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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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heao-rinc hatian ne meahte l‚um dÊdum (_could not do him any harm_),
2467; pret. sg. h˚ se g˚-sceaa Ge·ta leÛde hatode and h˝nde, 2320.

h‚d, st. m., _form, condition, position, manner_: acc. sg. ˛urh hÊstne h‚d,
_in a powerful manner_, 1336; on gesÓes h‚d, _in the position of follower,
as follower_, 1298; on sweordes h‚d, _in the form of a sword_, 2194. See
under on.

h‚dor, st. m., _clearness, brightness_: acc. sg. under heofenes h‚dor, 414.

h‚dor, adj., _clear, fresh, loud_: nom. sg. scop hwÓlum sang h‚dor on
Heorote, 497.

h‚dre, adv., _clearly, brightly_, 1572.

h‚l, adj., _hale, whole, sound, unhurt_: nom. sg. h‚l, 300. With gen.
heao-l‚ces h‚l, _safe from battle_, 1975. As form of salutation, wes ...
h‚l, 407; dat. sg. h‚lan lÓce, 1504.

h‚lig, adj., _holy_: nom. sg. h‚lig god, 381, 1554; h‚lig dryhten, 687.

h‚m, st. m., _home, residence, estate, land_: acc. sg. h‚m, 1408; HrÙg‚res
h‚m, 718. Usually in adverbial sense: gew‚t him h‚m, _betook himself home_,
1602; tÙ h‚m, 124, 374, 2993; fram h‚m, _at home_, 194; ‰t h‚m, _at home_,
1249, 1924, 1157; gen. sg. h‚mes, 2367; acc. pl. h‚mas, 1128.--Comp.
Finnes-h‚m, 1157.

h‚m-weorung, st. f., _honor_ or _ornament of home_: acc. sg. h‚m-weorunge
(designation of the daughter of Hygel‚c, given in marriage to Eofor), 2999.

h‚r, adj., _gray_: nom. sg. h‚r hilde-rinc, 1308, 3137; acc. sg. under
(ofer) h‚rne st‚n, 888, 1416, 2554; h‚re byrnan (i.e. iron shirt of mail),
2154; dat. sg. h‚rum hildfruman, 1679; f. on he·re hÊe (on heaw ... h ...
e, MS.), 2213; gen. sg. h‚res, _of the old man_, 2989.--Comp. un-h‚r.

h‚t, adj., _hot, glowing, flaming_ nom sg., 1617, 2297, 2548, 2559, etc.;
wyrm h‚t gemealt, _the drake hot_ (of his own heat) _melted_, 898; acc.
sg., 2282(?); inst. sg. h‚tan heolfre, 850, 1424; g. sg. heau-f˝res h‚tes,
2523; acc. pl. h‚te heao-wylmas, 2820.--Sup.: h‚tost heao-sw‚ta, 1669.

h‚t, st. n., _heat, fire_: acc. sg. geseah his mondryhten ... h‚t ˛rowian,
_saw his lord endure the_ (drake's) _heat_, 2606.

hata, w. m., _persecutor_; in comp. dÊd-hata.

h‚tan, st. v.: 1) _to bid, to order, to direct_, with acc. and inf., and
acc. of the person: pres. sg. I. ic magu˛egnas mÓne h‚te ... flotan eÛwerne
‚rum healdan, _I bid my thanes take good care of your craft_, 293; imp. sg.
II. h‚t in g‚n ... sibbegedriht, 386; pl. II. h‚ta heao-mÊre hlÊw
gewyrcean, 2803; inf. ˛‰t healreced h‚tan wolde ... men gewyrcean, _that he
wished to command men to build a hall-edifice_, 68. Pret. sg. hÍht: hÍht
... eahta mearas ... on flet teÛn, _gave command to bring eight horses into
the hall_, 1036; ˛onne Ênne hÍht golde forgyldan, _commanded to make good
that one with gold_, 1054; hÍht ˛‚ ˛‰t heao-weorc tÙ hagan biÛdan,
_ordered the combat to be announced at the hedge_(?), 2893; sw‚ se snottra
hÍht, _as the wise_ (HrÙg‚r) _directed_, 1787; so, 1808, 1809. hÍt: hÍt
him ˝lidan gÙdne gegyrwan, _ordered a good vessel to be prepared for him_,
198; so, hÍt, 391, 1115, 3111. As the form of a wish: hÍt hine wel br˚can,
1064; so, 2813; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s h‚ten hrae Heort innan-weard folmum
gefr‰twod, _forthwith was ordered Heorot, adorned by hand on the inside_
(i.e. that the edifice should be adorned by hand on the inside), 992.--2)
_to name, to call_: pres. subj. III. pl. ˛‰t hit sÊlÓend ... h‚tan
BiÛwulfes biorh, _that mariners may call it BeÛwulf's grave-mound_, 2807;
pret. part. w‰s se grimma g‰st Grendel h‚ten, 102; so, 263, 373, 2603.

ge-h‚tan, _to promise, to give one's word, to vow, to threaten_: pres. sg.
I. ic hit ˛e geh‚te, 1393; so, 1672; pret. sg. he me mÍde gehÍt, _promised
me reward_, 2135; him f‰gre gehÍt le·na (gen. pl.), _promised them proper
reward_, 2990; we·n oft gehÍt earmre teohhe, _with woe often threatened the
unhappy band_, 2938; pret. pl. gehÍton ‰t h‰rgtrafum wig-weorunga, _vowed
offerings at the shrines of the gods_, 175; ˛onne we gehÍton ˚ssum hl‚forde
˛‰t ..., _when we promised our lord that_..., 2635; pret. part. siÛ geh‚ten
[w‰s] ... gladum suna FrÙdan, _betrothed to the glad son of Froda_, 2025.

h‚tor, st. m. n., _heat_: in comp. and-h‚tor.

h‰ft, adj., _held, bound, fettered_: nom. sg., 2409; acc. sg. helle h‰ftan,
_him fettered by hell_ (Grendel), 789.

h‰ft-mÍce, st. m., _sword with fetters_ or _chains_ (cf. fetel-hilt): dat.
sg. ˛‰m h‰ft-mÍce, 1458. See Note.

h‰g-steald, st. m., _man, liegeman, youth_: gen. pl. h‰g-stealdra, 1890.

h‰le, st. m., _man_: nom. sg., 1647, 1817, 3112; acc. sg. h‰le, 720; dat.
pl. hÊlum (hÊnum, MS.), 1984.

h‰le, st. m., _hero, fighter, warrior, man_: nom. sg., 190, 331, 1070;
nom. pl. h‰le, 52, 2248, 2459, 3143; dat. pl. h‰leum 1710, 1962, etc.;
gen. pl. h‰lea, 467, 497, 612, 663, etc.

h‰rg. See hearg.

hÊ, st. f., _heath_: dat. sg. hÊe, 2213.

hÊen, adj., _heathenish_; acc. sg. hÊene s‚wle, 853; dat. sg. hÊnum
horde, 2217; gen. sg. hÊenes, _of the heathen_ (Grendel), 987; gen. pl.
hÊenra, 179.

hÊ-stapa, w. m., _that which goes about on the heath_ (stag): nom. sg.,

hÊl, st. f.: 1) _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. him hÊl ‚be·d, 654; mid
hÊle, 1218.--2) _favorable sign, favorable omen_: hÊl sce·wedon, _observed
favorable signs_ (for BeÛwulf's undertaking), 204.

hÊlo, st. f., _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. hÊlo ‚be·d heor-gene·tum,
2419.--Comp. un-hÊlo.

hÊst (O.H.G. haister‚ hantÓ, manu violenta; heist, ira; heistigo,
iracunde), adj., _violent, vehement_: acc. sg. ˛urh hÊstne h‚d, 1336.

he, fem. heÛ, neut. hit, pers. pron., _he, she, it_; in the oblique cases
also reflexive, _himself, herself, itself_: acc. sg. hine, hÓ, hit; dat.
sg. him, hire, him; gen. sg. his, hire, his; plur. acc. nom. hÓ, hig, hie;
dat. him; gen. hira, heora, hiera, hiora.--he omitted before the verb, 68,
300, 2309, 2345.

hebban, st. v., _to raise, to lift_, w. acc.: inf. sian ic hond and rond
hebban mihte, 657; pret. part. hafen, 1291; h‰fen, 3024.

‚-hebban, _raise, to lift from, to take away_: w‰s ... icge gold ‚hafen of
horde, _taken up from the hoard_, 1109; ˛‚ w‰s ... wÙp up ‚hafen, _a cry of
distress raised_, 128

ge-hegan [ge-hÍgan], w. v., _to enclose, to fence_: ˛ing gehegan, _to mark
off the court, hold court_. Here figurative: inf. sceal ... ‚na gehegan
˛ing wi ˛yrse (_shall alone decide the matter with Grendel_), 425.

hel, st. f., _hell_: nom. sg., 853; acc. sg. helle, 179; dat. sg. helle,
101, 589; (as instr.), 789; gen. sg. helle, 1275.

hel-bend, st. m. f. _bond of hell_: instr. pl. hell-bendum f‰st, 3073.

hel-r˚na, w. m., _sorcerer_: nom. pl. helr˚nan, 163.

be-helan, st. v., _to conceal, to hide_: pret. part. be-holen, 414.

helm, st. m.: 1) _protection in general, defence, covering that protects_:
acc. sg. on helm, 1393; under helm, 1746.--2) _helmet_: nom. sg., 1630;
acc. sg. helm, 673, 1023, 1527, 2988; (helo, MS.), 2724; br˚n-f‚gne,
gold-f‚hne helm, 2616, 2812; dat. sg. under helme, 342, 404; gen. sg.
helmes, 1031; acc. pl. helmas, 240, 2639.--3) _defence, protector_,
designation of the king: nom. sg. helm Scyldinga (HrÙg‚r), 371, 456, 1322;
acc. sg. heofena helm _(the defender of the heavens_ = God), 182; helm
Scylfinga, 2382.--Comp.: grÓm-, g˚-, heao-, niht-helm.

ofer-helmian, w. v. w. acc., _to cover over, to overhang_: pres. sg. III.
ofer-helma, 1365.

helm-berend, pres. part., _helm-wearing_ (warrior): acc. pl. helmberend,
2518, 2643.

helpan, st. v., _to help_: inf. ˛‰t him holt-wudu helpan ne meahte, lind
wi lÓge, _that a wooden shield could not help him, a linden shield against
flame_, 2341; ˛‰t him Órenna ecge mihton helpan ‰t hilde, 2685; wutun
gangan to, helpan hildfruman, _let us go thitherto help the battle-chief_,
2650; w. gen. ongan ... mÊges helpan, _began to help my kinsman_, 2880; so,
pret. sg. ˛Êr he his mÊges (MS. m‰genes) healp, 2699.

help, m. and f., _help, support, maintenance_: acc. sg. helpe, 551, 1553;
dat. sg. tÙ helpe, 1831; acc. sg. helpe, 2449.

hende, _-handed_: in comp. Ódel-hende.

her, adv., _here_, 397, 1062, 1229, 1655, 1821, 2054, 2797, etc.; _hither_,
244, 361, 376.

here (Goth, harji-s), st. m., _army, troops_: dat. sg. on herge, _in the
army, on a warlike expedition, 1249; in the army, among the fighting men_,
2639; as instr. herge, 2348.--Comp.: flot-, scip-, sin-here.

here-brÙga, w. m., _terror of the army, fear of war_: dat. sg. for
here-brÙgan, 462.

here-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, coat of mail_: nom. sg., 1444.

here-grÓma, w. m., _battle-mask_, i.e. helmet (with visor): dat. sg.
-grÓman, 396, 2050, 2606.

here-net, st. n., _battle-net_, i.e. coat of mail (of interlaced rings):
nom. sg., 1554.

here-nÓ, st. m., _battle-enmity, battle of armies_: nom. sg., 2475.

here-p‚d, st. f., _army-dress_, i.e. coat of mail, armor: nom. sg., 2259.

here-rinc, st. m., _army-hero, hero in battle, warrior_: acc. sg. here-rinc
(MS. here ric), 1177.

here-sceaft, st. m., _battle-shaft_, i.e. spear: gen. pl. here-sceafta
he·p, 335.

here-spÍd, st. f., _(war-speed), luck in war_: nom. sg., 64.

here-strÊl, st. m., _war-arrow, missile_: nom. sg., 1436.

here-syrce, w. f., _battle-shirt, shirt of mail_: acc. sg. here-syrcan,

here-wÊd, st. f., _army-dress, coat of mail, armor_: dat. pl. (as instr.)
here-wÊdum, 1898.

here-wÊsma, w. m., _war-might, fierce strength in battle_: dat. pl. an
here-wÊsmum, 678.--Leo.

here-wÓsa, w. m., _leader of the army_, i.e. ruler, king: nom. sg., 3021.

herg, hearg, st. m., _image of a god, grove where a god was worshipped_,
hence to the Christian a wicked place(?): dat. pl. hergum geheaerod,
_confined in wicked places_ (parallel with hell-bendum f‰st), 3073.

herigean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to provide with an army, to support with
an army_: pres. sg. I. ic ˛e wel herige, 1834.--Leo.

hete, st. m., _hate, enmity_: nom. sg. 142, 2555.--Comp.: ecg-, moror-,

hete-lÓc, adj., _hated_: nom. sg., 1268.

hetend, hettend, (pres. part. of hetan, see hatian), _enemy_, hostis: nom.
pl. hetende, 1829; dat. pl. wi hettendum, 3005.

hete-nÓ, st. m., _enmity full of hate_: acc. pl. hete-nÓas, 152.

hete-sweng, st. m., _a blow from hate_: acc. pl. hete-swengeas, 2226.

hete-˛anc, st. m., _hate-thought, a hostile design_: dat. pl. mid his
hete-˛ancum, 475.

hÍdan, ge-hÍdan, w. v. w. gen.: 1) _to protect_: pret. sg. ne hÍdde he ˛‰s
heafolan, _did not protect his head_, 2698.--2) _to obtain_: subj. pret.
sg. III. gehÍdde, 505.

