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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's
"jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.

l. 2213. B. proposes sē þe on hearge hǣðen hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.

l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a
Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the
dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire.
Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."--Br., p. 50.

l. 2216. nēode. E. translates _deftly_; Ha., _with ardor_. H.-So. reads
nēode, = _with desire, greedily_, instr. of nēod.

l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part
Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.

ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard gæst sylfes
willum.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 100.

l. 2225. For þēow read þegn.--K. and Z.

l. 2227. For ofer-þearfe read ǣrnes þearfa.--Z.

ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:

secg synbysig sōna onwlātode,
þēah þām gyste gryrebrōga stōd,
hwæðre earmsceapen innganges þearfa
. . . . . . . . . .
fēasceapen, þā hyne se fǣr begeat.
--_Beit._ xii. 101. Cf. Ha., p. 69.

l. 2232. W. suggests seah or seīr for geseah, and Gr. suggests searolīc.

l. 2233. Z. surmises eorð-hūse (for -scræfe).

l. 2241. B. proposes lǣn-gestrēona, = _transitory_, etc.; Th., R. propose
leng (= _longer_) gestrēona; S. accepts the text but translates "the long
accumulating treasure."

l. 2246. B. proposed (1) hard-fyndne, = _hard to find_; (2) hord-wynne
dǣl,--_a deal of treasure-joy_ (cf. l. 2271).--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 211;
_Beit._ xii. 102.

l. 2247. fecword = _banning words_ (?) MS. has fec.

l. 2254. Others read feor-[mie], = _furbish_, for fetige: _I own not one
who may_, etc.

l. 2261. The Danes themselves were sometimes called the "Ring-Danes," =
clad in ringed (or a ring of) armor, or possessing rings. Cf. ll. 116,

l. 2263. Koeppel suggests nis for næs.

The editors are much indebted to E. Koeppel (in _Eng. Stud._ xiii. 3) for
numerous corrections in text and glossary.

l. 2264. Note the early reference to hawking. Minstrelsy (hearpan wyn),
saga-telling, racing, swimming, harpooning of sea-animals, feasting, and
the bestowal of jewels, swords, and rings, are the other amusements most
frequent in _Bēowulf_.

l. 2264. Cf. _Maldon_, ll. 8, 9, for a reference to hawking.

l. 2276. Z. suggests swȳðe ondrǣdað; Ho. puts gesēcean for Gr.'s gewunian.

l. 2277. Z. and K. read: hord on hrūsan. "Three hundred winters," at l.
2279, is probably conventional for "a long time," like hund missēra, l.
1499; hund þūsenda, l. 2995; þrītig (of Beowulf's strength), l. 379; þrītig
(of the men slain by Grendel), l. 123; seofan þūsendo, l. 2196, etc.

l. 2285. B. objects to hord as repeated in ll. 2284, 2285; but cf. Ha., p.
77. C. prefers sum to hord. onboren = _inminutus_; cf. B., _Beit._ xii.

l. 2285. onberan is found also at line 991, = _carry off_, with on- = E.
_un--(un-bind, -loose, -tie_, etc.), G. _ent-_. The negro still pronounces
_on-do_, etc.

l. 2299. Cf. H.-So., p. 112, for a defense of the text as it stands. B.
proposes "nor was there any man in that desert who rejoiced in conflict,"
etc. So ten Br.

l. 2326. B. and ten Br,. propose hām, = _home_, for him.--_Beit._ xii. 103.

l. 2335. E. translates ēalond utan by _the sea-board front, the
water-washed land on the (its) outside_. See B., _Beit._ xii. 1, 5.

l. 2346. Cf. l. 425, where Beowulf resolves to fight the dragon
single-handed. E. compares _Guy of Warwick_, ll. 49, 376.

l. 2355. Ten Br. proposes laðan cynne as apposition to mǣgum.

l. 2360. Cf. Beowulf's other swimming-feat with Breca, ll. 506 _seq._

l. 2362. Gr. inserts āna, = _lone-going_, before xxx.: approved by B.; and
Krüger, _Beit._ ix. 575. Cf. l. 379.

l. 2362. "Beowulf has the strength of thirty men in the original tale.
Here, then, the new inventor makes him carry off thirty coats of
mail."--Br., p. 48.

l. 2364. Hetware = Chattuarii, a nation allied against Hygelāc in his
Frisian expedition; cf. ll. 1208 _seq._, 2917, etc.

l. 2368. B. proposes _quiet sea_ as trans, of sioleða bigong, and compares
Goth. _anasilan_, to be still; Swed. dial, _sil_, still water between
waterfalls.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 214.

l. 2380. hyne--Heardrēd; so him, l. 2358.

l. 2384. E. calls attention to Swīo-rīce as identical with the modern
_Sverige_ = Sweden; cf. l. 2496.

l. 2386. Gr. reads on feorme, = _at the banquet_; cf. Möller, _Alteng.
Volksepos_, 111, who reads (f)or feorme. The MS. has or.

l. 2391. Cf. l. 11.

l. 2394. B., Gr., and Mūllenh. understand ll. 2393-2397 to mean that
Ēadgils, Ōhthere's son, driven from Sweden, returns later, supported by
Beowulf, takes the life of his uncle Onela, and probably becomes himself
O.'s successor and king of Sweden. For another view see H.-So., p. 115. MS.
has freond (l. 2394), which Leo, etc., change to fēond. G. translates
_friend_.--_Beit._ xii. 13; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ iii. 177.

l. 2395. Ēadgils is Ōhthere's son; cf. l. 2381; Onela is Ōhthere's brother;
cf. ll. 2933, 2617.

l. 2402. "Twelfsome"; cf. "fifteensome" at l. 207, etc. As _Bēowulf_ is
essentially _the_ Epic of Philanthropy, of the true love of man, as
distinguished from the ordinary love-epic, the number twelve in this
passage may be reminiscent of another Friend of Man and another Twelve. In
each case all but one desert the hero.

l. 2437. R. proposes stȳred, = _ordered, decreed_, for strēd.--_Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 409.

l. 2439. B. corrects to frēo-wine = _noble friend_, asking, "How can
Herebeald be called Hæðcyn's frēa-wine [MS.], _lord?_"

l. 2442. feohlēas gefeoht, "a homicide which cannot be atoned for by
money--in this case an unintentional fratricide."--Sw.

l. 2445. See Ha., pp. 82, 83, for a discussion of ll. 2445-2463. Cf. G., p.

l. 2447. MS. reads wrece, justified by B. (_Tidskr._ viii. 56). W.
conceives wrece as optative or hortative, and places a colon before þonne.

l. 2449. For helpan read helpe.--K., Th., S. (_Zeitschr. f. D. Phil._ xxi.
3, 357).

ll. 2454-2455. (1) Müllenh. (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 232) proposes:

þonne se ān hafað
þurh dǣda nȳd dēaðes gefandod.

(2) B. proposes:

þurh dǣda nīð dēaðes gefondad.
--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 215.

l. 2458. Cf. scēotend, pl., ll. 704, 1155, like rīdend. Cf. _Judith_, l.
305, etc.

l. 2474. Th. considers the "wide water" here as the Mälar lake, the
boundary between Swedes and Goths.

l. 2477. On oþþe = _and_, cf. B., _Tidskr._ viii. 57. See Ha., p. 83.

l. 2489. B. proposes hrēa-blāc for Gr.'s heoro-.--_Tikskr._ viii. 297.

l. 2494. S. suggests ēðel-wynne.

l. 2502. E. translates for dugeðum, _of my prowess_; so Ettmüller.

ll. 2520-2522. Gr. and S. translate, "if I knew how else I might combat the
monster's boastfulness."--Ha., p. 85.

l. 2524. and-hāttres is H.'s invention. Gr. reads oreðes and attres, _blast
and venom_. Cf. oruð, l. 2558, and l. 2840 (where attor- also occurs).

l. 2526. E. quotes flēon fōtes trym from _Maldon_, l. 247.

l. 2546. Gr., H.-So., and Ho. read standan stān-bogan (for stōd on
stān-bogan) depending on geseah.

l. 2550. Grundt. and B. propose dēor, _brave one_, i.e. Beowulf, for dēop.

L. 2565. MS. has ungleaw (K., Th.), unglaw (Grundt.). B. proposes unslāw, =
_sharp_.--_Beit._ xii. 104. So H.-So., Ha., p. 86.

ll. 2570, 2571. (1) May not gescīfe (MS. to gscipe) = German _schief_,
"crooked," "bent," "aslant," and hence be a parallel to gebogen, _bent,
coiled?_ cf. l. 2568, þā se wyrm gebēah snūde tōsomne, and l. 2828. Coiled
serpents spring more powerfully for the coiling. (2) Or perhaps destroy
comma after tō and read gescæpe, = _his fate_; cf. l. 26: him þā Scyld
gewāt tō gescæp-hwīle. G. appar. adopts this reading, p. 78.

l. 2589. grund-wong = _the field_, not _the earth_ (so B.); H.-So., _cave_,
as at l. 2771. So Ha., p. 87.

l. 2595. S. proposes colon after stefne.--_Beit._ ix. 141.

l. 2604. Müllenh. explains lēod Scylfinga in _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ iii.

l. 2607. āre = _possessions, holding_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 192; Ha., p. 88).

l. 2609. folcrihta. Add "folk-right" to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.
ēðel-, land-riht, word-riht.

l. 2614. H.-So. reads with Gr. wrǣccan winelēasum Wēohstān bana, = _whom, a
friendless exile, W. had slain_.

ll. 2635-61. E. quotes Tacitus, _Germania_, xiv.: "turpe comitatui virtutem
principis non adaequare." Beowulf had been deserted by his _comitatus_.

l. 2643. B. proposes ūser.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 216.

l. 2649. wutun; l. 3102, uton = pres. subj. pl. 1st person of wītan, _to
go_, used like Mod. Eng. _let us_ + inf., Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_,
Fr. _allons_; M. E. (_Layamon_) _uten_. Cf. Psa. ii. 3, etc. March, _A.-S.
Gram._, pp. 104, 196.

l. 2650. B. suggests hāt for hyt,.--_Beit._ xii. 105.

l. 2656. fāne = fāh-ne; cf. fāra = fāh-ra, l. 578; so hēanne (MS.) =
hēah-ne, etc., l. 984. See Cook's Sievers' Gram.

ll. 2660, 2661. Why not read beadu-scrūd, as at l. 453, = _battle-shirt?_
B. and R. suppose two half-verses omitted between byrdu-scrūd and bām
gemǣne. B. reads bȳwdu, = _handsome_, etc. Gr. suggests unc nū, = _to us
two now_, for ūrum; and K. and Grundt. read bēon gemǣne for bām, etc. This
makes sense. Cf. Ha., p. 89.

l. 2666. Cf. the dat. absolute without preposition.

l. 2681. Nægling; cf. Hrunting, Lāfing, and other famous wundor-smiða
geweorc of the poem.

l. 2687. B. changes þonne into þone (rel. pro.) = _which_.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 2688. B. supports the MS. reading, wundum.

l. 2688. Cf. l. 2278 for similar language.

l. 2698. B. (_Beit._ xii. 105) renders: "he did not heed the head of the
dragon (which Beowulf with his sword had struck without effect), but he
struck the dragon somewhat further down." Cf. Saxo, vi. p. 272.

l. 2698. Cf. the language used at ll. 446 and 1373, where hafelan also
occurs; and hȳdan.

l. 2700. hwēne; cf. Lowl. Sc. _wheen_, a number; Chaucer's _woon_, number.

l. 2702. S. proposes þā (for þæt) þæt fȳr, etc., = _when the fire began_,

l. 2704. "The (hup)-seax has often been found in Saxon graves on the hip of
the skeleton."--E.

l. 2707. Kl. proposes: feorh ealne wræc, = _drove out all the life_; cf.
_Gen._ l. 1385.--_Beit._ ix. 192. S. suggests gefylde,--_he felled the
foe_, etc.--_Ibid._ Parentheses seem unnecessary.

l. 2727. dæg-hwīl = _time allotted, lifetime_.

l. 2745, 2745. Ho. removes geong from the beginning of l. 2745 and places
it at the end of l. 2744.

l. 2750. R. proposes sigle searogimmas, as at l. 1158.

l. 2767. (1) B. proposes doubtfully oferhīgean or oferhīgan, = Goth,
_ufarhauhjan_, p. p. _ufarhauhids_ (Gr. τυφωθείς) = _exceed in
value_.--_Tidskr._ viii. 60. (2) Kl. proposes oferhȳdian, = _to make
arrogant, infatuate_; cf. oferhȳd.--_Beit._ ix. 192.

l. 2770. gelocen leoðocræftum = (1) _spell-bound_ (Th., Arnold, E.); (2)
_wrought with hand-craft_ (G.); (3) _meshed, linked together_ (H., Ho.);
cf. _Elene_, ll. 1251, 522.

l. 2778. B. considers bill ... ealdhlāfordes as Beowulf's short sword, with
which he killed the dragon, l. 2704 (_Tidskr._ viii. 299). R. proposes
ealdhlāforde. Müllenh. understands ealdhlāford to mean the former possessor
of the hoard. W. agrees to this, but conceives ǣrgescōd as a compd. = ǣre
calceatus, _sheathed in brass_. Ha. translates ǣrgescōd as vb. and adv.

