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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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lyft-geswenced, pret. part., _urged, hastened on, by the wind_, 1914.

lyft-wyn, st. f., _enjoyment of the air_: acc. sg. lyft-wynne, 3044.

lyh. See leahan.

lystan, w. v., _to lust after, long for_: pret. sg. Ge·t ungemetes wel ...
restan lyste(_the Ge·t_ [BeÛwulf] _longed sorely to rest_), 1794.

lyt, adj. neut. (= parum), _little, very little, few_: lyt eft becwom ...
h‚mes niÛsan (_few escaped homeward_), 2366; lyt Ênig (_none at all_),
3130; usually with gen.: wintra lyt, 1928; lyt ... he·fod-m‚ga, 2151;
wergendra tÙ lyt (_too few defenders_), 2883; lyt swÓgode nÓwra spella (_he
kept to himself little, none at all, of the new tidings_), 2898; dat. sg.
lyt manna (_too few of men_), 2837.

lytel, adj., _small, little_: nom. sg. neut. tÙ lytel, 1749; acc. sg. f.
lytle hwÓle (_a little while_), 2031, 2098; lif-wrae lytle (_little
protection for his life_), 2878.--Comp. un-lytel.

lyt-hwÙn, adv., _little = not at all_: lyt-hwÙn lÙgon, 204.

l˝fe, st. n., _leave, permission, (life?)_: instr. sg. ˛Óne l˝fe (life,
MS.), 2132.--Leo. Cf. O.N. leyfi, n., _leave, permission_, in Mˆbius'
Glossary, p. 266.

l˝fan, w. v., (fundamental meaning _to believe, trust_) in

‚-l˝fan, _to allow, grant, entrust_: pret. sg. nÊfre ic Ênegum men Êr
‚l˝fde ... ˛ry-‰rn Dena (_never before to any man have I entrusted the
palace of the Danes_), 656; pret. part. (˛‚ me w‰s) sÓ ... ‚l˝fed inn
under eor-weall (_the way in under the wall of earth was allowed me_),

ge-l˝fan, w. v., _to believe, trust_: 1) w. dat.: inf. ˛Êr gel˝fan sceal
dryhtnes dÙme se ˛e hine de· nime (_whomever death carrieth away, shall
believe it to be the judgment of God_, i.e. in the contest between BeÛwulf
and Grendel), 440.--2) w. acc.: pret. sg. geÛce gel˝fde brego Beorht-Dena
(_believed in, expected, help_, etc.), 609; ˛‰t heÛ on Ênigne eorl gel˝fde
fyrena frÙfre (_that she at last should expect from any earl comfort, help,
out of these troubles_), 628; se ˛e him bealwa tÙ bÙte gel˝fde (_who
trusted in him as a help out of evils_), 910; him tÙ anwaldan ‚re gel˝fde
(_relied for himself on the help of God_), 1273.

‚-l˝san, w. v., _to loose, liberate_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s of ˛‰m hrÙran helm
and byrne lungre ‚-l˝sed (_helm and corselet were straightway loosed from
him_), 1631.


maelian, w. v. (sermocinari), _to speak, talk_: pret. sg. maelode, 286,
348, 360, 371, 405, 456, 499, etc.; maelade, 2426.

maga, w. m., _son, male descendant, young man_: nom. sg. maga Healfdenes
(HrÙg‚r), 189, 1475, 2144; maga Ecg˛eÛwes (BeÛwulf), 2588: maga (Grendel),
979; se maga geonga (WÓgl‚f), 2676; Grendeles maga (_a relative of
Grendel_), 2007; acc. sg. ˛one magan, 944.

magan, v. with pret.-pres. form, _to be able_: pres. sg. I. III. m‰g, 277,
478, 931, 943, 1485, 1734, etc.; II. meaht ˛u, 2048; subj. pres. mÊge,
2531, 2750; ˛e·h ic eal mÊge (_even though I could_), 681; subj. pl. we
mÊgen, 2655; pret. sg. meahte, 542, 755, 1131, 1660, 2465, etc.; mihte,
190, 207, 462, 511, 571, 657, 1509, 2092, 2610; mehte, 1083, 1497, 1516,
1878; pl. meahton, 649, 942, 1455, 1912, 2374, 3080; mihton, 308, 313,
2684, 3164; subj. pret. sg. meahte, 243, 763, 2521; pres. sg. m‰g,
sometimes = licet, _may, can, will_ (fut.), 1366, 1701, 1838, 2865.

mago (Goth. magu-s), st. m., _male, son_: nom. sg. mago Ecgl‚fes (Hunfer),
1466; mago Healfdenes (HrÙg‚r), 1868, 2012.

mago-dryht, st. f., _troop of young men, band of men_: nom. sg. mago-driht,

mago-rinc, st. m., _hero, man_ (preeminently): gen. pl. mago-rinca, he·p,

magu-˛egn, mago-˛egn, st. m., _vassal, war-thane_: nom. sg. 408, 2758; dat.
sg. magu-˛egne, 2080; acc. pl. magu-˛egnas, 293; dat. pl. mago-˛egnum,
1481; gen. pl. mago-˛egna ... ˛one sÍlestan (_the best of vassals_), 1406.

man, mon, st. m.: 1) _man, human being_: nom. sg. man, 25, 503, 534, 1049,
1354, 1399, 1535, 1877, etc.; mon, 209, 510, 1561, 1646, 2282, etc.; acc.
sg. w. mannan, 297, 577, 1944, 2128, 2775; wÓd-c˚ne man, 1490; dat. sg.
men, 656, 753, 1880; menn, 2190; gen. sg. mannes, 1195 (?), 2081, 2534,
2542; monnes, 1730; nom. pl. men, 50, 162, 233, 1635, 3167; acc. pl. men,
69, 337, 1583, 1718; dat. pl. mannum, 3183; gen. pl. manna, 155, 201, 380,
702, 713, 736, etc.; monna, 1414, 2888.--2) indef. pron. = _one, they,
people_ (Germ. _man_): man, 1173, 1176; mon, 2356, 3177.--Comp.: fyrn-,
gleÛ-, gum-, i˙-, lid-, sÊ-, wÊpned-man.

man. See munan.

man-cyn, st. n., _mankind_: dat. sg. man-cynne, 110; gen. sg. man-cynnes,
164, 2182; mon-cynnes, 196, 1956.

man-dre·m, st. m., _human joy, mundi voluptas_: acc. sg. man-dre·m, 1265;
dat. pl. mon-dre·mum, 1716.

man-dryhten, st. m. (_lord of men_), _ruler of the people, prince, king_:
nom. sg. man-dryhten, 1979, 2648; mon-drihten, 436; mon-dryhten, 2866; acc.
sg. mon-dryhten, 2605; dat. sg. man-drihtne, 1230; man-dryhtne, 1250, 2282;
gen. sg. man-dryhtnes, 2850; mon-dryhtnes, 3150.

ge-mang, st. m., _troop, company_: dat. sg. on gemonge (_in the troop_ [of
the fourteen Ge·tas that returned from the sea]), 1644.

manian, w. v., _to warn, admonish_: pres. sg. III. mana sw‚ and myndga
... s‚rum wordum (_so warneth and remindeth he with bitter words_), 2058.

manig, monig, adj., _many, many a, much_: 1) adjectively: nom. sg. rinc
manig, 399; geong manig (_many a young man_), 855; monig snellÓc sÊ-rinc,
690; medu-benc monig, 777; so 839, 909, 919, 1511, 2763, 3023, etc.; acc.
sg. medo-ful manig, 1016; dat. sg. m. ˛egne monegum, 1342, 1420; dat. sg.
f. manigre mÊge, 75; acc. pl. manige men, 337; dat. pl. manegum m‚mum,
2104; monegum mÊgum, 5; gen. pl. manigra mÍda, 1179.--2) substantively:
nom. sg. manig, 1861; monig, 858; dat. sg. manegum, 349, 1888; nom. pl.
manige, 1024; monige, 2983; acc. pl. monige, 1599; gen. pl. manigra,
2092.--3) with depend. gen. pl.: dat. manegum mÊga, 1772; monegum fira,
2002; h‰lea monegum bold-‚gendra, 3112; acc. pl. rinca manige, 729;
(m‚m)-Êhta monige, 1614.

manig-oft, adv., _very often, frequently_, 171 [if manig and oft are to be

man-lÓce, adv., _man-like, manly_, 1047.

man-˛wÊre, adj., _kind, gentle toward men, philanthropic_: nom. sg. superl.
mon-˛wÊrust, 3183.

m‚, contracted compar., _more_: with partitive gen., 504, 736, 1056.

m‚um, m‚um, st. m., _gift, jewel, object of value_: acc. sg. m‚um,
169, 1053, 2056, 3017; dat. instr. sg. m‚me, 1529, 1903; nom. pl. m‚mas,
1861; acc. pl. m‚dmas, 385, 472, 1028, 1483, 1757, 1868, etc.; dat. instr.
pl. m‚mum, m‚dmum, 1049, 1899, 2104, 2789; gen. pl. m‚ma, 1785, 2144,
2167, etc.; m‚dma, 36, 41.--Comp.: dryht-, gold-, hord-, ofer-, sinc-,

m‚m-Êht, st. f., _treasure in jewels, costly objects_: gen. pl. m‚m-Êhta,
1614, 2834.

m‚um-f‰t, st. n., _treasure-casket_ or _cup, costly vessel_: nom. sg.,

m‚m-gestreÛn, st. n., _precious jewel_: gen. pl. m‚m-gestreÛna, 1932.

m‚um-gifu, st. f., _gift of valuable objects, largess of treasure_: dat.
sg. ‰fter m‚um-gife, 1302.

m‚um-sigl, st. n., _costly, sun-shaped ornament, valuable decoration_:
gen. pl. m‚um-sigla, 2758.

m‚um-sweord, st. n., _costly sword_ (inlaid with gold and jewels): acc.
sg., 1024.

m‚um-wela, w. m., _wealth of jewels, valuables_:: dat. sg.
‰fter-m‚um-welan (_after the sight of the wealth of jewels_), 2751.

m‚gas. See mÊg.

m‚ge, w. f., _female relative_: gen. sg. Grendles m‚gan (_mother_), 1392.

m‚n, st. n., _crime, misdeed_: instr. sg. m‚ne, 110, 979; adv.,
_criminally_, 1056.

m‚n-for-dÊdla, w. m., _evil-doer, criminal_: nom. pl. m‚n-for-dÊdlan, 563.

m‚n-scaa, w. m., _mischievous, hurtful foe, hostis nefastus_: nom. sg.
713, 738, 1340; m‚n-sceaa, 2515.

m‚ra (comp. of micel), adj., _greater, stronger, mightier_: nom. sg. m.
m‚ra, 1354, 2556; neut. m‚re, 1561; acc. sg. m. m‚ran, 2017; mund-gripe
m‚ran (_a mightier hand-grip_), 754; with following gen. pl. m‚ran ...
eorla (_a more powerful earl_), 247; fem. m‚ran, 533, 1012; neut. m‚re,
518; with gen. pl. mor-beala m‚re _(more, greater, deeds of murder_), 136;
gen. sg. f. m‚ran, 1824.

mÊst (superl. of micel, m‚ra), _greatest, strongest_: nom. sg. neut. (with
partitive gen.), mÊst, 78, 193; fem. mÊst, 2329; acc. sg. fem. fÊhe mÊste,
459; mÊste ... worolde wynne (_the highest earthly pleasure_), 1080; neut.
n. (with partitive gen.) mÊst mÊra, 2646; hond-wundra mÊst, 2769; bÊl-f˝ra
mÊst, 3144; instr. sg. m. mÊste cr‰fte, 2182.

m‰cg. See mecg.

m‰g, st. f., _wife, maid, woman_: nom. sg., 3017; gen. pl. m‰ga hÙse
(_accompanied by her maids of honor_), 925; m‰ga, 944, 1284.

m‰gen, st. n.: 1) _might, bodily strength, heroic power_: acc. sg. m‰gen,
518, 1707; instr. sg. m‰gene, 780(?), 2668; gen. sg. m‰genes, 418, 1271,
1535, 1717, etc.; m‰gnes, 671, 1762; m‰genes strang, strengest (_great in
strength_), 1845, 196; m‰genes rÙf (id.), 2085.--2) _prime, flower_ (of a
nation), _forces available in war_: acc. sg. sw‚ he oft (i.e. etan) dyde
m‰gen HrÍmanna (_the best of the Hremen_), 445; gen. sg. wi manna hwone
m‰genes Deniga (_from(?) any of the men of the Danes_), 155.--Comp.

m‰gen-‚gend, pres. part., _having great strength, valiant_: gen. pl.
-‚gendra, 2838.

m‰gen-byren, st. f., _huge burthen_: acc. sg. m‰gen-byrenne, 3092; dat.
(instr.) sg., 1626.

m‰gen-cr‰ft, st. m., _great, hero-like, strength_: acc. sg., 380.

m‰gen-ellen, st. n. (the same), acc. sg., 660.

m‰gen-fultum, st. m., _material aid_: gen. pl. n‰s ˛‰t ˛onne mÊtost
m‰gen-fultuma (_that was not the least of strong helps_, i.e. the sword
Hrunting), 1456.

m‰gen-rÊs, st. m., _mighty attack, onslaught_: acc. sg., 1520.

m‰gen-strengo, st. f., _main strength, heroic power_: acc. sg., 2679.

m‰gen-wudu, st. m., _might-wood_, i.e. the spear, lance: acc. sg., 236.

m‰st, st. m., _mast_: nom. sg., 1899; dat. sg. be m‰ste (_beside the
mast_), 36; _to the mast_, 1906.

mÊum. See m‚um, hyge-mÊum.

mÊg, st. m., _kinsman by blood_: nom. sg. mÊg, 408, 738, 759, 814, 915,
1531, 1945, etc; (_brother_), 468, 2605? acc. sg. mÊg (_son_), 1340;
(_brother_), 2440, 2485, 2983; dat. sg. mÊge, 1979; gen. sg. mÊges, 2629,
2676, 2699, 2880; nom. pl. m‚gas, 1016; acc. pl. m‚gas, 2816; dat. pl.
m‚gum, 1179, 2615, 3066; (_to brothers_), 1168; mÊgum, 2354; gen. pl. m‚ga,
247, 1080, 1854, 2007, 2743.--Comp.: f‰deren-, he·fod-, wine-mÊg.

mÊg-burh, st. f., _borough of blood-kinsmen, entire population united by
ties of blood_; (in wider sense) _race, people, nation_: gen. sg.
lond-rihtes ... ˛Êre mÊg-burge (_of land possessions among the people_,
i.e. of the Ge·tas), 2888.