hÍrian, w. v. w. acc., _to praise, to commend_: with reference to God, _to
adore_: inf. heofena helm hÍrian ne c˚on, _could not worship the defence
of the heavens_ (God), 182; ne h˚ru Hildeburh hÍrian ˛orfte Eotena treÛwe,
_had no need to praise the fidelity of the Eotens_, 1072; pres. subj. ˛‰t
mon his wine-dryhten wordum hÍrge, 3177.

ge-heaerian, w. v., _to force, to press in_: pret. part. ge-heaerod,

heao-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, shirt of mail_: nom. sg., 1553.

heao-deÛr, adj., _bold in battle, brave_: nom. sg., 689; dat. pl.
heao-deÛrum, 773.

heao-fyr, st. n., _battle-fire, hostile fire_: gen. sg. heau-f˝res, 2523;
instr. pl. heao-f˝rum, 2548, of the drake's fire-spewing.

heao-grim, adj., _grim in battle_, 548.

heao-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet, war-helmet_: nom. sg., 3157(?).

heao-l‚c, st. n., _battle-play, battle_: dat. sg. ‰t heao-l‚ce, 584; gen.
sg. heao-l‚ces h‚l, 1975.

heao-mÊre, adj., _renowned in battle_: acc. pl. -mÊre, 2803.

heao-rÊs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack in battle, entrance by force_:
nom. sg., 557; acc. pl. -rÊsas, 1048; gen. pl. -rÊsa, 526.

heao-re·f, st. n., _battle-dress, equipment for battle_: acc. sg.
heao-re·f heÛldon (_kept the equipments_), 401.

heao-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: acc. sg. ˛one heao-rinc
(HrÍel's son, HÊcyn), 2467; dat. pl. ˛Êm heao-rincum, 370.

heao-rÙf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 381; nom. pl. heao-rÙfe,

heao-scearp, adj., _sharp in battle, bold_: n. m. pl. (-scearde, MS.),

heao-seÛc, adj., _battle-sick_: dat. sg. -siÛcum, 2755.

heao-ste·p, adj., _high in battle, excelling in battle_: nom. sg. in weak
form, heao-ste·pa, 1246; acc. sg. heao-ste·pne, 2154, both times of the

heao-sw‚t, st. m., _blood of battle_: dat. sg. heao-sw‚te, 1607; as
instr., 1461; gen. pl. h‚tost heao-sw‚ta, 1669.

heao-sweng, st. m., _battle-stroke_ (blow of the sword): dat. sg. ‰fter
heau-swenge, 2582.

heao-torht, adj., _loud, clear in battle_: nom. sg. stefn ... heao-torht,
_the voice clear in battle_, 2554.

heao-wÊd, st. f., _battle-dress, coat of mail, armor_: instr. pl.
heao-wÊdum, 39.

heao-weorc, st. n., _battle-work, battle_: acc. sg., 2893.

heao-wylm, st. m., _hostile (flame-) wave_: acc. pl. h‚te heao-wylmas,
2820; gen. pl. heao-wylma, 82.

heaf, st. n., _sea_: acc. pl. ofer heafo, 2478. See Note.

heafola. See hafela.

heal, st. f., _hall, main apartment, large building_ (consisting of an
assembly-hall and a banqueting-hall): nom. sg. heal, 1152, 1215; heall,
487; acc. sg. healle, 1088; dat. sg. healle, 89, 615, 643, 664, 926, 1010,
1927, etc.; gen. sg. [healle], 389.--Comp.: gif-, meodo-heal.

heal-‰rn, st. n., _hall-building, hall-house_: gen. sg. heal-‰rna, 78.

heal-gamen, st. n., _social enjoyment in the hall, hall-joy_: nom. sg.,

heal-reced, st. n., _hall-building_: acc. sg., 68.

heal-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_ (at the banquet): dat. pl.
heal-sittendum, 2869; gen. pl. heal-sittendra, 2016.

heal-˛egn, st. m., _hall-thane_, i.e. a warrior who holds the hall: gen.
sg. heal-˛egnes, of Grendel, 142; acc. pl. heal-˛egnas, of BeÛwulfs band,

heal-wudu, _hall-wood_, i.e. hall built of wood: nom. sg., 1318.

healdan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to hold, to hold fast; to support_: pret. pl.
h˚ ˛‚ st‚nbogan ... Íce eorreced innan heÛldon (MS. healde), _how the
arches of rock within held the everlasting earth-house_, 2720. Pret. sg.,
with a person as object: heÛld hine to f‰ste, _held him too fast_, 789; w.
the dat. he him freÛndl‚rum heÛld, _supported him with friendly advice_,
2378.--2) _to hold, to watch, to preserve, to keep_; reflexive, _to
maintain one's self, to keep one's self_: pres. sg. II. eal ˛u hit ge˛yldum
healdest, m‰gen mid mÙdes snyttrum, _all that preservest thou continuously,
strength and wisdom of mind_, 1706; III. healde hige-mÍum he·fod-wearde,
_holds for the dead the head-watch_, 2910; imp. sg. II. heald for tela
niwe sibbe, _keep well, from now on, the new relationship_, 949; heald
(heold, MS.) ˛u nu hruse ... eorla Êhte, _preserve thou now, Earth, the
noble men's possessions_, 2248; inf. se ˛e holmclifu healdan scolde, _watch
the sea-cliffs_, 230; so, 705; nacan ... ‚rum healdan, _to keep well your
vessel_, 296; wearde healdan, 319; forlÍton eorla gestreÛn eoran healdan,
3168; pres. part. dre·m healdende, _holding rejoicing_ (i.e. thou who art
rejoicing), 1228; pret. sg. heÛld hine syan fyr and f‰stor, _kept himself
afterwards afar and more secure_, 142; Êgwearde heÛld, _I have (hitherto)
kept watch on the sea_, 241; so, 305; hiÛld he·h-lufan wi h‰lea brego,
_preserved high love_, 1955; ginf‰stan gife ... heÛld, 2184; gold-m‚mas
heÛld, _took care of the treasures of gold_, 2415; heÛld mÓn tela,
_protected well mine own_, 2738; ˛onne ... sceft ... nytte heÛld, _had
employment, was employed_, 3119; heÛld mec, _protected_, i.e. brought me
up, 2431; pret. pl. heao-re·f heÛldon, _watched over the armor_, 401; sg.
for pl. he·fodbeorge ... walan ˚tan heÛld, _outwards, bosses kept guard
over the head_, 1032.--Related to the preceding meaning are the two
following: 3) _to rule and protect the fatherland_: inf. gif ˛u healdan
wylt maga rice, 1853; pret. heÛld, 57, 2738.--4) _to hold, to have, to
possess, to inhabit_: inf. lÍt ˛one brego-stÙl BeÛwulf healdan, 2390;
gerund. tÙ healdanne hleÛburh wera, 1732; pret. sg. heÛld, 103, 161, 466,
1749, 2752; lyftwynne heÛld nihtes hwÓlum, _at night-time had the enjoyment
of the air_, 3044; pret. pl. Ge·ta leÛde hre‚wic heÛldon, _the Ge·tas held
the place of corpses_ (lay dead upon it), 1215; pret. sg. ˛Êr heÛ Êr mÊste
heÛld worolde wynne, _in which she formerly possessed the highest earthly
joy_, 1080.--5) _to win, to receive_: pret. pl. I. heoldon he·h gesceap,
_we received a heavy fate, heavy fate befell us_, 3085.

be-healdan, w. acc.: 1) _to take care of, to attend to_: pret. sg. ˛egn
nytte beheÛld, _a thane discharged the office_, 494; so, 668.--2) _to
hold_: pret. sg. se ˛e flÙda begong ... beheÛld, 1499.--3) _to look at, to
behold_: ˛ryswy beheÛld mÊg Higel‚ces h˚ ..., _great woe saw H.'s
kinsman, how ..._, 737.

for-healdan, w. acc., _(to hold badly), to fall away from, to rebel_: pret.
part. h‰fdon hy forhealden helm Scylfinga, _had rebelled against the
defender of the Scylfings_, 2382.

ge-healdan: 1) _to hold, to receive, to hold fast_: pres. sg. III. se ˛e
waldendes hyldo gehealde, _who receives the Lord's grace_, 2294; pres.
subj. f‰der alwalda ... eÛwic gehealde sÓa gesunde, _keep you sound on
your journey_, 317; inf. ne meahte he ... on ˛am frum-g‚re feorh gehealdan,
_could not hold back the life in his lord_, 2857.--2) _to take care, to
preserve, to watch over; to stop_: imp. sg. hafa nu and geheald h˚sa
sÍlest, 659; inf. gehealdan hÍt hilde-geatwe, 675; pret. sg. he fr‰twe
geheÛld fela missera, 2621; ˛one ˛e Êr geheÛld wi hettendum hord and rÓce,
_him who before preserved treasure and realm_, 3004.--3) _to rule_: inf.
folc gehealdan, 912; pret. sg. geheÛld tela (br‚de rÓce), 2209.

healf, st. f., _half, side, part_: acc. sg. on ˛‚ healfe, _towards this
side_, 1676; dat. sg. h‰leum be healfe, _at the heroes' side_, 2263; acc.
pl. on tw‚ healfa, _upon two sides, mutually_, 1096; on b‚ healfa (healfe),
_on both sides_ (to Grendel and his mother), 1306; _on two sides, on both
sides_, 2064; gen. pl. on healfa gehwone, _in half, through the middle_,

healf, adj., _half_: gen. sg. healfre, 1088.

heals, st. m., _neck_: acc. sg. heals, 2692; dat. sg. wi halse, 1567; be
healse, 1873.--Comp.: the adjectives f‚mig-, wunden-heals.

heals-be·h, st. m., _neck-ring, collar_: acc. sg. ˛one heals-be·h, 2173;
gen. pl. heals-be·ga, 1196.

heals-gebedde, w. f., _beloved bedfellow, wife_: nom. sg. healsgebedde (MS.
healsgebedda), 63.

healsian, w. v. w. acc., _to entreat earnestly, to implore_: pret. sg. ˛‚
se ˛eÛden mec ... healsode hreÛh-mÙd ˛‰t..., _entreated me sorrowful,
that_..., 2133.

heard, adj.: 1) of persons, _able, efficient in war, strong, brave_: nom.
sg. heard, 342, 376, 404, 1575, 2540, etc.; in weak form, se hearda, 401,
1964; se hearda ˛egn, 2978; ˛es hearda he·p, 432; nom. pl. hearde
hilde-frecan, 2206; gen. pl. heardra, 989. Comparative: acc. sg. heardran
h‰le, 720. With accompanying gen.: wÓges heard, _strong in battle_, 887;
dat. sg. nÓa heardum, 2171.--2) of the implements of war, _good, firm,
sharp, hard_: nom. sg. (g˚-byrne, lÓc-syrce) heard, 322, 551. In weak
form: masc. here-strÊl hearda, 1436; se hearda helm, 2256; neutr. here-net
hearde, 1554; acc. sg. (swurd, wÊpen), heard, 540, 2688, 2988; nom. pl.
hearde ... homera l‚fe, 2830; heard and hring-mÊl Heaobeardna gestreÛn,
2038; acc. pl. heard sweord, 2639. Of other things, _hard, rough, harsh,
hard to bear_: acc. sg. hreer-bealo hearde, 1344; nom. sg. wrÙht ...
heard, 2915; here-nÓ hearda, 2475; acc. sg. heoro-sweng heardne, 1591;
instr. sg. heardan ce·pe, 2483; instr. pl. heardan, heardum clammum, 964,
1336; gen. pl. heardra h˝na, 166. Compar.: acc. sg. heardran feohtan,
576.--Comp.: f˝r-, Óren-, nÓ-, regn-, sc˚r-heard.

hearde, adv., _hard, very_, 1439.

heard-ecg, adj., _sharp-edged, hard, good in battle_: nom. sg., 1289.

heard-fyrde, adj., _hard to take away, heavy_: acc. sg. hard-fyrdne,

heard-hycgend, pres. part. _of a warlike disposition, brave_: nom. pl.
-hicgende, 394, 800.

hearg-tr‰f, st. n., _tent of the gods, temple_: dat. pl. ‰t h‰rg-trafum
(MS. hrÊrg trafum), 175.

hearm, st. m., _harm, injury, insult_: dat. sg. mid hearme, 1893.

hearm-sceaa, w. m., _enemy causing injury_ or _grief_: nom. sg.
hearm-scaa, 767.

hearpe, w. f., _harp_: gen. sg. hearpan swÍg, 89, 3024; hearpan wynne
(wyn), 2108, 2263.

he·u, st. f., _sea, waves_: acc. sg. he·u, 1863?

he·u-lÓend, pres. part., _sea-farer, sailor_: nom. pl. -lÓende, 1799;
dat. pl. -lÓendum (designation of the Ge·tas), 2956.

he·fod, st. n., _head_: acc. sg., 48, 1640; dat. sg. he·fde, 1591, 2291,
2974; dat. pl. he·fdum, 1243.

he·fod-beorh, st. f., _head-defence, protection for the head_: acc. sg.
he·fod-beorge, 1031.

he·fod-mÊg, st. m., _head-kinsman, near blood-relative_: dat. pl.
he·fod-mÊgum (_brothers_), 589; gen. pl. he·fod-m‚ga, 2152.

he·fod-segn, st. n., _head-sign, banner_: acc. sg., 2153.

he·fod-weard, st. f., _head-watch_ acc. sg. healde ... he·fod-wearde
leÛfes and l‚es, _for the friend and the foe_ (BeÛwulf and the drake, who
lie dead near each other), 2910.

he·h, he·, adj., _high, noble_ (in composition, also primus): nom. sg. he·h
Healfdene, 57; he· (Higel‚c), 1927; he·h (sele), 82; he·h hlÊw, 2806, 3159;
acc. sg. he·h (segn), 48, 2769; he·hne (MS. he·nne) hrÙf, 984; dat. sg. in
(tÙ) sele ˛am he·n, 714, 920; gen. sg. he·n h˚ses, 116.--_high, heavy_:
acc. he·h gesceap (_an unusual, heavy fate_), 3085.

he·-burh, st. f., _high city, first city of a country_: acc. sg., 1128.

he·h-cyning, st. m., _high king, mightiest of the kings_: gen. sg.
-cyninges (of HrÙg‚r), 1040.