l. 2791. Cf. l. 224, eoletes æt ende; landes æt ende, _Exod._ (Hunt).

l. 2792. MS. reads wæteres weorpan, which R. would change to wætere

l. 2806. "Men saw from its height the whales tumbling in the waves, and
called it Whale's Ness (Hrones-nǣs)."--Br. p. 28. Cf. l. 3137.

l. 2815. Wīglāf was the next of kin, the last of the race, and hence the
recipient of Beowulf's kingly insignia. There is a possible play on the
word lāf (Wīg-_lāf_, ende-_lāf_).

l. 2818. gingeste word; cf. _novissima verba_, and Ger. _jüngst_, lately.

l. 2837. E. translates on lande, _in the world_, comparing _on līfe, on

l. 2840. gerǣsde = pret. of gerǣsan (omitted from the Gloss.), same as
rǣsan; cf. l. 2691.

l. 2859. B. proposes dēað ārǣdan, = _determine death_.--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2861. Change geongum to geongan as a scribal error (?), but cf.
Lichtenheld, _Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 353-355.

l. 2871. S. and W. propose ōwēr.--_Beit._ ix. 142.

l. 2873. S. punctuates: wrāðe forwurpe, þā, etc.

l. 2874. H.-So. begins a new sentence with nealles, ending the preceding
one with beget.

l. 2879. ætgifan = _to render, to afford_; omitted in Gloss.

ll. 2885-2892. "This passage ... equals the passage in Tacitus which
describes the tie of chief to companion and companion to chief among the
Germans, and which recounts the shame that fell on those who survived their
lord."--Br., p. 56.

l. 2886. cyn thus has the meaning of _gens_ or clan, just as in many
Oriental towns all are of one blood. E. compares Tacitus, _Germania_, 7;
and cf. "kith and kin."

l. 2892. Death is preferable to dishonor. Cf. Kemble, _Saxons_, i. 235.

l. 2901. The ἄγγελος begins his ἀγγελία here.

l. 2910. S. proposes higemēðe, _sad of soul;_ cf. ll. 2853 and 2864
(_Beit._ ix. 142). B. considers higemēðum a dat. or instr. pl. of an
abstract in -u (_Beit._ xii. 106). H. makes it a dat. pl. = _for the dead_.
For heafod-wearde, etc., cf. note on l. 446.

l. 2920-2921. B. explains "he could not this time, as usual, give jewels to
his followers."--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2922. The Merovingian or Frankish race.

l. 2940 _seq._ B. conjectures:

cwæð hīe on mergenne mēces ecgum
gētan wolde, sumon galgtreowu
āhēawan on holte ond hīe āhōan on þā
fuglum tō gamene.
--_Beit._ xii. 107, 372.

Cf. S., _Beit._ ix. 143. gētan = _cause blood to be shed._

l. 2950. B. proposes gomela for gōda; "a surprising epithet for a Geat to
apply to the 'terrible' Ongentheow."--Ha. p. 99. But "good" does not
necessarily mean "morally excellent," as a "good" hater, a "good" fighter.

l. 2959. See H.-So. for an explanatory quotation from Paulus Diaconus, etc.
B., K., and Th. read segn Higelāces, = H.'s banner uplifted began to pursue
the Swede-men.--_Beit._ xii. 108. S. suggests sǣce, = _pursuit_.

l. 2977. gewyrpton: this vb. is also used reflexively in _Exod._ (Hunt), l.
130: wyrpton hīe wērige.

l. 2989. bær is Grundt.'s reading, after the MS. "The surviving victor is
the heir of the slaughtered foe."--H.-So. Cf. _Hildebrands Lied_, ll. 61,

l. 2995. "A hundred of thousands in land and rings" (Ha., p. 100). Cf. ll.
2196, 3051. Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 20, who quotes Saxo's _bis senas gentes_
and remarks: "Hrolf Kraki, who rewards his follower, for the slaying of the
foreign king, with jewels, rich lands, and his only daughter's hand,
answers to the Jutish king Hygelāc, who rewards his liegeman, for the
slaying of Ongenthēow, with jewels, enormous estates, and _his_ only
daughter's hand."

l. 3006. H.-So. suggests Scilfingas for Scyldingas, because, at l. 2397,
Beowulf kills the Scylfing Ēadgils and probably acquires his lands. Thus
ll. 3002, 3005, 3006, would indicate that, after Beowulf's death, the
Swedes desired to shake off his hated yoke. Müllenh., however, regards l.
3006 as a thoughtless repetition of l. 2053.--_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 239.

l. 3008. Cf. the same proverb at l. 256; and _Exod._ (Hunt.) l. 293.

l. 3022. E. quotes:

"Thai token an harp _gle and game_
And maked a lai and yaf it name."
--_Weber_, l. 358.

and from Percy, "The word _glee_, which peculiarly denoted their art (the
minstrels'), continues still in our own language ... it is to this day used
in a musical sense, and applied to a peculiar piece of composition."

l. 3025. "This is a finer use than usual of the common poetic attendants of
a battle, the wolf, the eagle, and the raven. The three are here like three
Valkyrie, talking of all that they have done."--Br., p. 57.

l. 3033. Cf. Hunt's _Dan._ l. 731, for similar language.

l. 3039. B. supplies a supposed gap here:

[banan ēac fundon bennum sēocne
(nē) ǣr hī þǣm gesēgan syllīcran wiht]
wyrm on wonge...
--_Beit._ xii. 372.

Cf. Ha., p. 102. W. and Ho. insert [þǣr] before gesēgan.

l. 3042. Cf. l. 2561, where gryre-giest occurs as an epithet of the dragon.
B. proposes gry[re-fāh].

l. 3044. lyft-wynne, _in the pride of the air_, E.; _to rejoice in the
air_, Ha.

l. 3057. (1) He (God) is men's hope; (2) he is the heroes' hope; (3) gehyld
= the secret place of enchanters; cf. hēlsmanna gehyld, Gr.'s reading,
after A.-S. hǣlsere, haruspex, augur.

l. 3060. B. suggests gehȳðde, = _plundered_ (i.e. by the thief), for

ll. 3063-3066. (1) B. suggests wundur [dēaðe] hwār þonne eorl ellenrof ende
gefēre = _let a brave man then somewhere meet his end by wondrous venture_,
etc.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 241; cf. l. 3038. (2) S. supposes an indirect
question introduced by hwār and dependent upon wundur, = _a mystery is it
when it happens that the hero is to die, if he is no longer to linger among
his people_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. (3) Müllenh. suggests: _is it to be wondered
at that a man should die when he can no longer live?_--_Zachers Zeitschr._
xiv. 241. (4) Possibly thus:

Wundrað hwæt þonne,
eorl ellen-rōf, ende gefēre
līf-gesceafta, þonne leng ne mæg (etc.),

in which hwæt would = þurh hwæt at l. 3069, and eorl would be subject of
the conjectural vb. wundrað: "the valiant earl wondereth then through what
he shall attain his life's end, when he no longer may live. ... So Bēowulf
knew not (wondered how) through what _his_ end should come," etc. W. and
Ho. join þonne to the next line. Or, for hwār read wǣre: Wundur wǣre þonne
(= gif), etc., = "would it be any wonder if a brave man," etc., which is
virtually Müllenhoff's.

l. 3053. galdre bewunden, _spell-bound_, throws light on l. 2770, gelocen
leoðo-cræftum. The "accursed" gold of legend is often dragon-guarded and
placed under a spell. Even human ashes (as Shakespeare's) are thus banned.
ll. 3047-3058 recall the so-called "Treasury of Atreus."

l. 3070. H.-So. begins a new line with swā.

l. 3073. herh, hearh, _temple_, is conjectured by E. to survive in _Harrow.
Temple, barrow_, etc., have thus been raised to proper names. Cf. Bīowulfes
biorh of l. 2808.

l. 3074. H.-So. has strude, = _ravage_, and compares l. 3127. MS. has
strade. S. suggests stride, = _tread_.

l. 3074. H.-So. omits strādan, = _tread, stride over_, from the Gloss.,
referring ll. 3174 and 3074 to strūdan, q. v.

l. 3075. S. proposes: næs hē goldhwætes gearwor hæfde, etc., = _Beowulf had
not before seen the greedy possessor's favor_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. B. reads,
goldhwæte gearwor hæfde, etc., making goldhwæte modify ēst, = _golden
favor_; but see _Beit._ xii. 373, for B.'s later view.

l. 3086-3087. B. translates, "that which (i.e. the treasure) drew the king
thither was granted indeed, but it overwhelmed us."--_Beit._ xii. 109.

l. 3097. B. and S. propose æfter wine dēadum, = _in memory of the dead
friend_.--_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3106. The brād gold here possibly includes the iū-monna gold of l. 3053
and the wunden gold of l. 3135. E. translates brād by _bullion_.

l. 3114. B. supposes folc-āgende to be dat. sg. to gōdum, referring to

l. 3116. C. considers weaxan, = Lat. _vescor_, to devour, as a parallel to
fretan, and discards parentheses.--_Beit._ viii. 573.

l. 3120. fūs = _furnished with_; a meaning which must be added to those in
the Gloss.

ll. 3124-3125. S. proposes:

ēode eahta sum under inwit-hrōf
hilderinca: sum on handa bær, etc.
--_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3136. H.-So. corrects (after B.) to æðeling_c_, the MS. having _e_.

l. 3145. "It was their [the Icelanders'] belief that the higher the smoke
rose in the air the more glorious would the burnt man be in heaven."--
_Ynglinga Saga_, 10 (quoted by E.). Cf. the funeral pyre of Herakles.

l. 3146-3147. B. conjectures:

... swōgende lēc
wōpe bewunden windblonda lēg

(lēc from lācan, see Gloss.).--_Beit._ xii. 110. Why not windblonda lāc?

l. 3147. Müllenhoff rejected wind-blond gelæg because a great fire raises
rather than "lays" the wind; hence B., as above, = "swoughing sported the
flame wound with the howling of wind-currents."

l. 3151 _seq._ B. restores conjecturally:

swylce giōmor-gyd sio geō-meowle
[æfter Bēowulfe] bunden-heorde
[song] sorg-cearig, sǣde geneahhe,
þæt hīo hyre [hearm-]dagas hearde on [dr]ēde,
wælfylla worn, [w]īgendes egesan,
hȳ[n]ðo ond hæftnȳd, hēof on rīce wealg.
--_Beit._ xii. 100.

Here geō-meowle = _old woman_ or _widow;_ bunden-heorde = _with bound
locks;_ hēof = _lamentation;_ cf. l. 3143. on rīce wealg is less preferable
than the MS. reading, heofon rēce swealg = _heaven swallowed the
smoke_.--H.-So. B. thinks Beowulf's widow (geōmeowle) was probably Hygd;
cf. ll. 2370, 3017-3021.

l. 3162. H.-So. reads (with MS.) bronda be lāfe, for betost, and omits
colon after bēcn. So B., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 224.

l. 3171. E. quotes Gibbon's accounts of the burial of Attila when the
"chosen squadrons of the Hun, wheeling round in measured evolutions,
chanted a funeral song to the memory of a hero."

ll. 3173-3174. B. proposes:

woldon gēn cwīðan [ond] kyning
wordgyd wrecan ond ymb wēl sprecan.
--_Beit._ xii. 112.

l. 3183. Z., K., Th. read manna for mannum.

l. 3184. "It is the English ideal of a hero as it was conceived by an
Englishman some twelve hundred years ago."--Br., p. 18.


The original MS. of this fragment has vanished, but a copy had been made
and printed by Hickes in his _Thesaurus Linguarum Septentrionalium_, i.
192. The original was written on a single sheet attached to a codex of
homilies in the Lambeth Library. Möller, _Alteng. Epos_, p. 65, places the
fragment in the Finn episode, between ll. 1146 and 1147. Bugge (_Beit._
xii. 20) makes it illustrate the conflict in which Hnæf fell, _i.e._ as
described in _Bēowulf_ as antecedent to the events there given. Heinzel
(_Anzeiger f. d. Altert._), however, calls attention to the fact that
Hengest in the fragment is called cyning, whereas in _Bēowulf_, l. 1086, he
is called þegn. See H.-So., p. 125.

"The _Fight at Finnsburg_ and the lays from which our _Bēowulf_ was
composed were, as it seems to me, sung among the English who dwelt in the
north of Denmark and the south of Sweden, and whose tribal name was the
Jutes or Goths."--Br., p. 101.

l. 1. R. supposes [hor]nas, and conjectures such an introductory
conversation as follows: "Is it dawning in the east, or is a fiery dragon
flying about, or are the turrets of some castle burning?" questions which
the king negatives in the same order. Then comes the positive declaration,
"rather they are warriors marching whose armor gleams in the moonlight."
--_Alt- und Angels. Lesebuch_, 1861. Heinzel and B. conjecture, [beorhtor
hor]nas byrnað nǣfre. So. G.--_Beit._ xii. 22; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ x.

l. 5. B. conjectures fugelas to mean _arrows_, and supplies:

ac hēr forð berað [fyrdsearu rincas,
flacre flānbogan], fugelas singað.

