwīl,
2003; gen. sg. orleg-hwīle, 2912; gen. pl orleg-hwīla, 2428.

or-leahtre, adj., _blameless_: nom. sg 1887.

or-þanc (cf. Gloss. Aldhelm. mid or-þance = argumento in Haupt XI., 436;
orþancum = machinamentis, _ibid._ 477; or-þanc-scipe = mechanica, 479, st.
m., _mechanical art, skill_: instr. pl. or-þoncum, 2088; smiðes or-þancum,

or-wēna, adj. (weak form), _hopeless, despairing_, w. gen.: aldres or-wēna
(_hopeless of life_), 1003, 1566.

or-wearde, adj., _unguarded, without watch_ or _guard_: adv., 3128.

oruð, st. n., _breath, snorting_: nom. sg., 2558; dat. oreðe, 2840.


oð (Goth. und, O.H.G. unt, unz): 1) prep. w. acc., _to, till, up to_, only
temporal: oð þone ānne dæg, 2400; oð dōmes dæg, 3070; ō woruld-ende,
3084.--2) oð þæt, conj. w. depend, indicative clause, _till, until_, 9, 56,
66, 100, 145. 219, 296, 307, etc.

ōðer (Goth. anþar), num.: 1) _one or other of two, a second_, = alter: nom.
sg. subs.: se ōðer, 2062; ōðer(_one_ i.e. of my blood-relations, Hæðcyn and
Hygelāc), 2482; ōðer ... ōðer (_the one ... the other_), 1350-1352. Adj.:
ōðer ... mihtig mān-sceaða (_the second mighty, fell foe_, referring to
1350, 1339; se ōðer ... hæle, 1816; fem. niht ōðer, 2118; neut. ōðer geār
(_the next, second, year_), 1134; acc. sg. m. ōðerne, 653, 1861, 2441,
2485; þenden rēafode rinc ōðerne(_whilst one warrior robbed the other_,
i.e. Eofor robbed Ongenþēow), 2986; neut. ōðer swylc(_another such, an
equal number_), 1584; instr. sg. ōðre sīðe (_for the second time, again_),
2671, 3102; dat. sg. ōðrum, 815, 1030, 1166, 1229, 1472, 2168, 2172, etc.;
gen. sg. m. ōðres dōgores, 219, 606; neut. ōðres, 1875.--2) _another, a
different one_, = alius: nom. sg., subs. ōðer, 1756; ōðer nǣnig (_no
other_), 860. Adj.: ǣnig ōðer man, 503, 534; so, 1561; ōðer in (_a
different house_ or _room_), 1301; acc. sg. ōðer flet, 1087; gen. sg. ōðres
... yrfe-weardes, 2452; acc. pl. ealo drincende ōðer sǣdan (_ale drinkers
said other things_), 1946; acc. pl. neut. word ōðer, 871.

ōfer, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. on ōfre, 1372.

ofost, st. f., _haste_: nom. sg. ofost is sēlest tō gecȳðanne (_haste is
best to make known, best to say at once_), 256; so, 3008; dat. sg. bēo þū
on ofeste (ofoste) (_be in haste, hasten_), 386, 2748; on ofste, 1293; on
ofoste, 2784, 3091.

ofost-līce, adv., _in haste, speedily_, 3131.

ō-hwǣr, adv., _anywhere_, 1738, 2871.

ōmig, adj., _rusty_: nom. sg., 2764; nom. pl. ōmige, 3050.

ōr, st. n., _beginning, origin; front_: nom. sg., 1689; acc. sg., 2408;
dat. sg. on ōre, 1042.

ō-wiht, _anything, aught_: instr. sg. ō-wihte (_in any way_), 1823, 2433.


pād, st. f., _dress_; in comp. here-pād.

pæð, st. m., _path, road, way_; in comp. ān-pæð.

plega, w. m., _play, emulous contest_; lind-plega, 1074.


raðe, adv., _quickly, immediately_, 725, Cf. hrāðe.

rand, rond, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg, rand, 683; rond, 657, 2567, 2610;
dat. ronde (rond, MS.), 2674; under rande, 1210; bī ronde, 2539; acc. pl.
randas, 231; rondas, 326, 2654.--Comp.: bord-, hilde-, sīd-rand.

rand-hæbbend, pres. part., _shield-bearer_, i.e. _man at arms, warrior_:
gen. pl. rond-hæbbendra, 862.

rand-wiga, w. m., _shield-warrior, shield-bearing warrior_: nom. sg., 1299;
acc. sg. rand-wigan, 1794.

rād, st. f., _road, street_; in comp. hran-, segl-, swan-rād.

ge-rād, adj., _clever, skilful, ready_: acc. pl. neut. ge-rāde, 874.

rāp, st. m., _rope, bond, fetter_: in comp. wæl-rāp.

rāsian, w. v., _to find, discover_: pret. part. þā wæs hord rāsod, 2284.

ræst. See rest.

rǣcan, w. v., _to reach, reach after_: pret. sg. rǣhte ongēan fēond mid
folme (_reached out his hand toward the foe_), 748.