mÊg, st. f., _race, people_: acc. sg. mÊge, 1012; dat. sg. mÊge, 75;
dat. pl. mÊgum, 5; gen. pl. mÊga, 25, 1772.

mÊg-wine, st. m., _blood kinsman, friend_, 2480 (nom. pl.).

mÊl, st. n.: l) _time, point of time_: nom. sg. 316; ˛‚ w‰s sÊl and mÊl
(_there was_ [appropriate] _chance and time_), 1009; acc. sg. mÊl, 2634;
instr. pl. Êrran mÊlum, 908, 2238, 3036; gen. pl. mÊla, 1250; sÊla and
mÊla, 1612; mÊla gehwylce (_each time, without intermission_), 2058.--2)
_sword, weapon_: nom. sg. broden (brogden) mÊl (_the drawn sword_), 1617,
1668 (cf. Grimm, Andreas and Elene, p. 156).--3) _mole, spot,
mark_.--Comp.: grÊg-, hring-, sceaen-, wunden-mÊl.

mÊl-cearu, st. f., _long-continued sorrow, grief_: acc. sg. mÊl-ceare, 189.

mÊl-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, appointed time_: acc. pl. ie on earde b‚d
mÊl-gesceafta (_awaited the time allotted for me by fate_), 2738.

mÊnan, w. v., with acc. in the sense of (1) _to remember, mention,
proclaim_: inf. mÊnan, 1068; pret. part. ˛Êr w‰s BeÛwulfes mÊro mÊned,
858.--2) _to mention sorrowfully, mourn_: inf. 3173; pret. sg. gioho mÊnde
(_mourned sorrowfully_), 2268; pret. pl. mÊndon, 1150, 3150.

ge-mÊnan (see m‚n), w. v. with acc., _to injure maliciously, break_: subj.
pret. pl. ge-mÊnden, 1102.

ge-mÊne, adj., _common, in common_: nom. sg. gemÊne, 2474; ˛Êr unc hwÓle
w‰s hand gemÊne (i.e. in battle), 2138; sceal ˚rum ˛‰t sweord and helm b‚m
gemÊne (i.e. wesan), 2661; nom. pl. gemÊne, 1861; dat. pl. ˛‰t ˛‚m folcum
sceal ... sib gemÊnum (attraction for gemÊne, i.e. wesan), 1858; gen. pl.
unc sceal (i.e. wesan) fela m‚ma gemÊnra (_we two shall share many
treasures together_), 1785.

mÊru, st. f.: 1) _glory, a heroes fame_: nom. sg. 858; acc. sg. mÊro,
660, 688; acc. pl. mÊra, 2997; instr. pl. mÊrum (_gloriously_), 2515:
gen. pl. mÊra, 504, 1531.--2) _deed of glory, heroism_: acc. sg. mÊro,
2135; gen. pl. mÊra, 408, 2646.--Comp. ellen-mÊru.

mÊre, adj., _memorable; celebrated, noble; well known, notorious_: nom. sg.
m. mÊre, 103, 129, 1716, 1762; se mÊra, 763, 2012, 2588; also as vocative
m. se mÊra, 1475; nom. fem. mÊru, 2017; mÊre, 1953; neut. mÊre, 2406; acc.
sg. m. mÊrne, 36, 201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2789, 3099; neut. mÊre, 1024;
dat. sg. mÊrum, 345, 1302, 1993, 2080, 2573; tÙ ˛‰m mÊran, 270; gen. sg.
mÊres, 798; mÊran, 1730; nom. pl. mÊre, 3071; superl. mÊrost, 899,--Comp.:
fore-, heao-mÊre.

mÊst. See m‚ra.

mÊte, adj., _moderate, small_: superl. nom. sg. mÊtost, 1456.

mecg, m‰cg, st. m., _son, youth, man_. in comp. hilde-, oret-mecg,

medla. See on-medla.

medu, st. m., _mead_: acc. sg. medu, 2634; dat. sg. tÙ medo, 605.

medo-‰rn, st. n., _mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-‰rn (Heorot), 69.

medu-benc, st. f., _mead-bench, bench in the mead-hall_: nom. sg.
medu-benc, 777; dat. sg. medu-bence, 1053; medo-bence, 1068, 2186;
meodu-bence, 1903.

medu-dre·m, st. m., _mead-joy, joyous carousing during mead-drinking_: acc.
sg. 2017.

medo-ful, st. n., _mead-cup_: acc. sg. 625, 1016.

medo-heal, st. f., _mead-hall_: nom. sg., 484; dat. sg. meodu-healle, 639.

medu-scenc, st. m., _mead-can, vessel_: instr. pl. meodu-scencum, 1981.

medu-seld, st. n., _mead-seat, mead-house_: acc. sg., 3066.

medo-setl, st. n., _mead-seat upon which one sits mead-drinking_: gen. pl.
meodo-setla, 5.

medo-stÓg, st. f., _mead-road, road to the mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-stÓg,

medo-wang, st. m., _mead-field_ (where the mead-hall stood): acc. pl.
medo-wongas, 1644.

meel, st. n., _assembly, council_: dat. sg. on mele, 1877.

meel-stede, st. m., (properly _place of speech, judgment-seat_), here
_meeting-place, battle-field_ (so, also 425, the battle is conceived under
the figure of a parliament or convention): dat. sg. on ˛‰m meel-stede,

meel-word, st. n., _words called forth at a discussion; address_: instr.
pl. meel-wordum, 236.

melda, w. m., _finder, informer, betrayer_: gen. sg. ˛‰s meldan, 2406.

meltan, st. v. intrans., _to consume by fire, melt or waste away_: inf.,
3012; pret. sg. mealt, 2327; pl. multon, 1121.

ge-meltan, the same: pret. sg. gemealt, 898, 1609, 1616; ne gemealt him se
mÙd-sefa (_his courage did not desert him_), 2629.

men. See man.

mene, st. m., _neck ornament, necklace, collar_: acc. sg., 1200.

mengan, w. v., _to mingle, unite, with_, w. acc. of thing: inf. se ˛e
mere-grundas mengan scolde, 1450.

ge-mengan, _to mix with, commingle_: pret. part. 849, 1594.

menigu, st. f., _multitude, many_: nom. and acc. sg. m‚ma menigeo
(_multitude of treasures, presents_), 2144; so, m‰nigo, 41.

mercels, st. m., _mark, aim_: gen. sg. mercelses, 2440.

mere, st. m., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg. se mere, 1363; acc. sg. on mere, 1131,
1604; on nicera mere, 846; dat. sg. fram mere, 856.

mere-deÛr, st. n., _sea-beast_: acc. sg., 558.

mere-fara, w. m., _seafarer_: gen. sg. mere-faran, 502.

mere-fix, st. m., _sea-fish_: gen. pl. mere-fixa (_the whale_, cf. 540),

mere-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom_: acc. sg., 2101; acc. pl. mere-grundas,

mere-hr‰gl, st. n., _-sea-garment_, i.e., sail: gen. pl. mere-hr‰gla sum,

mere-lÓend, pres. part., _moving on the sea, sailor_: nom. pl.
mere-lÓende, 255.

mere-strÊt, st. f., _sea-street, way over the sea_: acc. pl. mere-strÊta

mere-strengo, st. f., _sea-power, strength in the sea_: acc. sg., 533.

mere-wÓf, st. n., _sea-woman, mer-woman_: acc. sg. (of Grendel's mother),

mergen. See morgen.

met, st. n., _thought, intention_ (cf. metian = meditari): acc. pl. onsÊl
meoto, 489 (meaning doubtful; see Bugge, Journal 8, 292; Dietrich, Haupt's
Zeits. 11, 411; Kˆrner, Eng. Stud. 2, 251).

ge-met, st. n., _an apportioned share; might, power, ability _: nom. sg.
nis ˛‰t ... gemet mannes nefne mÓn ‚nes (_nobody, myself excepted, can do
that_), 2534; acc. sg. ofer mÓn gemet (_beyond my power_), 2880; dat. sg.
mid gemete, 780.

ge-met, adj., _well-measured, meet, good_: nom. sg. sw‚ him gemet ˛ince
(˛˚hte), (_as seemed meet to him_), 688, 3058. See un-gemete, adv.

metan, st. v., _to measure, pass over_ or _along_: pret. pl. fealwe strÊte
mearum mÊton (_measured the yellow road with their horses_), 918; so, 514,

ge-metan, the same: pret. sg. medu-stÓg gem‰t.(_measured, walked over, the
road to the mead-hall_), 925.

metod, st. m. (the measuring, arranging) _Creator, God_: nom. sg., 110,
707, 968, 1058, 2528; scÓr metod, 980; sÙ metod, 1612; acc. sg. metod,
180; dat. sg. metode, 169, 1779; gen. sg. metodes, 671.--Comp. eald-metod.

metod-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _the Creator's determination, divine purpose,
fate_: acc. sg. -sceaft, 1078.--2) _the Creators glory_: acc. sg.
metod-sceaft seÛn (i.e. die), 1181; dat. sg. tÙ metod-sceafte, 2816.

mÍce, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg., 1939; acc. sg. mÍce, 2048; br‚dne mÍce,
2979; gen. sg. mÍces, 1766, 1813, 2615, 2940; dat. pl. instr. mÍcum, 565;
gen. pl. mÍca, 2686.--Comp.: beado-, h‰ft-, hilde-mÍce.

mÍd, st. f., _meed, reward_: acc. sg. mÍde, 2135; dat. sg. mÍde, 2147; gen.
pl. mÍda, 1179.

ge-mÍde, st. n., _approval, permission_ (Grein): acc. pl. ge-mÍdu, 247.

mÍe, adj., _tired, exhausted, dejected_: in comp. hyge-, sÊ-mÍe.

mÍtan, w. v., _to meet, find, fall in with_: with acc., pret. pl. syan
ƒscheres ... hafelan mÍtton, 1422; subj. pret. sg. ˛‰t he ne mÍtte ... on
elran man mundgripe m‚ran (_that he never met, in any other man, with a
mightier hand-grip_), 752.

ge-mÍtan, with acc., the same: pret. sg. gemÍtte, 758, 2786; pl. n‰s ˛‚
long tÙ ˛on, ˛‰t ˛‚ aglÊcean hy eft gemÍtton (_it was not long after that
the warriors again met each other_), 2593.

ge-mÍting, st. f., _meeting, hostile coming together_: nom. sg., 2002.

meagol, adj., _mighty, immense; formal, solemn_: instr. pl. meaglum wordum,

mearc, st. f., _frontier, limit, end_: dat. sg. tÙ mearce (_the end of
life_), 2385.--Comp. Weder-mearc, 298.

ge-mearc, st. n., _measure, distance_: comp. fÙt-, mÓl-ge-mearc.

mearcian, w. v., _to mark, stain_: pres. ind. sg. mearca mÙrhopu (_will
stain, mark, the moor with the blood of the corpse_), 450.

ge-mearcian, the same: pret. part. (Cain) morre gemearcod (_murder-marked_
[cf. 1 Book Mos. IV. 15]), 1265; sw‚ w‰s on ˛Êm scennum ... gemearcod ...
hw‚m ˛‰t sweord geworht wÊre (_engraved for whom the sword had been
wrought_), 1696.

mearc-stapa, w. m., _march-strider, frontier-haunter_ (applied to Grendel
and his mother): nom. sg., 103; acc. pl. mearc-stapan, 1349.

mearh, st. m., _horse, steed_: nom. pl. mearas, 2164; acc. pl. mearas, 866,
1036; dat. pl. inst. mearum, 856, 918; mearum and m‚mum, 1049, 1899; gen.
pl. meara and m‚ma, 2167.

mearn. See murnan.

meodu. See medu.

meoto. See met.

meotud. See metod.

meowle, w. f., _maiden_: comp. geÛ-meowle.

micel, adj., _great, huge, long_ (of time): nom. sg. m., 129, 502; fem.,
67, 146, 170; neut., 772; acc. sg. m. micelne, 3099; fem, micle, 1779,
3092; neut. micel, 270, 1168. The comp. m‚re must be supplied before ˛one
in: medo-‰rn micel ... (m‚re) ˛one yldo beam Êfre ge-frunon, 69; instr. sg.
ge-trume micle, 923; micle (_by much, much_); micle leÛfre (_far dearer_),
2652; efne sw‚ micle (l‰ssa), (_[less] even by so much_), 1284; oftor micle
(_much oftener_), 1580; dat. sg, weak form miclan, 2850; gen. sg. miclan,
979. The gen. sg. micles is an adv. = _much, very_: micles wyrne gedÙn
(_deem worthy of much_, i.e. honor very highly), 2186; tÙ fela micles (_far
too much, many_), 695; acc. pl. micle, 1349. Compar., see m‚ra.

mid, I. prep. w. dat., instr., and acc., signifying preÎminently _union,
community, with_, hence: 1) w. dat.: a) _with, in company, community,
with_; mid Finne, 1129; mid HrÙg‚re, 1593; mid scip-herge, 243; mid
gesÓum (_with his comrades_), 1314; so, 1318, 1964, 2950, etc.; mid his
freÛ-drihtne, 2628; mid ˛Êm l‚cum (_with the gifts_), 1869; so, 2789, 125;
mid hÊle (_with good luck!_), 1218; mid bÊle fÙr (_sped off amid fire_),
2309. The prep. postponed: him mid (_with him, in his company_), 41; _with
him_, 1626; ne w‰s him Fitela mid (_was not with him_), 890. b) _with,
among_: mid Ge·tum (_among the Ge·tas_), 195, 2193, 2624; mid Scyldingum,
274; mid Eotenum, 903; mid yldum (eldum), 77, 2612; mid him (_with, among,
one another_), 2949. In temporal sense: mid Êr-d‰ge (_at dawn_), 126.--2)
_with, with the help of, through_, w. dat.: mid ‚r-stafum (_through his
grace_), 317; so, 2379; mid gr‚pe (_with the fist_), 438; so, 1462, 2721;
mid his hete-˛oncum (_through his hatred_), 475; mid sweorde, 574; so,
1660, 2877; mid gemete (_through, by, his power_), 780; so, 1220, 2536,
2918; mid gÙde (_with benefits_), 1185; mid hearme (_with harm, insult_),
1893; mid ˛Êre sorge (_with [through?] this sorrow_), 2469; mid rihte (_by
rights_), 2057. With instr.: mid ˛˝ wÓfe (_through [marriage with] the
woman_), 2029.--3) w. acc., _with, in community, company, with_: mid his
eorla gedriht, 357; so, 634, 663, 1673; mid hine, 880; mid mÓnne
gold-gyfan, 2653.