he·h-gestreÛn, st. n., _splendid treasure_: gen. pl. -gestreÛna, 2303.

he·h-lufe, w. f., _high love_: acc. sg. he·h-lufan, 1955.

he·h-sele, st. m., _high hall, first hall in the land, hall of the ruler_:
dat. sg. he·h-sele, 648.

he·h-setl, st. n., _high seat, throne_: acc. sg., 1088.

he·h-stede, st. m., _high place, ruler's place_: dat. sg. on he·h-stede,

he·n, adj., _depressed, low, despised, miserable_: nom. sg., 1275, 2100,
2184, 2409.

he·p, st. m., _heap, crowd, troop_: nom. sg. ˛egna he·p, 400; ˛es hearda
he·p, _this brave band_, 432; acc. sg. here-sceafta he·p, _the crowd of
spears_, 335; mago-rinca he·p, 731; dat. sg. on he·pe, _in a compact body_,
as many as there were of them, 2597.--Comp. wÓg-he·p.

he·wan, st. v., _to hew, to cleave_: inf., 801.

ge-he·wan, _cleave_: pres. subj. ge-he·we, 683.

heou, st. f., _the interior of a building_: dat. sg. ˛‰t he on heoe
gestÙd, _in the interior_ (of the hall, Heorot), 404.

heofon, st. m., _heaven_: nom. sg., 3157; dat. sg. hefene, 1572; gen. sg.
heofenes, 414, 576, 1802, etc.; gen. pl. heofena, 182; dat. pl. under
heofenum, 52, 505.

heolfor, st. n., _gore, fresh_ or _crude blood_: dat. instr. sg. h‚tan
heolfre, 850, 1424; heolfre, 2139; under heolfre, 1303.

heolster, st. n., _haunt, hiding-place_: acc. sg. on heolster, 756.

heonan, adv., _hence, from here_: heonan, 252; heonon, 1362.

heor, st. m., _door-hinge_: nom. pl. heorras, 1000.

heorde, adj. See wunden-heorde.

heor-gene·t, st. m., _hearth-companion_, i.e. a vassal of the king, in
whose castle he receives his livelihood: nom. pl. heor-gene·tas, 261,
3181; acc. pl. heor-gene·tas, 1581, 2181; dat. pl. heor-gene·tum, 2419.

heorot, st. m., _stag_: nom. sg., 1370.

heorte, w. f., _heart_: nom. sg., 2562; dat. sg. ‰t heortan, 2271; gen. sg.
heortan, 2464, 2508.--Comp.: the adjectives blÓ-, grom-, r˚m-,

heoru, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg. heoru bunden (cf. under bÓndan), 1286. In
some of the following compounds heoro- seems to be confounded with here-
(see here).

heoro-bl‚c, adj., _pale through the sword, fatally wounded_: nom. sg.
[heoro-]bl‚c, 2489.

heoru-dreÛr, st. m., _sword-blood_: instr. sg. heoru-dreÛre, 487;
heoro-dreÛre, 850.

heoro-dreÛrig, adj., _bloody through the sword_: nom. sg., 936; acc. sg.
heoro-dreÛrigne, 1781, 2721.

heoro-drync, st. m., _sword-drink_, i.e. blood shed by the sword: instr.
pl. hioro-dryncum swealt, _died through sword-drink_, i.e. struck by the
sword, 2359.

heoro-gÓfre, adj., _eager for hostile inroads_: nom. sg., 1499.

heoro-grim, adj., _sword-grim, fierce in battle_: nom. sg. m., 1565; fem.
-grimme, 1848.

heoro-hÙcihte, adj., _provided with barbs, sharp like swords _: instr. pl.
mid eofer-spreÛtum heoro-hÙcyhtum, 1439.

heoro-serce, w. f., _shirt of mail_: acc. sg. hioro-sercean, 2540.

heoro-sweng, st. m., _sword-stroke_: acc. sg. 1591.

heoro-weallende, pres. part., _rolling around fighting_, of the drake,
2782. See weallian.

heoro-wearh, st. m. _he who is sword-cursed, who is destined to die by the
sword_: nom. sg., 1268.

heÛfan, w. v., _to lament, to moan_: part. nom. pl. hiÛfende, 3143.

‚-heÛran, _to free_ (?): w. acc. pret. sg. br˝d ‚heÛrde, 2931.

heÛre, adj., _pleasant, not haunted, secure_: nom. sg. fem, nis ˛‰t heÛru
stÙw, _that is no secure place_, 1373.--Comp. un-heÛre (-h˝re).

hider, adv., _hither_, 240, 370, 394, 3093, etc.

ofer-higian, w. v. (according to the connection, probably), _to exceed_,
2767. (O.H.G. ubar-hugjan, _to be arrogant_.)

hild, st. f., _battle, combat_: nom. sg., 452, 902, 1482, 2077; hild
heoru-grimme, 1848; acc. sg. hilde, 648; instr. sg. hilde, _through
combat_, 2917; dat. sg. ‰t hilde, 1461.

hilde-bil, st. n., _battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1667; instr. dat. sg.
hilde-bille, 557, 1521.

hilde-bord, st. n., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. hilde-bord, 397; instr. pl.
-bordum, 3140.

hilde-cyst, st. f., _excellence in battle, bravery in battle_: instr. pl.
-cystum, 2599.

hilde-deÛr, adj., _bold in battle, brave in battle_: nom. sg., 312, 835,
1647, 1817; hilde-diÛr, 3112; nom. pl. hilde-deÛre, 3171.

hilde-freca, w. m., _hero in battle_: nom. pl. hilde-frecan, 2206; dat. sg.
hild-frecan, 2367.

hilde-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for battle, adornment for combat_:
acc. hilde-geatwe, 675; gen. -geatwa, 2363.

hilde-gicel, st. m., _battle-icicle_, i.e. the blood which hangs upon the
sword-blades like icicles: instr. pl. hilde-gicelum, 1607.

hilde-gr‚p, st. f., _battle-gripe_: nom. sg., 1447, 2508.

hilde-hlemma, w. m., _one raging in battle, warrior, fighter_: nom. sg.,
2352, 2545; dat. pl. eft ˛‰t ge-eode ... hilde-hl‰mmum, _it happened to the
warriors_ (the Ge·tas), 2202.

hilde-leÛma, w. m., _battle-light, gleam of battle_, hence: 1) the
fire-spewing of the drake in the fight: nom. pl. -leÛman, 2584.--2) _the
gleaming sword_: acc. sg. -leÛman, 1144.

hilde-mecg, st. m., _man of battle, warrior_: nom. pl. hilde-mecgas, 800.

hilde-mÍce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. -mÍceas, 2203.

hilde-rand, st. m., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. -randas, 1243.

hllde-rÊs, st. m., _storm of battle_: acc. sg., 300.

hilde-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 1308, 3125,
3137; dat. sg. hilde-rince, 1496; gen. sg. hilde-rinces, 987.

hilde-s‰d, adj., _satiated with battle, not wishing to fight any more_:
acc. sg. hilde-s‰dne, 2724.

hilde-sceorp, st. n., _battle-dress, armor, coat of mail_: acc. sg., 2156.

hilde-setl, st. n., _battle-seat_ (saddle): nom. sg., 1040.

hilde-strengo, st. f., _battle-strength, bravery in battle_: acc., 2114.

hilde-sw‚t, st. m., _battle-sweat_: nom. sg. h‚t hilde-sw‚t (the hot, damp
breath of the drake as he rushes on), 2559.

hilde-tux, st. m., _battle-tooth_: instr. pl. hilde-tuxum, 1512.

hilde-wÊpen, st. m., _battle-weapon_: instr. pl. -wÊpnum, 39.

hilde-wÓsa, w. m., _leader in battle, general_: dat. sg. fore Healfdenes
hildewÓsan, _Healfdene's general_ (Hn‰f), 1065.

hild-freca. See hilde-freca

hild-fruma, st. m., _battle-chief_: dat. sg. -fruma, 1679, 2650; gen. sg.
˛‰s hild-fruman, 2836.

hlld-lata, w. m., _he who is late in battle, coward_: nom. pl. ˛‚
hild-latan, 2847.

hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_: nom. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. ˛‰t hilt,
1669; hylt, 1668. Also used in the plural; acc. ˛‚ hilt, 1615; dat. pl, be
hiltum, 1575.--Comp.: fetel-, wreoen-hilt.

hilte-cumbor, st. n., _banner with a staff_: acc. sg., 1023.

hilted, pret. part., _provided with a hilt_ or _handle_: acc. sg. heard
swyrd hiked, _sword with a_ (rich) _hilt_, 2988.

hin-f˚s, adj., _ready to die_: nom. sg. hyge w‰s him hinf˚s (i.e. he felt
that he should not survive), 756.

hindema, adj. superl., _hindmost, last_: instr. sg. hindeman sÓe, _the
last time, for the last time_, 2050, 2518.

hirde, hyrde, st. m., (_herd_) _keeper, guardian, possessor_: nom. sg.
folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2982; rÓces hyrde, 2028; fyrena hyrde, _the
guardian of mischief, wicked one_, 751, 2220; wuldres hyrde, _the king of
glory, God_, 932; hringa hyrde, _the keeper of the rings_, 2246; cumbles
hyrde, _the possessor of the banner, the bearer of the banner_, 2506;
folces hyrde, 1850; fr‰twa hyrde, 3134; rÓces hyrde, 3081; acc. pl. h˚ses
hyrdas, 1667.--Comp.: grund-hyrde.

hit (O.N. hita), st. f. (?), _heat_: nom. sg. ˛enden hyt s˝, 2650.

hladan, st. v.: 1) _to load, to lay_: inf. on bÊl hladan leÛfne mannan,
_lay the dear man on the funeral-pile_, 2127; him on bearm hladan bunan and
discas, _laid cups and plates upon his bosom, loaded himself with them_,
2776; pret. part. ˛Êr w‰s wunden gold on wÊn hladen, _laid upon the wain_,
3135.--2) _to load, to burden_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s ... sÊge·p naca hladen
herewÊdum, _loaded with armor_, 1898.--Comp. gilp-hl‰den.

ge-hladan, w. acc., _to load, to burden_: pret. sg. sÊb‚t gehlÙd (MS
gehleod), 896.

hl‚ford, st. m., _lord, ruler_: nom. sg., 2376; acc. sg., 267; dat. sg.
hl‚forde, 2635; gen. sg. hl‚fordes, 3181.--Comp. eald-hl‚ford.

hl‚ford-le·s; adj., _without a lord_: nom. pl. hl‚ford-le·se, 2936.

hl‚w, hlÊw, st. m., _grave-hill_: acc. sg. hlÊw, 2803, 3159, 3171; dat. sg.
for hl‚we, 1121. Also, _grave-chamber_ (the interior of the grave-hill),
_cave_: acc. sg. hl‚w [under] hrusan, 2277; hlÊw under hrusan, 2412; dat.
sg. on hlÊwe, 2774. The drake dwells in the rocky cavern which the former
owner of his treasure had chosen as his burial-place, 2242-2271.

hl‰st, st. n., _burden, load_: dat. sg. hl‰ste, 52.

hlem, st. m., _noise, din of battle, noisy attack_: in the compounds, uht-,

hlemma, w. m., _one raging, one who calls_; see hilde-hlemma.

‚-hlehhan, st. v., _to laugh aloud, to shout, to exult_: pret. sg. his mÙd
‚hlÙg, _his mood exulted_, 731.

hleahtor, st. m., _laughter_: nom. sg., 612; acc. sg., 3021.

hle·pan, st. v., _to run, to trot, to spring_: inf. hle·pan lÍton ...
fealwe mearas, 865.

‚-hleapan, _to spring up_: pret. ‚hleÛp, 1398.

hleou. See hli.

hleonian, w. v., _to incline, to hang over_: inf. o ˛‰t he ...
fyrgen-be·mas ofer h‚rne st‚n hleonian funde, _till he found mountain-trees
hanging over the gray rocks_, 1416.

hleÛ, st. m., _shady, protected place; defence, shelter_; figurative
designation of the king, or of powerful nobles: wÓgendra hleÛ, of HrÙg‚r,
429; of Sigemund, 900; of BeÛwulf, 1973, 2338; eorla hleÛ, of HrÙg‚r,
1036, 1867; of BeÛwulf, 792; of Hygel‚c, 2191.

hleÛ-burh, st. f., _ruler's castle_ or _city_: acc. sg., 913, 1732.

hleÛor-cwyde, st. m., _speech of solemn sound, ceremonious words_, 1980.

hleÛr, st. n., _cheek, jaw_: in comp. f‰ted-hleÛr (adj.).

hleÛr-bera, w. m., _cheek-bearer_, the part of the helmet that reaches down
over the cheek and protects it: acc. pl. ofer hleÛr-beran (_visor_?), 304.

hleÛr-bolster, st. m., _cheek-bolster, pillow_: nom. sg., 689.

hleÛtan, st. v. w. acc., _to obtain by lot, to attain, to get_: pret. sg.
feorh-wunde hle·t, 2386.

hlifian, w. v., _to rise, to be prominent_: inf. hlifian, 2806; pret.
hlifade, 81, 1800, 1899.

hli, st. n., _cliff, precipice of a mountain_: dat. sg. on hlie, 3159;
gen. sg. hlies, 1893; pl. hlio in composition, st‚n-hlio; hleou in the
compounds fen-, mist-, n‰s-, wulf-hleou.

hlin-bed (Frisian hlen-bed, Richthofen 206^28, for which another text has
cronk-bed), st. n., [Greek: klinidion], _bed for reclining, sick-bed_: acc.
sg. hlim-bed, 3035.

tÙ-hlÓdan, st. v., _to spring apart, to burst_: pret. part. nom. pl.
tÙ-hlidene, 1000.

hl˚d, adj., _loud_: acc. sg. dre·m ... hl˚dne, 89.

hlyn, st. m., _din, noise, clatter_: nom. sg., 612.

hlynnan, hlynian, w. v., _to sound, to resound_: inf. hlynnan (of the
voice), 2554; of fire, _to crackle_: pret. sg. hlynode, 1121.

hlynsian, w. v., _to resound, to crash_: pret. sg. reced hlynsode, 771.