ge-rǣcan, _to attain, strike, attack_: pret. sg. hyne ... wǣpne ge-rǣhte
(_struck him with his sword_), 2966; so, 556.

rǣd, st. m.: 1) _advice, counsel, resolution; good counsel, help_: nom. sg.
nū is rǣd gelong eft æt þē ānum (_now is help to be found with thee
alone_), 1377; acc. sg. rǣd, 172, 278, 3081.--2) _advantage, gain, use_:
acc. sg. þæt rǣd talað (_counts that a gain_), 2028; ēcne rǣd (_the eternal
gain, everlasting life_), 1202; acc. pl. ēce rǣdas, 1761.--Comp.: folc-rǣd,
and adj., ān-, fæst-rǣd.

rǣdan, st. v., _to rule; reign; to possess_: pres. part. rodera rǣdend
(_the ruler of the heavens_), 1556; inf. þone þe þū mid rihte rǣdan
sceoldest (_that thou shouldst possess by rights_), 2057; wolde dōm godes
dǣdum rǣdan gumena gehwylcum (_God's doom would rule over, dispose of,
every man in deeds_), 2859. See sele-rǣdend.

rǣd-bora, w. m. _counsellor, adviser_: nom. sg., 1326.

rǣden, st. f., _order, arrangement, law_: see Note on 1143; comp.

ā-rǣran, w. v.: 1) _to raise, lift up_: pret. pl. þā wǣron monige þē his
mǣg ... ricone ā-rǣrdon (_there were many that lifted up his brother
quickly_), 2984.--2) figuratively, _to spread, disseminate_: pret. part.
blǣd is ā-rǣred (_thy renown is far-spread_), 1704.

rǣs, st. m., _on-rush, attack, storm_: acc. sg. gūðe rǣs (_the storm of
battle, attack_), 2627; instr. pl. gūðe rǣsum, 2357.--Comp.: gūð-, hand-,
heaðo-, mægen-, wæl-rǣs.

(ge-)rǣsan, w. v., _to rush (upon)_: pret. sg. rǣsde on þone rōfan, 2691,

rǣswa, w. m., _prince, ruler_: dat. sg. weoroda rǣswan, 60.

reccan, w. v., _to explicate, recount, narrate_: inf. frum-sceaft fīra
feorran reccan (_recount the origin of man from ancient times_), 91;
gerund, tō lang is tō reccenne, hū ic ... (_too long to tell how I_...),
2094; pret. sg. syllīc spell rehte (_told a wondrous tale_), 2111; so
intrans. feorran rehte (_told of olden times_), 2107.

reced, st. n., _building, house; hall_ (complete in itself): nom. sg., 412,
771, 1800; acc. sg., 1238; dat. sg. recede, 721, 729, 1573; gen. sg.
recedes, 326, 725, 3089; gen. pl. receda, 310.--Comp.: eorð-, heal-, horn-,

regn-heard, adj., _immensely strong, firm_: acc. pl. rondas regn-hearde,

regnian, rēnian, w. v., _to prepare, bring on_ or _about_: inf. dēað
rēn[ian] hond-gesteallan (_prepare death for his comrade_), 2169.

ge-regnian, _to prepare, deck out, adorn_: pret. part. medu-benc monig ...
golde ge-regnad, 778.

regn-, rēn-weard, st. m., _mighty guardian_: nom. pl. rēn-weardas (of
Bēowulf and Grendel contending for the possession of the hall), 771.

rest, ræst, st. f.: 1) _bed, resting-place_: acc. sg. ræste, 139; dat. sg.
on ræste (genam) (_from his resting-place_), 1299, 1586; tō ræste (_to
bed_), 1238. Comp.: flet-ræst, sele-rest, wæl-rest.--2) _repose, rest_; in
comp. ǣfen-ræst.

ge-reste (M.H.G. reste), f., _resting-place_: in comp. wind-gereste.

restan, w. v.: 1) _to rest_: inf. restan, 1794; pret. sg. reflex. reste
hine þā rūm-heort, 1800.--2) _to rest, cease_: inf., 1858.

rēc (O.H.G. rouh), st. m., _reek, smoke_: instr. sg. rēce, 3157.--Comp.:
wæl-, wudu-rēc.

rēcan (O.H.G. ruohjan), w. v. w. gen., _to reck, care about something, be
anxious_: pres. sg. III. wǣpna ne rēceð (_recketh not for weapons, weapons
cannot hurt him_), 434.

rēðe, adj., _wroth, furious_: nom. sg., 122, 1586; nom. pl. rēðe, 771.
Also, of things, _wild, rough, fierce_: gen. sg. rēðes and-hāttres
(_fierce, penetrating heat_), 2524.

rēaf, st. n., _booty, plunder in war; clothing, garments_ (as taken by the
victor from the vanquished): in comp. heaðo-, wæl-rēaf.

rēafian, w. v., _to plunder, rob_, w. acc.: inf. hord rēafian, 2774; pret.
sg. þenden rēafode rinc ōðerne, 2986; wæl rēafode, 3028; pret. pl. wæl
rēafedon, 1213.