II. adv., mid, _thereamong, in the company_, 1643; _at the same time,
likewise_, 1650.

middan-geard, st. m., _globe, earth_: acc. sg., 75, 1772; dat. sg. on
middan-gearde, 2997; gen. sg. middan-geardes, 504, 752.

midde, w. f., _middle = medius_: dat. sg. on middan (_through the middle,
in two_), 2706; gen. sg. (adv.) tÙ-middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

middel-niht, st. f., _midnight_: dat. pl. middel-nihtum, 2783, 2834.

miht, st. f., _might, power, authority_: acc. sg. ˛urh drihtnes miht
(_through the Lord's help, power_), 941; instr. pl. selfes mihtum, 701.

mihtig, adj.: 1) _physically strong, powerful_: acc. sg. mihtig mere-deÛr,
558; mere-wÓf mihtig, 1520.--2) _possessing authority, mighty_: nom. sg.
mihtig god, 702, 1717, 1726; dat. sg. mihtigan drihtne, 1399.--Comp.: ‰l-,

milde, adj., _kind, gracious, generous_: nom. sg. mÙdes milde
(_kind-hearted_), 1230; instr. pl. mildum wordum (_graciously_), 1173.
Superl. nom. sg. worold-cyning mannum mildust (_a king most liberal to
men_), 3183.

milts, st. f., _kindness, benevolence_: nom. sg., 2922.

missan, w. v. with gen., _to miss, err in_: pret. sg. miste mercelses
(_missed the mark_), 2440.

missere, st. n., _space of a semester, half a year_: gen. pl. hund missera
(_fifty winters_), 2734, 2210; generally, _a long period of time, season_,
1499, 1770; fela missera, 153, 2621.

mist-hli, st. n., _misty cliff, cloud-capped slope_: dat. pl. under
mist-hleoum, 711.

mistig, adj., _misty_: acc. pl. mistige mÙras, 162.

mÓl-gemearc, st. n., _measure by miles_: gen. sg. mÓl-gemearces, 1363.

mÓn: 1) poss. pron., _my, mine_, 255, 345, etc.; Hygel‚c mÓn (_my lord_, or
_king, H._), 2435.--2) gen. sg. of pers. pron. ic, _of me_, 2085, 2534,

molde, w. f., _dust; earth, field_: in comp. gr‰s-molde.

mon. See man.

ge-mong. See ge-mang.

mor-bealu, st. n., _murder, deadly hale_ or _deed of murder_: gen. pl.
mor-beala, 136.

moror, st. n., _deed of violence, murder_: dat. instr. sg. morre, 893,
1265, 2783; gen. sg. morres, 2056; morres scyldig (_guilty of murder_),

moror-bed, st. n., _bed of death, murder-bed_: acc. sg. w‰s ˛am yldestan
... moror-bed strÍd (_a bed of death was spread for the eldest_, i.e.
through murder his death-bed was prepared), 2437.

moror-bealu, st. n., _death-bale, destruction by murder_: acc. sg.
moror-bealo, 1080, 2743.

moror-hete, st. m., _murderous hate_: gen. sg. ˛‰s moror-hetes, 1106.

morgen, morn, mergen, st. m., _morning, forenoon_; also _morrow_: nom. sg.
morgen, 1785, 2125; (_morrow_), 2104; acc. sg. on morgen (_in the
morning_), 838; dat. sg. on morgne, 2485; on mergenne, 565, 2940; gen. pl.
morna gehwylce (_every morning_), 2451.

morgen-ceald, adj., _morning-cold, dawn-cold_: nom. sg. g‚r morgen-ceald
(_spear chilled by the early air of morn_), 3023.

morgen-lang, adj., _lasting through the morning_: acc. sg. morgen-longne
d‰g (_the whole forenoon_), 2895.

morgen-leÛht, st. n., _morning-light_: nom. sg., 605, 918.

morgen-swÍg, st. m., _morning-cry, cry at morn_: nom. sg., 129.

morgen-tÓd, st. f., _morning-tide_: acc. sg. on morgen-tÓde, 484, 818(?)

morn. See morgen.

mÙd, st. n.: 1) _heart, soul, spirit, mood, mind, manner of thinking_: nom.
sg., 50, 731; w‰fre mÙd (_the flicker ing spirit, the fading breath_),
1151; acc. sg. on mÙd (_into his mind_), 67; dat. instr. sg. mÙde ge˛ungen
(_of mature, lofty spirit_), 625; on mÙde (_in heart, mind_), 754, 1845,
2282? 2528; on hreÛum mÙde (_fierce of spirit_), 2582; gen. sg. modes, 171,
811, 1707; modes blÓe (_gracious-minded, kindly disposed_), 436; so, mÙdes
milde, 1230; mÙdes seÛce (_depressed in mind_), 1604.--2) _boldness,
courage_: nom. and acc. sg., 1058, 1168. 3) _passion, fierceness_: nom.
sg., 549.--Comp. form adj.: galg-, geÙmor-, gl‰d-, g˚-, hreÛh-, irre-,
s‚rig-, stÓ-, swÓ-, wÍrig-mÙd.

mÙd-cearu, st. f., _grief of heart_: acc. sg. mÙd-ceare, 1993, 3150.

mÙd-gehygd, st. f ., _thought of the heart; mind_: instr. pl. mÙd-gehygdum,

mÙd-ge-˛anc, st. n., _mood-thought, meditation_: acc. sg. mÙd-ge-˛onc,

mÙd-giÙmor, adj., _grieved at heart, dejected_: nom. sg., 2895.

mÙdig, adj., _courageous_: nom. sg., 605, 1644, 1813, 2758; he ˛‰s (˛‰m,
MS.) mÙdig w‰s (_had the courage for it_), 1509; se mÙdega, 814; dat. sg.
mid ˛am mÙdigan, 3012; gen. sg. mÙdges, 502; mÙdiges, 2699; Ge·ta leÛd
georne tr˚wode mÙdgan m‰gnes (_trusted firmly in his bold strength_), 671;
nom. pl. mÙdge, 856; mÙdige, 1877; gen. pl. mÙdigra, 312, 1889.--Comp,

mÙdig-lÓc, adj., _of bold appearance_: compar. acc. pl. mÙdiglÓcran, 337.

mÙd-lufe, w. f., _hearts affection, love_: gen. sg. ˛Ónre mÙd-lufan, 1824.

mÙd-sefa, w. m., _thought of the heart; brave, bold temper; courage_: nom.
sg., 349, 1854, 2629; acc. sg. mÙd-sefan, 2013; dat. sg. mÙd-sefan, 180.

mÙd-˛racu, st. f., _boldness, courage, strength of mind_: dat. sg. for his
mÙd-˛r‰ce, 385.

mÙdor, f., _mother_: nom. sg., 1259, 1277, 1283, 1684, 2119; acc. sg.
mÙdor, 1539, 2140, 2933.

mÙna, w. m., _moon_: gen. sg. mÙnan, 94.

mÙr, st. m., _moor, morass, swamp_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mÙr, 1406; dat.
sg. of mÙre, 711; acc. pl. mÙras, 103, 162, 1349.

mÙr-hop, st. n., _place of refuge in the moor, hiding-place in the swamp_:
acc. pl. mÙr-hopu, 450.

ge-mÙt, st. n., _meeting_: in comp. hand-, torn-ge-mÙt.

mÙtan, pret.-pres. v.: 1) _power_ or _permission to have something, to be
permitted; may, can_: pres. sg. I., III. mÙt, 186, 442, 604; II. mÙst,
1672; pl. mÙton, 347, 365, 395; pres. subj. ic mÙte, 431; III. se ˛e mÙte,
1388; pret sg. mÙste, 168, 707, 736, 895, 1488, 1999, 2242, 2505, etc.; pl.
mÙston, 1629, 1876, 2039, 2125, 2248; pres. subj. sg. II. ˛‰t ˛u hine
selfne geseÛn mÙste (_mightest see_), 962.--2) _shall, must, be obliged_:
pres. sg. mÙt, 2887; pret. sg. mÙste, 1940; ˛Êr he ˛˝ fyrste forman dÙgore
wealdan mÙste, sw‚ him Wyrd ne gescr‚f, hrÍ ‰t hilde (_if he must for the
first time that day be victorious, as Fate had denied him victory_, cf.
2681, 2683 seqq.), 2575.

ge-munan, pret.-pres. v., _to have in mind, be mindful; remember, think
of_, w. acc.: pres. sg. hine gearwe geman witena wel-hwylc (_each of the
knowing ones still remembers him well_), 265; ic ˛e ˛‰s le·n geman (_I
shall not forget thy reward for this_), 1221; ic ˛‰t eall gemon (_I
remember all that_), 2428; so, 1702, 2043; gif he ˛‰t eall gemon hw‰t ...
(_if he is mindful of all that which_ ...), 1186; ic ˛‰t mÊl gemon hwÊr...
(_I remember the time when_...), 2634; pret. sg. w. gemunde... Êfen-sprÊce
(_recalled his evening speech_), 759; so, 871, 1130, 1260, 1271, 1291,
2115, 2432, 2607, 2679; se ˛‰s leÛd-hryres le·n ge-munde (_was mindful of
reward for the fall of the ruler_), 2392; ˛‰t he Eotena bearn inne gemunde
(_that he in this should remember, take vengeance on, the children of the
Eotens_), 1142; so, hond gemunde fÊho genÙge (_his hand remembered strife
enough_), 2490; ne ge-munde mago Ecgl‚fes ˛‰t ... (_remembered not that
which_ ...), 1466; pret. pl. helle gemundon in mÙd-sefan (_their thoughts_
[as heathens] _fixed themselves on, remembered, hell_), 179.

on-munan, w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to admonish, exhort_: pret. sg.
onmunde ˚sic mÊra (_exhorted us to deeds of glory_), 2641.

mund, st. f., _hand_: instr. pl. mundum, mid mundum, 236, 514, 1462, 3023,

mund-bora, w. m., _protector, guardian, preserver_: nom. sg., 1481, 2780.

mund-gripe, st. m., _hand-grip, seizure_: acc. sg. mund-gripe, 754; dat.
sg. mund-gripe, 380, 1535; ‰fter mund-gripe (_after having seized the
criminal_), 1939.

murnan, st. v., _to shrink from, be afraid of, avoid_: pret. sg. nÙ mearn
fore fÊhe and fyrene, 136; so, 1538; nalles for ealdre mearn (_was not
apprehensive for his life_), 1443.--2) _to mourn, grieve_: pres. part. him
w‰s ... murnende mÙd, 50; pres. subj., ˛onne he fela murne (_than that he
should mourn much_), 1386.

be-murnan, be-meornan, with acc., _to mourn over_: pret. be-mearn, 908,

murn-lÓce. See un-murn-lÓce.

m˚-bana, w. m., _mouth-destroyer_: dat. sg. tÙ m˚-bonan (of Grendel
because he bit his victim to death), 2080.

m˚a, w. m., _mouth, entrance_: acc. sg. recedes m˚an (_mouth of the
house, door_), 725.

ge-mynd, st. f., _memory, memorial, remembrance_: dat. pl. tÙ gemyndum,
2805, 3017. See weor-mynd.

myhdgian, w. v., _to call to mind, remember_: pres. sg. myndga, 2058;
pres. part. w. gen. gif ˛onne Fresna hwylc ... ˛‰s moror-hetes myndgiend
wÊre (_were to call to mind the bloody feud_), 1106.

ge-myndgian, w. v. w. acc., _to remember_: bi gemyndgad ... eaforan
ellor-sÓ (_is reminded of his son's decease_), 2451.

ge-myndig, adj., _mindful_: nom. sg. w. gen., 614, 869, 1174, 1531, 2083,

myne, st. m.: 1) _mind, wish_: nom. sg., 2573.--2) _love_(?): ne his myne
wisse (_whose_ [God's] _love he knew not_), 169.

ge-mynian, w. v. w. acc., _to be mindful of_: imper. sg. gemyne mÊro! 660.

myntan, w. v., _to intend, think of, resolve_: pret. sg. mynte ... manna
cynnes sumne besyrwan (_meant to entrap all_(?) [see sum], _some one of
(?), the men_), 713; mynte ˛‰t he gedÊlde ... (_thought to sever_), 732;
mynte se mÊra, ˛Êr he meahte sw‚, wÓdre gewindan (_intended to flee_), 763.

myrce, adj., _murky, dark_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mÙr, 1406.

myr, st. f., _joy, mirth_: dat. (instr.) sg. mÙdes myre, 8n.


naca, w. m., _vessel, ship_: acc. sg. nacan, 295; gen. sg. nacan,
214.--Comp.: hring-, ˝-naca.

nacod, adj., _naked_: nom. and acc. sg. swurd, g˚-bill nacod, 539, 2586;
nacod nÓ-draca, 2274.

nalas, nales, nallas. See nealles.

nama, w. m., _name_: nom. sg. BeÛwulf is mÓn nama, 343; w‰s ˛‰m h‰ft-mÍce
Hrunting nama, 1458; acc. sg. scÙp him Heort naman (_gave it the name
Hart_), 78.

n‚ (from ne-‚), strength, negative, _never, not all_, 445, 567, 1537.

n‚h, from ne-‚h. See ‚gan.

n‚n (from ne-‚n), indef. pron., _none, no_: with gen. pl. g˚-billa n‚n,
804; adjectively, n‚n ... Óren ÊrgÙd, 990.

n‚t, from ne-w‚t: _I know not=nescio_. See witan.

n‚t-hwylc (nescio quis, ne-w‚t-hwylc, _know not who, which_, etc.), indef.
pron., _any, a certain one, some or other_: 1) w. partitive gen.: nom. sg.
gumena n‚t-hwylc, 2234;. gen. sg. n‚t-hwylces (˛‚ra banena), 2054; nia
n‚t-hwylces(?), 2216; n‚t-hwylces h‰lea bearna, 2225.--2) adjectively:
dat. sg. in ni-sele n‚t-hwylcum, 1514.

n‰bben, from ne-h‰bben (subj. pres.). See habban.

n‰fne. See nefne.

n‰gel, st. m., _nail_: gen. pl. n‰gla (of the finger-nails), 986.

n‰gled, part., _nailed?, nail-like?, buckled?_: acc. sg. neut. n‰gled (MS.
gled) sinc, 2024.

n‰s, st. m., _naze, rock projecting into the sea, cliff, promontory_: acc.
sg. n‰s, 1440, 1601, 2899; dat. sg. n‰sse, 2244, 2418; acc. pl. windige
n‰ssas, 1412; gen. pl. n‰ssa, 1361.