He compares Saxo, p. 95, _cristatis galeis hastisque sonantibus instant_,
as explanatory of l. 6.--_Beit._ xii. 22. But see Brooke, _Early Eng.
Literature_, who supposes fugelas = _raven_ and _eagle_, while grǣg-hama is
= _wulf_ (the "grey-coated one"), the ordinary accompaniers of battle.

l. 11. hicgeað, etc.: cf. _Maldon_, l. 5; _Exod._ l. 218.

l. 15. Cf. B. (_Beit._ xii. 25), etc., and Saxo, p. 101, for l. 13.

ll. 18-21. H.-So. remarks: "If, according to Möller and Bugge, Gārulf is
one of the attackers, one of Finn's men, this does not harmonize with his
character as Gūðlāf's son (l. 33), who (l. 16, and _Bēowulf_, l. 1149) is a
Dane, therefore one of Finn's antagonists." B. (_Beit._ xii. 25)

þā gȳt Gūðdene Gārulf styrode,
þæt hē swā frēolīc feorh forman sīðe
tō þǣre healle durum hyrsta ne bǣre,
nū hīe nīða heard ānyman wolde;

in which Gūðdene is the same as Sigeferð, l. 24; hē (l. 22) refers to
Gārulf; and hīe (l. 21) to hyrsta.

l. 27. swæðer = _either_ (bad or good, life or death).--H.-So.

l. 29. cēlod: meaning doubtful; cf. _Maldon_, l. 283. G. renders "curved
board"; Sw. suggests "round"? "hollow"?

l. 30. B. suggests bār-helm, = _boar-helm._ Cf. Saxo, p. 96.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 34. B. conjectures: (1) hwearf flacra hrǣw hræfen, wandrode; (2) hwearf
flacra hrǣw hræfen fram ōðrum = _flew from one corpse to another_.--_Beit._
xii. 27.

l. 43. B. supposes wund hæleð to be a Dane, folces hyrde to be Hnæf, in
opposition to Holtzmann (_Germania_, viii. 494), who supposes the wounded
man to be a Frisian, and folces hyrde to be their king, Finn.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 45. B. adopts Th.'s reading heresceorp unhrōr = _equipments
useless_.--_Beit._ xii. 28.

l. 47. "Though wounded, they had retained their strength and activity in
battle."--B., _Beit._ xii. 28.



ac, conj. denoting contrariety: hence 1) _but_ (like N.H.G. sondern), 109,
135, 339, etc.--2) _but_ (N.H.G. aber), _nevertheless_, 602, 697, etc.--3)
in direct questions: nonne, numquid, 1991.

āglǣca, āhlǣca, ǣglǣca, -cea, w. m. (cf. Goth, aglo, _trouble_, O.N. agi,
_terror_, + lāc, _gift, sport: = misery, vexation, = bringer of trouble_;
hence): 1) _evil spirit, demon, a demon-like being_; of Grendel, 159, 433,
593, etc.; of the drake, 2535, 2906, etc.--2) _great hero, mighty warrior_;
of Sigemund, 894; of Bēowulf: gen. sg. āglǣcan(?), 1513; of Bēowulf and the
drake: nom. pl. þā āglǣcean, 2593.

āglǣc-wīf, st. n., _demon, devil, in the form of a woman_; of Grendel's
mother, 1260.

aldor. See ealdor.

al-wealda. See eal-w.

am-biht (from and-b., Goth, and-baht-s), st. m., _servant, man-servant_:
nom. sg. ombeht, of the coast-guard, 287; ombiht, of Wulfgār, 336.

ambiht-þegn (from ambiht n. officium and þegn, which see), _servant,
man-servant_: dat. sg. ombiht-þegne, of Bēowulf's servant, 674.

an, prep, with the dat., _on, in, with respect to_, 678; _with, among, at,
upon_ (position after the governed word), 1936; with the acc., 1248.
Elsewhere on, which see.

ancor, st. m., _anchor_: dat. sg. ancre, 303, 1884.

ancor-bend, m. (?) f. (?), _anchor-cable_: dat. pl. oncer-bendum, 1919.

and, conj. (ond is usual form; for example, 601, 1149, 2041), and 33, 39,
40, etc. (See Appendix.)

anda, w. m., _excitement, vexation, horror_: dat. wrāðum on andan, 709,

and-git, st. n., _insight, understanding_: nom. sg., 1060. See gitan.

and-hātor, st. m. n., _heat coming against one_: gen. sg. rēðes
and-hāttres, 2524.

and-lang, -long, adj., _very long._ hence 1) _at whole length, raised up
high_: acc. andlongne eorl, 2696 (cf. Bugge upon this point, Zachers
Ztschr., 4, 217).--2) _continual, entire_; andlangne dæg, 2116, _the whole
day_; andlonge niht, 2939.

and-lēan, st. n., _reward, payment in full_: acc. sg., 1542, 2095 (hand-,
hond-lean, MS.).

and-risno, st. f. (see rīsan, surgere, decere), _that which is to be
observed, that which is proper, etiquette_: dat. pl. for andrysnum,
_according to etiquette_, 1797.

and-saca, w. m., _adversary_: godes andsaca (Grendel), 787, 1683.

and-slyht, st. m., _blow in return_: acc. sg., 2930, 2973 (MS. both times

and-swaru, st. f., _act of accosting_: 1) to persons coming up, _an
address_, 2861.--2) in reply to something said, _an answer_, 354, 1494,

and-weard, adj., _present, existing_: acc. sg. n. swīn ofer helme and-weard
(_the image of the boar, which stands on his helm_), 1288.

and-wlita, w. m., _countenance_: acc. sg. -an, 690.

an-sund, adj., _entirely unharmed_: nom. sg. m., 1001.

an-sȳn, f., _the state of being seen_: hence 1) _the exterior, the form_,
251: ansȳn ȳwde, _showed his form_, i.e. appeared, 2835.--2) _aspect,
appearance_, 929; on-sȳn, 2773.

an-walda, w. m., _He who rules over all, God_, 1273. See Note.

atelīc, adj., _terrible, dreadful_: atelīc egesa, 785.

atol, adj. (also eatol, 2075, etc.), _hostile, frightful, cruel_: of
Grendel, 159, 165, 593, 2075, etc.; of Grendel's mother's hands (dat. pl.
atolan), 1503; of the undulation of the waves, 849; of battle, 597,
2479.--cf. O.N. atall, fortis, strenuus.

attor, st. n., _poison_, here of the poison of the dragon's bite: nom.,

attor-sceaða, w. m., _poisonous enemy, of the poisonous dragon_: gen. sg.
-sceaðan, 2840.

āwa, adv. (certainly not the dative, but a reduplicated form of ā, which
see), _ever_: āwa tō aldre, _fōr ever and ever_, 956.


ā, adv. (Goth, áiv, acc. from aiv-s aevum), _ever, always_, 455, 882, 931,
1479: ā syððan, _ever afterwards, ever, ever after_, 283, 2921.--_ever_,
780.--Comp. nā.

ād st. m. _funeral pile_: acc. sg. ād, 3139; dat. sg. āde, 1111, 1115.

ād-faru, st. f., _way to the funeral pile_, dat. sg. on ād-fære, 3011.

ādl, st. f. _sickness_, 1737, 1764, 1849.

āð, st. m., _oath in general_, 2740; _oath of allegiance_, 472 (?); _oath
of reconciliation of two warring peoples_, 1098, 1108.

āð-sweord, st. n., _the solemn taking of an oath, the swearing of an oath_:
nom. pl., 2065. See sweord.

āðum-swerian, m. pl., _son-in-law and father-in-law_: dat. pl., 84.

āgan, verb, pret. and pres., _to have, to possess_, w. acc.: III. prs. sg.
āh, 1728; inf. āgan, 1089; prt. āhte, 487, 522, 533; with object, geweald,
to be supplied, 31. Form contracted with the negative: prs. sg. I. nāh hwā
sweord wege (_I have no one to wield the sword_), 2253.

āgen, adj., _own, peculiar_, 2677.

āgend (prs. part. of āgan), _possessor, owner, lord_: gen. sg. āgendes, _of
God_, 3076.--Compounds: blǣd-, bold-, folc-, mægen-āgend.

āgend-frēa, w. m., _owner, lord_: gen. sg. āgend-frēan, 1884.

āhsian, ge-āhsian, w. v.: 1) _to examine, to find out by inquiring_: pret.
part. ge-āhsod, 433.--2) _to experience, to endure_: pret. āhsode, 1207;
pl. āhsodon, 423.

āht, st. n. (contracted from ā-wiht, which see), _something, anything_: āht
cwices, 2315.

ān, num. The meaning of this word betrays its apparent demonstrative
character: 1) _this, that_, 2411, of the hall in the earth mentioned
before; similarly, 100 (of Grendel; already mentioned), cf. also 2775.--2)
_one_, a particular one among many, a single one, in numerical sense: ymb
āne niht (_the next night_), 135; þurh ānes cræft, 700; þāra ānum, 1038; ān
æfter ānum, _one for the other_ (Hrēðel for Herebeald), 2462: similarly, ān
æfter eallum, 2269; ānes hwæt, _some single thing, a part_, 3011; se ān
lēoda duguðe, _the one of the heroes of the people_, 2238; ānes willan,
_for the sake of a single one_, 3078, etc.--Hence, again, 3) _alone,
distinguished_, 1459, 1886.--4) _a_, in the sense of an indefinite article:
ān ... fēond, 100; gen. sg. ānre bēne (or to No.2[?]), 428; ān ... draca,
2211--5) gen. pl. ānra, in connection with a pronoun, _single_; ānra
gehwylces, _every single one_, 733; ānra gehwylcum, 785. Similarly, the
dat. pl. in this sense: nemne fēaum ānum, _except a few single ones_,
1082.--6) solus, _alone_: in the strong form, 1378, 2965; in the weak form,
145, 425, 431, 889, etc.; with the gen., āna Gēata duguðe, _alone of the
warriors of the Gēatas_, 2658.--7) solitarius, _alone, lonely_, see
ǣn.--Comp. nān.

ān-feald, adj., _simple, plain, without reserve_: acc. sg. ānfealdne
geþōht, _simple opinion_, 256.

ān-genga, -gengea, w. m., _he who goes alone_, of Grendel, 165, 449.

ān-haga, w. m., _he who stands alone_, solitarius, 2369.

ān-hȳdig, adj. (like the O.N. ein-rād-r, _of one resolve_, i.e. of firm
resolve), _of one opinion_, i.e. firm, brave, decided, 2668.

ānga, adj. (only in the weak form), _single, only_: acc. sg. āngan dōhtor,
375, 2998; āngan eaferan, 1548; dat. sg. āngan brēðer, 1263.

ān-pæð, st. m., _lonely way, path_: acc. pl. ānpaðas, 1411.

ān-rǣd, adj. (cf. under ān-hȳdig), _of firm resolution, resolved_, 1530,

ān-tīd, st. f., _one time_, i.e. the same time, ymb ān-tīd ōðres dōgores,
_about the same time the second day_ (they sailed twenty-four hours),
219.--ān stands as in ān-mod, O.H.G. ein-muoti, _harmonious, of the same

ānunga, adv., _throughout, entirely, wholly_, 635.

ār, st. m., _ambassador, messenger_, 336, 2784.

ār, st. f., 1) _honor, dignity_: ārum healdan, _to hold in honor_, 296;
similarly, 1100, 1183.--2) _favor, grace, support_: acc. sg. āre, 1273,
2607; dat. sg. āre, 2379; gen. pl. hwæt ... ārna, 1188.--Comp. worold-ār;
also written ǣr.

ār-fæst, adj., _honorable, upright_, 1169; of Hunferð (with reference to
588). See fæst.

ārian, w. v., (_to be gracious_), _to spare_: III. sg. prs. w. dat. nǣnegum
ārað; of Grendel, 599.

ār-stæf, st. m.,(elementum honoris), _grace, favor_: dat. pl. mid ārstafum,
317.--_Help, support_: dat. pl. for ār-stafum, _to the assistance_, 382,
458. See stæf.

āter-tēar, m., _poisonous drop_: dat. pl. īren āter-tēarum fāh (steel which
is dipped in poison or in poisonous sap of plants), 1460.


æðele, adj., _noble_: nom. sg., of Bēowulf, 198, 1313; of Bēowulf's father,
263, where it can be understood as well in a moral as in a genealogical
sense; the latter prevails decidedly in the gen. sg. æðelan cynnes, 2235.

æðeling, st. m., _nobleman, man of noble descent_, especially the
appellation of a man of royal birth; so of the kings of the Danes, 3; of
Scyld, 33; of Hrōðgār, 130; of Sigemund, 889; of Bēowulf, 1226, 1245, 1597,
1816, 2189, 2343, 2375, 2425, 2716, 3136; perhaps also of Dæghrefn,
2507;--then, in a broader sense, also denoting other noble-born men:
Æschere, 1295; Hrōðgār's courtiers, 118, 983; Heremōd's courtiers, 907;
Hengest's warriors, 1113; Bēowulf's retinue, 1805, 1921, 3172; noble-born
in general, 2889. --Comp. sib-æðeling.

æðelu, st. n., only in the pl., _noble descent, nobility_, in the sense of
noble lineage: acc. pl. æðelu, 392; dat. pl. cyning æðelum gōd, _the king,
of noble birth_, 1871; æðelum dīore, _worthy on account of noble lineage_,
1950; æðelum (hǣleþum, MS.), 332.--Comp. fæder-æðelu.