be-rēafian, w. instr., _to bereave, rob of_: pret. part. since be-rēafod,
2747; golde be-rēafod, 3019.

reord, st. f., _speech, language; tone of voice_: acc. sg. on-cnīow mannes
reorde (_knew, heard, a human voice_), 2556.

reordian, w. v., _to speak, talk_: inf. fela reordian _(speak much_), 3026.

ge-reordian, _to entertain, to prepare for_: pret. part. þā wæs eft swā ǣr
... flet-sittendum fægere ge-reorded (_again, as before, the guests were
hospitably entertained_), 1789

rēot, st. m.?, f.?, _noise, tumult_? (_grave_?): instr. sg. rēote, 2458.
Bugge, in Zachers Zeits. 4, 215, takes rēote as dat. from rēot (_rest,

rēoc, adj., _savage, furious_: nom. sg., 122.

be-rēofan, st. v., _to rob of, bereave_: pret. part. w. instr. acc. sg.
fem. golde berofene, 2932; instr. sg. rēote berofene, 2458.

rēon. See rōwan.

rēotan, st. v., _to weep_: pres. pl. oð þæt ... roderas rēotað, 1377.

rēow, adj., _excited, fierce, wild_: in comp. blōd-, gūð-, wæl-rēow. See

ricone, _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 2984.

riht, st. n., _right_ or _privilege; the_ (abstract) _right_: acc. sg. on
ryht (_according to right_), 1556; sōð and riht (_truth and right_), 1701;
dat. sg. wið rihte, 144; æfter rihte (_in accordance with right_), 1050;
syllīc spell rehte æfter rihte _(told a wondrous tale truthfully_), 2111;
mid rihte, 2057; acc. pl. ealde riht (_the ten commandments_), 2331;
--Comp. in ēðel-, folc-, land-, un-, word-riht.

riht, adj., _straight, right_: in comp. up-riht.

rihte, adv., _rightly, correctly_, 1696. See æt-rihte.

rinc, st. m., _man, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 399, 2986; also of Grendel,
721; acc. sg. rinc, 742, 748; dat. sg. rince, 953; of Hrōðgār, 1678; gen.
pl. rinca, 412, 729.--Comp. in beado-, gūð-, here-, heaðo-, hilde-, mago-,

ge-risne, ge-rysne, adj., _appropriate, proper_: nom. sg. n. ge-rysne,

rīce, st. n.: 1) _realm, land ruled over_: nom. sg., 2200, 2208; acc. sg.
rīce, 913, 1734, 1854, 3005; gen. sg. rīces, 862, 1391, 1860, 2028, 3081.
Comp. Swīo-rīce.--2) _council of chiefs, the king with his chosen
advisers_(?): nom. sg. oft gesæt rīce tō rūne, 172.

rīce, adj., _mighty, powerful_: nom. sg. (of Hrōðgār), 1238; (of Hygelāc),
1210; (of Æsc-here), 1299; weak form, se rīca (Hrōðgār), 310; (Bēowulf),
399; (Hygelāc), 1976.--Comp. gimme-rīce.

rīcsian, rīxian, w. v. intrans., _to rule, reign_: inf. rīcsian, 2212;
pret. sg. rīxode, 144.

rīdan, st. v., _to ride_: subj. pres. þæt his byre rīde giong on galgan,
2446; pres. part. nom. pl. rīdend, 2458; inf. wicge rīdan, 234; mēarum
rīdan, 856; pret. sg. sǣ-genga ... sē þe on ancre rād, 1884; him tō-gēanes
rād (_rode to meet them_), 1894; pret. pl. ymbe hlǣw riodan (_rode round
the grave-mound_), 3171.

ge-rīdan, w. acc., _to ride over_: pret. sg. sē þe næs ge-rād (_who rode
over the promontory_), 2899.

rīm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. dæg-, un-rīm.

ge-rīm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. dōgor-ge-rim.

ge-rīman, w. v., _to count together, enumerate in all_: pret. part. in
comp. forð-gerīmed.

ā-rīsan, st. v., _to arise, rise_: imper. sg. ā-rīs, 1391; pret. sg. ā-rās
þā se rīca, 399; so, 652, 1791, 3031; ā-rās þā bī ronde (_arose by his
shield_), 2539; hwanan sīo fǣhð ā-rās (_whence the feud arose_), 2404.

rodor, st. m., _ether, firmament, sky_ (from _radius_?, Bugge): gen. sg.
rodores candel, 1573; nom. pl. roderas, 1377; dat. pl. under roderum, 310;
gen. pl. rodera, 1556.

rōf, adj., _fierce, of fierce, heroic, strength, strong_: nom. sg., 2539;
also with gen. mægenes rōf (_strong in might_), 2085; so, þēah þe hē rōf
sīe nīð-geweorca, 683; acc. sg. rōfne, 1794; on þone rōfan, 2691.--Comp.:
beadu-, brego-, ellen-, heaðo-, hyge-, sige-rōf.

rōt, adj., _glad, joyous_: in comp. un-rōt.

rōwan, st. v., _to row_ (with the arms), _swim_: pret. pl. rēon (for
rēowon), 512, 539.