n‰s, from ne-w‰s (_was not_). See wesan.

n‰s, neg. adv., _not, not at all_, 562, 2263.

n‰s-hli, st. n., _declivity, slope of a promontory that sinks downward to
the sea_: dat. pl. on n‰s-hleoum, 1428.

nÊfre, adv., _never_, 247, 583, 592, 656, 719, 1042, 1049, etc.; also
strengthened by ne: nÊfre ne, 1461.

ge-nÊgan, w. v. w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to attack, press_; pret.
pl. nÓa genÊgdan nefan HererÓces (_in combats pressed hard upon H.'s
nephew_), 2207; pret. part. wear ... nÓa genÊged, 1440.

nÊnig (from ne-Ênig), pron., _not any, none, no_: 1) substantively w. gen.
pl.: nom. sg., 157, 242, 692; dat. sg. nÊnegum, 599; gen. pl. nÊnigra,
950.--2) adjectively: nom. sg. Ùer nÊnig, 860; nÊnig w‰ter, 1515; nÊnig
... deÛr, 1934; acc. sg. nÊnigne ... hord-m‚um, 1199.

nÊre, from ne-wÊre (_were not, would not be_). See wesan.

ne, simple neg., _not_, 38, 50, 80, 83, 109, etc.; before imper. ne sorga!
1385; ne g˝m! 1761, etc. Doubled =_certainly not, not even that_: ne ge ...
gearwe ne wisson (_ye certainly have not known_, etc.), 245; so, 863; ne ic
... wihte ne wÍne (_nor do I at all in the least expect_), 2923; so, 182.
Strengthened by other neg.: nÙer ... ne, 2125; sw‚ he ne mihte nÙ ... (_so
that he absolutely could not_), 1509.

ne ... ne, _not ... and not, nor; neither ... nor_, 154-157, 511,
1083-1085, etc. Another neg. may supply the place of the first ne: so, nÙ
... ne, 575-577, 1026-1028, 1393-1395, etc.; nÊfre ... ne, 583-584; nalles
... ne, 3016-3017. The neg. may be omitted the first time: Êr ne sian
(_neither before nor after, before nor since_), 719; s˚ ne nor (_south
nor north_), 859; ‚dl ne yldo (_neither illness nor old age_), 1737; wordum
ne worcum (_neither by word nor deed_), 1101; wiston and ne wÍndon (_knew
not and weened not_), 1605.

nefa, w. m., _nephew, grandson_: nom. sg. nefa (_grandson_), 1204; so,
1963; (_nephew_), 2171; acc. sg. nefan (_nephew_), 2207; dat. sg. nefan
(_nephew_), 882.

nefne, n‰fne, nemne (orig. from ne-gif-ne): 1) subj.: a) with depend.
clause = _unless_: nefne him witig god wyrd forstÙde (_if fate, the wise
God, had not prevented him_), 1057; nefne god sylfa ... sealde (_unless God
himself_, etc.), 3055; n‰fne him his wlite leÛge (MS. nÊfre) (_unless his
face belie him_), 250; n‰fne he w‰s m‚ra (_except that he was huger_),
1354; nemne him heao-byrne helpe ge-fremede, 1553; so, 2655.--b) w.
follow. substantive = _except, save, only_: nefne sin-fre· (_except the
husband_), 1935; ic lyt hafo he·fod-m‚ga nefne Hygel‚c ˛ec (_have no near
kin but thee_), 2152; nis ˛‰t eÛwer (gen. pl.) sÓ ... nefne mÓn ‚nes,
2534.--2) Prep. with dat., _except_: nemne fe·um ‚num, 1082.

ge-nehost. See ge-neahhe.

nelle, from ne-wille (_I will not_). See willan.

nemnan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to name, call_: pres. pl. ˛one yldestan
oret-mecgas BeÛwulf nemna (_the warriors call the most distinguished one
BeÛwulf_), 364; so inf. nemnan, 2024; pret. pl. nemdon, 1355.--2) _to
address_, as in

be-nemnan, _to pronounce solemnly, put under a spell_: pret. sg. Fin
Hengeste ... ‚um be-nemde ˛‰t (_asserted, promised under oath that_ ...),
1098; pret. pl. sw‚ hit Ù dÙmes d‰g diÛpe benemdon ˛eÛdnas mÊre (_put
under a curse_), 3070.

nemne. See nefne.

nerian, ge-nerian, w. v., _to save, rescue, liberate_: pres. sg. Wyrd oft
nere unfÊgne eorl, 573; pret. part. h‰fde ... sele HrÙg‚res ge-nered wi
nÓe (_saved from hostility_), 828.

ge-nesan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to remain over, be preserved_: pret. sg.
hrÙf ‚na gen‰s ealles ansund (_the roof alone was quite sound_), 1000.--2)
w. acc., _to endure successfully, survive, escape from_: pret. sg. se ˛‚
s‰cce ge-n‰s, 1978; fela ic ... g˚-rÊsa ge-n‰s, 2427; pret. part. sw‚ he
nÓa gehwane genesen h‰fde, 2398.

net, st. n., _net_: in comp. breÛst-, here-, hring-, inwit-, searo-net.

nÍdla, w. m., _dire necessity, distress_: in comp. ˛re·-nÍdla.

nÍan (G. nan˛jan), w. v., _to venture, undertake boldly_: pres. part.
nearo nÍende (_encountering peril_), 2351; pret. pl. ˛Êr git ... on deÛp
water aldrum nÍdon (_where ye two risked your lives in the deep water_),
510; so, 538.

ge-nÍan, the same: inf. ne dorste under ˝a gewin aldre ge-nÍan, 1470.
With depend. clause: nÊnig ˛‰t dorste genÍan ˛‰t (_none durst undertake
to_ ...), 1934; pret. sg. he under h‚rne st‚n ‚na genÍde frÍcne dÊde (_he
risked alone the bold deed, venturing under the grey rock_), 889; (ic) wÓge
under w‰tere weorc genÍde earfo-lÓce (_I with difficulty stood the work
under the water in battle_, i.e. could hardly win the victory), 1657; ic
genÍde fela g˚a (_ventured on, risked, many contests_), 2512; pres. pl.
(of majesty) we ... frÍcne genÍdon eafo unc˚es (_we have boldly risked,
dared, the monster's power_), 961.

nÍh. See ne·h.

ge-neahhe, adv., _enough, sufficiently_, 784, 3153; superl. genehost br‰gd
eorl BeÛwulfes ealde l‚fe (_many an earl of B.'s_), 795.

nealles (from ne-ealles), adv., _omnino non, not at all, by no means_:
nealles, 2146, 2168, 2180, 2223, 2597, etc.; nallas, 1720, 1750; nalles,
338, 1019, 1077, 1443, 2504, etc.; nalas, 43, 1494, 1530, 1538; nales,

nearo, st. n., _strait, danger, distress_: acc. sg. nearo, 2351, 2595.

nearo, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. f. nearwe, 1410.

nearwe, adv., _narrowly_, 977.

nearo-cr‰ft, st. m., _art of rendering difficult of access?,
inaccessibility_ (see 2214 seqq.): instr. pl. nearo-cr‰ftum, 2244.

nearo-f‚h, m., _foe that causes distress, war-foe_: gen. sg. nearo-f‚ges,

nearo-˛earf, st. f., _dire need, distress_: acc. sg. nearo-˛earfe, 422.

ge-nearwian, w. v., _to drive into a corner, press upon_: pret. part.
genearwod, 1439.

ne·h, nÍh: 1) adj., _near, nigh_: nom. sg. ne·h, 1744, 2729. In superl.
also = _last_: instr. sg. n˝hstan sÓe (_for the last time_), 1204;
niÈhstan sÓe, 2512.

2) adv., _near_: feor and (oe) ne·h, 1222, 2871; 3) prep, sÊ-grunde ne·h,
564; so, 1925, 2243; holm-wylme nÍh, 2412. Compar. ne·r, 746.

ne·n, adv., _near by, (from) close at hand_, 528; (neon, MS.), 3105;
feorran and ne·n, 840; ne·n and feorran, 1175, 2318.

ge-ne·t, st. m., _comrade, companion_: in comp. beÛd-, heor-gene·t.

nioor. See nier.

neowol, adj., _steep, precipitous_: acc. pl. neowle, 1412.

neÛd, st. f., _polite intercourse regulated by etiquette?, hall-joy?_: acc.
sg. niÛde, 2117; inst. (= _joy_), 2216.

neÛd-lau, st. f., _polite invitation; wish_: dat. sg. ‰fter neÛd-lau
(_according to his wishes_), 1321.

neÛsan, neÛsian, w. v. w. gen., _to seek out, look for; to attack_: inf.
neÛsan, 125, 1787, 1792, 1807, 2075; niÛsan, 2389, 2672; neÛsian, 115,
1126; niÛsian, 3046; pret. sg. niÛsade, 2487.

neÛtan, st. v., _to take, accept_, w. gen.; _to use, enjoy_: imper. sg.
neÛt, 1218.

be-neÛtan, w. dat., _to rob, deprive of_: inf. hine aldre be-neÛtan, 681;
pret. sg. cyning ealdre bi-ne·t (_deprived the king of life_), 2397.

nicor, st. m., _sea-horse, walrus, sea-monster_ (cf. Bugge in Zacher's
Journal, 4, 197): acc. pl. niceras, 422, 575; nicras, 1428; gen. pl.
nicera, 846.

nicor-h˚s, st. n., _house_ or _den of sea-monsters_: gen. pl. nicor-h˚sa,

ni st. m., _man, human being_: gen. pl. nia, 1006; nia? (passage
corrupt), 2216.

nier, nyer, neoor, adv., _down, downward_: nier, 1361; nioor, 2700;
nyer, 3045.

ni-sele, st. m., _hall, room, in the deep_ (Grein): dat. sg. [in] ni-sele
n‚t-hwylcum, 1514.

nigen, num., _nine_: acc. nigene, 575.

niht, st. f. _night_: nom. sg., 115, 547. 650, 1321, 2117; acc. sg. niht,
135, 737, 2939; gystran niht (_yester-night_), 1335; dat. sg. on niht, 575,
684; on wanre niht, 703; gen. sg. nihtes hwÓlum (_sometimes at night, in
the hours of the night_), 3045; as adv. = _of a night, by night_, G.
nachts, 422, 2274; d‰ges and nihtes, 2270; acc. pl. seofon niht
(_se'nnight, seven days_, cf. Tac. Germ, 11), 517; dat. pl. sweartum
nihtum, 167; deorcum nihtum, 275, 221; gen. pl. nihta, 545, 1366.--Comp.:
middel-, sin-niht.

niht-bealu, st. n., _night-bale, destruction by night_: gen. pl.
niht-bealwa, 193.

niht-helm, st. m., _veil_ or _canopy of night_: nom. sg., 1790.

niht-long, adj., _lasting through the night_: acc. sg. m. niht-longne fyrst
(_space of a night_), 528.

niht-weorc, st. n., _night-work, deed done at night_: instr. sg.
niht-weorce, 828.

niman, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to take, hold, seize, undertake_: pret. sg. nam
˛‚ mid handa hige-˛ihtigne rinc, 747; pret. pl. we . . . niÛde n‚man,
2117.--2) _to take, take away, deprive of_: pres. sg. se ˛e hine de· nime
(_he whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 447; nyme, 1847; nyme n˝d-b‚de,
599; subj. pres. gif mec hild nime, 452, 1482; pret. sg. ind. nam on
Ongen˛iÛ Óren-byrnan, 2987; ne nom he ... m‚m-Êhta m‚ (_he took no more of
the rich treasures_), 1613; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s ... seÛ cwÍn numen (_the
queen carried off_), 1154.

be-niman, _to deprive of_: pret. sg. Ù ˛‰t hine yldo benam m‰genes wynnum
(_till age bereft him of joy in his strength_), 1887.

for-niman, _to carry off_: pres. sg. ˛e ˛‚ de· for-nam (_whom death
carried off_), 488; so, 557, 696, 1081, 1124, 1206, 1437, etc. Also, dat.
for acc.: pret. pl. him Órenna ecge forn‚mon, 2829.

ge-niman: 1) _to take, seize_: pret. sg. (hine) be healse ge-nam (_clasped
him around the neck, embraced him_), 1873.--2) _to take, take away_: pret.
on reste genam ˛ritig ˛egna, 122; heÛ under heolfre genam c˚e folme, 1303;
segn e·c genom, 2777; ˛‚ mec sinca baldor ... ‰t mÓnum f‰der genam (_took
me at my father's hands, adopted me_), 2430; pret. part. genumen, 3167.

ge-nip, st. n., _darkness, mist, cloud_: acc. pl. under n‰ssa genipu, 1361;
ofer flÙda genipu, 2809.

nis, from ne-is (_is not_): see wesan.

niwe, niÛwe, adj., _new, novel; unheard-of_: nom. sg. swÍg up ‚-st‚g niwe
geneahhe (_a monstrous hubbub arose_), 784; beorh ... niwe (_a
newly-raised(?) grave-mound_), 2244; acc. sg. niwe sibbe (_the new
kinship_), 950; instr. sg. niwan stefne (properly, nov‚ voce; here = de
novo, iterum, _again_), 2595; niÛwan stefne (_again_), 1790; gen. pl. niwra
spella (_new tidings_), 2899.

ge-niwian, w. v., _to renew_: pret. part. ge-niwod, 1304, 1323; geniwad,

niw-tyrwed, pret. part., _newly-tarred_: acc. sg. niw-tyrwedne (-tyrwydne,
MS.) nacan, 295.

nÓ, st. m., properly only _zeal, endeavor_; then _hostile endeavor,
hostility, battle, war_: nom. sg., 2318; acc. sg. nÓ, 184, 276; Wedera nÓ
(_enmity against the W., the sorrows of the Weders_), 423; dat. sg. wi
(‰t) nÓe, 828, 2586; instr. nÓe, 2681; gen. pl. nÓa, 883, 2351, 2398,
etc.; also instr. = _by, in, battle_, 846, 1440, 1963, 2171, 2207.--Comp.:
bealo-, fÊr-, here-, hete-, inwit-, searo-, w‰l-nÓ.

nÓ-draca, w. m., _battle-dragon_: nom. sg., 2274.

nÓ-gast, st. m., _hostile alien, fell demon_: acc. sg. ˛one nÓ-g‰st (_the
dragon_), 2700.

nÓ-geweorc, st. n., _work of enmity, deed of evil_: gen. pl. -geweorca,

nÓ-grim, adj., _furious in battle, savage_: nom. sg., 193.

nÓ-heard, adj., _valiant in war_: nom. sg., 2418.