æfnan, w. v. w. acc., _to perform, to carry out, to accomplish_: inf.
ellen-weorc æfnan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1465; pret. unriht æfnde,
_perpetrated wrong_, 1255.

ge-æfnan, 1) _to carry out, to do, to accomplish_: pret. pl. þæt geæfndon
swā, _so carried that out_, 538; pret. part. āð wæs geæfned, _the oath was
sworn_, 1108.--2) _get ready, prepare_: pret. part. geæfned, 3107. See

æfter (comparative of af, Ags. of, which see; hence it expresses the idea
of _forth, away, from, back_), a) adv., _thereupon, afterwards_, 12, 341,
1390, 2155.--ic him æfter sceal, _I shall go after them_, 2817; in word
æfter cwæð, 315, the sense seems to be, _spoke back, having turned_; b)
prep. w. dat., 1) (temporal) _after_, 119, 128, 187, 825, 1939, etc.; æfter
beorne, _after the_ (death of) _the hero_, 2261, so 2262; æfter
māððum-welan, _after_ (obtaining) _the treasure_, 2751.--2) (causal) as
proceeding from something, denoting result and purpose, hence, _in
consequence of, conformably to_: æfter rihte, _in accordance with right_,
1050, 2111; æfter faroðe, _with the current_, 580; so 1321, 1721, 1944,
2180, etc., æfter heaðo-swāte, _in consequence of the blood of battle_,
1607; æfter wælnīðe, _in consequence of mortal enmity_, 85; _in accordance
with, on account of, after, about_: æfter æðelum (hǣleþum, MS.)frægn,
_asked about the descent_, 332; ne frīn þū æfter sǣlum, _ask not after my
welfare_, 1323; æfter sincgyfan grēoteð, _weeps for the giver of treasure_,
1343; him æfter dēorum men dyrne langað, _longs in secret for the dear
man_, 1880; ān æfter ānum, _one for the other_, 2462, etc.--3) (local),
_along_: æfter gumcynnum, _throughout the races of men, among men_, 945;
sōhte bed æfter būrum, _sought a bed among the rooms of the castle_ (the
castle was fortified, the hall was not), 140; æfter recede wlāt, _looked
along the hall_, 1573; stone æfter stāne, _smelt along the rocks_, 2289;
æfter lyfte, _along the air through the air_, 2833; similarly, 996, 1068,
1317, etc.

æf-þunca, w. m., _anger, chagrin, vexatious affair_: nom., 502.

ge-æhtan, w. v., _to prize, to speak in praise of_: pret. part. geæhted,

ge-æhtla, w. m., or ge-æhtle, w. f., _a speaking of with praise, high
esteem_: gen. sg. hȳ ... wyrðe þinceað eorla geæhtlan, _seem worthy of the
high esteem of the noble-born_, 369.

æglǣcea. See āglǣcea.

æl-fylce (from æl-, Goth. ali-s, ἄλλος, and fylce, O.N. fylki, collective
form from folc), st. n., _other folk, hostile army_: dat. pl. wið ælfylcum,

æl-mihtig (for eal-m.), adj., _almighty_: nom. sg. m., of the weak form, se
æl-mihtiga, 92.

æl-wiht, st. m., _being of another species, monster_: gen. pl. æl-wihta
eard, of the dwelling-place of Grendel's kindred, 1501.

æppel-fealu, adj., _dappled sorrel_, or _apple-yellow_: nom. pl.
æppel-fealuwe mēaras, _apple-yellow steeds_, 2166.

ærn, st. n., _house_, in the compounds heal-, hord-, medo-, þrȳð-,

æsc, st. m., _ash_ (does not occur in Bēowulf in this sense), _lance,
spear_, because the shaft consists of ash wood: dat. pl. (quā instr.) æscum
and ecgum, _with spears and swords_, 1773.

æsc-holt, st. n., _ash wood, ashen shaft_: nom. pl. æsc-holt ufan grǣg,
_the ashen shafts gray above_ (spears with iron points), 330.

æsc-wiga, w. m., _spear-fighter, warrior armed with the spear_: nom. sg.,

æt, prep. w. dat., with the fundamental meaning of nearness to something,
hence 1) local, a) _with, near, at, on, in_ (rest): æt hȳðe, in _harbor_,
32; æt symle, _at the meal_, 81, æt āde, _on the funeral-pile_, 1111, 1115;
æt þē ānum, _with thee alone_, 1378; æt wīge, _in the fight_, 1338; æt
hilde, 1660, 2682; æt ǣte, _in eating_, 3027, etc. b) _to, towards, at, on_
(motion to): dēaðes wylm hrān æt heortan, _seized upon the heart_, 2271;
gehēton æt hærgtrafum, _vowed at_ (or _to_) _the temples of the gods_, 175.
c) with verbs of taking away, _away from_ (as starting from near an
object): geþeah þæt ful æt Wealhþēon, _took the cup from W_., 630; fela ic
gebād grynna æt Grendle, _from Grendel_, 931; æt mīnum fæder genam, _took
me from my father to himself_, 2430.--2) temporal, _at, in, at the time
of_: æt frumsceafte, _in the beginning_, 45; æt ende, _at an end_, 224;
fand sīnne dryhten ealdres æt ende, _at the end of life, dying_, 2791;
similarly, 2823; æt feohgyftum, _in giving gifts_, 1090; æt sīðestan,
_finally_, 3014.

æt-grǣpe, adj., _laying hold of_, prehendens, 1270.

æt-rihte, adv., _almost_, 1658.


ǣdre, ēdre, st. f., _aqueduct, canal_ (not in Bēow.), _vein_ (not in
Bēow.), _stream, violent pouring forth_: dat. pl. swāt ǣdrum sprong, _the
blood sprang in streams_, 2967; blōd ēdrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743.

ǣdre, adv., _hastily, directly, immediately_, 77, 354, 3107.

ǣðm, st. m., _breath, gasp, snort_: instr. sg. hreðer ǣðme wēoll, _the
breast_ (of the drake) _heaved with snorting_, 2594.

ǣfen, st. m., _evening_, 1236.

ǣfen-gram, adj., _hostile at evening, night-enemy_: nom. sg. m. ǣfen-grom,
of Grendel, 2075.

ǣfen-lēoht, st. n., _evening-light_: nom. sg., 413.

ǣfen-ræst, st. f., _evening-rest_: acc. sg. -ræste, 647, 1253.

ǣfen-sprǣc, st. f., _evening-talk_: acc. sg. gemunde ...ǣfen-sprǣce,
_thought about what he had spoken in the evening_, 760.

ǣfre, adv., _ever, at any time_, 70, 280, 504, 693, etc.: in negative
sentences, ǣfre ne, _never_, 2601.--Comp. nǣfre.

ǣg-hwā (O.H.G. ēo-ga-hwër), pron., _every, each_: dat. sg. ǣghwǣm, 1385.
The gen. sg. in adverbial sense, _in all, throughout, thoroughly_: ǣghwæs
untǣle, _thoroughly blameless_, 1866; ǣghwæs unrīm, _entirely innumerable
quantity_, i.e. an enormous multitude, 2625, 3136.

ǣg-hwæðer (O.H.G. ēo-ga-hwëdar): 1) _each_ (of two): nom. sg. hæfde
ǣghwæðer ende gefēred, _each of the two_ (Bēowulf and the drake) _had
reached the end_, 2845; dat. sg. ǣghwæðrum wæs brōga fram ōðrum, _to each
of the two_ (Bēowulf and the drake) _was fear of the other_, 2565; gen. sg.
ǣghwæðres ... worda and worca, 287.--2) _each_ (of several): dat. sg. heora
ǣghwæðrum, 1637.

ǣg-hwǣr, adv., _everywhere_, 1060.

ǣg-hwilc (O.H.G. ēo-gi-hwëlih), pron., unusquisque, _every_ (one): 1) used
as an adj.: acc. sg. m. dǣl ǣghwylcne, 622.--2) as substantive, a) with the
partitive genitive: nom. sg. ǣg-hwylc, 9, 2888; dat. sg. ǣghwylcum, 1051.
b) without gen.: nom. sg. ǣghwylc, 985, 988; (wæs) ǣghwylc ōðrum trȳwe,
_each one_ (of two) _true to the other_, 1166.

ǣg-weard, st. f., _watch on the sea shore_: acc. sg. ǣg-wearde, 241.

ǣht (abstract form from āgan, denoting the state of possessing), st. f.: 1)
_possession, power_: acc. sg. on flōdes ǣht, 42; on wæteres ǣht, _into the
power of the water_, 516; on ǣht gehwearf Denigea frēan, _passed over into
the possession of a Danish master_, 1680.--2) _property, possessions,
goods_: acc. pl. ǣhte, 2249.--Comp. māðm-, gold-ǣht.

ǣht (O.H.G. āhta), st. f., _pursuit_: nom. þā wæs ǣht boden Swēona lēodum,
segn Higelāce, _then was pursuit offered to the people of the Swēonas,
(their) banner to Hygelāc_ (i.e. the banner of the Swedes, taken during
their flight, fell into the hands of Hygelāc), 2958.

ǣled (Old Sax. eld, O.N. edl-r), st. m., _fire_, 3016.

ǣled-lēoma, w. m., _(fire-light), torch_: acc. sg. lēoman, 3126. See lēoma.

ǣn (oblique form of ān), num., _one_: acc. sg. m. þone ǣnne þone..., _the
one whom_..., 1054; oftor micle þonne on ǣnne sīð, _much oftener than one
time_, 1580; forð onsendon ǣnne, _sent him forth alone_, 46.

ǣne, adv., _once_: oft nalles ǣne, 3020.

ǣnig, pron., _one, any one_, 474, 503, 510, 534, etc.: instr. sg. nolde ...
0nige þinga, _would in no way, not at all_, 792; lȳt ǣnig mearn, _little
did any one sorrow_ (i.e. no one), 3130.--With the article: næs se
folccyning ... ǣnig, _no people's king_, 2735.--Comp. nǣnig.

ǣn-līc, adj., _alone, excellent, distinguished_: ǣnlīc ansȳn,
_distinguished appearance_, 251; þēah þe hīo ǣnlīcu sȳ, _though she be
beautiful_, 1942.

ǣr (comparative form, from ā): 1) adv., _sooner, before, beforehand_, 15,
656, 695, 758, etc., _for a long time_, 2596; eft swā ǣr, _again as
formerly_, 643; ǣr nē siððan, _neither sooner nor later_, 719; ǣr and sīð,
_sooner and later_ (all times), 2501; nō þȳ ǣr (_not so much the sooner_),
_yet not_, 755, 1503, 2082, 2161, 2467.--2) conjunct., _before, ere_: a)
with the ind.: ǣr hīo tō setle gēong, 2020. b) w. subjunc.: ǣr gē fyr
fēran, _before you travel farther_, 252; ǣr hē on hwurfe 164, so 677, 2819;
ǣr þon dæg cwōme, _ere the day break_, 732; ǣr correlative to ǣr adv.: ǣr
hē feorh seleð, aldor an ōfre, ǣr hē wille ..., _he will sooner_ (rather)
_leave his life upon the shore, before_ (than) _he will_ ..., 1372.--3)
prepos. with dat., _before_ ǣr dēaðe, _before death_, 1389; ǣr dæges hwīle,
_before daybreak_, 2321; ǣr swylt-dæge, _before the day of death_, 2799.

ǣror, comp. adv., _sooner, before-hand_, 810; _formerly_, 2655.

ǣrra, comp. adj., _earlier_; instr. pl., ǣrran mǣlum, _in former times_,
908, 2238, 3036.

ǣrest, superl.: 1) adv., _first of all, foremost_, 6, 617, 1698, etc.--2)
as subst. n., _relation to, the beginning_: acc. þæt ic his ǣrest þē eft
gesægde (_to tell thee in what relation it stood at first to the coat of
mail that has been presented_), 2158. See Note.

ǣr-dæg, st. m. (_before-day_), _morning-twilight, gray of morning_: dat.
sg. mid ǣrdæge, 126; samod ǣrdæge, 1312, 2943.

ǣrende, st. n., _errand, trust_: acc. sg., 270, 345.

ǣr-fæder, st. m., _late father, deceased father_: nom sg. swā his ǣrfæder,

ǣr-gestrēon, st. n., _old treasure, possessions dating from old times_: acc
sg., 1758; gen. sg. swylcra fela ǣrgestrēona, _much of such old treasure_,
2233. See gestrēon.

ǣr-geweorc, st. n., _work dating from old times_: nom. sg. enta ǣr-geweorc,
_the old work of the giants_ (of the golden sword-hilt from Grendel's
water-hall), 1680. See geweorc.

ǣr-gōd, adj., _good since old times, long invested with dignity_ or
_advantages_: æðeling ǣrgōd, 130; (eorl) ǣrgōd, 1330; īren ǣrgōd
(_excellent sword_), 990, 2587.

ǣr-wela, w. m., _old possessions, riches dating from old times_: acc. sg.
ǣrwelan, 2748. See wela.

ǣs, st. n., _carcass, carrion_: dat. (instr.) sg. ǣse, of Æschere's corpse,

ǣt, st. m., _food, meat_: dat, sg., hū him æt ǣte spēow, _how he fared well
at meat_, 3027.