rūm, st. m., _space, room_: nom. sg., 2691.

rūm, adj.: 1) _roomy, spacious_: nom. sg. þūhte him eall tō rūm, wongas and
wīc-stede (_fields and dwelling seemed to him all too broad_, i.e. could
not hide his shame at the unavenged death of his murdered son), 2462.--2)
in moral sense, _great, magnanimous, noble-hearted_: acc. sg. þurh rūmne
sefan, 278.

rūm-heort, adj., _big-hearted, noble-spirited_: nom. sg., 1800, 2111.

ge-rūm-līc, adj., _commodious, comfortable_: compar. ge-rūm-līcor, 139.

rūn, st. f., _secrecy, secret discussion, deliberation_ or _council_: dat.
sg. ge-sæt rīce tō rūne, 172.--Comp. beado-rūn.

rūn-stæf, st. m., _rune-stave, runic letter_: acc. pl. þurh rūn-stafas,

rūn-wita, w. m., _rune-wit, privy councillor, trusted adviser_: nom. sg.,

ge-rysne. See ge-risne.

ge-rȳman, w. v.: 1) _to make room for, prepare, provide room_: pret. pl.
þæt hīe him ōðer flet eal ge-rȳmdon, 1087; pret. part. þā wæs Gēat-mæcgum
... benc gerȳmed, 492; so, 1976.--2) _to allow, grant, admit_: pret. part.
þā mē ge-rȳmed wæs (sīð) (_as access was permitted me_), 3089; þā him
gerȳmed wearð, þæt hīe wæl-stōwe wealdan mōston, 2984.


ge-saca, w. m., _opponent, antagonist, foe_: acc. sg. ge-sacan, 1774.

sacan, st. v., _to strive, contend_: inf. ymb feorh sacan, 439.

ge-sacan, _to attain, gain by contending_ (Grein): inf. gesacan sceal
sāwl-berendra ... gearwe stōwe _(gain the place prepared_, i.e. the
death-bed), 1005.

on-sacan: 1) (originally in a lawsuit), _to withdraw, take away, deprive
of_: pres. subj. þætte freoðuwebbe fēores on-sæce ... lēofne mannan,
1943.--2) _to contest, dispute, withstand_: inf. þæt hē sǣmannum on-sacan
mihte (i.e. hord, bearn, and brȳde), 2955.

sacu, st. f., _strife, hostility, feud_: nom. sg., 1858, 2473; acc. sg.
sæce, 154; sæcce, 1978, 1990, 2348, 2500, 2563; dat. sg. æt (tō) sæcce,
954, 1619, 1666, 2613, 2660, 2682, 2687; gen. sg. secce, 601; gen. pl.
sæcca, 2030.

ge-sacu, st. f., _strife, enmity_: nom. sg., 1738.

sadol, st. m., _saddle_: nom. sg., 1039.

sadol-beorht, adj., _with bright saddles_ (?): acc. pl. sadol-beorht, 2176.

ge-saga. See secgan.

samne, somne, adv., _together, united_; in æt-somne, _together, united_,
307, 402, 491, 544, 2848.

tō-somne (_together_), 3123; þā se wyrm ge-bēah snūde tō-somne (_when the
dragon quickly coiled together_), 2569.

samod, somod: I. adv., _simultaneously, at the same time_: somod, 1212,
1615, 2175, 2988; samod, 2197; samod æt-gædere, 387, 730, 1064.--II. prep.
w. dat., _with, at the same time with_: samod ǣr-dæge (_with the break of
day_), 1312; somod ǣr-dæge, 2943.

sand, st. n., _sand, sandy shore_: dat. sg. on sande, 295, 1897, 3043(?);
æfter sande (_along the shore_), 1965; wið sande, 213.

sang, st. m., _song, cry, noise_: nom. sg. sang, 1064; swutol sang scopes,
90; acc. sg. sige-lēasne sang (Grendel's cry of woe), 788; sārigne sang
(Hrēðel's dirge for Herebeald), 2448.

sāl, st. m., _rope_: dat. sg. sāle, 1907; on sāle (sole, MS.), 302.

sāl. See sǣl.

sār, st. n., _wound, pain_ (physical or spiritual): nom. sg. sār, 976; sīo
sār, 2469; acc. sg. sār, 788; sāre, 2296; dat. (instr.) sg. sāre, 1252,
2312, 2747.--Comp. līc-sār.

sār, adj., _sore, painful_: instr. pl. sārum wordum, 2059.

sāre, adv., _sorely, heavily, ill_, graviter: sē þe him [sā]re gesceōd
(_who injured him sorely_), 2224.

sārig, adj., _painful, woeful_: acc. sg. sārigne sang, 2448.

sārig-ferð, adj., _sore-hearted, grieved_: nom. sg. sārig-ferð (Wīglāf),

sārig-mōd, adj., _sorrowful-minded, saddened_: dat. pl. sārig-mōdum, 2943.

sār-līc, adj., _painful_: nom. sg., 843; acc. sg. neut., 2110.