nÓ-hydig, adj., _eager for battle, valorous_: nom. pl. nÓ-hydige men,

ge-nÓla, w. m., _foe, persecutor, waylayer_: in comp. ferh-,

nÓ-wundor, st. n., _hostile wonder, strange marvel of evil_: acc. sg.,

nÓpan, st. v., _to veil, cover over, obscure_; pres. part. nÓpende niht,
547, 650.

nolde, from ne-wolde (_would not_); see willan.

nor, adv., _northward_, 859.

noran, adv., _from the north_, 547.

nose, w. f., _projection, cliff, cape_: dat. sg. of hlies nosan, 1893; ‰t
brimes nosan, 2804.

nÙ (strengthened neg.), _not, not at all, by no means_, 136, 244, 587, 755,
842, 969, 1736, etc.; strengthened by following ne, 459(?), 1509; nÙ ... nÙ
(_neither ... nor_), 541-543; so, nÙ ... ne, 168. See ne.

nÙer (from n‚-hw‰er), neg., _and not, nor_, 2125.

ge-nÙh, adj., _sufficient, enough_: acc. sg. fÊho genÙge, 2490; acc. pl.
genÙge ... be·gas, 3105.

nÙn, st. f., [Eng. _noon_], ninth hour of the day, three o'clock in the
afternoon of our reckoning_ (the day was reckoned from six o'clock in the
morning; cf. Bouterwek Scre·dunga, 24 _2_: we h‚ta Ênne d‰g fram sunnan
upgange Ù Êfen): nom. sg. nÙn, 1601.

nu, adv.: l) _now, at present_, 251, 254, 375, 395, 424, 426, 489, etc.: nu
gyt (_up to now, hitherto_), 957; nu gen (_now still, yet_), 2860; (_now
yet, still_), 3169.--2) conj., _since, inasmuch as_: nu ˛u lungre geong ...
nu se wyrm lige (_go now quickly, since the dragon lieth dead_), 2746; so,
2248; ˛‰t ˛u me ne forwyrne ... nu ic ˛us feorran com (_that do not thou
refuse me, since I am come so far_), 430; so, 1476; nu ic on m‚ma hord
mÓne bebohte frÙde feorh-lege, fremma ge nu (_as I now..., so do ye_),
2800; so, 3021.

nyme, conj. w. subj., _if not, unless_, 782; nyme mec god scylde (_if God
had not shielded me_), 1659.

nyt, st. f., _duty, service, office, employment_: acc. sg. ˛egn nytte
beheÛld (_did his duty_), 494; so, 3119.--Comp.: sund-, sundor-nyt.

nyt, adj., _useful_: acc. pl. m. nytte, 795; comp. un-nyt.

ge-nyttian, w. v., _to make use of, enjoy_: pret. part. h‰fde eor-scrafa
ende ge-nyttod (_had enjoyed, made use of_), 3047.

n˝d, st. f., _force, necessity, need, pain_: acc. sg. ˛urh de·es n˝d,
2455; instr. sg. n˝de, 1006. In comp. (like n˝d-maga, consanguineus, in
∆thelred's Laws, VI. 12, Schmid, p. 228; nÍd-maga, in Cnut's Laws, I. 7,
ibid., p. 258); also, _tie of blood._--Comp. ˛re·-n˝d.

ge-n˝dan, w. v.: 1) _to force, compel_: pret. part. nÓe ge-n˝ded (_forced
by hostile power_), 2681.--2) _to force upon_: pret. part. acc. sg. f. n˝de
gen˝dde ... gearwe stÙwe (_the inevitable place prepared for each_, i.e.
the bed of death), 1006.

n˝d-b‚d, st. f., _forced pledge, pledge demanded by force_: acc. pl.
n˝d-b‚de, 599.

n˝d-gestealla, w. m., _comrade in need_ or _united by ties of blood_: nom.
pl. n˝d-gesteallan, 883.

n˝d-gripe, st. m., _compelling grip_: dat. sg. in n˝d-gripe (mid-gripe,
MS.), 977.

n˝d-wracu, st. f., _distressful persecution, great distress_: nom. sg.,

n˝hst. See ne·h.


oe, conj.: 1) _or; otherwise_, 283, 437, 636, 638, 694, 1492, 1765,
etc.--2) _and_(?), _till_(?), 650, 2476, 3007.

of, prep. w. dat., _from, off from_: 1) _from some point of view_: ge-seah
of wealle (_from the wall_), 229; so, 786; of hefene scÓne (_shineth from
heaven_), 1572; of hlies nosan g‰stas grÍtte (_from the cliff's
projection_), 1893; of ˛am leÛma stÙd (_from which light streamed_), 2770;
˛Êr w‰s m‚ma fela of feorwegum ... gelÊded (_from distant lands_), 37; ˛‚
com of mÙre (_from the moor_), 711, 922.--2) _forth from, out of_: hwearf
of earde (_wandered from his home, died_), 56; so, 265, 855, 2472; ˛‚ ic of
searwum com (_when I had escaped from the persecutions of the foe_), 419;
˛‚ him HrÙg‚r gew‚t ... ˚t of healle (_out of the hall_), 664; so, 2558,
2516; 1139, 2084, 2744; wudu-rÍc ‚-st‚h sweart of (ofer) swioole (_black
wood-reek ascended from the smoking fire_), 3145; (icge gold) ‚-h‰fen of
horde (_lifted from the hoard_), 1109; lÍt ˛‚ of breÛstum ... word ˚t faran
(_from his breast_), 2551; dyde ... helm of hafelan (_doffed his helmet_),
673; so, 1130; sealdon wÓn of wunder-fatum (_presented wine from wondrous
vessels_), 1163; sian hyne HÊcyn of horn-bogan ... fl‚ne geswencte
(_with an arrow shot from the horned bow_), 2438; so, 1434. Prep.
postponed: ˛‚ he him of dyde Ósern-byrnan (_doffed his iron corselet_),

ofer, prep. w. dat. and acc., _over, above_: 1) w. dat, _over_ (rest,
locality): WÓgl‚f site ofer BiÛwulfe, 2908; ofer ‰elinge, 1245; ofer
eoran, 248, 803, 2008; ofer wer-˛eÛde (_over the earth, among mankind_),
900; ofer ˝um, 1908; ofer hron-r‚de (_over the sea_), 10; so, 304, 1287,
1290, etc.; ofer ealowÊge (_over the beer-cup, drinking_), 481.--2) w. acc.
of motion: a) _over_ (local): ofer ˝e (_over the waves_), 46, 1910; ofer
swan-r‚de (_over the swan-road, the sea_), 200; ofer wÊgholm, 217; ofer
geofenes be-gang, 362; so, 239, 240, 297, 393, 464, 471, etc.; ofer bolcan
(_over the gangway_), 231; ofer landa fela (_over many lands_), 311; so,
1405, 1406; ofer he·hne hrÙf (_along upon (under?) the high roof_), 984;
ofer eormen-grund (_over the whole earth_), 860; ofer ealle (_over all, on
all sides_), 2900, 650; so, 1718;--606, 900, 1706; ofer borda gebr‰c
(_over, above, the crashing of shields_), 2260; ofer bord-(scild) weall,
2981, 3119. Temporal: ofer ˛‚ niht (_through the night, by night_), 737. b)
w. verbs of saying, speaking, _about, of, concerning_: he ofer benne spr‰c,
2725. c) _beyond, over_: ofer mÓn ge-met (_beyond my power_), 2880;--hence,
_against, contrary to_: he ofer willan giÛng (_went against his will_),
2410; ofer ealde riht (_against the ancient laws_, i.e. the ten
commandments), 2331;--also, _without_: wÓg ofer wÊpen (_war sans,
dispensing with, weapons_), 686;--temporal = _after_: ofer eald-gewin
(_after long, ancient, suffering_), 1782.

ofer-hygd, st. n., _arrogance, pride, conceit_: gen. pl. ofer-hygda, 1741;
ofer-hyda, 1761.

ofer-m‚um, st. m., _very rich treasure_: dat. pl. ofer-m‚mum, 2994.

ofer-m‰gen, st. n., _over-might, superior numbers_: dat. sg. mid
ofer-m‰gene, 2918.

ofer-˛earf, st. f., _dire distress, need_: dat. sg. [for ofer] ˛ea[rfe],

oft, adv., _often_, 4, 165, 444, 572, 858, 908, 1066, 1239, etc.; oft [nÙ]
seldan, 2030; oft nalles Êne, 3020; so, 1248, 1888. Compar. oftor, 1580.
Superl. oftost, 1664.

om-, on-. See am-, an-.

ombiht. See ambiht.

oncer. See ancer.

ond. See and.

ons˝n. See ans˝n.

on, prep. w. dat. and acc., signifying primarily _touching on, contact
with_: I. local, w. dat.: a) _on, upon, in at_ (of exterior surface): on
he·h-stede (_in the high place_), 285; on mÓnre Íel-tyrf (_in my native
place_), 410; on ˛‰m meel-stede, 1083; so, 2004; on ˛am holmclife, 1422;
so, 1428; on foldan (_on earth_), 1197; so, 1533, 2997; on ˛Êre medu-bence
(_on the mead-bench_), 1053; beornas on blancum (_the heroes on the
dapple-greys_), 857, etc.; on r‰ste (_in bed_), 1299; on stapole (_at,
near, the pillar_), 927; on wealle, 892; on wage (_on the wall_), 1663; on
˛‰m w‰l-stenge (_on the battle-lance_), 1639; on eaxle (_on his shoulder_),
817, 1548; on bearme, 40; on breÛstum, 552; on hafelan, 1522; on handa (_in
his hand_), 495, 540; so, 555, 766; on him byrne sc‚n (_on him shone the
corselet_), 405; on Ùre (_at the front_), 1042; on corre (_at the head of,
among, his troop_), 1154; scip on ancre (_the ship at anchor_), 303; ˛‰t he
on heoe ge-stÙd (_until he stood in the hall_), 404; on f‰der st‰le (_in a
father's place_), 1480; on ˝um (_on the waves, in the water_), 210, 421,
534, 1438; on holme, 543; on Íg-stre·mum, 577; on segl-r‚de, 1438, etc.; on
flÙde, 1367. The prep. postponed: Freslondum on, 2358.--b) _in, inside of_
(of inside surface): secg on searwum (_a champion in armor_), 249; so, 963;
on wÓg-geatwum, 368; (reced) on ˛‰m se rÓca b‚d (_in which the mighty one
abode_), 310; on Heorote (_in Heorot_), 475, 497, 594, 1303; on beÛr-sele,
492, 1095; on healle, 615, 643; so, 639, 1017, 1026, etc.; on burgum (_in
the cities, boroughs_), 53; on helle, 101; on sefan mÓnum (_in my mind_),
473; on mÙde, 754; so, 755, 949, 1343, 1719, etc.; on aldre (_in his
vitals_), 1435; on middan (in medio), 2706.--c) _among, amid_: on searwum
(_among the arms_), 1558; on gemonge (_among the troop_), 1644; on ˛am
leÛd-scipe (_among the people_), 2198; nyme lÓges f‰m swulge on swaule
(_unless the embracing flame should swallow it in smoke_), 783;--_in, with,
touched by, possessing something_: ˛‚ w‰s on s‚lum sinces brytta (_then was
the dispenser of treasure in joy_), 608; so, 644, 2015; w‰s on hreÛn mÙde,
1308; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582, 2296; heÛ w‰s on Ùfste (_she was in
haste_), 1293; so, 1736, 1870; ˛‚ w‰s on blÙde brim weallende (_there was
the flood billowing in, with, blood_), 848; (he) w‰s on sunde (_was
a-swimming_), 1619; w‰s tÙ fore-mihtig feÛnd on fÍe (_too powerful in
speed_), 971; ˛Êr w‰s swÓgra secg ... on gylpsprÊce (_there was the
champion more silent in his boasting speech_), 982;--_in; full of,
representing, something_: on weres w‰stmum (_in man's form_), 1353.--d)
_attaching to_, hence _proceeding from; from something_: ge-h˝rde on
BeÛwulfe f‰st-rÊdne ge-˛Ùht (_heard in, from, B. the fixed resolve_), 610;
˛‰t he ne mÍtte ... on elran men mund-gripe m‚ran, 753;--hence, with verbs
of taking: on r‰ste genam (_took from his bed_), 122; so, 748, 2987; hit Êr
on ˛e gÙde be-ge‚ton (_took it before from thee_), 2249.--e) _with_: sw‚
hit lungre wear on hyra sinc-gifan s‚re ge-endod (_as it, too, soon
painfully came to an end with the dispenser of treasure_), 2312.--f) _by_:
m‰g ˛onne on ˛‰m golde ongitan Ge·ta dryhten (_the lord of the Geatas may
perceive by the gold_), 1485.--g) _to_, after weoran: ˛‰t he on fylle
wear (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.

With acc.: a) w. verbs of moving, doing, giving, seeing, etc., _up to, on,
upon, in_: ‚-lÍdon ˛‚ leÛfne ˛eÛden ... on bearm scipes, 35; on stefn (on
wang) stigon, 212, 225; ˛‚ him mid scoldon on flÙdes Êht feor ge-wÓtan, 42;
se ˛e wi Brecan wunne on sÓdne sÊ (_who strovest in a swimming-match with
B. on the broad sea_), 507, cf. 516; ˛‰t ic on holma ge-˛ring eorlscipe
efnde (_that I should venture on the sea to do valiant deeds_), 2133; on
feÛnda geweald sÓian, 809; ˛‚ra ˛e on swylc stara, 997; so, 1781; on
lufan lÊte hworfan (_lets him turn his thoughts to love?, to
possessions?_), 1729; him on mÙd bearn (_came into his mind, occurred to
him_), 67; rÊsde on ˛one rÙfan (_rushed on the powerful one_), 2691; (cwom)
on worig (_came into the palace_), 1973; so, 27, 242, 253, 512, 539, 580,
677, 726, etc.; on weg (_away_), 764, 845, 1383, 1431, 2097.--b) _towards,
on_: gÙde gewyrcean ... on f‰der wine (pl.), 21.--c) aim or object, _to,
for the object, for, as, in, on_: on ˛earfe (_in his need, in his strait_),
1457; so, on hyra man-dryhtnes miclan ˛earfe, 2850; wr‚um on andan (_as a
terror to the foe_), 709; HrÙg‚r maelode him on andsware (_said to him in
reply_), 1841; betst beado-rinca w‰s on bÊl gearu (_on the pyre ready_),
1110; wÓg-heafolan b‰r fre·n on fultum (_for help_), 2663; wear on bÓd
wrecen (_forced to wait_), 2963.--d) ground, reason, _according to, in
conformity with_: rodera rÊdend hit on ryht gescÍd (_decided it in
accordance with right_), 1556; ne me swÙr fela ‚a on unriht (_swore no
oaths unjustly, falsely_), 2740; on spÍd (_skilfully_), 874; nallas on gylp
sele f‰tte be·gas (_giveth no gold-wrought rings as he promised_), 1750;
on sÓnne selfes dÙm (_boastingly, at his own will_), 2148; him eal worold
wende on willan (_according to his will_), 1740.--e) w. verbs of buying,
_for, in exchange for_: me ic on m‚ma hord mÓne be-bohte frÙde feorh-lege
(_for the hoard of jewels_), 2800.--f) _of, as to_: ic on Higel‚ce w‚t,
Ge·ta dryhten (_I know with respect to, as to, of, H._), 1831; so, 2651;
˛‰t heÛ on Ênigne eorl ge-l˝fde fyrena frÙfre (_that she should rely on any
earl for help out of trouble_), 628; ˛‚ hie ge-tr˚wedon on tw‚ healfa (_on
both sides, mutually_), 1096; so, 2064; ˛‰t ˛u him ondrÊdan ne ˛earft ...
on ˛‚ healfe (_from, on this side_), 1676.--g) after superlatives or
virtual superlatives = _among_: n‰s ... sinc-m‚um sÍlra (= ˛‰t w‰s
sinc-m‚ma sÍlest) on sweordes h‚d (_there was no better jewel in sword's
shape_, i.e. among all swords there was none better), 2194; se w‰s HrÙg‚re
h‰lea leÛfost on ge-sÓes h‚d (_dearest of men as, in the character of,
follower_, etc.), 1298.