ǣttren (see attor), adj., _poisonous_: wæs þæt blōd tō þæs hāt, ǣttren
ellorgāst, se ǣr inne swealt, _so hot was the blood, (and) poisonous the
demon_ (Grendel's mother) _who died therein_, 1618


bana, bona, w. m., _murderer_, 158, 588, 1103, etc.: acc. sg. bonan
Ongenþēowes, of Hygelāc, although in reality his men slew Ongenþēow (2965
ff.), 1969. Figuratively of inanimate objects: ne wæs ecg bona, 2507; wearð
wracu Wēohstānes bana, 2614.--Comp.: ecg-, feorh-, gāst-, hand-, mūð-bana.

bon-gār, st. m. _murdering spear_, 2032.

ge-bannan, st. v. w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the person, _to command,
to bid_: inf., 74.

bād, st. f., _pledge_, only in comp.: nȳd-bād.

bān, st. n., _bone_: dat. sg. on bāne (on the bony skin of the drake),
2579; dat. pl. heals ealne ymbefēng biteran bānum (here of the teeth of the
drake), 2693.

bān-cofa, w. m., "cubile ossium" (Grimm) of the body: dat. sg. -cofan,

bān-fāg, adj., _variegated with bones_, either with ornaments made of
bone-work, or adorned with bone, perhaps deer-antlers; of Hrōðgār's hall,
781. The last meaning seems the more probable.

bān-fæt, st. n., _bone-vessel_, i.e. the body: acc. pl. bān-fatu, 1117.

bān-hring, st. m., _the bone-structure, joint, bone-joint_: acc. pl. hire
wið halse ... bānhringas bræc (_broke her neck-joint_), 1568.

bān-hūs, st. n., _bone-house_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bānhūs gebræc, 2509;
similarly, 3148.

bān-loca, w. m., _the enclosure of the bones_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bāt
bānlocan, _bit the body_, 743; nom. pl. burston bānlocan, _the body burst_
(of Grendel, because his arm was torn out), 819.

bāt, st. m., _boat, craft, ship_, 211.--Comp. sǣ-bāt.

bāt-weard, st. m., _boat-watcher, he who keeps watch over the craft._ dat.
sg. -wearde, 1901.

bæð, st. n., _bath_: acc. sg. ofer ganotes bæð, _over the diver's bath_
(i.e. the sea), 1862.

bærnan, w. v., _to cause to burn, to burn_: inf. hēt ... bānfatu bærnan,
_bade that the bodies be burned_, 1117; ongan ... beorht hofu bærnan,
_began to consume the splendid country-seats_ (the dragon), 2314.

for-bærnan, w. v., _consume with fire_: inf. hȳ hine ne mōston ...
brondefor-bærnan, _they_ (the Danes) _could not burn him_ (the dead
Æschere) _upon the funeral-pile_, 2127.

bǣdan (Goth, baidjan, O.N. beðia), _to incite, to encourage_: pret. bǣdde
byre geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

ge-bǣdan, w. v., _to press hard_: pret. part. bysigum gebǣded, _distressed
by trouble, difficulty, danger_ (of battle), 2581; _to drive, to send
forth_: strǣla storm strengum gebǣded, _the storm of arrows sent with
strength_, 3118; _overcome_: draca ... bealwe gebǣded, _the dragon ...
overcome by the ills of battle_, 2827.

bǣl (O.N. bāl), st. n., _fire, flames_: (wyrm) mid bǣle fōr, _passed
(through the air) with fire_, 2309; hæfde landwara līge befangan, bǣle and
bronde, _with fire and burning_, 2323.--Especially, _the fire of the
funeral-pile, the funeral-pile_, 1110, 1117, 2127; ǣr hē bǣl cure, _ere he
sought the burning_ (i.e. died), 2819; hātað ... hlǣw gewyrcean ... æfter
bǣle, _after I am burned, let a burial mound be thrown up_ (Bēowulf's
words), 2804.

bǣl-fȳr, st. n., _bale-fire, fire of the funeral-pile_: gen. pl. bǣlfȳra
mǣst, 3144.

bǣl-stede, st. m., _place for the funeral-pile_: dat. sg. in bǣl=stede,

bǣl-wudu, st. m., _wood for the funeral-pile_, 3113.

bǣr, st. f., _bier_, 3106.

ge-bǣran, w. v., _to conduct one's self, behave_: inf. w. adv., ne gefrægen
ic þā mǣgðe ... sēl gebǣran, _I did not hear that a troop bore itself
better, maintained a nobler deportment_, 1013; hē on eorðan geseah þone
lēofestan līfes æt ende blēate gebǣran, _saw the best-beloved upon the
earth, at the end of his life, struggling miserably_ (i.e. in a helpless
situation), 2825.

ge-bǣtan (denominative from bǣte, _the bit_), w. v., _to place the bit in
the mouth of an animal, to bridle_: pret. part. þā wæs Hrōðgāre hors
gebǣted, 1400.

be, prep. w. dat. (with the fundamental meaning _near_, "but not of one
direction, as æt, but more general"): 1) local, _near by, near, at, on_
(rest): be ȳdlāfe uppe lǣgon, _lay above, upon the deposit of the waves_
(upon the strand, of the slain nixies), 566; hæfde be honda, _held by the
hand_ (Bēowulf held Grendel), 815; be sǣm tweonum, _in the circuit of both
the seas_, 859, 1686; be mæste, _on the mast_, 1906; by fȳre, _by the
fire_, 2220; be næsse, _at the promontory_, 2244; sæt be þǣm gebrōðrum
twǣm, _sat by the two brothers_, 1192; wæs se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle
swā bið mægða cræft be wǣpnedmen, _the terror was just so much less, as is
the strength of woman to the warrior_ (i.e. is valued by), 1285, etc.--2)
also local, but of motion from the subject in the direction of the object,
_on, upon, by_: gefēng be eaxle, _seized by the shoulder_, 1538; ālēdon
lēofne þēoden be mæste, _laid the dear lord near the mast_, 36; be healse
genam, _took him by the neck, fell upon his neck_, 1873; wǣpen hafenade be
hiltum, _grasped the weapon by the hilt_, 1757, etc.--3) with this is
connected the causal force, _on account of, for, according to_: ic þis gid
be þē āwræc, _I spake this solemn speech for thee, for thy sake_, 1724; þū
þē lǣr be þon, _learn according to this, from this_, 1723; be fæder lāre,
_according to her father's direction_, 1951.--4) temporal, _while, during_:
be þē lifigendum, _while thou livest, during thy life_, 2666. See bī.

bed, st. n., _bed, couch_: acc. sg. bed, 140, 677; gen. sg. beddes, 1792;
dat. pl. beddum, 1241.--Comp: deað-, hlin-, læger-, morðor-, wæl-bed.

ge-bedde, w. f., _bed-fellow_: dat. sg. wolde sēcan ewēn tō gebeddan,
_wished to seek the queen as bed-fellow, to go to bed with her_,
666.--Comp. heals-gebedde.

bēgen, fem. bā, _both_: nom. m., 536, 770, 2708; acc. fem. on bā healfa,
_on two sides_ (i.e. Grendel and his mother), 1306; dat. m. bām, 2197; and
in connection with the possessive instead of the personal pronoun, ūrum
bām, 2661; gen. n. bēga, 1874, 2896; bēga gehwæðres, _each one of the two_,
1044; bēga folces, of _both peoples_, 1125.

ge-belgan, st. v. (properly, _to cause to swell, to swell_), _to irritate_:
w. dat. (pret. subj.) þæt hē ēcean dryhtne bitre gebulge, _that he had
bitterly angered the eternal Lord_, 2332; pret. part. gebolgen, 1540;
(gebolge, MS.), 2222; pl. gebolgne, 1432; more according to the original
meaning in torne gebolgen, 2402.

ā-belgan, _to anger_: pret. sg. w. acc. oð þæt hyne ān ābealh mon on mōde,
_till a man angered him in his heart_, 2281; pret. part. ābolgen, 724.

ben, st. f., _wound_: acc. sg. benne, 2725.--Comp.: feorh-, seax-ben.

benc, st. f., _bench_: nom. sg. benc, 492; dat. sg. bence, 327, 1014, 1189,
1244.--Comp.: ealu-, medu-benc.

benc-swēg, st. m., (_bench-rejoicing_), _rejoicing which resounds from the
benches_, 1162.

benc-þel, st. n., _bench-board, the wainscotted space where the benches
stand_: nom. pl. benc-þelu, 486; acc. pl. bencþelu beredon, _cleared the
bench-boards_ (i.e. by taking away the benches, so as to prepare couches),

bend, st. m. f., _bond, fetter_: acc. sg. forstes bend, _frost's bond_,
1610; dat. pl. bendum, 978.--Comp.: fȳr-, hell-, hyge-, īren-, oncer-,
searo-, wæl-bend.

ben-geat, st. n., (_wound-gate_), _wound-opening_: nom. pl. ben-geato,

bera (O.N. beri), w. m., _bearer_: in comp. hleor-bera.

beran, st. v. w. acc., _to carry_; III. sg. pres. byreð, 296, 448; þone
māððum byreð, _carries the treasure_ (upon his person), 2056; pres. subj.
bere, 437; pl. beren, 2654; inf. beran, 48, 231, 291, etc.; heht þā se
hearda Hrunting beran, _to bring Hrunting_, 1808; up beran, 1921; in beran,
2153; pret. bær, 495, 712, 847, etc.; mandryhtne bær fǣted wǣge, _brought
the lord the costly vessel_, 2282; pl. bǣron, 213, 1636, etc.; bǣran, 2851;
pret. part. boren, 1193, 1648, 3136.--The following expressions are poetic
paraphrases of the forms _go, come_: þæt wē rondas beren eft tō earde,
2654; gewītað forð beran wǣpen and gewǣdu, 291; ic gefrægn sunu Wīhstānes
hringnet beran, 2755; wīgheafolan bær, 2662; helmas bǣron, 240
(conjecture); scyldas bǣran, 2851: they lay stress upon the connection of
the man with his weapons.

æt-beran, _to carry to_: inf. tō beadulāce (_battle_) ætberan, 1562; pret.
þā hine on morgentīd on Heaðorǣmas holm up ætbær, _the sea bore him up to
the Heaðorǣmas_, 519; hīo Bēowulfe medoful ætbær _brought Bēowulf the
mead-cup_, 625; mægenbyrðenne ... hider ūt ætbær cyninge mīnum, _bore the
great burden hither to my king_, 3093; pl. hī hyne ætbǣron tō brimes
faroðe, 28.--2) _bear away_: æt līc ætbær, 2128.

for-beran, _to hold, to suppress_: inf. þæt hē þone brēostwylm forberan ne
mehte, _that he could not suppress the emotions of his breast_, 1878.

ge-beran, _to bring forth, to bear_: pret. part. þæt lā mæg secgan sē þe
sōð and riht fremeð on folce ... þæt þes eorl wǣre geboren betera (_that
may every just man of the people say, that this nobleman is better born_),

oð-beran, _to bring hither_: pret. þā mec sǣ oðbær on Finna land, 579.

on-beran (O.H.G. in bëran, intpëran, but in the sense of carere), auferre,
_to carry off, to take away_: inf. īren ǣrgōd þæt þæs āhlǣcan blōdge
beadufolme onberan wolde, _excellent sword which would sweep off the bloody
hand of the demon_, 991; pret. part. (wæs) onboren bēaga hord, _the
treasure of the rings had been carried off_, 2285.--Compounds with the
pres. part.: helm-, sāwl-berend.

berian (denominative from bær, _naked_), w. v., _to make bare, to clear_:
pret. pl. bencþelu beredon, _cleared the bench-place_ (by removing the
benches), 1240.

berstan, st. v., _to break, to burst_: pret. pl. burston bānlocan, 819;
bengeato burston, 1122.--_to crack, to make the noise of breaking_: fingras
burston, _the fingers cracked_ (from Bēowulf's gripe), 761.

for-berstan, _break, to fly asunder_: pret. Nægling forbærst, _Nægling_
(Bēowulf's sword) _broke in two_, 2681.

betera, adj. (comp.), _better_: nom. sg. m. betera, 469, 1704.

bet-līc, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. n., of Hrōðgār's hall, 781;
of Hygelāc's residence, 1926.

betst, betost (superl.), _best, the best_: nom. sg. m. betst beadurinca,
1110; neut. nū is ofost betost, þæt wē ..., _now is haste the best, that
we..._, 3008; voc. m. secg betsta, 948; neut. acc. beaduscrūda betst, 453;
acc. sg. m. þegn betstan, 1872.

bēcn, st. n., _(beacon), token, mark, sign_: acc. sg. betimbredon
beadu-rōfes bēcn (of Bēowulf's grave-mound), 3162. See beacen.

bēg. See bēag.

bēn, st. f., _entreaty_: gen. sg. bēne, 428, 2285.

bēna, w. m., _suppliant_, supplex: nom. sg. swā þū bēna eart (_as thou
entreatest_), 352; swā hē bēna wæs (_as he had asked_), 3141; nom. pl. hȳ
bēnan synt, 364.

ge-betan: 1) _to make good, to remove_: pret. ac þū Hrōðgāre wīdcūðne wēan
wihte gebēttest, _hast thou in any way relieved Hrōðgār of the evil known
afar_, 1992; pret. part. acc. sg. swylce oncȳððe ealle gebētte, _removed
all trouble_, 831. --2) _to avenge_: inf. wihte ne meahte on þām feorhbonan
fǣhðe gebētan, _could in no way avenge the death upon the slayer_, 2466.