sāwol, sāwl, st. f., _soul_ (the immortal principle as contrasted with līf,
the physical life): nom. sg. sāwol, 2821; acc. sg. sāwle, 184, 802; hǣðene
sāwle, 853; gen. sg. sāwele, 1743; sāwle, 2423.

sāwl-berend, pres. part., _endowed with a soul, human being_: gen. pl.
sāwl-berendra, 1005.

sāwul-drēor, st. n., (blood gushing from the seat of the soul), _soul-gore,
heart's blood, life's blood_: instr. sg. sāwul-drīore, 2694.

sāwul-lēas, adj., _soulless, lifeless_: acc. sg. sāwol-lēasne, 1407;
sāwul-lēasne, 3034.

sæce, sæcce. See sacu.

sæd, adj., _satiated, wearied_: in comp. hilde-sæd.

sæl, st. n., _habitable space, house_, _hall_: dat. sg. sel, 167; sæl, 307,
2076, 2265.

sæld, st. n., _hall, king's hall_ or _palace_: acc. sg. geond þæt sæld
(Heorot), 1281.

sǣ, st. m. and f., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg., 579, 1224; acc. sg. on sīdne sǣ,
507; ofer sǣ, 2381; ofer sǣ sīde, 2395; dat. sg. tō sǣ, 318; on sǣ, 544;
dat. pl. be sǣm tweonum, 859, 1298, 1686, 1957.

sǣ-bāt, st. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg., 634, 896.

sǣ-cyning, st. m., _sea-king, king ruling the sea_: gen. pl. sǣ-cyninga,

sǣ-dēor, st. n., _sea-beast, sea-monster_: nom. sg., 1511.

sǣ-draca, w. m., _sea-dragon_: acc. pl. sǣ-dracan, 1427.

ge-sǣgan, w. v., _to fell, slay_: pret. part. hæfdon eal-fela eotena cynnes
sweordum ge-sǣged (_felled with the sword_), 885.

sǣge. See on-sǣge.

sǣ-genga, w. m., _sea-goer_, i.e. sea-going ship: nom. sg., 1883, 1909.

sǣ-gēap, adj., _spacious_ (broad enough for the sea): nom. sg. sǣ-gēap
naca, 1897.

sǣ-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom, ocean-bottom_: dat. sg. sǣ-grunde, 564.

sǣl, sāl, sēl, st. f.: 1) _favorable opportunity, good_ or _fit time_: nom.
sg. sǣl, 623, 1666, 2059; sǣl and mǣl, 1009; acc. sg. sēle, 1136; gen. pl.
sǣla and mǣla, 1612.--2) _Fate_(?): see Note on l. 51.--3) _happiness,
joy_: dat. pl. on sālum, 608; sǣlum, 644, 1171, 1323. See sēl, adj.

ge-sǣlan, w. v., _to turn out favorably, succeed_: pret. sg. him ge-sǣlde
þæt ...(_he was fortunate enough to_, etc.), 891; so, 574; efne swylce
mǣla, swylce hira man-dryhtne þearf ge-sǣlde (_at such times as need
disposed it for their lord_), 1251.

sǣlan (see sāl), w. v., _to tie, bind_: pret. sg. sǣlde ... sīð-fæðme scip,
1918; pl. sǣ-wudu sǣldon, 226.

ge-sǣlan, _to bind together, weave, interweave_: pret. part. earm-bēaga
fela searwum ge-sǣled (_many curiously interwoven armlets_, i.e. made of
metal wire: see Guide to Scandinavian Antiquities, p. 48), 2765.

on-sǣlan, with acc., _to unbind, unloose, open_: on-sǣl meoto, sige-hrēð
secgum (_disclose thy views to the men, thy victor's courage_; or, _thy
presage of victory_?), 489.

sǣ-lāc, st. n., _sea-gift, sea-booty_: instr. sg. sǣ-lāce, 1625; acc. pl.
þās sǣ-lāc, 1653.

sǣ-lād, st. f., _sea-way, sea-journey_: dat. sg. sǣ-lāde, 1140, 1158.

sǣ-līðend, pres. part., _seafarer_: nom. pl. sǣ-līðend, 411, 1819, 2807;
sǣ-līðende, 377.

sǣ-man, m., _sea-man, sea-warrior_: dat. pl. sǣ-mannum, 2955; gen. pl.
sǣ-manna, 329 (both times said of the Gēatas).

sǣmra, weak adj. compar., _the worse, the weaker_: nom. sg. sǣmra, 2881;
dat. sg. sǣmran, 954.

sǣ-mēðe, adj., _sea-weary, exhausted by sea-travel_: nom. pl. sǣ-mēðe, 325.

sǣ-næs, st. m., _sea-promontory, cape, naze_: acc. pl. sǣ-næssas, 223, 571.

sǣne, adj., _careless, slow_: compar. sg. nom. hē on holme wæs sundes þē
sǣnra, þē hyne swylt fornam (_was the slower in swimming in the sea, whom
death took away_), 1437.

sǣ-rinc, st. m., _sea-warrior_ or _hero_: nom. sg., 691.