II. Of time: a) w. dat., _in, inside of, during, at_: on fyrste (_in time,
within the time appointed_), 76; on uhtan (_at dawn_), 126; on mergenne
(_at morn, on the morrow_), 565, 2940; on niht, 575; on wanre niht, 703; on
tyn dagum, 3161; so, 197, 719, 791, 1063, etc.; on geogoe (_in youth_),
409, 466; on geogo-feore, 537; so, 1844; on orlege (_in, during, battle_),
1327; h˚ lomp eÛw on l‚de (_on the way_), 1988; on gange (_in going, en
route_), 1885; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582.--b) w. acc., _towards,
about_: on undern-mÊl (_in the morning, about midday_), 1429; on
morgen-tÓd, 484, 518; on morgen, 838; on ende-st‰f (_toward the end, at
last_), 1754; oftor micle ˛onne on Ênne sÓ (_far oftener than once_),

III. With particles: him on efn (_beside, alongside of, him_), 2904; on
innan (_inside, within_), 71, 1741, 1969, 2453, 2716; ˛Êr on innan (_in
there_), 2090, 2215, 2245. With the relative ˛e often separated from its
case: ˛e ic her on starie (_that I here look on, at_), 2797; ˛e ge ˛Êr on
standa (_that ye there stand in_), 2867.

on-c˝ (cf. Dietrich in Haupt's Zeits. XI., 412), st. f., _pain,
suffering_: nom. sg., 1421; acc. sg. or pl. on-c˝e, 831.

on-drysne, adj., _frightful, terrible_: acc. sg. firen on-drysne, 1933.

onettan (for anettan, from root an-, Goth. inf. anan, _to breathe, pant_),
w. v., _to hasten_: pret. pl. onetton, 306, 1804.

on-lÓcnes, st. f., _likeness, form, figure_: nom. sg., 1352.

on-mÍdla, w. m., _pride, arrogance_: dat. sg. for on-mÍdlan, 2927. Cf.
Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 218 seqq.

on-sÊge, adj., _tending to fall, fatal_: nom. sg. ˛‚ w‰s HondsciÛ (dat.)
hild on-sÊge, 2077; HÊcynne wear ... g˚ on-sÊge, 2484.

on-weald, st. m., _power, authority_: acc. sg. (him) bega ge-hw‰res ...
onweald ge-te·h (_gave him power over, possession of, both_), 1044.

open, adj., _open_: acc. sg. hord-wynne fond ... opene standan, 2272.

openian, w. v., _to open_, w. acc.: inf. openian, 3057.

orc (O.S. orc, Goth. a˙rkei-s), st. m., _crock, vessel, can _: nom. pl.
orcas, 3048; acc. pl. orcas, 2761.

orcnÍ, st. m., _sea-monster_: nom. pl. orcnÍas, 112.

ord, st. n. _point_: nom. sg. Ù ˛‰t wordes ord breÛst-hord ˛urh-br‰c
(_till the word-point broke through his breast-hoard, came to utterance_),
2792; acc. sg. ord (_sword-point_), 1550; dat. instr. orde (id.), 556; on
orde (_at the head of, in front_ [of a troop]), 2499, 3126.

ord-fruma, w. m., _head lord, high prince_: nom. sg., 263.

oret-mecg, st. m., _champion, warrior, military retainer_: nom. pl.
oret-mecgas, 363, 481; acc. pl. oret-mecgas, 332.

oretta, w. m., _champion, fighter, hero_: nom. sg., 1533, 2539.

or-leg, st. n., _war, battle_: dat. sg. on orlege, 1327; gen. sg. or-leges,

or-leg-hwÓl, st. f., _time of battle, war-time_: nom. sg. [or-leg]-hwÓl,
2003; gen. sg. orleg-hwÓle, 2912; gen. pl orleg-hwÓla, 2428.

or-leahtre, adj., _blameless_: nom. sg 1887.

or-˛anc (cf. Gloss. Aldhelm. mid or-˛ance = argumento in Haupt XI., 436;
or˛ancum = machinamentis, _ibid._ 477; or-˛anc-scipe = mechanica, 479), st.
m., _mechanical art, skill_: instr. pl. or-˛oncum, 2088; smies or-˛ancum,

or-wÍna, adj. (weak form), _hopeless, despairing_, w. gen.: aldres or-wÍna
(_hopeless of life_), 1003, 1566.

or-wearde, adj., _unguarded, without watch_ or _guard_: adv., 3128.

oru, st. n., _breath, snorting_: nom. sg., 2558; dat. oree, 2840.

Ù (Goth. und, O.H.G. unt, unz): 1) prep. w. acc., _to, till, up to_, only
temporal: Ù ˛one ‚nne d‰g, 2400; Ù dÙmes d‰g, 3070; Ù woruld-ende,
3084.--2) Ù ˛‰t, conj. w. depend, indicative clause, _till, until_, 9, 56,
66, 100, 145. 219, 296, 307, etc.

Ùer (Goth. an˛ar), num.: 1) _one or other of two, a second_, = alter: nom.
sg. subs.: se Ùer, 2062; Ùer(_one_ i.e. of my blood-relations, HÊcyn and
Hygel‚c), 2482; Ùer ... Ùer (_the one ... the other_), 1350-1352. Adj.:
Ùer ... mihtig m‚n-sceaa (_the second mighty, fell foe_, referring to
1350), 1339; se Ùer ... h‰le, 1816; fem. niht Ùer, 2118; neut. Ùer ge‚r
(_the next, second, year_), 1134; acc. sg. m. Ùerne, 653, 1861, 2441,
2485; ˛enden re·fode rinc Ùerne(_whilst one warrior robbed the other_,
i.e. Eofor robbed Ongen˛eÛw), 2986; neut. Ùer swylc(_another such, an
equal number_), 1584; instr. sg. Ùre sÓe (_for the second time, again_),
2671, 3102; dat. sg. Ùrum, 815, 1030, 1166, 1229, 1472, 2168, 2172, etc.;
gen. sg. m. Ùres dÙgores, 219, 606; neut. Ùres, 1875.--2) _another, a
different one_, = alius: nom. sg., subs. Ùer, 1756; Ùer nÊnig (_no
other_), 860. Adj.: Ênig Ùer man, 503, 534; so, 1561; Ùer in (_a
different house_ or _room_), 1301; acc. sg. Ùer flet, 1087; gen. sg. Ùres
... yrfe-weardes, 2452; acc. pl. ealo drincende Ùer sÊdan (_ale drinkers
said other things_), 1946; acc. pl. neut. word Ùer, 871.

Ùfer, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. on Ùfre, 1372.

Ùfost, st. f., _haste_: nom. sg. Ùfost is sÍlest tÙ gec˝anne (_haste is
best to make known, best to say at once_), 256; so, 3008; dat. sg. beÛ ˛u
on Ùfeste (Ùfoste) (_be in haste, hasten_), 386, 2748; on Ùfste, 1293; on
Ùfoste, 2784, 3091.

Ùfost-lÓce, adv., _in haste, speedily_, 3131.

Ù-hwÊr, adv., _anywhere_, 1738, 2871.

Ùmig, adj., _rusty_: nom. sg., 2764; nom. pl. Ùmige, 3050.

Ùr, st. n., _beginning, origin; front_: nom. sg., 1689; acc. sg., 2408;
dat. sg. on Ùre, 1042.

Ù-wiht, _anything, aught_: instr. sg. Ù-wihte (_in any way_), 1823, 2433.


p‚d, st. f., _dress_; in comp. here-p‚d.

p‰, st. m., _path, road, way_; in comp. ‚n-p‰.

plega, w. m., _play, emulous contest_; lind-plega, 1074.


rae, adv., _quickly, immediately_, 725, Cf. hr‚e.

rand, rond, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg, rand, 683; rond, 657, 2567, 2610;
dat. ronde (rond, MS.), 2674; under rande, 1210; bÓ ronde, 2539; acc. pl.
randas, 231; rondas, 326, 2654.--Comp.: bord-, hilde-, sÓd-rand.

rand-h‰bbend, pres. part., _shield-bearer_, i.e. _man at arms, warrior_:
gen. pl. rond-h‰bbendra, 862.

rand-wÓga, w. m., _shield-warrior, shield-bearing warrior_: nom. sg., 1299;
acc. sg. rand-wÓgan, 1794.

r‚d, st. f., _road, street_; in comp. hran-, segl-, swan-r‚d.

ge-r‚d, adj., _clever, skilful, ready_: acc. pl. neut. ge-r‚de, 874.

r‚p, st. m., _rope, bond, fetter_: in comp. w‰l-r‚p.

r‚sian, w. v., _to find, discover_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s hord r‚sod, 2284.

r‰st. See rest.

rÊcan, w. v., _to reach, reach after_: pret. sg. rÊhte onge·n feÛnd mid
folme (_reached out his hand toward the foe_), 748.

ge-rÊcan, _to attain, strike, attack_: pret. sg. hyne ... wÊpne ge-rÊhte
(_struck him with his sword_), 2966; so, 556.

rÊd, st. m.: 1) _advice, counsel, resolution; good counsel, help_: nom. sg.
nu is rÊd gelong eft ‰t ˛e ‚num (_now is help to be found with thee
alone_), 1377; acc. sg. rÊd, 172, 278, 3081.--2) _advantage, gain, use_:
acc. sg. ˛‰t rÊd tala (_counts that a gain_), 2028; Ícne rÊd (_the eternal
gain, everlasting life_), 1202; acc. pl. Íce rÊdas, 1761.--Comp.: folc-rÊd,
and adj., ‚n-, f‰st-rÊd.

rÊdan, st. v., _to rule; reign; to possess_: pres. part. rodera rÊdend
(_the ruler of the heavens_), 1556; inf. ˛one ˛e ˛u mid rihte rÊdan
sceoldest (_that thou shouldst possess by rights_), 2057; wolde dÙm godes
dÊdum rÊdan gumena gehwylcum (_God's doom would rule over, dispose of,
every man in deeds_), 2859. See sele-rÊdend.

rÊd-bora, w. m. _counsellor, adviser_: nom. sg., 1326.

rÊden, st. f., _order, arrangement, law_: see Note on 1143; comp.

‚-rÊran, w. v.: 1) _to raise, lift up_: pret. pl. ˛‚ wÊron monige ˛e his
mÊg ... ricone ‚-rÊrdon (_there were many that lifted up his brother
quickly_), 2984.--2) figuratively, _to spread, disseminate_: pret. part.
blÊd is ‚-rÊred (_thy renown is far-spread_), 1704.

rÊs, st. m., _on-rush, attack, storm_: acc. sg. g˚e rÊs (_the storm of
battle, attack_), 2627; instr. pl. g˚e rÊsum, 2357.--Comp.: g˚-, hand-,
heao-, m‰gen-, w‰l-rÊs.