hlytm, st. m., _lot_: dat. sg. n‰s ˛‚ on hlytme, hw‚ ˛‰t hord strude, _it
did not depend upon lot who should plunder the hoard_, i.e. its possession
was decided, 3127.

hn‚h, adj.: 1) _low, inferior_: comp. acc. sg. hn‚gran, 678; dat. sg.
hn‚hran rince, _an inferior hero, one less brave_, 953.--2) _familiarly
intimate_: nom. sg. n‰s hiÛ hn‚h sw‚ ˛e·h, _was nevertheless not familiarly
intimate_ (with the Ge·tas, i.e. preserved her royal dignity towards them),
(_niggardly_?), 1930.

hnÊgan, w. v. w. acc., (for nÊgan), _to speak to, to greet_: pret. sg. ˛‰t
he ˛one wÓsan wordum hnÊgde fre·n Ingwina, 1319.

ge-hnÊgan, w. acc., _to bend, to humiliate, to strike down, to fell_: pret.
sg. ge-hnÊgde helle g‚st, 1275; ˛Êr hyne Hetware hilde gehnÊgdon, 2917.

hnitan, st. v., _to dash against, to encounter_, here of the collision of
hostile bands: pret. pl. ˛onne hniton (hnitan) fÍan, 1328, 2545.

homa, w. m., _place of concealment, cave_, hence, _the grave_: dat. sg. in
homan, 2459.

hof, st. n., _enclosed space, court-yard, estate, manor-house_: acc. sg.
hof (HrÙg‚r's residence), 312; dat. sg. tÙ hofe sÓnum (Grendel's home in
the sea), 1508; tÙ hofe (Hygel‚c's residence), 1975; acc. pl. beorht hofu,
2314; dat. pl. tÙ hofum Ge·ta, 1837.

hogode. See hycgan.

hold, adj., _inclined to, attached to, gracious, dear, true_: nom. sg. w.
dat. of the person, hold weorod fre·n Scyldinga, _a band well disposed to
the lord of the Scyldings_, 290; mandrihtne hold, 1230; Hygel‚ce w‰s ...
nefa sw˝e hold, _to H. was his nephew_ (BeÛwulf) _very much attached_,
2171; acc. sg. ˛urh holdne hige, _from a kindly feeling, with honorable
mind_, 267; holdne wine, 376; holdne, 1980; gen. pl. holdra, 487.

hold. See healdan.

holm, st. m., _deep sea_: nom. sg., 519, 1132, 2139; acc. sg., 48, 633;
dat. sg. holme, 543, 1436, 1915; acc. pl. holmas, 240.--Comp. wÊg-holm.

holm-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: dat. sg. on ˛am holm-clife, 1422; from ˛‰m
holmclife, 1636; acc. pl. holm-clifu, 230.

holm-wylm, st. m., _the waves of the sea_: dat. sg. holm-wylme, 2412.

holt, st. n., _wood, thicket, forest._ acc. sg. on holt, 2599; holt,
2847.--Comp.: ‰sc-, fyrgen-, g‚r-, Hrefnes-holt.

holt-wudu, st. m., _forest-wood_: 1) of the material: nom. sg., 2341.--2) =
_forest_: acc. sg., 1370.

hord, st. m. and n., _hoard, treasure_: nom. sg., 2284, 3085; be·ga hord,
2285; m‚ma hord, 3012; acc. sg. hord, 913, 2213, 2320, 2510, 2745, 2774,
2956, 3057; s‚wle hord, 2423; ˛‰t hord, 3127; dat. sg. of horde, 1109; for
horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the hoard_, 2782; hÊnum horde,
2217; gen. sg. hordes, 888.--Comp.: be·h-, breÛst-, word-, wyrm-hord.

hord-‰rn, st. n., _place in which a treasure is kept, treasure-room_: dat.
hord-‰rne, 2832; gen. pl. hord-‰rna, 2280.

hord-burh, st. f., _city in which is the treasure_ (of the king's),
_ruler's castle_: acc. sg., 467.

hord-gestreÛn, st. n., _hoard-treasure, precious treasure_: dat. pl.
hord-gestreÛnum, 1900; gen. pl. m‰gen-byrenne hord-gestreÛna, _the great
burden of rich treasures_, 3093.

hord-m‚um, st. m., _treasure-jewel, precious jewel_: acc. sg. (-madmum,
MS.), 1199.

hord-wela, w. m., _treasure-riches, abundance of treasures_: acc. sg.
hord-welan, 2345.

hord-weard, st. m., _warder of the treasure, hoard-warden_: 1) of the king:
nom. sg., 1048; acc. sg., 1853.--2) of the drake: nom. sg., 2294, 2303,
2555, 2594.

hord-weorung, st. f., _ornament out of the treasure, rich ornament_: acc.
sg.--weorunge, 953.

hord-wyn, st. f., _treasure-joy, joy-giving treasure_: acc. sg. hord-wynne,

horn, st. m., _horn_: 1) upon an animal: instr. pl. heorot hornum trum,
1370.--2) wind-instrument: nom. sg., 1424; acc. sg., 2944.--Comp. g˚-horn.

horn-boga, w. m., _bow made of horn_: dat. sg. of horn-bogan, 2438.

horn-ge·p, adj., of great extent between the (stag-)horns adorning the
gables(?): nom. sg. sele ... he·h and horn-ge·p, 82.

horn-reced, st. n., building whose two gables are crowned by the halves of
a stag's antler(?): acc. sg., 705. Cf. Heyne's Treatise on the Hall,
Heorot, p. 44.

hors, st. n., _horse_: nom. sg., 1400.

hÙciht, adj., _provided with hooks, hooked_: in comp. heoro-hÙciht.

be-hÙfian, w. v. w. gen., _to need, to want_: pres. sg. III. nu is se d‰g
cumen ˛at ˚re man-dryhten m‰genes behÙfa gÙdra g˚rinca, _now is the day
come when our lord needs the might of strong warriors_, 2648.

on-hÙhsnian, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. sg. ˛‰t onhÙhsnode Heminges mÊg (on
hohsnod, MS.), 1945.

hÙlinga, adv., _in vain, without reason_, 1077.

be-hÙn, st. v., _to hang with_: pret. part. helmum behongen, 3140.

hop, st. n., _protected place, place of refuge, place of concealment_, in
the compounds fen-, mÙr-hop.

hÙs (Goth, hansa), st. f., _accompanying troop, escort_: instr. sg. m‰ga
hÙse, _with an accompanying train of servingwomen_, 925.

hr‰e, adv., _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 224, 741, 749, 1391, etc.;
hrae, 1438; hree, 992; compar. hraor, 543.

hran-fix, st. m., _whale_: acc. pl. hron-fixas, 540.

hran-r‚d, st. f., _whale-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. ofer hron-r‚de, 10.

hr‚, st. n., _corpse_: nom. sg., 1589.

hr‚-fyl, st. m., _fall of corpses, killing, slaughter_: acc. sg., 277.

hr‰dlÓce, adv., _hastily, immediately_, 356, 964.

hr‰fn, hrefn, st. m., _raven_: nom. sg. hrefn blaca, _black raven_, 1802;
se wonna hrefn, _the dark raven_, 3025; dat. sg. hrefne, 2449.

hr‰gl, st. n., _dress, garment, armor_: nom. sg., 1196; gen. sg., hr‰gles,
1218; gen. pl. hr‰gla, 454--Comp.: beado-, fyrd-, mere-hr‰gl.

hree. See hrae.

hreer, st. m., _breast, bosom_ nom. sg. hreer inne weÛll _(it surged in
his breast_), 2114; hreer Ême weÛll, 2594; dat. sg. in hrere, 1152; of
hrere, 2820.--_Breast_ as the seat of feeling, _heart_: dat. sg. ˛‰t w‰s
... hrere hygemÍe, _that was depressing to the heart_ (of the slayer,
HÊcyn), 2443; on hrere, 1879, 2329; gen. pl. ˛urh hrera gehygd,
2046.--_Breast_ as seat of life: instr. sg. hrere, parallel with aldre,

hreer-bealo, st. n., _evil that takes hold on the heart, evil severely
felt_: acc. sg., 1344.

hrefn. See hr‰fn.

hrÍ, st. f., _glory_; in composition, g˚-hrÍ; _renown, assurance of
victory_, in sige-hrÍ.

hrÍe, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg. hrÍ (on account of the
following ‰t, final _e_ is elided, as wÍnic for wÍne ic, 442; frÙfor and
fultum for frÙfre and fultum, 699; firen ondrysne for firene ondr., 1933),

hrÍ-sigor, st. m., _glorious victory_: dat. sg. hrÍ-sigora, 2584.

hrÍmig, adj., _boasting, exulting_: with instr. and gen. h˚e hrÍmig, 124;
since hrÍmig, 1883; fr‰twum hrÍmig, 2055; nom. pl. nealles Hetware hrÍmge
˛orfton (sc. wesan) fÍe-wÓges, 2365.

on-hrÍran, w. v., _to excite, to stir up_: pret. part. on-hrÍred, 549,

hre‚-wÓc, st. n., _place of corpses_: acc. sg. Ge·ta leÛde hre‚-wÓc
heÛldon, _held the place of corpses_, 1215.

hre·d, st. f., _ornament_(?), in comp. earm-hre·d. See hreÛan.

hre·m, st. m., _noise, alarm_:: nom. sg., 1303.

hreÛa, w. m., _cover_, in the compound bord-hreÛa.

hreÛan, ge-hreÛan, st. v., _to cover, to clothe_; only in the pret. part.
hroden, gehroden, _dressed, adorned_: hroden, 495, 1023; ˛‚ w‰s heal hroden
feÛnda feorum, _then was the hall covered with the corpses of the enemy_,
1152; ge-hroden golde, _adorned with gold_, 304.--Comp.: be·g-,

hreÛh, hreÛw, hreÛ, adj., _excited, stormy, wild, angry, raging; sad,
troubled_: nom. sg. (BeÛwulf) hreÛh and heoro-grim, 1565; ˛‰t ˛am gÙdan w‰s
hreÛw on hrere, (_that came with violence upon him, pained his heart_),
2329; hreÛ wÊron ˝a, _the waves were angry, the sea stormy_, 548; n‰s him
hreÛh sefa, _his mind was not cruel_, 2181; dat. sg. on hreÛn mÙde, _of sad
heart_, 1308; on hreÛum mÙde, _angry at heart_, 2582.

hreÛh-mÙd, adj., _of sad heart_, 2133; _angry at heart_, 2297.

hreÛsan, st. v., _to fall, to sink, to rush_: pret. hre·s, 2489, 2832;
pret. pl. hruron, 1075; hie on weg hruron, _they rushed away_, 1431; hruron
him te·ras, _tears burst from him_, 1873.

be-hreÛsan, _to fall from, to be divested of_: pret. part. acc. pl.
fyrn-manna fatu ... hyrstum behrorene, _divested of ornaments_ (from which
the ornaments had fallen away), 2760.

hreÛw, st. f., _distress, sorrow_: gen. pl. ˛‰t w‰s HrÙg‚re hreÛwa
tornost, _that was to HrÙg‚r the bitterest of his sorrows_, 2130.

hring, st. m.: 1) _ring_: acc. sg. ˛one hring, 1203; hring gyldenne, 2810;
acc. pl. hringas, 1196, 1971, 3035; gen. pl. hringa, 1508, 2246.--2) _shirt
of mail_ (of interlaced rings): nom. sg. hring, 1504; byrnan hring,
2261.--Comp. b‚n-hring.

hringan, w. v., _to give forth a sound, to ring, to rattle_: pret. pl.
byrnan hringdon, 327.

hring-boga, w. m., _one who bends himself into a ring_: gen. sg.
hring-bogan (of the drake, bending himself into a circle), 2562.

hringed, pret. part., _made of rings_: nom. sg. hringed byrne, 1246; acc.
sg. hringde byrnan, 2616.

hringed-stefna, w. m., _ship whose stem is provided with iron rings_
(cramp-irons), especially of sea-going ships (cf. Fri-˛iofs saga, I:
˛orsteinn ‚tti skip ˛at er Ellidi hÍt, ... borit war spengt iarni): nom.
sg., 32, 1898; acc. sg. hringed-stefnan, 1132.

hring-Óren, st. n., _ring-iron, ring-mail_: nom. sg., 322.

hring-mÊl, adj., _marked with rings_, i.e. ornamented with rings, or marked
with characters of ring-form: nom. acc. sg., of the sword, 1522, 1562(?);
nom. pl. heard and hring-mÊl Heaobeardna gestreÛn (_rich armor_), 2038.

hring-naca, w. m., _ship with iron rings, sea-going ship_: nom. sg., 1863.

hring-net, st. n., _ring-net_, i.e. a shirt of interlaced rings: acc. sg.,
2755; acc. pl. hring-net, 1890.

hring-sele, st. m., _ring-hall_, i.e. hall in which are rings, or in which
rings are bestowed: acc. sg., 2841; dat. sg., 2011, 3054.

hring-weorung, st. f., _ring-ornament_: acc. sg. -weorunge, 3018.

hrÓnan, st. v. w. dat.: 1) _to touch, lay hold of_: inf. ˛‰t him heardra
n‚n hrÓnan wolde Óren ÊrgÙd (_that no good sword of valiant men would make
an impression on him_), 989; him for hrÙf-sele hrÓnan ne mehte fÊrgripe
flÙdes (_the sudden grip of the flood might not touch him owing to the
hall-roof_), 1516; ˛‰t ˛am hring-sele hrÓnan ne mÙste gumena Ênig _(so that
none might touch the ringed-hall), _3054; pret. sg. sian he hire folmum
[hr]‚n (_as soon as he touched it with his hands_), 723; Ù ˛‰t de·es wylm
hr‚n ‰t heortan (_seized his heart_), 2271. Pret. subj. ˛e·h ˛e him wund
hrÓne (_although he was wounded_), 2977.--2) (O.N. hrÓna, _sonare,
clamare), to resound, rustle_: pres. part. nom. pl. hrÓnde bearwas (for
hrÓnende) 1364; but see Note.

hroden. See hreÛan.

hron-fix. See hran-fix.

hrÙor, st. m., _joy, beneficium_: dat sg. hrefne tÙ hrÙre, 2449; gen. pl.
hrÙra, 2172.