beadu, st. f., _battle, strife, combat_: dat. sg. (as instr.) beadwe, _in
combat_, 1540; gen. pl. bād beadwa ge-þinges, _waited for the combats_
(with Grendel) _that were in store for him_, 710.

beadu-folm, st. f., _battle-hand_: acc. sg. -folme, of Grendel's hand, 991.

beado-grīma, w. m., _(battle-mask), helmet_: acc. pl. -grīman, 2258.

beado-hrægl, st. n., _(battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail_, 552.

beadu-lāc, st. n., (_exercise in arms, tilting_), _combat, battle_: dat.
sg. tō beadu-lāce, 1562.

beado-lēoma, w. m., (_battle-light_), _sword_: nom. sg., 1524.

beado-mēce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. beado-mēcas, 1455.

beado-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: gen. pl. betst beadorinca,

beadu-rōf, adj., _strong in battle_: gen. sg. -rōfes, of Bēowulf, 3162.

beadu-rūn, st. f., _mystery of battle_: acc. sg. onband beadu-rūne, _solved
the mystery of the combat_, i.e. gave battle, commenced the fight, 501.

beadu-scearp, adj., _battle-sharp, sharp for the battle_, 2705.

beadu-scrūd, st. n., (_battle-dress_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: gen. pl.
beaduscrūda betst, 453.

beadu-serce, w. f., (_battle-garment_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: acc. sg.
brogdne beadu-sercean (because it consists of interlaced metal rings),

beado-weorc, st. n., (_battle-work_), _battle_: gen. sg. gefeh
beado-weorces, _rejoiced at the battle_, 2300.

beald, adj., _bold, brave_: in comp. cyning-beald.

bealdian, w. v., _to show one's self brave_: pret. bealdode gōdum dǣdum
(_through brave deeds_), 2178.

bealdor, st. m., _lord, prince_: nom. sg. sinca baldor, 2429; winia
bealdor, 2568.

bealu, st. n., _evil, ruin, destruction_: instr. sg. bealwe, 2827; gen. pl.
bealuwa, 281; bealewa, 2083; bealwa, 910.--Comp.: cwealm-, ealdor-,
hreðer-, lēod-, morðor-, niht-, sweord-, wīg-bealu.

bealu, adj., _deadly, dangerous, bad_: instr. sg. hyne sār hafað befongen
balwon bendum, _pain has entwined him in deadly bands_, 978.

bealo-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, death by the sword_(?), 2266.

bealo-hycgende, pres. part., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_:
gen. pl. ǣghwæðrum bealo-hycgendra, 2566.

bealo-hȳdig, adj., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_: of
Grendel, 724.

bealo-nīð, st. m., (_zeal for destruction_), _deadly enmity_: nom. sg.,
2405; _destructive struggle_: acc. sg. bebeorh þē þone bealonīð, _beware of
destructive striving_, 1759; _death-bringing rage_: nom. sg. him on
brēostum bealo-nīð wēoll, _in his breast raged deadly fury_ (of the
dragon's poison), 2715.

bearhtm (see beorht): 1) st. m., _splendor, brightness, clearness_: nom.
sg. ēagena bearhtm, 1767.--2) _sound, tone_: acc. sg. bearhtm ongeāton,
gūðhorn galan, _they heard the sound, (heard) the battle-horn sound_, 1432.

bearm, m., gremium, sinus, _lap, bosom_: nom. sg. foldan bearm, 1138; acc.
sg. on bearm scipes, 35, 897; on bearm nacan, 214; him on bearm hladan
bunan and discas, 2776.--2) figuratively, _possession, property_, because
things bestowed were placed in the lap of the receiver (1145 and 2195, on
bearm licgan, ālecgan); dat. sg. him tō bearme cwōm māððumfæt mǣre, _came
into his possession_, 2405.

bearn, st. n., 1) _child, son_: nom. sg. bearn Healfdenes, 469, etc.;
Ecglāfes bearn, 499, etc.; dat. sg. bearne, 2371; nom. pl. bearn, 59; dat.
pl. bearnum, 1075.--2) in a broader sense, _scion, offspring, descendant_:
nom. sg. Ongenþēow's bearn, of his grandson, 2388; nom. pl. yldo. bearn,
70; gumena bearn, _children of men_, 879; hæleða bearn, 1190; æðelinga
bearn, 3172; acc. pl. ofer ylda bearn, 606; dat. pl. ylda bearnum, 150;
gen. pl. niðða bearna, 1006.--Comp.: brōðor-, dryht-bearn.

bearn-gebyrdu, f., _birth, birth of a son_: gen. sg. þæt hyre ealdmetod
ēste wǣre bearn-gebyrdo, _has been gracious through the birth of such a
son_ (i.e. as Bēowulf), 947.

bearu, st. m., (_the bearer_, hence properly only the fruit-tree,
especially the oak and the beech), _tree_, collectively _forest_: nom. pl.
hrīmge bearwas, _rime-covered_ or _ice-clad_, 1364.

bēacen, st. n., _sign, banner_, vexillum: nom. sg. beorht bēacen godes, _of
the sun_, 570; gen. pl. bēacna beorhtost, 2778. See bēcn.

ge-bēacnian, w. v., _to mark, to indicate_: pret. part. ge-bēacnod, 140.

bēag, st. m., _ring, ornament_: nom. sg. bēah (_neck-ring_), 1212; acc. sg.
bēah (the collar of the murdered king of the Heaðobeardnas), 2042; bēg
(collective for the acc. pl.), 3165; dat. sg. cwōm Wealhþēo forð gān under
gyldnum bēage, _she walked along under a golden head-ring, wore a golden
diadem_, 1164; gen. sg. bēages (of a collar), 1217; acc. pl. bēagas (rings
in general), 80, 523, etc.; gen. pl. bēaga, 35, 352, 1488, 2285, etc.--
Comp.: earm-, heals-bēag.

bēag-gyfa, w. m., _ring-giver_, designation of the prince: gen. sg. -gyfan,

bēag-hroden, adj., _adorned with rings, ornamented with clasps_: nom. sg.
bēaghroden, cwēn, of Hrōðgār's consort, perhaps with reference to her
diadem (cf. 1164, 624.

bēah-hord, st. m. n., _ring-hoard, treasure consisting of rings_: gen. sg.
bēah-hordes, 895; dat. pl. bēah-hordum, 2827; gen. pl. bēah-horda weard, of
King Hrōðgār, 922.

bēah-sele, st. m., _ring-hall, hall in which the rings were distributed_:
nom. sg., of Heorot, 1178.

bēah-þegu, st. f., _the receiving of the ring_: dat. sg. æfter bēah-þege,

bēah-wriða, w. m. _ring-band_, ring with prominence given to its having the
form of a band: acc. sg. bēah-wriðan, 2019.

bēam, st. m., _tree_, only in the compounds fyrgen-, glēo-bēam.

bēatan, st. v., _thrust, strike_: pres. sg. mearh burhstede bēateð, _the
steed beats the castle-ground_ (place where the castle is built), i.e. with
his hoofs, 2266; pret. part. swealt bille ge-bēaten, _died, struck by the
battle-axe_, 2360.

beorh, st. m.: 1) _mountain, rock_: dat. sg. beorge, 211; gen. sg. beorges,
2525, 2756; acc. pl. beorgas, 222.--2) _grave-mound, tomb-hill_: acc. sg.
biorh, 2808; beorh, 3098, 3165. A grave-mound serves the drake as a retreat
(cf. 2277, 2412): nom. sg. beorh, 2242; gen. sg. beorges, 2323.--Comp.

beorh, st. f., _veil, covering, cap_; only in the comp. hēafod-beorh.

beorgan, st. v. (w. dat. of the interested person or thing), _to save, to
shield_: inf. wolde fēore beorgan, _place her life in safety_, 1294;
here-byrne ... sēo þe bāncofan beorgan cūðe, _which could protect his
body_, 1446; pret. pl. ealdre burgan, 2600.

be-beorgan (w. dat. refl. of pers. and acc. of the thing), _to take care,
to defend one's self from_: inf. him be-beorgan ne con wom, _cannot keep
himself from stain_ (fault), 1747; imp. bebeorh þē þone bealontð, 1759.

ge-beorgan (w, dat. of person or thing to be saved), _to save, to protect_:
pret. sg. þæt gebearh fēore, _protected the life_, 1549; scyld wēl gebearg
līfe and līce, 2571.

ymb-beorgan, _to surround protectingly_: pret. sg. bring ūtan ymb-bearh,

beorht, byrht, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining, radiant, shimmering_: nom. sg.
beorht, of the sun, 570, 1803; beorhta, of Heorot, 1178; þæt beorhte bold,
998; acc. sg. beorhtne, of Bēowulf's grave-mound, 2804; dat. sg. tō þǣre
byrhtan (here-byrhtan, MS.) byrig, 1200; acc. pl. beorhte frætwe, 214, 897;
beorhte randas, 231; bordwudu beorhtan, 1244; n. beorht hofu, 2314.
Superl.: bēacna beorhtost, 2778. --2) _excellent, remarkable_: gen. sg.
beorhtre bōte, 158. --Comp.: sadol-, wlite-beorht.

beorhte, adv., _brilliantly, brightly, radiantly_, 1518.

beorhtian, w. v., _to sound clearly_: pret. sg. beorhtode benc-swēg, 1162.

beorn, st. m., _hero, warrior, noble man_: nom. sg. (Hrōðgār), 1881,
(Bēowulf), 2434, etc.; acc. sg. (Bēow.), 1025, (Æschere), 1300; dat. sg.
beorne, 2261; nom. pl. beornas (Bēowulf and his companions), 211,
(Hrōðgār's guests), 857; gen. pl. biorna (Bēowulf's liege-men),
2405.--Comp.: folc-, gūð-beorn.

beornan, st. v., _to burn_: pres. part. byrnende (of the drake),
2273.--Comp. un-byrnende.

for-beornan, _to be consumed, to burn_: pret. sg. for-barn, 1617, 1668;
for-born, 2673.

ge-beornan, _to be burned_: pret. gebarn, 2698.

beorn-cyning, st. m., _king of warriors, king of heroes_: nom. sg. (as
voc.), 2149.

bēodan, st. v.: 1) _to announce, to inform, to make known_: inf. bīodan,
2893.--2) _to offer, to proffer_ (as the notifying of a transaction in
direct reference to the person concerned in it): pret. pl. him geþingo
budon, _offered them an agreement_, 1086; pret. part. þā wæs ǣht boden
Swēona lēodum, _then was pursuit offered the Swedish people_, 2958; inf. ic
þǣm gōdan sceal māðmas bēodan, _I shall offer the excellent man treasures_,

ā-bēodan, _to present, to announce_: pret. word inne ābēad, _made known the
words within_, 390; _to offer, to tender, to wish_: pret. him hǣl ābēad,
_wished him health_ (greeted him), 654. Similarly, hǣlo ābēad, 2419; eoton
weard ābēad, _offered the giant a watcher_, 669.

be-bēodan, _to command, to order_: pret. swā him se hearda bebēad, _as the
strong man commanded them_, 401. Similarly, swā se rīca bebēad, 1976.

ge-bēodan: 1) _to command, to order_: inf. hēt þā gebēodan byre Wīhstānes
hæleða monegum, þæt hīe..., _the son of Wihstan caused orders to be given
to many of the men..._, 3111.--2) _to offer_: him Hygd gebēad hord and
rīce, _offered him the treasure and the chief power_, 2370; inf. gūðe
gebēodan, _to offer battle_, 604.

bēod-genēat, st. m., _table-companion_: nom. and acc. pl. genēatas, 343,

bēon, verb, _to be_, generally in the future sense, _will be_: pres. sg. I.
gūðgeweorca ic bēo gearo sōna, _I shall immediately be ready for warlike
deeds_, 1826; sg. III. wā bið þǣm þe sceal..., _woe to him who_...! 183;
so, 186; gifeðe bið is given, 299; ne bið þē wilna gād (_no wish will be
denied thee_), 661; þǣr þē bið manna þearf, _if thou shalt need the
warriors_, 1836; ne bið swylc cwēnlīc þēaw, _is not becoming, honorable to
a woman_, 1941; eft sōna bið _will happen directly_, 1763; similarly, 1768,
etc.; pl. þonne bīoð brocene, _then are broken_, 2064; feor cȳððe bēoð
sēlran gesōhte þām þe..., "terrae longinquae meliores sunt visitatu ei
qui..." (Grein), 1839; imp. bēo (bīo) þū on ofeste, _hasten!_ 386, 2748;
bēo wið Gēatas glæd, _be gracious to the Gēatas_, 1174.

bēor, st. n., _beer_: dat. sg. æt bēore, _at beer-drinking_, 2042; instr.
sg. bēore druncen, 531; bēore druncne, 480.

bēor-scealc, st. m., _keeper of the beer, cup-bearer_: gen. pl.
bēor-scealca sum (one of Hrōðgār's followers, because they served the
Gēatas at meals), 1241.

bēor-sele, st. m., _beer-hall, hall in which beer is drunk_: dat. sg. in
(on) bēorsele, 482, 492, 1095; bīorsele, 2636.