(ge-)rÊsan, w. v., _to rush (upon)_: pret. sg. rÊsde on ˛one rÙfan, 2691,

rÊswa, w. m., _prince, ruler_: dat. sg. weoroda rÊswan, 60.

reccan, w. v., _to explicate, recount, narrate_: inf. frum-sceaft fira
feorran reccan (_recount the origin of man from ancient times_), 91;
gerund, tÙ lang is tÙ reccenne, h˚ ic ... (_too long to tell how I_...),
2094; pret. sg. syllÓc spell rehte (_told a wondrous tale_), 2111; so
intrans. feorran rehte (_told of olden times_), 2107.

reced, st. n., _building, house; hall_ (complete in itself): nom. sg., 412,
771, 1800; acc. sg., 1238; dat. sg. recede, 721, 729, 1573; gen. sg.
recedes, 326, 725, 3089; gen. pl. receda, 310.--Comp.: eor-, heal-, horn-,

regn-heard, adj., _immensely strong, firm_: acc. pl. rondas regn-hearde,

regnian, rÍnian, w. v., _to prepare, bring on_ or _about_: inf. de·
rÍn[ian] hond-gesteallan (_prepare death for his comrade_), 2169.

ge-regnian, _to prepare, deck out, adorn_: pret. part. medu-benc monig ...
golde ge-regnad, 778.

regn-, rÍn-weard, st. m., _mighty guardian_: nom. pl. rÍn-weardas (of
BeÛwulf and Grendel contending for the possession of the hall), 771.

rest, r‰st, st. f.: 1) _bed, resting-place_: acc. sg. r‰ste, 139; dat. sg.
on r‰ste (genam) (_from his resting-place_), 1299, 1586; tÙ r‰ste (_to
bed_), 1238. Comp.: flet-r‰st, sele-rest, w‰l-rest.--2) _repose, rest_; in
comp. Êfen-r‰st.

ge-reste (M.H.G. reste), f., _resting-place_: in comp. wind-gereste.

restan, w. v.: 1) _to rest_: inf. restan, 1794; pret. sg. reflex. reste
hine ˛‚ r˚m-heort, 1800.--2) _to rest, cease_: inf., 1858.

rÍc (O.H.G. rouh), st. m., _reek, smoke_: instr. sg. rÍce, 3157.--Comp.:
w‰l-, wudu-rÍc.

rÍcan (O.H.G. ruohjan), w. v. w. gen., _to reck, care about something, be
anxious_: pres. sg. III. wÊpna ne rÍce (_recketh not for weapons, weapons
cannot hurt him_), 434.

rÍe, adj., _wroth, furious_: nom. sg., 122, 1586; nom. pl. rÍe, 771.
Also, of things, _wild, rough, fierce_: gen. sg. rÍes and-h‚ttres
(_fierce, penetrating heat_), 2524.

re·f, st. n., _booty, plunder in war; clothing, garments_ (as taken by the
victor from the vanquished): in comp. heao-, w‰l-re·f.

re·fian, w. v., _to plunder, rob_, w. acc.: inf. hord re·fian, 2774; pret.
sg. ˛enden re·fode rinc Ùerne, 2986; w‰l re·fode, 3028; pret. pl. w‰l
re·fedon, 1213.

be-re·fian, w. instr., _to bereave, rob of_: pret. part. since be-re·fod,
2747; golde be-re·fod, 3019.

reord, st. f., _speech, language; tone of voice_: acc. sg. on-cniÛw mannes
reorde (_knew, heard, a human voice_), 2556.

reordian, w. v., _to speak, talk_: inf. fela reordian _(speak much_), 3026.

ge-reordian, _to entertain, to prepare for_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s eft sw‚ Êr
... flet-sittendum f‰gere ge-reorded (_again, as before, the guests were
hospitably entertained_), 1789

reÛt, st. m.?, f.?, _noise, tumult_? (_grave_?): instr. sg. reÛte, 2458.
Bugge, in Zachers Zeits. 4, 215, takes reÛte as dat. from reÛt (_rest,

reÛc, adj., _savage, furious_: nom. sg., 122.

be-reÛfan, st. v., _to rob of, bereave_: pret. part. w. instr. acc. sg.
fem. golde berofene, 2932; instr. sg. reÛte berofene, 2458.

reÛn. See rÙwan.

reÛtan, st. v., _to weep_: pres. pl. Ù ˛‰t ... roderas reÛta, 1377.

reÛw, adj., _excited, fierce, wild_: in comp. blÙd-, g˚-, w‰l-reÛw. See

ricone, _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 2984.

riht, st. n., _right_ or _privilege; the_ (abstract) _right_: acc. sg. on
ryht (_according to right_), 1556; sÙ and riht (_truth and right_), 1701;
dat. sg. wi rihte, 144; ‰fter rihte (_in accordance with right_), 1050;
syllÓc spell rehte ‰fter rihte _(told a wondrous tale truthfully_), 2111;
mid rihte, 2057; acc. pl. ealde riht (_the ten commandments_), 2331;
--Comp. in Íel-, folc-, land-, un-, word-riht.

riht, adj., _straight, right_: in comp. up-riht.

rihte, adv., _rightly, correctly_, 1696. See ‰t-rihte.

rinc, st. m., _man, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 399, 2986; also of Grendel,
721; acc. sg. rinc, 742, 748; dat. sg. rince, 953; of HrÙg‚r, 1678; gen.
pl. rinca, 412, 729.--Comp. in beado-, g˚-, here-, heao-, hilde-, mago-,

ge-risne, ge-rysne, adj., _appropriate, proper_: nom. sg. n. ge-rysne,

rÓce, st. n.: 1) _realm, land ruled over_: nom. sg., 2200, 2208; acc. sg.
rÓce, 913, 1734, 1854, 3005; gen. sg. rÓces, 862, 1391, 1860, 2028, 3081.
Comp. SwiÛ-rÓce.--2) _council of chiefs, the king with his chosen
advisers_(?): nom. sg. oft ges‰t rÓce tÙ r˚ne, 172.

rÓce, adj., _mighty, powerful_: nom. sg. (of HrÙg‚r), 1238; (of Hygel‚c),
1210; (of ƒsc-here), 1299; weak form, se rÓca (HrÙg‚r), 310; (BeÛwulf),
399; (Hygel‚c), 1976.--Comp. gimme-rÓce.

rÓcsian, rÓxian, w. v. intrans., _to rule, reign_: inf. rÓcsian, 2212;
pret. sg. rÓxode, 144.

rÓdan, st. v., _to ride_: subj. pres. ˛‰t his byre rÓde giong on galgan,
2446; pres. part. nom. pl. rÓdend, 2458; inf. wicge rÓdan, 234; mearum
rÓdan, 856; pret. sg. sÊ-genga ... se ˛e on ancre r‚d, 1884; him tÙ-ge·nes
r‚d (_rode to meet them_), 1894; pret. pl. ymbe hlÊw riodan (_rode round
the grave-mound_), 3171.

ge-rÓdan, w. acc., _to ride over_: pret. sg. se ˛e n‰s ge-r‚d (_who rode
over the promontory_), 2899.

rÓm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. d‰g-, un-rÓm.

ge-rÓm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. dÙgor-ge-rim.

ge-rÓman, w. v., _to count together, enumerate in all_: pret. part. in
comp. for-gerÓmed.

‚-rÓsan, st. v., _to arise, rise_: imper. sg. ‚-rÓs, 1391; pret. sg. ‚-r‚s
˛‚ se rÓca, 399; so, 652, 1791, 3031; ‚-r‚s ˛‚ bÓ ronde (_arose by his
shield_), 2539; hwanan siÛ fÊh ‚-r‚s (_whence the feud arose_), 2404.

rodor, st. m., _ether, firmament, sky_ (from _radius_?, Bugge): gen. sg.
rodores candel, 1573; nom. pl. roderas, 1377; dat. pl. under roderum, 310;
gen. pl. rodera, 1556.

rÙf, adj., _fierce, of fierce, heroic, strength, strong_: nom. sg., 2539;
also with gen. m‰genes rÙf (_strong in might_), 2085; so, ˛e·h ˛e he rÙf
sÓe nÓ-geweorca, 683; acc. sg. rÙfne, 1794; on ˛one rÙfan, 2691.--Comp.:
beadu-, brego-, ellen-, heao-, hyge-, sige-rÙf.

rÙt, adj., _glad, joyous_: in comp. un-rÙt.

rÙwan, st. v., _to row_ (with the arms), _swim_: pret. pl. reÛn (for
reÛwon), 512, 539.

r˚m, st. m., _space, room_: nom. sg., 2691.

r˚m, adj.: 1) _roomy, spacious_: nom. sg. ˛˚hte him eall tÙ r˚m, wongas and
wÓc-stede (_fields and dwelling seemed to him all too broad_, i.e. could
not hide his shame at the unavenged death of his murdered son), 2462.--2)
in moral sense, _great, magnanimous, noble-hearted_: acc. sg. ˛urh r˚mne
sefan, 278.

r˚m-heort, adj., _big-hearted, noble-spirited_: nom. sg., 1800, 2111.

ge-r˚m-lÓc, adj., _commodious, comfortable_: compar. ge-r˚m-lÓcor, 139.

r˚n, st. f., _secrecy, secret discussion, deliberation_ or _council_: dat.
sg. ge-s‰t rÓce tÙ r˚ne, 172.--Comp. beado-r˚n.

r˚n-st‰f, st. m., _rune-stave, runic letter_: acc. pl. ˛urh r˚n-stafas,

r˚n-wita, w. m., _rune-wit, privy councillor, trusted adviser_: nom. sg.,

ge-rysne. See ge-risne.

ge-r˝man, w. v.: 1) _to make room for, prepare, provide room_: pret. pl.
˛‰t hie him Ùer flet eal ge-r˝mdon, 1087; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s Ge·t-m‰cgum
... benc ger˝med, 492; so, 1976.--2) _to allow, grant, admit_: pret. part.
˛‚ me ge-r˝med w‰s (sÓ) (_as access was permitted me_), 3089; ˛‚ him
ger˝med wear, ˛‰t hie w‰l-stÙwe wealdan mÙston, 2984.


ge-saca, w. m., _opponent, antagonist, foe_: acc. sg. ge-sacan, 1774.

sacan, st. v., _to strive, contend_: inf. ymb feorh sacan, 439.

ge-sacan, _to attain, gain by contending_ (Grein): inf. gesacan sceal
s‚wl-berendra ... gearwe stÙwe _(gain the place prepared_, i.e. the
death-bed), 1005.

on-sacan: 1) (originally in a lawsuit), _to withdraw, take away, deprive
of_: pres. subj. ˛‰tte freouwebbe feores on-s‰ce ... leÛfne mannan,
1943.--2) _to contest, dispute, withstand_: inf. ˛‰t he sÊmannum on-sacan
mihte (i.e. hord, bearn, and br˝de), 2955.

sacu, st. f., _strife, hostility, feud_: nom. sg., 1858, 2473; acc. sg.
s‰ce, 154; s‰cce, 1978, 1990, 2348, 2500, 2563; dat. sg. ‰t (tÙ) s‰cce,
954, 1619, 1666, 2613, 2660, 2682, 2687; gen. sg. secce, 601; gen. pl.
s‰cca, 2030.

ge-sacu, st. f., _strife, enmity_: nom. sg., 1738.

sadol, st. m., _saddle_: nom. sg., 1039.

sadol-beorht, adj., _with bright saddles_ (?): acc. pl. sadol-beorht, 2176.

ge-saga. See secgan.

samne, somne, adv., _together, united_; in ‰t-somne, _together, united_,
307, 402, 491, 544, 2848.

tÙ-somne (_together_), 3123; ˛‚ se wyrm ge-be·h sn˚de tÙ-somne (_when the
dragon quickly coiled together_), 2569.

samod, somod: I. adv., _simultaneously, at the same time_: somod, 1212,
1615, 2175, 2988; samod, 2197; samod ‰t-g‰dere, 387, 730, 1064.--II. prep.
w. dat., _with, at the same time with_: samod Êr-d‰ge (_with the break of
day_), 1312; somod Êr-d‰ge, 2943.

sand, st. n., _sand, sandy shore_: dat. sg. on sande, 295, 1897, 3043(?);
‰fter sande (_along the shore_), 1965; wi sande, 213.

sang, st. m., _song, cry, noise_: nom. sg. sang, 1064; swutol sang scÙpes,
90; acc. sg. sige-le·sne sang (Grendel's cry of woe), 788; s‚rigne sang
(HrÍel's dirge for Herebeald), 2448.

s‚l, st. m., _rope_: dat. sg. s‚le, 1907; on s‚le (sole, MS.), 302.

s‚l. See sÊl.

s‚r, st. n., _wound, pain_ (physical or spiritual): nom. sg. s‚r, 976; siÛ
s‚r, 2469; acc. sg. s‚r, 788; s‚re, 2296; dat. (instr.) sg. s‚re, 1252,
2312, 2747.--Comp. lÓc-s‚r.

s‚r, adj., _sore, painful_: instr. pl. s‚rum wordum, 2059.

s‚re, adv., _sorely, heavily, ill_, graviter: se ˛e him [s‚]re gesceÙd
(_who injured him sorely_), 2224.

s‚rig, adj., _painful, woeful_: acc. sg. s‚rigne sang, 2448.

s‚rig-fer, adj., _sore-hearted, grieved_: nom. sg. s‚rig-fer (WÓgl‚f),

s‚rig-mÙd, adj., _sorrowful-minded, saddened_: dat. pl. s‚rig-mÙdum, 2943.

s‚r-lÓc, adj., _painful_: nom. sg., 843; acc. sg. neut., 2110.

s‚wol, s‚wl, st. f., _soul_ (the immortal principle as contrasted with lÓf,
the physical life): nom. sg. s‚wol, 2821; acc. sg. s‚wle, 184, 802; hÊene
s‚wle, 853; gen. sg. s‚wele, 1743; s‚wle, 2423.

s‚wl-berend, pres. part., _endowed with a soul, human being_: gen. pl.
s‚wl-berendra, 1005.

s‚wul-dreÛr, st. n., (blood gushing from the seat of the soul), _soul-gore,
heart's blood, life's blood_: instr. sg. s‚wul-driÛre, 2694.

s‚wul-le·s, adj., _soulless, lifeless_: acc. sg. s‚wol-le·sne, 1407;
s‚wul-le·sne, 3034.

s‰ce, s‰cce. See sacu.

s‰d, adj., _satiated, wearied_: in comp. hilde-s‰d.

s‰l, st. n., _habitable space, house_, _hall_: dat. sg. sel, 167; s‰l, 307,
2076, 2265.

s‰ld, st. n., _hall, king's hall_ or _palace_: acc. sg. geond ˛‰t s‰ld
(Heorot), 1281.

sÊ, st. m. and f., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg., 579, 1224; acc. sg. on sÓdne sÊ,
507; ofer sÊ, 2381; ofer sÊ sÓde, 2395; dat. sg. tÙ sÊ, 318; on sÊ, 544;
dat. pl. be sÊm tweonum, 859, 1298, 1686, 1957.

sÊ-b‚t, st. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg., 634, 896.

sÊ-cyning, st. m., _sea-king, king ruling the sea_: gen. pl. sÊ-cyninga,

sÊ-deÛr, st. n., _sea-beast, sea-monster_: nom. sg., 1511.

sÊ-draca, w. m., _sea-dragon_: acc. pl. sÊ-dracan, 1427.

ge-sÊgan, w. v., _to fell, slay_: pret. part. h‰fdon eal-fela eotena cynnes
sweordum ge-sÊged (_felled with the sword_), 885.

sÊge. See on-sÊge.

sÊ-genga, w. m., _sea-goer_, i.e. sea-going ship: nom. sg., 1883, 1909.

sÊ-ge·p, adj., _spacious_ (broad enough for the sea): nom. sg. sÊ-ge·p
naca, 1897.

sÊ-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom, ocean-bottom_: dat. sg. sÊ-grunde, 564.

sÊl, s‚l, sÍl, st. f.: 1) _favorable opportunity, good_ or _fit time_: nom.
sg. sÊl, 623, 1666, 2059; sÊl and mÊl, 1009; acc. sg. sÍle, 1136; gen. pl.
sÊla and mÊla, 1612.--2) _Fate_(?): see Note on l. 51.--3) _happiness,
joy_: dat. pl. on s‚lum, 608; sÊlum, 644, 1171, 1323. See sÍl, adj.

ge-sÊlan, w. v., _to turn out favorably, succeed_: pret. sg. him ge-sÊlde
˛‰t ...(_he was fortunate enough to_, etc.), 891; so, 574; efne swylce
mÊla, swylce hira man-dryhtne ˛earf ge-sÊlde (_at such times as need
disposed it for their lord_), 1251.