hrÙf, st. m., _roof, ceiling of a house_: nom. sg., 1000; acc. sg. under
Heorotes hrÙf, 403; under ge·pne hrÙf, 838; geseah ste·pne hrÙf (here
_inner roof, ceiling_), 927; so, ofer he·hne hrÙf, 984; ymb ˛‰s helmes
hrÙf, 1031; under beorges hrÙf, 2756.--Comp. inwit-hrÙf.

hrÙf-sele, st. m., _covered hall_: dat. sg. hrÙf-sele, 1516.

hrÙr, adj., _stirring, wide-awake, valorous_: dat. sg. of ˛‰m hrÙran,
1630.--Comp. fela-hrÙr.

hruron. See hreÛsan.

hruse, w. f., _earth, soil_: nom. sg., 2248, 2559; acc. sg. on hrusan, 773,
2832; dat. sg. under hrusan, 2412.

hrycg, st. m., _back_: acc. sg. ofer w‰teres hrycg (_over the water's back,
surface_), 471.

hryre, st. m., _fall, destruction, ruin_: acc. sg., 3181; dat. sg., 1681,
3006.--Comp.: leÛd-, wÓg-hryre.

hrysian, w. v., _to shake, be shaken, clatter_: pret. pl. syrcan hrysedon
(_corselets rattled_, of men in motion), 226.

hund, st. m., _dog_: instr. pl. hundum, 1369.

hund, num., _hundred_: ˛reÛ hund, 2279; w. gen. pl. hund missera, 1499;
hund ˛˚senda landes and locenra be·ga, 2995.

h˚, adv., _how, quomodo_, 3, 116, 279, 738, 845, 2319, 2520, 2719, etc.

hu, st. f., _booty, plunder_: dat. (instr.) sg. h˚e, 124.

h˚ru, adv., _above all, certainly_, 369; _indeed, truly_, 182, 670, 1072,
1466, 1945, 2837; _yet, nevertheless_, 863; _now_, 3121.

h˚s, st. n., _house_: gen. sg. h˚ses, 116; gen. pl. h˚sa sÍlest (Heorot),
146, 285, 659, 936.

hwan, adv., _whither_: tÙ hwan syan wear hondrÊs h‰lea (_what issue the
hand-to-hand fight of the heroes had_), 2072.

hwanan, hwanon, adv., _whence_: hwanan, 257, 2404; hwanon, 333.

hw‚, interrog. and indef. pron., _who_: nom. sg. m. hw‚, 52, 2253, 3127;
neut. hw‰t, 173; ‚nes hw‰t (_a part only_), 3011; hw‰t ˛‚ men wÊron (_who
the men were_), 233, etc.; hw‰t syndon ge searo-h‰bbendra (_what armed men
are ye?_), 237; acc. sg. m. wi manna hwone (_from (?) any man_), 155;
neut. ˛urh hw‰t, 3069; hw‰t wit geÛ sprÊcon, 1477; hw‰t ... h˝no (gen.),
fÊr-nÓa (_what shame and sudden woes_), 474; so, hw‰t ˛u worn fela (_how
very much thou_), 530; swylces hw‰t, 881; hw‰t ... ‚rna, 1187; dat. m.
hw‚m, 1697.--Comp. Êg-hw‚.

hw‰t, interj., _what! lo! indeed!_ 1, 943, 2249.

ge-hw‚, w. part, gen., _each, each one_: acc. sg. m. wi feÛnda gehwone,
294; nÓa gehwane, 2398; mÍca gehwane, 2686; gum-cynnes gehwone, 2766; fem,
on healfa gehwone, 801; dat. sg. m. dÙgora gehw‚m, 88; ‰t nÓa gehw‚m, 883;
˛egna gehw‚m, 2034; eorla gehwÊm, 1421; fem. in mÊga ge-hwÊre, 25; nihta
gehwÊm, 1366; gen. sing. m. manna gehw‰s, 2528; fem. dÊda gehw‰s, 2839.

hw‚r. See hwÊr.

hw‰der. See hwider.

hw‰er, pron., _which of two_: nom. sg. hw‰er ... uncer twega, 2531; sw‚
hw‰er, _utercunque_: acc. sg. on sw‚ hw‰ere hond sw‚ him gemet ˛ince,
687.--Comp. Êg-hw‰er.

ge-hw‰er, _each of two, either-other_: nom. sg. m. w‰s gehw‰er Ùrum
lifigende l‚, 815; w‰s ... gehw‰er Ùrum hrÙra gemyndig, 2172; ne
gehw‰er incer (_nor either of you two_), 584; nom. sg. neut. gehw‰er ˛‚ra
(_either of them_, i.e. ready for war or peace), 1249; dat. sg. hiora
gehw‰rum, 2995; gen. sg. bega gehw‰res, 1044.

hw‰er, hw‰ere, hw‰re, 1) adv., _yet, nevertheless_: hw‰re, 555, 891,
1271, 2099, 2299, 2378, etc.; hw‰re sw‚ ˛e·h, _however, notwithstanding_,
2443; hw‰ere, 574, 578, 971, 1719--2) conj., = _utrum, whether_: hw‰re,
1315; hw‰er, 1357, 2786.

hw‰t, adj., _sharp, bold, valiant_: nom. sg. se secg hwata, 3029; dat. sg.
hwatum, 2162; nom. pl. hwate, 1602, 2053; acc. pl. hwate, 2643,
3006.--Comp.: fyrd-, gold-hw‰t.

hw‰t. See hw‚.

hwÊr, adv., _where_: elles hwÊr, _elsewhere_, 138; hwÊr, _somewhere_, 2030.
In elliptical question: wundur hw‚r ˛onne..., _is it a wonder when...?_
3063.--Comp. Ù-hwÊr.

ge-hwÊr, _everywhere_: ˛e·h ˛u heao-rÊsa gehwÊr dohte (_everywhere good in
battle_), 526.

hwele. See hwyle.

hwergen, adv., _anywhere_: elles hwergen, _elsewhere_, 2591.

hwettan, w. v., _to encourage, urge_: pres. subj. sw‚ ˛in sefa hwette (_as
thy mind urges, as thou likest_), 490; pret. pl. hwetton higerÙfne (_they
whetted the brave one_), 204.

hwÍne, adv., _a little, paululum_, 2700.

hwealf, st. f., _vault_: acc. sg. under heofones hwealf, 576, 2016.

hweorfan, st. v., _to stride deliberately, turn, depart, move, die_: pres.
pl. ˛‚ra ˛e cwice hwyrfa, 98; inf. hwÓlum he on lufan lÊte hworfan monnes
mÙd-ge˛onc (_sometimes on love_ (?) _possessions_ (?) _permits the thoughts
of man to turn_), 1729; londrihtes mÙt ... monna Êghwylc Ódel hweorfan (_of
rights of land each one of men must be deprived_), 2889; pret. sg. f‰der
ellor hwearf ... of earde (_died_), 55; hwearf ˛‚ hr‰dlÓce ˛Êr HrÙg‚r s‰t,
356; hwearf ˛‚ bÓ bence (_turned then to the bench_), 1189; so, hwearf ˛‚
be wealle, 1574; hwearf geond ˛‰t reced, 1982; hlÊw oft ymbe hwearf (_went
oft round the cave_), 2297; nalles ‰fter lyfte l‚cende hwearf (_not at all
through the air did he go springing_), 2833; subj. pret. sg, Êr he on weg
hwurfe ... of geardum (_died_), 264.

and-hweorfan, _to move against_: pret. sg. Ù ˛‰t ... noran wind
heao-grim and-hwearf (_till the fierce north wind blew in our faces_),

‰t-hweorfan, _to go to_: pret. sg. hwÓlum he on beorh ‰t-hwearf (_at times
returned to the mountain_), 2300.

ge-hweorfan, _to go, come_: pret. sg. gehwearf ˛‚ in Francna f‰m feorh
cyninges, 1211; hit on Êht gehwearf ... Denigea fre·n, 1680; so, 1685,

geond-hweorfan, _to go through from end to end_: pres. sg. flet eall
geond-hwearf, 2018.

hwider, adv., _whither_: hwyder, 163; hw‰der (hw‰er, MS.), 1332.

hwÓl, st. f., _time, space of time_: nom. sg. w‰s seÛ hwÓl micel (_it was a
long time_), 146; ˛‚ w‰s hwÓl d‰ges (_the space of a day_), 1496; acc. sg.
hwÓle, _for a time_, 2138; _a while_, 105, 152; lange (longe) hwÓle, _a
long while_, 16, 2781; ‚ne hwÓle, _a while_, 1763; lytle hwÓle, _brief
space_, 2031, 2098; Ênige hwÓle, _any while_, 2549; l‰ssan hwÓle, _a lesser
while_, 2572; dat. sg. Êr d‰ges hwÓle, _before daybreak_, 2321; dat. pl.
nihtes hwÓlum, _sometimes at night_, 3045. Adv., _sometimes, often_:
hwÓlum, 175, 496, 917, 1729, 1829, 2017, 2112, etc.; hwÓlum ... hwÓlum,
2108-9-10.--Comp.: d‰g-, gesc‰p-, orleg-, sige-hwÓl.

hwÓt, adj., _brilliant, flashing_: nom. sg. se hwÓta helm, 1449.

hworfan. See hweorfan.

hwÙpan, st. v., _to cry, cry out mourn_: pret. sg. hweÛp, 2269.

hwyder. See hwider.

hwylc, pron., _which, what, any_: 1) adj.: nom. sg. m. sceaa ic n‚t hwylc,
274; fem, hwylc orleghwÓl, 2003; nom. pl. hwylce SÊge·ta sÓas wÊron,
1987.--2) subst., w. gen. pl. nom. m.: Frisna hwylc, 1105; fem, efne sw‚
hwylc m‰ga sw‚ ˛one magan cende (_whatever woman brought forth this son_),
944; neut. ˛onne his bearna hwylc (_than any one of his sons_), 2434; dat.
sg. efne sw‚ hwylcum manna sw‚ him gemet ˛˚hte, 3058.--Comp.: Êg-, n‚t-,

ge-hwylc, ge-hwilc, ge-hwelc, w. gen. pl., _each_: nom. sg. m. gehwylc,
986, 1167, 1674; acc. sg. m. gehwylcne, 937, 2251, 2517; gehwelcne, 148;
fem, gehwylce, 1706; neut. gehwylc, 2609; instr. sg. dÙgra gehwylce, 1091;
so, 2058, 2451; dat. sg. m. gehwylcum, 412, 769, 785, etc.; fem, ecga
gehwylcre, 806; neut. cynna gehwylcum, 98; gen. sg. m. and neut. gehwylces,
733, 1397, 2095.

hwyrft, st. m., _circling movement, turn_: dat. pl. adv. hwyrftum scrÓa
(_wander to and fro_), 163.--Comp. ed-hwyrft.

hycgan, w. v., _to think, resolve upon_: pret. sg. ic ˛‰t hogode ˛‰t ...
(_my intention was that ..._), 633.--Comp. w. pres. part.: bealo-, heard-,
swÓ-, ˛anc-, wÓs-hycgend.

for-hycgan, _to despise, scorn, reject with contempt_: pres. sg. I. ic ˛‰t
˛onne for-hicge ˛‰t ..., _reject with scorn the proposition that ..._, 435.

ge-hycgan, _to think, determine upon_: pret. sg. ˛‚ ˛u ... feorr gehogodest
s‰cce sÍcean, 1989.

ofer-hycgan, _to scorn_: pret. sg. ofer-hogode ˛‚ hringa fengel ˛‰t he ˛one
wÓdflogan weorode gesÙhte (_scorned to seek the wide-flier with a host_),

hydig (for hygdig), adj., _thinking, of a certain mind_: comp. ‚n-, bealo-,
grom-, nÓ-, ˛rÓst-hydig.

ge-hygd, st. n., _thought, sentiment_: acc. sg. ˛urh hrera gehygd,
2046.--Comp.: breÛst-, mÙd-gehygd, won-hyd.

hyge, hige, st. m., _mind, heart, thought_: nom. sg. hyge, 756; hige, 594;
acc. sg. ˛urh holdne hige, 267; gen. sg. higes, 2046; dat. pl. higum, 3149.

hyge-bend, st. m. f., _mind-fetter, heart-band_: instr. pl. hyge-bendum
f‰st, _fast in his mind's fetters, secretly_, 1879.

hyge-geÙmor, adj., _sad in mind_: nom. sg. hyge-giÙmor, 2409.

hyge-mÍe, adj.: 1) _sorrowful, soul-crushing_: nom. sg., 2443.--2)
_life-weary, dead_: dat. pl. hyge-mÍum (-mÊum, MS.), 2910.

hyge-rÙf, adj., _brave, valiant, vigorous-minded_: nom. sg. [hygerÙf], 403;
acc. sg. hige-rÙfne, 204.

hyge-sorh, st. f., _heart-sorrow_: gen. pl. -sorga, 2329.

hyge-˛yhtig, adj., _doughty, courageous_: acc. sg. hige-˛ihtigne (of
BeÛwulf), 747. See ˛yhtig.

hyge-˛rym, st. m., _animi majestas, high-mindedness_: dat. pl. for
hige-˛rymmum, 339.

hyht, st. m., _thought, pleasant thought, hope_ (Dietrich): nom. sg., 179.

ge-hyld (see healdan), st. n., _support, protection_: nom. sg., 3057.--Leo.

hyldan, w. v., _to incline one's self, lie down to sleep_: pret. sg. hylde
hine, _inclined himself, lay down_, 689.

hyldo, st. f., _inclination, friendliness, grace_: acc. sg. hyldo, 2068,
2294; gen. sg. hyldo, 671, 2999.