bēor-þegu, st. f., _beer-drinking, beer-banquet_: dat. sg. æfter bēorþege,
117; æt þǣre bēorþege, 618.

bēot, st. n., _promise, binding agreement to something that is to be
undertaken_: acc. sg. hē bēot ne ālēh, _did not break his pledge_, 80; bēot
eal ... gelǣste, _performed all that he had pledged himself to_, 523.

ge-bēotian, w. v., _to pledge one's self to an undertaking, to bind one's
self_: pret. gebēotedon, 480, 536.

bēot-word, st. n., same as bēot: dat. pl. bēot-wordum spræc, 2511.

biddan, st. v., _to beg, to ask, to pray_: pres. sg. I. dōð swā ic bidde!
1232; inf. (w. acc. of the pers. and gen. of the thing asked for) ic þē
biddan wille ānre bēne, _beg thee for one_, 427; pret. swā hē selfa bæd,
_as he himself had requested_, 29; bæd hine blīðne (supply wesan) æt þǣre
bēorþege, _begged him to be cheerful at the beer-banquet_, 618; ic þē lange
bæd þæt þū..., _begged you a long time that you_, 1995; frioðowǣre bæd
hlāford sīnne, _begged his lord for protection_ (acc. of pers. and gen. of
thing), 2283; bæd þæt gē geworhton, _asked that you_..., 3097; pl. wordum
bǣdon þæt..., 176.

on-bidian, w. v., _to await_: inf. lǣtað hilde-bord hēr onbidian ... worda
geþinges, _let the shields await here the result of the conference_ (lay
the shields aside here), 397.

bil, st. n. _sword_: nom. sg. bil, 1568; bill, 2778; acc. sg. bil, 1558;
instr. sg. bille, 2360; gen. sg. billes, 2061, etc.; instr. pl. billum, 40;
gen. pl. billa, 583, 1145.--Comp.: gūð-, hilde-, wīg-bil.

bindan, st. v., _to bind, to tie_: pret. part. acc. sg. wudu bundenne, _the
bound wood_, i.e. the built ship, 216; bunden golde swurd, _a sword bound
with gold_, i.e. either having its hilt inlaid with gold, or having gold
chains upon the hilt (swords of both kinds have been found), 1901; nom. sg.
heoru bunden, 1286, has probably a similar meaning.

ge-bindan, _to bind_: pret. sg. þǣr ic fīfe geband, _where I had bound
five_(?), 420; pret. part. cyninges þegn word ōðer fand sōðe gebunden, _the
king's man found_ (after many had already praised Bēowulf's deed) _other
words_ (also referring to Bēowulf, but in connection with Sigemund)
_rightly bound together_, i.e. in good alliterative verses, as are becoming
to a gid, 872; wundenmǣl wrǣttum gebunden, _sword bound with ornaments_,
i.e. inlaid, 1532; bisgum gebunden, _bound together by sorrow_, 1744; gomel
gūðwīga eldo gebunden, _hoary hero bound by old age_ (fettered, oppressed),

on-bindan, _to unbind, to untie, to loose_: pret. onband, 501.

ge-bind, st. n. coll., _that which binds, fetters_: in comp. īs-gebind.

bite, st. m., _bite_, figuratively of the cut of the sword: acc. sg. bite
īrena, _the swords' bite_, 2260; dat. sg. æfter billes bite, 2061.--Comp.

biter (primary meaning that of biting), adj.: 1) _sharp, cutting, cutting
in_: acc. sg. biter (of a short sword), 2705; instr. sg. biteran strǣle,
1747; instr. pl. biteran bānum, _with sharp teeth_, 2693.--2) _irritated,
furious_: nom. pl. bitere, 1432.

bitre, adv., _bitterly_ (in a moral sense), 2332.

bī, big (fuller form of the prep. be, which see), prep. w. dat.: 1) _near,
at, on, about, by_ (as under be, No. 1): bī sǣm twēonum, _in the circuit of
both seas_, 1957; ārās bī ronde, _raised himself up by the shield_, 2539;
bī wealle gesæt, _sat by the wall_, 2718. With a freer position: him big
stōdan bunan and orcas, _round about him_, 3048.--2) _to, towards_
(motion): hwearf þā bī bence, _turned then towards the bench_, 1189; gēong
bī sesse, _went to the seat_, 2757.

bīd (see bīdan), st. n., _tarrying hesitation_: þǣr wearð Ongenþīo on bīd
wrecen, _forced to tarry_, 2963.

bīdan, st. v.: 1) _to delay, to stay, to remain, to wait_: inf. nō on
wealle leng bīdan wolde, _would not stay longer within the wall_ (the
drake), 2309; pret. in þȳstrum bād, _remained in darkness_, 87; flota
stille bād, _the craft lay still_, 301; receda ... on þǣm se rīca bād,
_where the mighty one dwelt_, 310; þǣr se snottra bād, _where the wise man_
(Hrōðgār) _waited_, 1314; hē on searwum bād, _he_ (Bēowulf) _stood there
armed_, 2569; ic on earde bād mǣlgesceafta, _lived upon the paternal ground
the time appointed me by fate_, 2737; pret. pl. sume þǣr bidon, _some
remained, waited there_, 400.--2) _to await, to wait for_, with the gen. of
that which is awaited: inf. bīdan woldon Grendles gūðe, _wished to await
the combat with Grendel, to undertake it_, 482; similarly, 528; wīges
bīdan, _await the combat_, 1269; nalas andsware bīdan wolde, _would await
no answer_, 1495; pret. bād beadwa geþinges, _awaited the event of the
battle_, 710; sǣgenga bād āgend-frēan, _the sea-goer_ (boat) _awaited its
owner_, 1883; sele ... heaðowylma bād, lāðan līges (the poet probably means
to indicate by these words that the hall Heorot was destroyed later in a
fight by fire; an occurrence, indeed, about which we know nothing, but
which 1165 and 1166, and again 2068 ff. seem to indicate), 82.

ā-bīdan, _to await_, with the gen.: inf., 978.

ge-bīdan: 1) _to tarry, to wait_: imp. gebīde gē on beorge, _wait ye on the
mountain_, 2530; pret. part. þēah þe wintra lȳt under burhlocan gebiden
hæbbe Hæreðes dōhtor _although H's daughter had dwelt only a few years in
the castle_, 1929.--2) _to live through, to experience, to expect_ (w.
acc.): inf. sceal endedæg mīnne gebīdan, _shall live my last day_, 639; ne
wēnde ... bōte gebīdan, _did not hope ... to live to see reparation_, 935;
fela sceal gebīdan lēofes and lāðes, _experience much good and much
affliction_, 1061; ende gebīdan, 1387, 2343; pret. hē þæs frōfre gebād,
_received consolation_ (compensation) _therefore_, 7; gebād wintra worn,
_lived a great number of years_, 264; in a similar construction, 816, 930,
1619, 2259, 3117. With gen.: inf. tō gebīdanne ōðres yrfeweardes, _to await
another heir_, 2453. With depend, clause: inf. tō gebīdanne þæt his byre
rīde on galgan, _to live to see it, that his son hang upon the gallows_,
2446; pret. drēam-lēas gebād þæt hē..., _joyless he experienced it, that
he_..., 1721; þæs þe ic on aldre gebād þæt ic..., _for this, that I, in my
old age, lived to see that_..., 1780.

on-bīdan, _to wait, to await_: pret. hordweard onbād earfoðlīce oð þæt ǣfen
cwōm, _scarcely waited, could scarcely delay till it was evening_, 2303.

bītan, st. v., _to bite_, of the cutting of swords: inf. bītan, 1455, 1524;
pret. bāt bānlocan, _bit into his body_ (Grendel), 743; bāt unswīðor, _cut
with less force_ (Bēowulf's sword), 2579.

blanca, w. m., properly _that which shines_ here of the horse, not so much
of the white horse as the dappled: dat. pl. on blancum, 857.

ge-bland, ge-blond, st. n., _mixture, heaving mass, a turning_.--Comp.:
sund-, ȳð-geblond, windblond.

blanden-feax, blonden-feax, adj., _mixed_, i.e. having gray hair,
_gray-headed_, as epithet of an old man: nom. sg. blondenfeax, 1792;
blondenfexa, 2963; dat. sg. blondenfeaxum, 1874; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe,

blæc, adj., _dark, black_: nom. sg, hrefn blaca, 1802.

blāc, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining_: acc. sg. blācne lēoman, _a brilliant
gleam_, 1518.--2) of the white death-color, _pale_; in comp. heoroblāc.

blǣd, st. m.: 1) _strength, force, vigor_: nom. sg. wæs hira blǣd scacen
(of both tribes), _strength was gone_, i.e. the bravest of both tribes lay
slain, 1125; nū is þīnes mægnes blǣd āne hwīle, _now the fulness of thy
strength lasts for a time_, 1762.--2) _reputation, renown, knowledge_ (with
stress upon the idea of filling up, spreading out): nom. sg. blǣd, 18;
(þīn) blǣd is ārǣred, _thy renown is spread abroad_, 1704.

blǣd-āgend, pt., _having renown, renowned_: nom. pl. blǣd-āgende, 1014.

blǣd-fæst, adj., _firm in renown, renowned, known afar_: acc. sg.
blǣdfæstne beorn (of Æschere, with reference to 1329, 1300.

blēat, adj., _miserable, helpless_; only in comp. wæl-blēat.

blēate, adv., _miserably, helplessly_, 2825.

blīcan, st. v., _shine, gleam_: inf., 222

blīðe, adj.: 1) _blithe, joyous, happy_ acc. sg. blīðne, 618.--2)
_gracious, pleasing_: nom. sg. blīðe, 436.--Comp. un-blīðe.

blīð-heort, adj., _joyous in heart, happy_: nom. sg., 1803.

blōd, st. n., _blood_: nom. sg., 1122; acc. sg., 743; dat. sg. blōde, 848;
æfter dēorum men him langað beorn wið blōde, _the hero_ (Hrōðgār) _longs
for the beloved man contrary to blood_, i.e. he loves him although he is
not related to him by blood, 1881; dat. as instr. blōde, 486, 935, 1595,

blōd-fāg, adj., _spotted with blood, bloody_, 2061.

blōdig, adj., _bloody_: acc. sg. f. blōdge, 991; acc. sg. n. blōdig, 448;
instr. sg. blōdigan gāre, 2441.

ge-blōdian, w. v., _to make bloody, to sprinkle with blood_: pret. part.
ge-blōdegod, 2693.

blōdig-tōð, adj., _with bloody teeth_: nom. sg. bona blōdig-tōð (of
Grendel, because he bites his victims to death), 2083.

blōd-rēow, adj., _bloodthirsty, bloody-minded_: nom. sg. him on ferhðe
grēow brēost-hord blōd-rēow, _in his bosom there grew a bloodthirsty
feeling_, 1720.

be-bod, st. n., _command, order_; in comp. wundor-bebod.

bodian, w. v., _(to be a messenger), to announce, to make known_: pret.
hrefn blaca heofones wynne blīð-heort bodode, _the black raven announced
joyfully heaven's delight_ (the rising sun), 1803.

boga, w. m., _bow_, of the bended form; here of the dragon, in comp.
hring-boga; as an instrument for shooting, in the comp. flān-, horn-boga;
bow of the arch, in comp. stān-boga.

bolca, w. m., "forus navis" (Grein), _gangway_; here probably the planks
which at landing are laid from the ship to the shore: acc. sg. ofer bolcan,

bold, st. n., _building, house, edifice_: nom. sg. (Heorot), 998;
(Hygelāc's residence), 1926; (Bēowulfs residence), 2197, 2327.--Comp.

bold-āgend, pt., _house-owner, property-holder_: gen. pl. monegum
boldāgendra, 3113.

bolgen-mōd, adj., _angry at heart, angry_, 710, 1714.

bolster, st. m., _bolster, cushion, pillow_: dat. pl. (reced) geond-brǣded
wearð beddum and bolstrum, _was covered with beds and bolsters_,
1241.--Comp. hlēor-bolster.

bon-. See ban-.

bora, w. m., _carrier, bringer, leader_: in the comp. mund-, rǣd-,

bord, st. n., _shield_: nom. sg., 2674; acc. sg., 2525; gen. pl. ofer borda
gebræc, _over the crashing of the shields_, 2260.--Comp.: hilde-, wīg-bord.

bord-hæbbend, pt., _one having a shield, shield-bearer_: nom. pl. hæbbende,

bord-hrēoða, w. m., _shield-cover, shield_ with particular reference to its
cover (of hides or linden bark): dat. sg. -hrēoðan, 2204.

bord-rand, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg., 2560.

bord-weall, st. m., _shield-wall, wall of shields_: acc. sg., 2981.

bord-wudu, st. m., _shield-wood, shield_: acc. pl. beorhtan beord-wudu,

botm, st. m., _bottom_: dat. sg. tō botme (here of the bottom of the
fen-lake), 1507.

bōt (emendation, cf. bētan), st. f.: 1) _relief, remedy_: nom. sg., 281;
acc. sg. bōte, 935; acc. sg. bōte, 910.--2) _a performance in expiation, a
giving satisfaction, tribute_: gen. sg. bōte, 158.