sÊlan (see s‚l), w. v., _to tie, bind_: pret. sg. sÊlde ... sÓ-f‰me scip,
1918; pl. sÊ-wudu sÊldon, 226.

ge-sÊlan, _to bind together, weave, interweave_: pret. part. earm-be·ga
fela searwum ge-sÊled (_many curiously interwoven armlets_, i.e. made of
metal wire: see Guide to Scandinavian Antiquities, p. 48), 2765.

on-sÊlan, with acc., _to unbind, unloose, open_: on-sÊl meoto, sige-hrÍ
secgum (_disclose thy views to the men, thy victor's courage_; or, _thy
presage of victory_?), 489.

sÊ-l‚c, st. n., _sea-gift, sea-booty_: instr. sg. sÊ-l‚ce, 1625; acc. pl.
˛‚s sÊ-l‚c, 1653.

sÊ-l‚d, st. f., _sea-way, sea-journey_: dat. sg. sÊ-l‚de, 1140, 1158.

sÊ-lÓend, pres. part., _seafarer_: nom. pl. sÊ-lÓend, 411, 1819, 2807;
sÊ-lÓende, 377.

sÊ-man, m., _sea-man, sea-warrior_: dat. pl. sÊ-mannum, 2955; gen. pl.
sÊ-manna, 329 (both times said of the Ge·tas).

sÊmra, weak adj. compar., _the worse, the weaker_: nom. sg. sÊmra, 2881;
dat. sg. sÊmran, 954.

sÊ-mÍe, adj., _sea-weary, exhausted by sea-travel_: nom. pl. sÊ-mÍe, 325.

sÊ-n‰s, st. m., _sea-promontory, cape, naze_: acc. pl. sÊ-n‰ssas, 223, 571.

sÊne, adj., _careless, slow_: compar. sg. nom. he on holme w‰s sundes ˛Í
sÊnra, ˛e hyne swylt fornam (_was the slower in swimming in the sea, whom
death took away_), 1437.

sÊ-rinc, st. m., _sea-warrior_ or _hero_: nom. sg., 691.

sÊ-sÓ, st. m., _sea-way, path, journey_: dat. sg. ‰fter sÊ-sÓe, 1150.

sÊ-wang, st. m., _sea-shore_ or _beach_: acc. sg. sÊ-wong, 1965.

sÊ-weal, st. m., _(sea-wall), seashore_: dat. sg. sÊ-wealle, 1925.

sÊ-wudu, st. m., _(sea-wood), vessel, ship_: acc. sg. sÊ-wudu, 226.

sÊ-wylm, st. m., _sea-surf, billow_: acc. pl. ofer sÊ-wylmas, 393.

scacan, sceacan, st. v., properly, _to shake one's self_; hence, _to go,
glide, pass along_ or _away_: pres. sg. ˛onne mÓn sceace lÓf of lÓce,
2743; inf. ˛‚ com beorht [sunne] scacan [ofer grundas], (_the bright sun
came gliding over the fields_), 1804; pret. sg. dugu ellor scÙc _(the
chiefs are gone elsewhither_, i.e. have died), 2255; ˛onne strÊla storm ...
scÙc ofer scild-weall (_when the storm of arrows leapt over the wall of
shields_), 3119; pret. part. w‰s hira blÊd scacen (_their bravest men had
passed away_), 1125; ˛‚ w‰s winter scacen (_the winter was past_), 1137;
so, sceacen, 2307, 2728.

scadu, sceadu, st. f., _shadow, concealing veil of night_: acc. sg. under
sceadu bregdan (i.e. kill), 708.

scadu-genga, w. m., _shadow-goer, twilight-stalker_ (of Grendel): nom. sg.
sceadu-genga, 704.

scadu-helm, st. m., _shadow-helm, veil of darkness_: gen. pl. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu (_shapes of the shadow, evil spirits wandering by night_), 651.

scalu, st. f., _retinue, band_ (part of an armed force); in comp.
hand-scalu: mid his hand-scale (hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

scamian, w. v., _to be ashamed_: pres. part. nom. pl. scamiende, 2851; nÙ
he ˛Êre feoh-gyfte ... scamigan ˛orfte (_needed not be ashamed of his
treasure-giving_), 1027.

scawa (see sce·wlan), w. m., _observer, visitor_: nom. pl. scawan, 1896.

ge-sc‚d, st. n., _difference, distinction_: acc. sg. Êg-hw‰res gesc‚d,
worda and worca (_difference between, of, both words and deeds_), 288.

ge-sc‚dan, st. v., _to decide, adjudge_: pret. sg. rodera rÊdend hit on
ryht gescÍd (_decided it in accordance with right_), 1556.

sc‚nan? See scÓnan, pret. pl. scionon, 303; the imaginary sc‚nan having
been abandoned.

ge-sc‰p-hwÓle, st. f., _fated hour, hour of death (appointed rest?)_: dat.
sg. tÙ gesc‰p-hwÓle (_at the fated hour_), 26.

scean, w. v., _to scathe, injure_: inf. w. dat. pers., 1034; aldre
scean (_hurt her life_), 1525; ˛‰t on land Dena l‚ra nÊnig mid scipherge
scean ne meahte (_injure through robber incursions_), 243; pret. sg. ˛Êr
him nÊnig w‰ter wihte ne sceede, 1515.

ge-scean, the same: inf. ˛‰t him ... ne mihte eorres inwit-feng aldre
gescean, 1448.

scenc, st. m., _vessel, can_: in comp. medu-scenc.

scencan, w. v., _to hand drink, pour out_: pret. sg. scencte scÓr wered,
496 (cf. skinker = cup-bearer).

scenne, w. f.?, _sword-guard?_: dat. pl. on ˛Êm scennum scÓran goldes,

sceran, st. v., _to shear off, cleave, hew to pieces_: pres. sg. ˛onne
heoru bunden ... swÓn ofer helme andweard scire (_hews off the boar-head
on the helm_), 1288.

ge-sceran, _to divide, hew in two_: pret. sg. helm oft ge-sc‰r (_often
clove the helm in two_), 1527; so, gescer, 2974.

scerwen, st. f.?, in comp. ealu-scerwen (_ale-scare_ or _panic_?), 770.

scÍt. See sceÛtan.

sceadu. See scadu.

sceaa, w. m.: 1) _scather, foe_: gen. pl. sceaena, 4.--2) _fighter,
warrior_: nom. pl. scaan, 1804.--Comp.: ‚ttor-, dol-, feÛnd-, g˚-,
hearm-, leÛd-, m‚n-, sin-, ˛eÛd-, uht-sceaa.

sceaan, st. v. w. dat., _to scathe, injure, crush_: pret. sg. se ˛e oft
manegum scÙd (_which has oft oppressed many_), 1888.

ge-sceaan, w. dat., the same: pret. sg. sw‚ him Êr gescÙd hild ‰t Heorote,
1588; se ˛e him s‚re ge-sceÙd (_who injured him sorely_), 2224; nÙ ˛˝ Êr in
gescÙd h‚lan lÓce, 1503; bill Êr gescÙd eald-hl‚fordes ˛am ˛‚ra m‚ma
mund-bora w‰s (_the weapon of the ancient chieftain had before laid low the
dragon, the guardian of the treasure_), 2778 (or, _sheathed in brass_?, if
Êr and gescÙd form compound).

sceaen-mÊl, st. n., _deadly weapon, hostile sword_: nom. sg., 1940.

sceaft, st. m., _shaft, spear, missile_: nom. sg. sceft, 3119.--Comp.:
here-, w‰l-sceaft.

ge-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _creation, earth, earthly existence_: acc. sg. ˛‚s
lÊnan ge-sceaft, 1623.--2) _fate, destiny_: in comp. for-, lÓf-,

scealc, st. m., _servant, military retainer_: nom. sg., 919; (of BeÛwulf),
940.--Comp beÛr-scealc.

ge-sceap, st. n.: 1) _shape, creature_: nom. pl. scadu-helma ge-sceapu,
651.--2) _fate, providence_: acc. sg. he·h ge-sceap (_heavy fate_), 3085.

sceapan, sceppan, scyppan, st. v., _to shape, create, order, arrange,
establish_: pres. part. scyppend (_the Creator_), 106; pret. sg. scÙp him
Heort naman (_shaped, gave, it the name Heorot_), 78; pres. part. w‰s siÛ
wrÙht scepen heard wi H˚gas, syan Hygel‚c cwom (_the contest with the
H˚gas became sharp after H. had come_), 2915.

ge-sceapan, _to shape, create_: pret. sg. lÓf ge-sceÙp cynna gehwylcum, 97.

scear, st. m., _massacre_: in comp. g˚-, inwit-scear, 2429, etc.

scearp, adj., _sharp, able, brave_: nom. sg. scearp scyld-wÓga,
288.--Comp.: beadu-, heao-scearp.

scearu, st. f., _division, body, troop_: in comp. folc-scearu; _that is
decided_ or _determined_, in g˚-scearu (_overthrow_?), 1214.

sceat, st. m., _money_; also _unit of value in appraising_ (cf. Rieger in
Zacher's Zeits. 3, 415): acc. pl. sceattas, 1687. When numbers are given,
sceat appears to be left out, cf. 2196, 2995 (see ˛˚send).--Comp.

sce·t, st. m., _region, field_: acc. pl. gefr‰twade foldan sce·tas leomum
and le·fum, 96;--_top, surface, part_: gen. pl. eoran sce·ta, 753.

sce·were, st. m., _observer, spy_: nom. pl. sce·weras, 253.

sce·wian, w. v. w. acc., _to see, look at, observe_: inf. sce·wian, 841,
1414, 2403, 2745, 3009, 3033; sce·wigan, 1392; pres. sg. II. ˛‰t ge genÙge
ne·n sce·wia be·gas and br‚d gold, 3105; subj. pres. ˛‰t ic ... sce·wige
swegle searo-gimmas, 2749; pret. sg. sce·wode, 1688, 2286, 2794; sg. for
pl., 844; pret. pl. sce·wedon, 132, 204, 984, 1441.

ge-sce·wian, _to see, behold, observe_: pret. part. ge-sce·wod, 3076, 3085.

sceorp, st. n., _garment_: in comp. hilde-sceorp.

sceÛtan, st. v., _to shoot, hurl missiles_: pres. sg. se ˛e of fl‚n-bogan
fyrenum sceÛte, 1745; pres. part. nom. pl. sceÛtend (_the warriors,
bowmen_), 704, 1155; dat. pl. for sceÛtendum (MS. scotenum), 1027.

ge-sceÛtan, w. acc., _to shoot off, hurry_: pret. sg. hord eft gesce·t
(_the dragon darted again back to the treasure_), 2320.

of-sceÛtan, _to kill by shooting_: pret. sg. his mÊg of-scÍt ... blÙdigan
g‚re _(killed his brother with bloody dart_), 2440.

scild, scyld, st. m., _shield_: nom. sg. scyld, 2571; acc. sg. scyld, 437,
2076; acc. pl. scyldas, 325, 333, 2851.

scildan, scyldan, w. v., _to shield, protect_: pret. subj. nyme mec god
scylde (_if God had not shielded me_), 1659.

scild-freca, w. m., _shield-warrior_ (warrior armed with a shield): nom.
sg. scyld-freca, 1034.

scild-weall, st. m., _wall of shields_: acc. sg. scild-weall, 3119.

scild-wÓga, w. m., _shield-warrior_: nom. sg. scyld-wÓga, 288.

scinna, w. m., _apparition, evil spirit_: dat. pl. scynnum, 940.

scip, st. n., _vessel, ship_: nom. sg., 302; acc. sg., 1918; dat. sg. tÙ
scipe, 1896; gen. sg. scipes, 35, 897; dat pl. tÙ scypum (scypon, MS.),

scip-here, st. m., (exercitus navalis) _armada, fleet_: dat. sg. mid
scip-herge, 243.

ge-scÓfe (for ge-sc˝fe), adj., _advancing_ (of the dragon's movement),
2571; = G. _schief_?

scÓnan, st. v., _to shine, flash_: pres. sg. sunne ... s˚an scÓne, 607;
so, 1572; inf. geseah bl‚cne leÛman beorhte scÓnan, 1518; pret. sg.
(g˚-byrne, woruld--candel) sc‚n, 321, 1966; on him byrne sc‚n, 405; pret.
pl. gold-f‚g scinon web ‰fter wagum, 995; scionon, 303.

scÓr, adj., _sheer, pure, shining_: nom. sg. hring-Óren scÓr, 322; scÓr
metod, 980; acc. sg. n. scÓr wered, 496; gen. sg. scÓran goldes, 1695.

scÓr-ham, adj., _bright-armored, clad in bright mail_: nom. pl. scÓr-hame,

scoten. See sceÛten.

ge-scÙd, pret. part., _shod_ (calceatus), _covered_: in comp.
Êr-ge-scÙd(?). See ge-sceaan, and Note.

scÙp, st. m., _singer, shaper, poet_: nom. sg., 496, 1067; gen. sg. scÙpes,

scr‰f, st. n., _hole in the earth, cavern_: in comp. eor-scr‰f.

scrÓan, st. v., _to stride, go_: pres. pl. scrÓa, 163; inf. scrÓan,
651, 704; scrÓan tÙ, 2570.

scrÓfan, st. v., _to prescribe, impose_ (punishment): inf. h˚ him (Grendel)
scÓr metod scrÓfan wille, 980.

for-scrÓfan, w. dat. pers., _to proscribe, condemn_: pret. part. sian him
scyppend for-scrifen h‰fde, 106.

ge-scrÓfan, _to permit, prescribe_: pret. sg. sw‚ him Wyrd ne ge-scr‚f (_as
Weird did not permit him_), 2575.

scr˚d, st. m., _clothing, covering; ornament_: in comp. beadu-,

scucca, w. m., _shadowy sprite, demon_: dat. pl. scuccum, 940.

sculan, aux. v. w. inf.: 1) _shall, must_ (obligation): pres. sg. I., III.
sceal, 20, 24, 183, 251, 271, 287, 440, 978, 1005, 1173, 1387, 1535, etc.;
scel, 455, 2805, 3011; II. scealt, 589, 2667; subj. pres. scyle, 2658;
scile, 3178; pret. ind. sg. I., III. scolde, 10, 806, 820, 966, 1071, 1444,
1450, etc.; sceolde, 2342, 2409, 2443, 2590, 2964; II. sceoldest, 2057; pl.
scoldon, 41, 833, 1306, 1638; subj. pret. scolde, 1329, 1478; sceolde,
2709.--2) w. inf. following it expresses futurity, = _shall, will_: pres.

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