sǣ-sīð, st. m., _sea-way, path, journey_: dat. sg. æfter sǣ-sīðe, 1150.

sǣ-wang, st. m., _sea-shore_ or _beach_: acc. sg. sǣ-wong, 1965.

sǣ-weal, st. m., _(sea-wall), seashore_: dat. sg. sǣ-wealle, 1925.

sǣ-wudu, st. m., _(sea-wood), vessel, ship_: acc. sg. sǣ-wudu, 226.

sǣ-wylm, st. m., _sea-surf, billow_: acc. pl. ofer sǣ-wylmas, 393.

scacan, sceacan, st. v., properly, _to shake one's self_; hence, _to go,
glide, pass along_ or _away_: pres. sg. þonne mīn sceaceð līf of līce,
2743; inf. þā cōm beorht [sunne] scacan [ofer grundas], (_the bright sun
came gliding over the fields_), 1804; pret. sg. duguð ellor scōc _(the
chiefs are gone elsewhither_, i.e. have died), 2255; þonne strǣla storm ...
scōc ofer scild-weall (_when the storm of arrows leapt over the wall of
shields_), 3119; pret. part. wæs hira blǣd scacen (_their bravest men had
passed away_), 1125; þā wæs winter scacen (_the winter was past_), 1137;
so, sceacen, 2307, 2728.

scadu, sceadu, st. f., _shadow, concealing veil of night_: acc. sg. under
sceadu bregdan (i.e. kill), 708.

scadu-genga, w. m., _shadow-goer, twilight-stalker_ (of Grendel): nom. sg.
sceadu-genga, 704.

scadu-helm, st. m., _shadow-helm, veil of darkness_: gen. pl. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu (_shapes of the shadow, evil spirits wandering by night_), 651.

scalu, st. f., _retinue, band_ (part of an armed force); in comp.
hand-scalu: mid his hand-scale (hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

scamian, w. v., _to be ashamed_: pres. part. nom. pl. scamiende, 2851; nō
hē þǣre feoh-gyfte ... scamigan þorfte (_needed not be ashamed of his
treasure-giving_), 1027.

scawa (see scēawlan), w. m., _observer, visitor_: nom. pl. scawan, 1896.

ge-scād, st. n., _difference, distinction_: acc. sg. ǣg-hwæðres gescād,
worda and worca (_difference between, of, both words and deeds_), 288.

ge-scādan, st. v., _to decide, adjudge_: pret. sg. rodera rǣdend hit on
ryht gescēd (_decided it in accordance with right_), 1556.

scānan? See scīnan, pret. pl. scionon, 303; the imaginary scānan having
been abandoned.

ge-scæp-hwīle, st. f., _fated hour, hour of death (appointed rest?)_: dat.
sg. tō gescæp-hwīle (_at the fated hour_), 26.

sceððan, w. v., _to scathe, injure_: inf. w. dat. pers., 1034; aldre
sceððan (_hurt her life_), 1525; þæt on land Dena lāðra nǣnig mid scipherge
sceððan ne meahte (_injure through robber incursions_), 243; pret. sg. þǣr
him nǣnig wæter wihte ne sceðede, 1515.

ge-sceððan, the same: inf. þæt him ... ne mihte eorres inwit-feng aldre
gesceððan, 1448.

scenc, st. m., _vessel, can_: in comp. medu-scenc.

scencan, w. v., _to hand drink, pour out_: pret. sg. scencte scīr wered,
496 (cf. skinker = cup-bearer).

scenne, w. f.?, _sword-guard?_: dat. pl. on þǣm scennum scīran goldes,

sceran, st. v., _to shear off, cleave, hew to pieces_: pres. sg. þonne
heoru bunden ... swīn ofer helme andweard scireð (_hews off the boar-head
on the helm_), 1288.

ge-sceran, _to divide, hew in two_: pret. sg. helm oft ge-scær (_often
clove the helm in two_), 1527; so, gescer, 2974.

scerwen, st. f.?, in comp. ealu-scerwen (_ale-scare_ or _panic_?), 770.

scēt. See scēotan.

sceadu. See scadu.

sceaða, w. m.: 1) _scather, foe_: gen. pl. sceaðena, 4.--2) _fighter,
warrior_: nom. pl. scaðan, 1804.--Comp.: attor-, dol-, fēond-, gūð-,
hearm-, lēod-, mān-, sin-, þēod-, ūht-sceaða.

sceaðan, st. v. w. dat., _to scathe, injure, crush_: pret. sg. sē þe oft
manegum scōd (_which has oft oppressed many_), 1888.

ge-sceaðan, w. dat., the same: pret. sg. swā him ǣr gescōd hild æt Heorote,
1588; sē þe him sāre ge-sceōd (_who injured him sorely_), 2224; nō þȳ ǣr
in gescōd hālan līce, 1503; bill ǣr gescōd eald-hlāfordes þām þāra māðma
mund-bora wæs (_the weapon of the ancient chieftain had before laid low the
dragon, the guardian of the treasure_), 2778 (or, _sheathed in brass_?, if
ǣr and gescōd form compound).