‚-hyrdan, w. v., _harden_: pret. part. ‚-hyrded, 1461.

hyrde. See hirde.

hyrst, st. f., _accoutrements, ornament, armor_: acc. sg. hyrste
(Ongen˛eÛw's _equipments and arms_), 2989; acc. pl. hyrsta, 3166; instr.
pl. hyrstum, 2763.

hyrstan, w. v., _to deck, adorn_: pret. part. hyrsted sweord, 673; helm
[hyr]sted golde, 2256.

hyrtan, w. v., _to take heart, be emboldened_: pret. sg. hyrte hyne
hord-weard (_the drake took heart_; see 2566, 2568, 2570), 2594.

hyse, st. m., _youth, young man_: nom. sg. as voc., 1218.

hyt. See hit.

h˝dan, w. v., _to hide, conceal, protect, preserve_: pres. subj. h˝de
[hine, _himself_] se ˛e wylle, 2767; inf. w. acc. nÙ ˛u mÓnne ˛earft
hafalan h˝dan, 446; Êr he in wille hafelan [h˝dan] (_ere in it he_ [the
stag] _will hide his head_), 1373.

ge-h˝dan, w. acc., _to conceal, preserve_: pret. sg. geh˝dde, 2236, 3060.

h˝, st. f., _haven_: dat. sg. ‰t h˝e, 32.

h˝-weard, st. m., _haven-warden_: nom. sg., 1915.

h˝nan (see he·n), w. v. w. acc., _to crush, afflict, injure_: pret. sg.
h˝nde, 2320.

h˝nu, st. f., _oppression, affliction, injury_: acc. sg. h˝nu, 277; gen.
sg. hw‰t ... h˝no, 475; fela ... h˝no, 594; gen. pl. heardra h˝na, 166.

h˝ran, w. v.: 1) _to hear, perceive, learn_: a) w. inf. or acc. with inf.:
I. pret. sg. h˝rde ic, 38, 582, 1347, 1843, 2024; III. sg. ˛‰t he fram
Sigemunde secgan h˝rde, 876; I. pl. sw‚ we sÙlÓce secgan h˝rdon, 273. b)
w. acc.: nÊnigne ic ... sÍlran h˝rde hordm‚um (_I heard of no better
hoard-jewel_), 1198. c) w. dependent clause: I. sg. pret. h˝rde ic ˛‰t ...,
62, 2164, 2173.--2) w. dat. of person, _to obey_: inf. Ù ˛‰t him Êghwylc
˛‚ra ymbsittendra h˝ran scolde, 10; h˝ran heao-siÛcum, 2755; Pret. pl. ˛‰t
him winem‚gas georne h˝rdon, 66.

ge-h˝ran, _to hear, learn_: a) w. acc.: II. pers. sg. pres. mÓnne geh˝ra
‚nfealdne ge˛Ùht, 255; III. sg. pret. geh˝rde on BeÛwulfe f‰strÊdne ge˛Ùht,
610. b) w. acc. and inf.: III. pl. pret. geh˝rdon, 786. c) w. depend.
clause: I. pres. sg. ic ˛‰t geh˝re ˛‰t ..., 290.


ic, pers. pron. _I_: acc. mec, dat. me, gen. mÓn; dual nom. wit, acc.
uncit, unc, dat. unc, gen. uncer; pl. nom. we, acc. ˚sic, ˚s, dat. ˚s, gen.
˚ser. ic omitted before the verb, 470.

icge, _gold_ (perhaps related to Sanskrit ÓÁ, = dominare, imperare, O.H.G.
Íht, _wealth_, opes), _treasure?, sword_ (edge)?, 1108.--Kˆrner.

ides, st. f., _woman, lady, queen_: nom. sg., 621, 1076, 1118, 1169; dat.
sg. idese, 1650, 1942. Also of Grendel's mother: nom. sg., 1260; gen. sg.
idese, 1352.

in. See inn.

in: I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat. (local, indicating rest), _in_:
in geardum, 13, 2460; in ˛‰m g˚sele, 443; in beÛrsele, 2636; so, 89, 482,
589, 696, 729, 2140, 2233, etc.; in mÊga gehwÊre, 25; in ˛˝strum, 87; in
Caines cynne, 107; in hyra gryregeatwum (_in their accoutrements of terror,
war-weeds_), 324; so, 395; in campe (_in battle_), 2506; hiora in ‚num (_in
one of them_), 2600. Prep. postpositive: Scedelandum in, 19. Also, _on,
upon_, like on: in ealo-bence, 1030; in gumstÙle, 1953; in ˛am wongstede
(_on the grassy plain, the battle-field_), 2787; in bÊlstede, 3098.
Temporal: in ge‚r-dagum, 1.--2) w. acc. (local, indicating motion), _in,
into_: in woruld, 60; in f˝res f‰m, 185; so, 1211; in Hrefnesholt, 2936.
Temporal, _in, at, about, toward_: in ˛‚ tÓde (in watide, MS.), 2228.

II. adv., _in_ (here or there), 386, 1038, 1372, 1503, 1645, 2153, 2191,
2228; inn, 3091.

incge, adj. (perhaps related to icge), instr. sg. incge l‚fe (_with the
costly sword_ ? or _with mighty sword_?), 2578.--[_Edge_: incge l‚fe, _edge
of the sword_.--K. Kˆrner?]

in-frÙd, adj., _very aged_: nom. sg., 2450; dat. sg. in-frÙdum, 1875.

in-gang, st. m., _entrance, access to_: acc. sg., 1550.

in-genga, w. m., _in-goer, visitor_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 1777.

in-gesteald, st. m., _house-property, possessions in the house_: acc. sg.,

inn, st. n., _apartment, house_: nom. sg. in, 1301.

innan, adv., _within, inside_, 775, 1018, 2413, 2720; on innan (_in the
interior_), _within_, 1741, 2716; ˛Êr on innan (_in there_), 71; burgum on
innan (_within his city_), 1969. Also, _therein_: ˛Êr on innan, 2090, 2215,

innan-weard, adv., _inwards, inside, within_, 992, 1977; inne-weard, 999.

inne, adv.: 1) _inside, within_, 643, 1282, 1571, 2114, 3060; word inne
‚be·d (_called, sent word, in_, i.e. standing in the hall door), 390; _in
it_ (i.e. the battle), 1142; ˛Êr inne (_therein_), 118, 1618, 2116, 2227,
3088.--2) = _insuper, still further, besides_, 1867.

inwit, st. n., _evil, mischief, spite, cunning hostility_, as in

inwit-feng, st. m., _malicious grasp, grasp of a cunning foe_: nom. sg.,

inwit-g‰st, st. m., _evil guest, hostile stranger_: nom. sg., 2671.

inwit-hrÙf, st. m., _hostile roof, hiding-place of a cunning foe_: acc. sg.
under inwit-hrÙf, 3124.

inwit-net, st. n., _mischief-net, cunning snare_: acc. sg., 2168.

inwit-nÓ, st. n., _cunning hostility, hostile contest_: nom. pl.
inwit-nÓas (_hostility through secret attack_), 1859; gen. pl. inwit-nÓa,

inwit-scear, st. m., _massacre through cunning, murderous attack_: acc. sg.
eatolne inwit-scear, 2479.

inwit-searo, st. n., _cunning, artful intrigue_: acc. sg. ˛urh inwit-searo,
1102. See searo.

inwit-sorh, st. f., _grief, remorse, mourning springing from hostile
cunning_: nom. sg., 1737; acc. sg. inwid-sorge, 832.

inwit-˛anc, adj., _ill-disposed, malicious_: dat. sg. he onfÍng hrae
inwit-˛ancum (_he quickly grasped the cunning-in-mind_ [Grendel]), 749.

irnan (for rinnan), st. v., _to run_: so be-irnan, _to run up to_, occur_:
pret. sg him on mÙd be-arn (_came into his mind_), 67.

on-irnan, _to open_: pret. sg. duru sÙna onarn, 722.

irre-mÙd, adj. See yrre-mÙd.


Ódel, adj., _empty, bare; deprived of_: nom. sg., 145, 413; w. gen.
lond-rihtes ˛Êre mÊgburge Ódel (_deprived of his land-possessions among the
people_ [of the Ge·tas]), 2889.

Ódel-hende, adj., _empty-handed_, 2082.

Óren, st. n., _iron, sword_: nom. sg. dryhtlÓc Óren (_the doughty, lordly
sword_), 893; Óren Êr-gÙd, 990; acc. sg. leÛflÓc Óren, 1810; gen. pl. Órena
cyst (_choicest of swords_), 674; Órenna cyst, 803; Órenna ecge (_edges of
swords_), 2684.

Óren, adj., _of iron_: nom. sg. ecg w‰s Óren, 1460.

Óren-bend, st. f., _iron band, bond, rivet_: instr. pl. Óren-bendum f‰st
(bold), 775, 999.

Óren-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. Óren-byrnan, 2987. See

Óren-heard, adj., _hard as iron_: nom. sg., 1113.

Órenne, adj., _of iron_: in comp. eall-Órenne.

Óren-˛re·t, st. m., _iron troop, armored band_: nom. sg., 330.

Ós, st. n., _ice_: dat. sg. Óse, 1609.

Ósern-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. Ósern-byrnan, 672. See

Ósern-sc˚r, st. f., _iron shower, shower of arrows_: gen. sg. ˛one ˛e oft
geb‚d Ósern-sc˚re, 3117.

Ós-gebind, st. n., _fetters of ice_: instr. sg. Ós-gebinde, 1134.

Ósig, adj., _shining, brilliant_ (like brass): nom. sg. Ósig (said of a
vessel covered with plates(?) of metal), 33.--Leo.


i˙. See geÛ.

i˙-man. See geÛ-man.

iÛ-meÛwle. See geÛ-meÛwle.


lau, st. f., _invitation_.--Comp.: freÛnd-, neÛd-lau.

ge-lafian, w. v. w. acc. pers. and instr. of the thing, _to refresh, lave_:
pret. sg. wine-dryhten his w‰tere gelafede, 2723.

lagu, st. m., _lake, sea_: nom. sg., 1631.

lagu-cr‰ftig, adj., _acquainted with the sea_: nom. sg. lagu-cr‰ftig mon
(_pilot_), 209.

lagu-strÊt, st. f., _path over the sea_: acc. sg. ofer lagu-strÊte, 239.

lagu-stre·m, st. m., _sea-current, flood_: acc. pl. ofer lagu-stre·mas,

land, st. n., _land_: nom. sg. lond, 2198; acc. sg. land, 221, 2063; lond,
2472, 2493; land Dena, 242, 253; lond Brondinga, 521; Finna land, 580; dat.
sg. on lande (_in the land_), 2311, 2837; _at near, land, shore_, 1914; tÙ
lande (_to the land, ashore_), 1624; gen. sg. landes, 2996; gen. pl. ofer
landa fela (_over much country, space; afar_), 31l.--Comp.: el-, e·-land.

land-b˚end, part, pres., terricola, _inhabitant of the land_: nom. pl.
lond-b˚end, 1346; dat. pl. land-b˚endum, 95.

land-fruma, w. m., _ruler, prince of the country_: nom. sg., 31.

land-gemyrcu, st. n. pl., _frontier, land-mark_: acc. pl., 209.

land-geweorc, st. n., _land-work, fortified place_: acc. sg. leÛda
land-geweorc, 939. See weorc, geweorc.

land-riht, st. n., _prerogatives based upon land-possessions, right to
possess land_, hence _real estate_ itself: gen. sg. lond-rihtes Ódel, 2887.

land-waru, st. f., _inhabitants, population_: acc. pl. land-wara, 2322.

land-weard, st. m., _guard, guardian of the frontier_: nom. sg., 1891.

lang, long, adj., _long_: 1) temporal: nom. sg. tÙ lang, 2094; n‰s ˛‚ long
(lang) tÙ ˛on (_not long after_), 2592, 2846; acc. sg. lange hwÓle (_for a
long time_), 16, 2160, 2781; longe (lange) ˛rage, 54, 114, 1258; lange tÓd,
1916. Compar. nom. sg. lengra fyrst, 134.--2) local, nom. sg. se w‰s
fÓftiges fÙtgemearces lang, 3044.--Comp.: and-, morgen-, niht-, up-lang.

lange, longe, adv., _long_: lange, 31, 1995, 2131, 2345, 2424; longe, 1062,
2752, 3109; tÙ lange (_too long, excessively long_), 906, 1337, 1749.
Compar. leng, 451, 1855, 2802, 3065; nÙ ˛˝ leng (_none the longer_), 975.
Superl. lengest (_longest_), 2009, 2239.

ge-lang, adj., _extending, reaching to something_ or _somebody_, hence
_ready, prepared_: n˚ is rÊd gelang eft ‰t ˛e ‚num (_now is help [counsel]
at hand in thee alone_), 1377; gen is eall ‰t ˛e lissa gelong (_all of
favor is still on thee dependent, is thine_), 2151. See ge-lenge.

lang-ge-streÛn, st. n., _long-lasting treasure_: gen. pl. long-gestreÛna,

langian, w. v., reflex, w. dat, _to long, yearn_: pres. sg. III. him
...‰fter deÛrum men dyrne langa beorn (_the hero longeth secretly after
the dear man_), 1880.

lang-sum, adj., _long-lasting, continuing_: nom. sg. longsum, 134, 192,
1723; acc. sg. long-sumne, 1537.

lang-twidig, adj., _long-granted, assured_: nom. sg., 1709.

lata, w. m., _a lazy, cowardly one_; in comp. hild-lata.

l‚, interj., _yes! indeed!_ 1701, 2865.

l‚c, st. n.: 1) _measured movement, play_: in comp. beadu-, heao-l‚c.--2)
_gift, offering_: acc. pl. l‚c, 1864; l‚lÓcu l‚c (_loathly offering,
prey_), 1585; dat. pl. l‚cum, 43, 1869.--Comp. sÊ-l‚c.

ge-l‚c, st. n., _sport, play_: acc. pl. sweorda gel‚c (_battle_), 1041;
dat. pl. ‰t ecga gel‚cum, 1169.

l‚can, st. v., _to move in measured time, dancing, playing, fighting,
flying_, etc.: inf. dareum l‚can (_fight_), 2849; part. pres. ‰fter lyfte
l‚cende (_flying through the air_), 2833.

for-l‚can, _to deceive, betray_: part, pret. he wear on feÛnda geweald
for forl‚cen (_deceitfully betrayed into the enemy's hands_), 904.

l‚d, st. f., _street, way, journey_: dat. sg. on l‚de, 1988; gen. sg. l‚de,
569.--Comp.: brim-, sÊ-l‚d.

ge-l‚d, st. n., _way, path, road_: acc. sg. unc˚ gel‚d, 1411.