brand, brond, st. m.: 1) _burning, fire_: nom. sg. þā sceal brond fretan
(_the burning of the body_), 3015; instr. sg. by hine ne mōston ... bronde
forbærnan (_could not bestow upon him the solemn burning_), 2127; hæfde
landwara līge befangen, bǣle and bronde, _with glow, fire, and flame_,
2323.--2) in the passage, þæt hine nō brond nē beadomēcas bītan ne meahton,
1455, brond has been translated _sword, brand_ (after the O.N. brand-r).
The meaning _fire_ may be justified as well, if we consider that the old
helmets were generally made of leather, and only the principal parts were
mounted with bronze. The poet wishes here to emphasize the fact that the
helmet was made entirely of metal, a thing which was very unusual.--3) in
the passage, forgeaf þā Bēowulfe brand Healfdenes segen gyldenne, 1021, our
text, with other editions, has emendated, bearn, since brand, if it be
intended as a designation of Hrōðgār (perhaps _son_), has not up to this
time been found in this sense in A.-S.

brant, bront, adj., _raging, foaming, going-high_, of ships and of waves:
acc. sg. brontne, 238, 568.

brād, adj.: 1) _extended, wide_: nom. pl. brāde rīce, 2208.--2) _broad_:
nom. sg. hēah and brād (of Bēowulf's grave-mound), 3159; acc. sg. brādne
mēce, 2979; (seax) brād [and] brūnecg, _the broad, short sword with bright
edge_, 1547.--3) _massive, in abundance_. acc, sg. brād gold, 3106.

ge-bræc, st. n., _noise, crash_: acc. sg. borda gebræc, 2260.

geond-brǣdan, w. v., _to spread over, to cover entirely_: pret. part.
geond-brǣded, 1240.

brecan, st. v.: 1) _to break, to break to pieces_: pret. bānhringas bræc,
(the sword) _broke the joints_, 1568. In a moral sense: pret. subj. þæt þǣr
ǣnig mon wǣre ne brǣce, _that no one should break the agreement_, 1101;
pret. part. þonne bīoð brocene ... āð-sweord eorla, _then are the oaths of
the men broken_, 2064.--2) probably also simply _to break in upon
something, to press upon_, w. acc.: pret. sg. sǣdēor monig hildetūxum
heresyrcan bræc, _many a sea-animal pressed with his battle-teeth upon the
shirt of mail_ (did not break it, for, according to 1549 f., 1553 f., it
was still unharmed). 1512.--3) _to break out, to spring out_: inf. geseah
... strēam ūt brecan of beorge, _saw a stream break out from the rocks_,
2547; lēt se hearda Higelāces þegn brādne mēce ... brecan ofer bordweal,
_caused the broadsword to spring out over the wall of shields_, 2981.--4)
figuratively, _to vex, not to let rest_: pret. hine fyrwyt bræc, _curiosity
tormented_ (N.H.G. brachte die Neugier um), 232, 1986, 2785.

ge-brecan, _to break to pieces_: pret. bānhūs gebræc, _broke in pieces his
body_ (Bēowulf in combat with Dæghrefn), 2509.

tō-brecan, _to break in pieces_: inf., 781; pret. part. tō-brocen, 998.

þurh-brecan, _to break through_, pret. wordes ord brēosthord þurh-bræc,
_the word's point broke through his closed breast_, i.e. a word burst out
from his breast, 2793.

brecð, st. f., _condition of being broken, breach_: nom. pl. mōdes brecða
(_sorrow of heart_), 171.

ā-bredwian, w. v. w. acc., _to fell to the ground, to kill_ (?): pret.
ābredwade, 2620.

bregdan, st. v., properly _to swing round_, hence: 1) _to swing_: inf.
under sceadu bregdan, _swing among the shadows, to send into the realm of
shadows_, 708; pret. brægd ealde lāfe, _swung the old weapon_, 796; brægd
feorh-genīðlan, _swung his mortal enemy_ (Grendel's mother), threw her
down, 1540; pl. git ēagorstrēam ... mundum brugdon, _stirred the sea with
your hands_ (of the movement of the hands in swimming), 514; pret. part.
brōden (brogden) mǣl, _the drawn sword_, 1617, 1668.--2) _to knit, to knot,
to plait_: inf., figuratively, inwitnet ōðrum bregdan, _to weave a
waylaying net for another_ (as we say in the same way, to lay a trap for
another, to dig a pit for another), 2168; pret. part. beadohrægl brōden, _a
woven shirt of mail_ (because it consisted of metal rings joined together),
552; similarly, 1549; brogdne beadusercean, 2756.

ā-bregdan, _to swing_: pret. hond up ā-bræd, _swung, raised his hand_,

ge-bregdan: 1) _swing_: pret. hring-mǣl gebrægd, _swung the ringed sword_,
1565; eald sweord ēacen ... þæt ic þȳ wǣpne gebrægd, _an old heavy sword
that I swung as my weapon_, 1665; with interchanging instr. and acc.
wællseaxe gebrǣ, biter and beadu-scearp, 2704; also, _to draw out of the
sheath_: sweord ǣr gebrǣ, _had drawn the sword before_, 2563.--2) _to knit,
to knot, to plait_: pret. part. bere-byrne hondum gebrōden, 1444.

on-bregdan, _to tear open, to throw open_: pret. onbræd þā recedes mūðan,
_had then thrown open the entrance of the hall_ (onbregdan is used because
the opening door swings upon its hinges), 724.

brego, st. m., _prince, ruler_: nom. sg. 427, 610.

brego-rōf, adj., _powerful, like a ruler, of heroic strength _: nom. sg.
m., 1926.

brego-stōl, st. m., _throne_, figuratively for _rule_: acc. sg. him
gesealde seofon þūsendo, bold and brego-stōl, _seven thousand_ see under
sceat), _a country-seat, and the dignity of a prince_, 2197; þǣr him Hygd
gebēad ... brego-stōl, _where H. offered him the chief power_, 2371; lēt
þone bregostōl Bēowulf healdan, _gave over to Bēowulf the chief power_ (did
not prevent Bēowulf from entering upon the government), 2390.

brēme, adj., _known afar, renowned_. nom. sg., 18.

brenting (see brant), st. m., _ship craft_: nom. pl. brentingas, 2808.

ā-brēatan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. ābrēot
brimwīsan, _killed the sea-king_ (King Hæðcyn), 2931. See brēotan.

brēost, st. n.: 1) _breast_: nom. sg., 2177; often used in the pl., so acc.
þæt mīne brēost wereð, _which protects my breast_, 453; dat. pl. beadohrægl
brōden on brēostum læg. 552.--2) _the inmost thoughts, the mind, the heart,
the bosom_: nom. sg. brēost innan wēoll þēostrum geþoncum, _his breast
heaved with troubled thoughts_, 2332; dat. pl. lēt þā of brēostum word ūt
faran, _caused the words to come out from his bosom_, 2551.

brēost-gehygd, st. n. f., _breast-thought, secret thought_: instr. pl.
-gehygdum, 2819.

brēost-gewǣdu, st. n. pl., _breast-clothing, garment covering the breast_,
of the coat of mail: nom., 1212; acc., 2163.

brēost-hord, st. m., _breast-hoard, that which is locked in the breast,
heart, mind, thought, soul_: nom. sg., 1720; acc. sg., 2793.

brēost-net, st. n., _breast-net, shirt of chain-mail, coat of mail_: nom.
sg. brēost-net brōden, 1549.

brēost-weorðung, st. f., _ornament that is worn upon the breast_: acc. sg.
brēost-weorðunge, 2505: here the collar is meant which Bēowulf receives
from Wealhþēow (1196, 2174) as a present, and which B., according to 2173,
presents to Hygd, while, according to 1203, it is in the possession of her
husband Hygelāc. In front the collar is trimmed with ornaments (frætwe),
which hang down upon the breast, hence the name brēost-weorðung.

brēost-wylm, st. m., _heaving of the breast, emotion of the bosom_: acc.
sg, 1878.

brēotan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. brēat
bēodgenēatas, _killed his table-companions_ (courtiers), 1714.

ā-brēotan, same as above: pret. þone þe hēo on ræste ābrēat, _whom she
killed upon his couch_, 1299; pret. part. þā þæt monige gewearð, þæt hine
sēo brimwylf ābroten hæfde, _many believed that the sea-wolf_ (Grendel's
mother) _had killed him_, 1600; hī hyne ... ābroten hæfdon, _had killed
him_ (the dragon), 2708.

brim, st. n., _flood, the sea_: nom. sg., 848, 1595; gen. sg. tō brimes
faroðe, _to the sea_, 28; æt brimes nosan, _at the sea's promontory_, 2804;
nom. pl. brimu swaðredon, _the waves subsided_, 570.

brim-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff, cliff washed by the sea_: acc. pl. -clifu,

brim-lād, st. f., _flood-way, sea-way_: acc. sg. þāra þe mid Bēowulfe
brimlāde tēah, _who had travelled the sea-way with B._, 1052.

brim-līðend, pt, _sea-farer, sailor_ acc. p. -līðende, 568.

brim-strēam, st. m., _sea-stream, the flood of the sea_: acc. pl. ofer
brim-strēamas, 1911.

brim-wīsa, w. m., _sea-king_: acc. sg. brimwīsan, of Hæðcyn, king of the
Gēatas, 2931.

brim-wylf, st. f., _sea-wolf_ (designation of Grendel's mother): nom. sg.
sēo brimwylf, 1507, 1600.

brim-wylm, st. m., _sea-wave_: nom. sg., 1495.

bringan, anom. v., _to bring, to bear_: prs. sg. I. ic þē þūsenda þegna
bringe tō helpe, _bring to your assistance thousands of warriors_, 1830;
inf. sceal hringnaca ofer hēaðu bringan lāc and luftācen, _shall bring
gifts and love-tokens over the high sea_, 1863; similarly, 2149, 2505;
pret. pl. wē þās sǣlāc ... brōhton, _brought this sea-offering_ (Grendel's
head), 1654.

ge-bringan, _to bring_: pres. subj. pl. þat wē þone gebringan ... on
ādfære, _that we bring him upon the funeral-pile_, 3010.

brosnian, w. v., _to crumble, to become rotten, to fall to pieces_: prs.
sg. III. herepād ... brosnað æfter beorne, _the coat of mail falls to
pieces after_ (the death of) _the hero_, 2261.

brōðor, st. m., _brother_: nom. sg., 1325, 2441; dat sg. brēðer, 1263; gen.
sg. his brōðor bearn, 2620; dat. pl. brōðrum, 588, 1075.

ge-brōðru, pl., _brethren, brothers_: dat. pl. sæt be þǣm gebrōðrum twǣm,
_sat by the two brothers_, 1192.

brōga, w. m., _terror, horror_: nom. sg., 1292, 2325, 2566; acc. sg. billa
brōgan, 583.--Comp.: gryre-, here-brōga.

brūcan, st. v. w. gen., _to use, to make use of_: prs. sg. III. sē þe longe
hēr worolde brūceð, _who here long makes use of the world_, i.e. lives
long, 1063; imp. brūc manigra mēda, _make use of many rewards, give good
rewards_, 1179; _to enjoy_: inf. þæt hē bēahhordes brūcan mōste, _could
enjoy the ring-hoard_, 895; similarly, 2242, 3101; pret. brēac
līfgesceafta, _enjoyed the appointed life, lived the appointed time_, 1954.
With the genitive to be supplied: brēac þonne mōste, 1488; imp. brūc þisses
bēages, _enjoy this ring, take this ring_, 1217. Upon this meaning depends
the form of the wish, wēl brūcan (compare the German geniesze froh!): inf.
hēt hine wēl brūcan, 1046; hēt hine brūcan well, 2813; imp. brūc ealles
well, 2163.

brūn, adj., _having a brown lustre, shining_: nom. sg. sīo ecg brūn, 2579.

brūn-ecg, adj., _having a gleaming blade_: acc. sg. n. (hyre seaxe) brād
[and] brūnecg, _her broad sword with gleaming blade_, 1547.

brūn-fāg, adj., _gleaming like metal_: acc. sg. brūnfāgne helm, 2616.

bryne-lēoma, w. m., _light of a conflagration, gleam of fire _: nom. sg.,

bryne-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire_: dat. pl. -wylmum, 2327.

brytnian (properly _to break in small pieces_, cf. brēotan), w. v., _to
bestow, to distribute_: pret. sinc brytnade, _distributed presents_, i.e.
ruled (since the giving of gifts belongs especially to rulers), 2384.

brytta, w. m., _giver, distributer_, always designating the king: nom. sg.
sinces brytta, 608, 1171, 2072; acc. sg. bēaga bryttan, 35, 352, 1488;
sinces bryttan, 1923.

bryttian (_to be a dispenser_), w. v., _to distribute, to confer_: prs. sg.
III. god manna cynne snyttru bryttað, _bestows wisdom upon the human race_,

brȳd, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_: acc. sg. brȳd, 2931; brȳde, 2957, both
times of the consort of Ongenþēow (?).--2) _betrothed, bride_: nom. sg., of
Hrōðgār's daughter, Frēaware, 2032.

brȳd-būr, st. n., _woman's apartment_: dat. sg. ēode ... cyning of
brȳdbūre, _the king came out of the apartment of his wife_ (into which,
according to 666, he had gone), 922.

bunden-stefna, w. m., _(that which has a bound prow), the framed ship_:

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