sceaðen-mǣl, st. n., _deadly weapon, hostile sword_: nom. sg., 1940.

sceaft, st. m., _shaft, spear, missile_: nom. sg. sceft, 3119.--Comp.:
here-, wæl-sceaft.

ge-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _creation, earth, earthly existence_: acc. sg. þās
lǣnan ge-sceaft, 1623.--2) _fate, destiny_: in comp. forð-, līf-,

scealc, st. m., _servant, military retainer_: nom. sg., 919; (of Bēowulf),
940.--Comp bēor-scealc.

ge-sceap, st. n.: 1) _shape, creature_: nom. pl. scadu-helma ge-sceapu,
651.--2) _fate, providence_: acc. sg. hēah ge-sceap (_heavy fate_), 3085.

sceapan, sceppan, scyppan, st. v., _to shape, create, order, arrange,
establish_: pres. part. scyppend (_the Creator_), 106; pret. sg. scōp him
Heort naman (_shaped, gave, it the name Heorot_), 78; pres. part. wæs sīo
wrōht scepen heard wið Hūgas, syððan Hygelāc cwōm (_the contest with the
Hūgas became sharp after H. had come_), 2915.

ge-sceapan, _to shape, create_: pret. sg. līf ge-sceōp cynna gehwylcum, 97.

scear, st. m., _massacre_: in comp. gūð-, inwit-scear, 2429, etc.

scearp, adj., _sharp, able, brave_: nom. sg. scearp scyld-wiga,
288.--Comp.: beadu-, heaðo-scearp.

scearu, st. f., _division, body, troop_: in comp. folc-scearu; _that is
decided_ or _determined_, in gūð-scearu (_overthrow_?), 1214.

sceat, st. m., _money_; also _unit of value in appraising_ (cf. Rieger in
Zacher's Zeits. 3, 415): acc. pl. sceattas, 1687. When numbers are given,
sceat appears to be left out, cf. 2196, 2995 (see þūsend).--Comp.

scēat, st. m., _region, field_: acc. pl. gefrætwade foldan scēatas leomum
and lēafum, 96;--_top, surface, part_: gen. pl. eorðan scēata, 753.

scēawere, st. m., _observer, spy_: nom. pl. scēaweras, 253.

scēawian, w. v. w. acc., _to see, look at, observe_: inf. scēawian, 841,
1414, 2403, 2745, 3009, 3033; scēawigan, 1392; pres. sg. II. þæt gē genōge
nēan scēawiað bēagas and brād gold, 3105; subj. pres. þæt ic ... scēawige
swegle searo-gimmas, 2749; pret. sg. scēawode, 1688, 2286, 2794; sg. for
pl., 844; pret. pl. scēawedon, 132, 204, 984, 1441.

ge-scēawian, _to see, behold, observe_: pret. part. ge-scēawod, 3076, 3085.

sceorp, st. n., _garment_: in comp. hilde-sceorp.

scēotan, st. v., _to shoot, hurl missiles_: pres. sg. sē þe of flān-bogan
fyrenum scēoteð, 1745; pres. part. nom. pl. scēotend (_the warriors,
bowmen_), 704, 1155; dat. pl. for scēotendum (MS. scotenum), 1027.

ge-scēotan, w. acc., _to shoot off, hurry_: pret. sg. hord eft gescēat
(_the dragon darted again back to the treasure_), 2320.

of-scēotan, _to kill by shooting_: pret. sg. his mǣg of-scēt ... blōdigan
gāre _(killed his brother with bloody dart_), 2440.

scild, scyld, st. m., _shield_: nom. sg. scyld, 2571; acc. sg. scyld, 437,
2076; acc. pl. scyldas, 325, 333, 2851.

scildan, scyldan, w. v., _to shield, protect_: pret. subj. nymðe mec god
scylde (_if God had not shielded me_), 1659.

scild-freca, w. m., _shield-warrior_ (warrior armed with a shield): nom.
sg. scyld-freca, 1034.

scild-weall, st. m., _wall of shields_: acc. sg. scild-weall, 3119.

scild-wiga, w. m., _shield-warrior_: nom. sg. scyld-wiga, 288.

scinna, w. m., _apparition, evil spirit_: dat. pl. scynnum, 940.

scip, st. n., _vessel, ship_: nom. sg., 302; acc. sg., 1918; dat. sg. tō
scipe, 1896; gen. sg. scipes, 35, 897; dat pl. tō scypum (scypon, MS.),

scip-here, st. m., (exercitus navalis) _armada, fleet_: dat. sg. mid
scip-herge, 243.

ge-scīfe (for ge-scȳfe), adj., _advancing_ (of the dragon's movement),
2571; = G. _schief_?

scīnan, st. v., _to shine, flash_: pres. sg. sunne ... sūðan scīneð, 607;
so, 1572; inf. geseah blācne lēoman beorhte scīnan, 1518; pret. sg.
(gūð-byrne, woruld--candel) scān, 321, 1966; on him byrne scān, 405; pret.
pl. gold-fāg scinon web æfter wāgum, 995; scionon, 303.