l‚, adj., _loathly, evil, hateful, hostile_: nom. sg. l‚, 816; l‚
lyft-floga, 2316; l‚ (_enemy_), 440; ne leÛf ne l‚, 511; neut. l‚, 134,
192; in weak form, se l‚a (of the dragon), 2306; acc. sg. l‚ne (wyrm),
3041; dat. sg. l‚um, 440, 1258; gen. sg. l‚es (of the enemy), 842; fela
l‚es (_much evil_), 930; so, 1062; l‚an lÓges, 83; l‚an cynnes, 2009,
2355; ˛‰s l‚an (of the enemy), 132; acc. pl. neut. l‚ gewidru (_hateful
storms_), 1376; dat. instr. pl. wi l‚um, 550; l‚um scuccum and scinnum,
939; l‚um dÊdum (_with evil deeds_), 2468; l‚an fingrum, 1506; gen. pl.
l‚ra manna, spella, 2673, 3030; l‚ra (_the enemy_), 242. Compar. nom. sg.
l‚ra ... beorn, 2433.

l‚-bite, st. m., _hostile bite_: dat. sg. l‚-bite lÓces (_the body's
hostile bite_ = the wound), 1123.

l‚-geteÛna, w. m., _evil-doer, injurer_: nom. sg., 975; nom. pl.
l‚-geteÛnan, 559.

l‚-lÓc, adj., _loathly, hostile_: acc. pl. l‚-lÓcu, 1585.

l‚f, st. f.: 1) _what is left, relic; inheritance, heritage, legacy_: nom.
sg. HrÍlan l‚f (BeÛwulf's corselet), 454; nom. pl. fÍla l‚fe (_the
leavings of files_ = swords, Grein), 1033; so, homera l‚fe, 2830; on him
gladia gomelra l‚fe, heard and hringmÊl Heaobeardna gestreÛn (_on him
gleams the forefather's bequest, hard and ring-decked, the Heaobeardas'
treasure_, i.e. the equipments taken from the slain king of the
Heaobeardas), 2037; acc. sg. sweorda l‚fe (_leavings of the sword_, i.e.
those spared by the sword), 2937.--2) _the sword as a specially precious
heir-loom_: nom. sg., 2629; acc. sg. l‚fe, 796, 1489, 1689, 2192, 2564;
instr. sg. incge l‚fe, 2578.--Comp.: ende-, eormen-, we·-, yrfe-, ˝-l‚f.

l‚r, st. f., _lore, instruction, prescription_: dat. sg. be f‰der l‚re,
1951; gen. pl. l‚ra, 1221; l‚rena, 269.--Comp. freÛnd-l‚r.

l‚st, st. m., _footstep, track_: acc. sg. l‚st, 132, 972, 2165; on l‚st
(_on the traces of, behind_), 2946; nom. pl. l‚stas, 1403; acc. pl. l‚stas,
842.--Comp.: fÍe-, feorh-, fÙt-, wr‰c-l‚st.

l‰ger. See leger.

l‚ger-bed, st. n., _bed to lie on_ : instr. sg. leger-bedde, 1008.

l‰s, adj., _less_, 1947; ˛˝ l‰s (_the less_), 487; conjunct, _that not,
lest_, 1919.

l‰ssa, adj., _less, fewer_: nom. sg. l‰ssa, 1283; acc. sg. m. l‰ssan, 43;
fem, l‰ssan hwÓle, 2572; dat. sg. for l‰ssan (_for less, smaller_), 952.
Superl. nom. sg. nÙ ˛‰t l‰sest w‰s hond-gemÙt[a], 2355.

l‰t, adj., _negligent, neglectful_; w. gen.: nom. sg. elnes l‰t, 1530.

lÊdan, w. v. w. acc.: _to lead, guide, bring_: inf. lÊdan, 239; pret. pl.
lÊddon, 1160.

for-1Êdan, _to mislead_: pret. pl. for-lÊddan, 2440 (?).

ge-lÊdan, _lead, bring_: part. pret. ge-lÊded, 37.

lÊfan, w. v.: 1), _to bequeathe, leave_: imper. sg. ˛Ónum magum lÊf folc
and rÓce, 1179; pret. sg. eaferum lÊfde ... lond and leÛdbyrig, 2471.--2)
_spare, leave behind_: ‚ht cwices lÊfan (_to spare aught living_), 2316.

lÊn-dagas, st. m. pl., _loan-days, transitory days_ (of earthly existence
as contrasted with the heavenly, unending): acc. pl. lÊn-dagas, 2592; gen.
pl. lÊn-daga, 2342.

lÊne, adj., _inconstant, perishable, evanescent, given over to death or
destruction_: nom. sg., 1755, 3179; acc. sg. of rust-eaten treasures, 3130;
˛‚s lÊnan gesceaft (_this fleeting life_), 1623; gen. sg. lÊnan lÓfes,

lÊran, w. v., _to teach, instruct_: imper. sg. ˛u ˛e lÊr be ˛on (_learn
this, take this to heart_), 1723.

ge-lÊran, _to teach, instruct, give instruction_: inf. ic ˛‰s HrÙg‚r m‰g
... rÊd gelÊran (_I can give H. good advice about this_), 278; so, 3080;
pret. pl. ˛‚ me ˛‰t ge-lÊrdon leÛde mÓne (_gave me the advice_), 415.

lÊstan, w. v.: 1) _to follow, to sustain, serve_: inf. ˛‰t him se lÓc-homa
lÊstan nolde (_that his body would not sustain him_), 813.--2) _perform_:
imper. lÊst eall tela (_do all well_), 2664.

ge-lÊstan: 1) _to follow, serve_: pret. sg. (sweord) ˛‰t mec Êr and oft
gelÊste, 2501.--2) _to fulfil, grant_: subj. pres. pl. ˛‰t ... wilgesÓas,
˛onne wÓg cume, leÛde gelÊstan (_render war service_), 24; inf. ic ˛e sceal
mÓne gelÊstan freÛde (_shall grant thee my friendship, be grateful_), 1707;
pret. sg. beÛt ... gelÊste (_fulfilled his boast_), 524; gelÊste sw‚ (_kept
his word_), 2991; pres. part. h‰fde E·st-Denum ... gilp gelÊsted (_had
fulfilled for the East Danes his boast_), 830.

lÊtan, st. v., _to let, allow_, w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. III. lÊte,
1729; imper. pl. II. lÊta, 397; sg. II. lÊt, 1489; pret. sg. lÍt, 2390,
2551, 2978, 3151(?); pret. pl. lÍton, 48, 865, 3133; subj. pret. sg. II.
lÍte, 1997; sg. III. lÍte, 3083.

‚-lÊtan: 1) _to let, allow_: subj. pres. sg. II. ˛‰t ˛u ne ‚lÊte ... dÙm
ge-dreÛsan, 2666.--2) _to leave, lay aside_: inf. ‚lÊtan lÊn-dagas (_die_)
2592; so, ‚lÊtan lÓf and leÛdscipe, 2751.

for-lÊtan: 1) _to let, permit_, w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg. for-lÍt, 971;
pret. pl. for-lÍton, 3168. Also with inf. omitted: inf. nolde eorla hleÛ
... ˛one cwealmcuman cwicne (i.e. wesan) forlÊtan (_would not let the
murderous spirit go alive_), 793.--2) _to leave behind, leave_: pret. sg.
in ˛am wong-stede ... ˛Êr he hine Êr forlÍt (_where he had previously left
him_), 2788.

of-lÊtan, _to leave, lay aside_: pres. sg. II. gyf ˛u Êr ˛onne he worold
oflÊtest (_leavest the world, diest_), 1184; so pret. sg. oflÍt lÓf-dagas
and ˛‚s lÊnan gesceaft, 1623.

on-lÊtan, _to release, liberate_: pres. sg. III. ˛onne forstes bend f‰der
on-lÊte (_as soon as the Father looseth the frost's fetters_), 1610.

‚-lecgan, w. v.: 1) _to lay, lay down_: pret. sg. syan hilde-deÛr hond
‚-legde ... under ge·pne hrÙf, 835; ˛‰t he on BeÛwulfes bearm ‚-legde
(_this_ [the sword] _he laid in B.'s bosom, presented to him_), 2195; pret.
pl. ‚-ledon ˛‚ leÛfne ˛eÛden ... on bearm scipes, 34; ‚-legdon ˛‚ tÙ middes
mÊrne ˛eÛden _(laid the mighty prince in the midst_ [of the pyre]),
3142.--2) _to lay aside, give up_: sian ... in fen-freoo feorh ‚-legde
(_laid down his life, died_), 852; nu se here-wÓsa hleahtor ‚-legde, gamen
and gleÛ-dre·m _(now the war-chief has left laughter_, etc.), 3021.

leger, st. n., _couch, bed, lair_: dat. sg. on legere, 3044.

lemian, w. v., _to lame, hinder, oppress_: pret. sg. (for pl.) hine
sorh-wylmas lemede tÙ lange, 906. MS.

leng. See lang.

lenge, adj., _extending along_ or _to, near_ (of time): nom. sg. neut. ne
w‰s hit lenge ˛‚ gen (_nor was it yet long_), 83.

ge-lenge, adj., _extending, reaching to, belonging_: nom. sg. yrfe-weard
... lÓce gelenge (_an heir belonging to one's body_), 2733.

let, st. m., _place of rest, sojourn?_ in comp. eo-let (_voyage?_).

lettan, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. pl. (acc. pers. and gen. thing), ˛‰t
syan n‚ ... brim-lÓende l‚de ne letton (_might no longer hinder
seafarers from journeying_), 569.

‚-lÍdon. See ‚-lecgan.

lÍg, st. m., _flame, fire_: nom. sg. wonna lÍg (_the lurid flame_), 3116;
swÙgende lÍg, 3146; dat. sg. for dracan lÍge, 2550. See lÓg.

lÍg-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, flaming dragon_: nom. sg., 3041.

*leahan, le·n, st. v. w. acc. _to scold, blame_: pres. sg. III. lyh, 1049;
pret. sg. lÙg, 1812; pret. pl. lÙgon, 203, 863.

be-le·n, _to dissuade, prevent_: inf. ne inc Ênig mon ... bele·n mihte
sorhfullne sÓ (_no one might dissuade you twain from your difficult
journey_), 511.

leahtre. See or-leahtre.

le·f, st. n., _leaf, foliage_: instr. pl. le·fum, 97.

le·fnes-word, st. n., _permission, leave_: acc. pl., 245.

le·n. See leahan.

le·n, st. n., _reward, compensation_: acc. sg., 114, 952, 1221, 1585, 2392;
dat. sg. le·ne, 1022. Often in the pl.: acc. ˛‚ le·n, 2996; dat. ˛am
le·num, 2146; gen. le·na, 2991.--Comp.: and-, ende-le·n.

le‚n (for lÊn, O.H.G. lÍhan), st. n, _loan_, 1810.

le·nian, w. v., _to reward, compensate_: pres. sg. I. ic ˛e ˛‚ fÊhe feÛ
le·nige (_repay thee for the contest with old-time treasures_), 1381; pret.
sg. me ˛one w‰l-rÊs wine Scyldinga f‰ttan golde fela le·node (_the friend
of the Scyldings rewarded me richly for the combat with plated gold_),

le·s, adj., _false_: nom. pl. le·se, 253.

le·s, adj., _deprived of, free from_, w. gen.: nom. sg. dre·ma le·s, 851;
dat. sg. winigea le·sum, 1665.--Comp.: dÙm-, dre·m-, ealdor-, feoh-,
feormend-, hl‚ford-, s‚wol-, sige-, sorh-, tÓr-, ˛eÛden-, wine-, wyn-le·s.

le·sig, adj., _concealing one's self_; in comp. sin-le·sig(?).

leoo-cr‰ft, st. m., _the art of weaving_ or _working in meshes, wire_,
etc.: instr. pl. segn eall-gylden ... gelocen leoo-cr‰ftum (_a banner all
hand-wrought of interlaced gold_), 2770.

leoo-syrce, w. f., _shirt of mail (limb-sark)_: acc. sg. locene
leoo-syrcan (_locked linked sark_), 1506; acc. pl. locene leoo-syrcan,

leomum. See lim.

leornian, w. v., _to learn, devise, plan_: pret. him ˛‰s g˚-cyning ...
wr‰ce leornode (_the war-king planned vengeance therefor_), 2337.

leÛd, st. m., _prince_: nom. sg., 341, 348, 670, 830, 1433, 1493, 1613,
1654, etc.; acc. leÛd, 626.

leÛd, st. f., _people_: gen. sg. leÛde, 597, 600, 697. In pl. indicates
_individuals, people, kinsmen_: nom. pl. leÛde, 362, 415, 1214, 2126, etc.;
gum-cynnes Ge·ta leÛde (_people of the race of the Ge·tas_), 260; acc. pl.
leÛde, 192, 443, 1337, 1346, etc.; dat. pl. leÛdum, 389, 521, 619, 698,
906, 1160, etc.; gen. pl. leÛda, 205, 635, 794, 1674, 2034, etc.

leÛd-bealo, st. n., (_mischief, misfortune affecting an entire people_),
_great, unheard-of calamity_: acc. sg., 1723; gen. pl. leÛd-bealewa, 1947.

leÛd-burh, st. f., _princely castle, stronghold of a ruler, chief city_:
acc. pl. -byrig, 2472.

leÛd-cyning, st. m., _king of the people_: nom. sg., 54.

leÛd-fruma, w. m., _prince of the people, ruler_: acc. sg. leÛd-fruman,

leÛd-gebyrgea, w. m., _protector of the people, prince_: acc. sg.
-gebyrgean, 269.

leÛd-hryre, st. m., _fall, overthrow, of the prince, ruler_: dat. sg. ‰fter
leÛd-hryre (_after the fall of the king of the Heaobeardas_, FrÙda, cf.
2051), 2031; gen. sg. ˛‰s leÛd-hryres (of the fall of Heardred, cf. 2389),

leÛd-sceaa, w. m., _injurer of the people_: dat. sg. ˛am leÛd-sceaan,

leÛd-scipe, st. m., _the whole nation, people_: acc. sg., 2752; dat. sg. on
˛am leÛd-scipe, 2198.

leÛ, st. n., _song, lay_: nom. sg., 1160.--Comp.: fyrd-, gryre-, g˚-,

leÛf, adj., _lief, dear_: nom. sg., 31, 54, 203, 511, 521, 1877, 2468; weak
form m., leÛfa, 1217, 1484, 1855, 2664; acc. sg. m. leÛfne, 34, 297, 619,
1944, 2128, 3109, 3143; gen. sg. leÛfes (m.), 1995, 2081, 2898; (neut.),
1062, 2911; dat. pl. leÛfum, 1074; gen. pl. leÛfra, 1916. Compar. nom. sg.
neut. leÛfre, 2652. Superl. nom. sg. m. leÛfost, 1297; acc. sg. ˛one
leÛfestan, 2824.

leÛflÓc, _dear, precious, valued_: nom. sg. m. leÛflÓc lind-wÓga, 2604;
acc. sg. neut. leÛflÓc Óren, 1810.

leÛgan, st. v., _to lie, belie, deceive_. subj. pres. n‰fne him his wlite
leÛge (_unless his looks belie him_), 250; pret. sg. he ne le·g fela wyrda
ne worda, 3030.