scīr, adj., _sheer, pure, shining_: nom. sg. hring-īren scīr, 322; scīr
metod, 980; acc. sg. n. scīr wered, 496; gen. sg. scīran goldes, 1695.

scīr-ham, adj., _bright-armored, clad in bright mail_: nom. pl. scīr-hame,

scoten. See scēoten.

ge-scōd, pret. part., _shod_ (calceatus), _covered_: in comp.
ǣr-ge-scōd(?). See ge-sceaðan, and Note.

scop, st. m., _singer, shaper, poet_: nom. sg., 496, 1067; gen. sg. scopes,

scræf, st. n., _hole in the earth, cavern_: in comp. eorð-scræf.

scrīðan, st. v., _to stride, go_: pres. pl. scrīðað, 163; inf. scrīðan,
651, 704; scrīðan tō, 2570.

scrīfan, st. v., _to prescribe, impose_ (punishment): inf. hū him (Grendel)
scīr metod scrīfan wille, 980.

for-scrīfan, w. dat. pers., _to proscribe, condemn_: pret. part. siððan him
scyppend for-scrifen hæfde, 106.

ge-scrīfan, _to permit, prescribe_: pret. sg. swā him Wyrd ne ge-scrāf (_as
Weird did not permit him_), 2575.

scrūd, st. m., _clothing, covering; ornament_: in comp. beadu-,

scucca, w. m., _shadowy sprite, demon_: dat. pl. scuccum, 940.

sculan, aux. v. w. inf.: 1) _shall, must_ (obligation): pres. sg. I., III.
sceal, 20, 24, 183, 251, 271, 287, 440, 978, 1005, 1173, 1387, 1535, etc.;
scel, 455, 2805, 3011; II. scealt, 589, 2667; subj. pres. scyle, 2658;
scile, 3178; pret. ind. sg. I., III. scolde, 10, 806, 820, 966, 1071, 1444,
1450, etc.; sceolde, 2342, 2409, 2443, 2590, 2964; II. sceoldest, 2057; pl.
scoldon, 41, 833, 1306, 1638; subj. pret. scolde, 1329, 1478; sceolde,
2709.--2) w. inf. following it expresses futurity, = _shall, will_: pres.
sg. I., III. sceal bēodan (_shall offer_), 384; so, 424, 438, 602, 637,
1061, 1707, 1856, 1863, 2070; sceall, 2499, 2509, etc.; II. scealt, 1708;
pl. wit sculon, 684; subj. pret. scolde, 280, 692, 911; sceolde, 3069.--3)
sculan sometimes forms a periphrastic phrase or circumlocution for a simple
tense, usually with a slight feeling of obligation or necessity: pres. sg.
hē ge-wunian sceall (_he inhabits; is said to inhabit?_), 2276; pret. sg.
sē þe wæter-egesan wunian scolde, 1261; wæcnan scolde (_was to awake_), 85;
sē þone gomelan grētan sceolde (_was to, should, approach_), 2422; þæt se
byrn-wiga būgan sceolde (_the corseleted warrior had to bow, fell_), 2919;
pl. þā þe beado-grīman bȳwan sceoldon (_they that had to polish or deck
the battle-masks_), 2258; so, 230, 705, 1068.--4) w. omitted inf., such as
wesan, gangan: unc sceal worn fela māðma ge-mǣnra (i.e. wesan). 1784; so,
2660; sceal se hearda helm ... fǣtum befeallen (i.e. wesan), 2256; ic him
æfter sceal (i.e. gangan), 2817; subj. þonne þū forð scyle (i.e. gangan),
1180. A verb or inf. expressed in an antecedent clause is not again
expressed with a subsequent sceal: gǣð ā Wyrd swā hīo scel (_Weird goeth
ever as it shall_ [go]), 455; gūð-bill ge-swāc swā hit nō sceolde (i.e.
ge-swīcan), 2586.

scūa, w. m., _shadowy demon_: in comp. dēað-scūa.

scūfan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to move forward, hasten_: pret. part. þā wæs
morgen-lēoht scofen and scynded, 919.--2) w. acc., _to shove, push_: pret.
pl. guman ūt scufon ... wudu bundenne (_pushed the vessel from the land_),
215; dracan scufun ... ofer weall-clif (_pushed the dragon over the
wall-like cliff_), 3132. See wīd-scofen(?)

be-scūfan, w. acc., _to push, thrust down, in_: inf. wā bið þǣm þe sceal
... sāwle be-scūfan in fȳres fæðm (_woe to him that shall thrust his soul
into fire's embrace_), 184.

scūr, st. m., _shower, battle-shower_: in comp. īsern-scūr.

scūr-heard, adj., _fight-hardened? (file-hardened?_): nom. pl. scūr-heard,

scyld, scyldan. See scild, scildan.

scyldig, adj., _under obligations_ or _bound for; guilty of_, w. gen. and
instr.: ealdres (morðres) scyldig, 1339, 1684, 2062; synnum scyldig
(_guilty of evil deeds_), 3072.

scyndan, w. v., _to hasten_: inf. scyndan, 2571; pret. part, scynded, 919

scynna. See scinna.

scyppend. See sceapan.

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