‚-leÛgan, _to deceive, leave unfulfilled_: pret. sg. he beÛt ne ‚-lÍh (_he
left not his promise unfulfilled_), 80.

ge-leÛgan, _to deceive, betray_: pret. sg. him seÛ wÍn gele·h (_hope
deceived him_), 2324.

leÛht, st. n., _light, brilliance_: nom. sg., 569, 728, 1751 (?); acc. sg.
sunnan leÛht, 649; godes leÛht gece·s (_chose God's light, died_), 2470;
dat. sg. tÙ leÛhte, 95.--Comp.: Êfen-, f˝r-, morgen-leÛht.

leÛht, adj., _luminous, bright_: instr. sg. leÛhtan sweorde, 2493.

leÛma, w. m.: 1) _light, splendor_: nom. sg., 311, 2770; acc. sg. leÛman,
1518; sunnan and mÙnan leÛman (_light of sun and moon_), 95.--2) (as beadu-
and hilde-leÛma), _the glittering sword_: nom. sg. lixte se leÛma (_the
blade-gleam flashed_), 1571.

leÛsan, st. v., = amitti, in

be-leÛsan, _to deprive, be deprived of_: pres. part. (heÛ) wear beloren
leÛfum bearnum and brÙrum (_was deprived of her dear children and
brethren_), 1074.

for-leÛsan, with dat. instr., _to lose something_: pret. sg. ˛Êr he dÙme
for-le·s, ellen-mÊrum (_there lost he the glory, the repute, of his heroic
deeds_), 1471; pret. sg. for pl. ˛‚m ˛e Êr his elne for-le·s (_to him who,
before, had lost his valor_), 2862; part. pret. nealles ic ˛‚m le·num
for-loren h‰fde (_not at all had I lost the rewards_), 2146.

libban, w. v., _to live, be, exist_: pres. sing. III. lifa, 3169; lyfa,
945; leofa, 975, 1367, 2009; subj. pres. sg. II. lifige, 1225; pres. part.
lifigende, 816, 1954, 1974, 2063; dat. sg. be ˛e lifigendum (_in thy
lifetime_), 2666; pret. sg. lifde, 57, 1258; lyfde, 2145; pret. pl. lifdon,
99. See unlifigende.

licgan, st. v.: 1) _to lie, lie down_ or _low_: pres. sg. nu seÛ hand lige
(_now the hand lies low_), 1344; nu se wyrm lige, 2746, so 2904; inf.
licgan, 3130; licgean, 967, 3083; pret. sg. l‰g, 40, 552, 2078; syan
HeardrÍd l‰g (_after HeardrÍd had fallen_), 2389; pret. pl. l‚gon, 3049;
lÊgon, 566.--2) _to lie prostrate, rest, fail_: pret. sg. nÊfre on Ùre l‰g
wÓd-c˚es wÓg (_never failed the far-famed one's valor at the front_),
1042; syan wier-gyld l‰g (_after vengeance failed_, or, _when Withergyld
lay dead_, if _W._ is a proper name), 2052.

‚-licgan, _to succumb, fail, yield_: inf. 2887; pret. sg. ˛‰t his dÙm ‚-l‰g
(_that its power failed it_), 1529.

ge-licgan, _to rest, lie still_: pret. sg. wind-blond gel‰g, 3147.

lida, w. m., _boat, ship_ (as in motion); in comp.: sund-, ˝-lida.

lid-man, st. m., _seafarer, sailor_: gen. pl. lid-manna, 1624.

lim, st. n., _limb, branch_: instr. pl. leomum, 97.

limpan, st. v., _to happen, befall_ (well or ill); impers. w. dat. pret.
sg. h˚ lomp eÛw on l‚de (_how went it with you on the journey?_), 1988.

‚-limpan, _to come about, offer itself_: pret. sg. Ù ˛‰t sÊl ‚-lamp (_till
the opportunity presented itself_), 623; pret. part, ˛‚ him ‚-lumpen w‰s
wistfylle wÍn (_since a hope of a full meal had befallen him_), 734.

be-limpan, _to happen to, befall_: pret. sg. him siÛ s‚r belamp, 2469.

ge-limpan, _to happen, occur, turn out_: pres. sg. III. hit eft gelimpe
˛‰t..., 1754; subj. pres. ˛isse ans˝ne alwealdan ˛anc lungre gelimpe
(_thanks to the Almighty forthwith for this sight!_), 930; pret. sg. him on
fyrste gelamp ˛‰t..., 76; sw‚ him ful-oft gelamp (_as often happened to
them_), 1253; ˛‰s ˛e hire se willa gelamp ˛‰t ... (_because her wish had
been fulfilled_), 627; frÙfor eft gelamp s‚rig-mÙdum, 2942; subj. pret. gif
him ˛yslÓcu ˛earf gelumpe, 2638; pret. part. Denum eallum wear ... willa
gelumpen, 825.

lind, st. f. (properly _linden_; here, a a wooden shield covered with
linden-bark or pith): nom. sg., 2342; acc. sg. geolwe linde, 2611; acc. pl.
linde, 2366.

lind-gestealla, w. m., _shield-comrade, war-comrade_: nom. sg., 1974.

lind-h‰bbend, pres. part., _provided with a shield_, i.e. warrior: nom. pl.
-h‰bbende, 245; gen. pl. h‰bbendra, 1403.

lind-plega, w. m., _shield-play_, i.e. battle: dat. sg. lind-plegan, 1074,

lind-wÓga, w. m., _shield-fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 2604.

linnan, st. v., _to depart, be deprived of_: inf. aldre linnan (_depart
from life_), 1479; ealdres linnan, 2444.

lis, st. f., _favor, affection_: gen. pl. eall ... lissa, 2151.

list, st. m., _art, skill, cleverness, cunning_: dat. pl. adverbial, listum
(_cunningly_), 782.

lixan, w. v., _to shine, flash_: pret. sg. lixte, 311, 485, 1571.

lÓc, st. n.: 1) _body, corpse_: nom. sg., 967; acc. sg. lÓc, 2081; ˛‰t lÓc
(_the body, corpse_), 2128; dat. sg. lÓce, 734, 1504, 2424, 2572, 2733,
2744; gen. sg. lÓces, 451, 1123.-- 2) _form, figure_: in comp. eofor-,

ge-lÓc, adj., _like, similar_: nom. pl. m. ge-lÓce, 2165. Superl.
ge-lÓcost, 218, 728, 986, 1609.

lÓc-hama, -homa, w. m. _(body-home, garment), body_: nom. sg. lÓc-homa,
813, 1008, 1755; acc. sg. lÓc-haman, 2652; dat. sg. lÓc-haman, 3179.

lÓcian, w. v., _to please, like_ (impers.): pres. sg. III. me ˛Ón mÙd-sefa
lÓca leng sw‚ wel, 1855; pret. pl. ˛am wÓfe ˛‚ word wel lÓcodon, 640.

lÓcnes. See on-lÓcnes.

lÓc-s‚r, st. n., _bodily pain_: acc. sg. lÓc-s‚r, 816.

lÓc-syrce, w. f., _body-sark, shirt of mail covering the body_: nom. sg.,

1Óan, st. v., _to move, go_: pres. part. nom. pl. ˛‚ lÓende (_navigantes,
sailors_), 221; ˛‚ w‰s sund liden (_the water was then traversed_),
223.--Comp.: he·u-, mere-, wÊg-lÓend.

lÓe (O.H.G. lindi), adj., _gentle, mild, friendly_: nom. sg. w. instr.
gen. l‚ra lÓe, 1221. Superl. nom. sg. lÓost, 3184.

li-wÊge, st. n., _can in which lÓ_ (a wine-like, foaming drink) _is
contained_: acc. sg., 1983.

lÓf, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. lÓf, 97, 734, 1537, 2424, 2744, 2752; dat.
sg. lÓfe, 2572; tÙ lÓfe (_in one's life, ever_) 2433; gen. sg. lÓfes, 197,
791, 807, 2824, 2846; worolde lÓfes (_of the earthly life_), 1388,
2344.--Comp. edwÓt-lÓf.

lÓf-bysig, adj. _(striving for life or death), weary of life, in torment of
death_: nom. sg., 967.

lÓf-dagas, st. m. pl., _lifetime_: acc.-dagas, 794, 1623.

lÓf-fre·, w. m., _lord of life, God_: nom. sg., 16.

lÓf-ged‚l, st. n., _separation from life_: nom. sg., 842.

lÓf-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, destiny_: gen. pl.-gesceafta, 1954, 3065.

lÓf-wrau, st. f., _protection for one's life, safety_: acc. sg. lÓf-wrae,
2878; dat. sg. tÙ lÓf-wrae, 972.

lÓf-wyn, st. f., _pleasure, enjoyment, joy_ (of life): gen. pl. lÓf-wynna,

lÓg, st. m. n., _flame, fire_: nom. sg., 1123; dat. instr. sg. lÓge, 728,
2306, 2322, 2342; gen. sg. lÓges, 83, 782. See lÍg.

lÓg-draca, w. m., _ fire-drake, flaming dragon_; nom. pl., 2334. See

lÓg-egesa, w. m., _horror arising through fire, flaming terror_: acc. sg.,

lÓge-torn, st. m., _false, pretended insult_ or _injury, fierce anger_(?):
dat. sg. ‰fter lÓge-torne _(on account of a pretended insult?_ or _fierce
anger?_ cf. Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 208), 1944.

lÓg-˝, st. m., _wave of fire_: instr. pl. lÓg-˝um, 2673.

leÛn, st. v., _to lend_: pret. sg. ˛‰t him on ˛earfe l‚h ˛yle HrÙg‚res
(_which H.'s spokesman lent him in need_), 1457.

on-leÛon, _to lend, grant as a loan_, with gen. of thing and dat. pers.:
pret. sg. ˛‚ he ˛‰s wÊpnes on-l‚h sÍlran sweord-frecan, 1468.

loca, w. m., _bolt, lock_: in comp. b‚n-, burh-loca.

locen. See l˚can.

lond, long. See land, lang.

lof, st. m. n., _praise, repute_: acc. sg. lof, 1537.

lof-dÊd, st. f., _deed of praise_: instr. pl. lof-dÊdum, 24.

lof-georn, adj., _eager for praise, ambitious_: superl. nom. sg.
lof-geornost, 3184.

loga, w. m., _liar_; in comp. treÛw-loga.

losian, w. v., _to escape, flee_: pres. sg. III. losa, 1393, 2063; pret.
sg. he on weg losade (_fled away_), 2097.

lÙcian, w. v., _to see, look at_: pres. sg. II. sÊ-l‚c ... ˛e ˛u her tÙ
lÙcast (_booty of the sea that thou lookest on_), 1655.

ge-lÙme, adv., _often, frequently_, 559.

lufe, w. f., _love_: in comp. he·h-, mÙd-, wÓf-lufe.

lufa (cf. and-leofa, big-leofa, _nourishment_), w. m., _food, subsistence;
property, real estate_: acc. sg. on lufan (_on possessions_), 1729.--Comp.

lufen, st. f. (cf. lufa), _subsistence, food; real estate, (enjoyment?)_:
nom. sg. lufen (parallel with Íel-wyn), 2887.

luf-t‚cen, st. n., _love-token_: acc. pl. luf-t‚cen, 1864.

lufian, w. v., _to love, serve affectionately_: pret. sg. III. lufode ˛‚
leÛde (_was on affectionate terms with the people_), 1983.

lungre, adv.: 1) _hastily, quickly, forthwith_, 930, 1631, 2311, 2744.--2)
_quite, very, fully_: feÛwer mearas lungre gelÓce (_four horses quite
alike_), 2165.

lust, st. m., _pleasure, joy_: dat. pl. adv. lustum (_joyfully_), 1654; so,
on lust, 619, cf. 600.

l˚can, st. v., _to twist, wind, lock, interweave_: pret. part. acc. sg. and
pl. locene leoo-syrcan (_shirt of mail wrought of meshes or rings
interlocked_), 1506, 1891; gen. pl. locenra be·ga (_rings wrought of gold
wire_), 2996.

be-l˚can: 1) _to shut, close in or around_: pret. sg. winter ˝e be-le·c
Ós-gebinde (_winter locked the waves with icy bond_), 1133.-- 2) _to shut
in, off, preserve, protect_: pret. sg. I. hig wÓge bele·c manegum mÊga (_I
shut them in, protected them, from war arising from many a tribe_), 1771.
Cf. me wÓge bel˚c wr‚um feÛndum (_protect me against mine enemies_), Ps.
34, 3.

ge-l˚can, _to unite, link together, make_: pret. part. gelocen, 2770.

on-l˚can, _to unlock, open_: pret. sg. word-hord on-le·c (_opened the
word-hoard, treasure of speech_), 259.

tÙ-lucan, _(to twist, wrench, in two) to destroy_: inf., 782.

lyft, st. f. (m. n.?), _air_: nom. sg., 1376; dat. sg. ‰fter lyfte (_along,
through, the air_), 2833.

lyft-floga, w. m., _air-flier_: nom. sg. (of the dragon), 2316.

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