Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

Part 6 out of 11

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 1.1 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

the bounteous repast_, 1015; ˛eÛdnes gefÍgon, _rejoiced at_ (the return of)
_the ruler_, 1628.--b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mÊrum, 828;
secg weorce gefeh, 1570; sÊl‚ce gefeah, m‰gen-byrenne ˛‚ra ˛e he him mid
h‰fde, _rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that_
(Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) _which he had with him_, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., _bestowing of gifts_ or _treasures_: gen. sg.
˛Êre feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. ‰t feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum,
_with rich gifts_, 21.

feoh-le·s, adj., _that cannot be atoned for through gifts_: nom. sg. ˛‰t
w‰s feoh-le·s gefeoht, _a deed of arms that cannot be expiated_ (the
killing of his brother by HÊcyn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., _combat; warlike deed_: nom. sg. (the killing of his
brother by HÊcyn), 2442; dat. sg. mÍce ˛one ˛Ón fader tÙ gefeohte b‰r,
_the sword which thy father bore to the combat_, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., _to fight_: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wÓg Hengeste wiht
gefeohtan (_could by no means offer Hengest battle_), 1084.

feohte, w. f., _combat_: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., _far, remote_: nom. sg. nis ˛‰t feor heonon, 1362; n‰s him feor
˛anon tÙ gesÍcanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (_all that is
far, past_), 1702.

feor, adv., _far, far away_: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor
and (oe) ne·h, _far and (or) near_, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.--b) of time:
ge feor hafa fÊhe gestÊled (_has placed us under her enmity henceforth_),

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and f‰stor, 143; fyr, 252; feorr,
1989; feor, 542.

feor-b˚end, pt., _dwelling far away_: nom. pl. ge feor-b˚end, 254.

feor-c˝, st. f., _home of those living far away, distant land_: nom, pl.
feor-c˝e beÛ sÍlran gesÙhte ˛‰m ˛e him selfa de·h, _foreign lands are
better sought by him who trusts to his own ability_, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, _world_), st. m. and n., _life, principle of
life, soul_: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; nÙ ˛on lange w‰s feorh ‰elinges flÊsce
bewunden, _not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the
body_ (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wr‰c, _life expelled the
strength_ (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also),
2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, _preserve
his life_, 2857; feorh ‚legde, _gave up his life_, 852; similarly, Êr he
feorh sele, 1371; feorh oferede, _tore away her life_, 2142; Ù ˛‰t hie
forlÊddan tÙ ˛am lindplegan swÊse gesÓas ond hyra sylfra feorh, _till in
an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their
lives_ (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif ˛u ˛Ón feorh hafast, 1850;
ymb feorh sacan (_to fight for life_), 439; w‰s in feorh dropen, _was
wounded into his life_, i.e. mortally, 2982; wÓdan feorh, as temporal acc.,
_through a wide life_, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. feore, 1294, 1549; tÙ
wÓdan feore, _for a wide life_, i.e. at all times, 934; on sw‚ geongum
feore (_at a so youthful age_), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg.
feores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. b˚ton ... feorum gumena, 73; freÛnda feorum,
1307.--Also, _body, corpse_: ˛‚ w‰s heal hroden feÛnda feorum (_the hall
was covered with the slain of the enemy_), 1153; gehwearf ˛‚ in Francna
f‰m feorh cyninges, _then the body of the king_ (Hygel‚c) _fell into the
power of the Franks_, 1211. --Comp. geogo-feorh.

feorh-bana, w. m., _(life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer_: dat. sg.
feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., _wound that takes away life, mortal wound_: dat.
(instr.) pl. feorh-bennum seÛc, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., _evil destroying life, violent death_: nom. sg., 2078,
2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., _race of the living, mankind_: gen. pl. fela
feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genÓla, w. m., _he who seeks life, life's enemy_ (N.H.G. Tod-feind),
_mortal enemy_: acc. sg. -genÓlan, 1541; dat. sg. -genÓlan, 970; acc. sg.
brÊgd feorh-genÓlan, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genÓlan, (Ongen˛eÛw)
_pursued his mortal enemies_, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., _the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate_:
acc. sg. on m‚ma hord mine (mÓnne, MS.) bebohte frÙde feorh-lege, _for the
treasure-hoard I sold my old life_, 2801.

feorh-l‚st, st. m., _trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death _: acc. pl.
feorh-l‚stas b‰r, 847.

feorh-seÛc, adj., _mortally wounded_: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., _(stroke robbing of life), fatal blow_: acc. sg.,

feorh-wund, st. f., _mortal wound, fatal injury_: acc. sg. feorh-wunde
hle·t, 2386.

feorm, st. f., _subsistence, entertainment_: acc. sg. nÙ ˛u ymb mÓnes ne
˛earft lÓces feorme leng sorgian, _thou needest no longer have care for the
sustenance of my body_, 451.--2) _banquet_: dat. on feorme (or feorme,
MS.), 2386.

feormend-le·s, adj., _wanting the. cleanser_: acc. pl. geseah ...
fyrn-manna fatu feormend-le·se, 2762.

feormian, w. v., _to clean, to cleanse, to polish_: pres. part. nom pl.
feormiend swefa (feormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., _to feast, to eat_; pret. part. sÙna h‰fde unlyfigendes
eal gefeormod fÍt and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., _to remove_: inf. sibbe ne wolde wi manna hwone
m‰genes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, feÛ ˛ingian, (Grendel) _would not from
friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay
it for tribute_, 156.

feorran, adv., _from afar_: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.;
sian ‰elingas feorran gefricgean fle·m eÛwerne, _when noble men afar
learn of your flight_ (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands),
2890; fÍrdon folctogan feorran and ne·n, _from far and from near_, 840;
similarly, ne·n and feorran ˛u nu [friu] hafast, 1175; w‰s ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg
wÓde ges˝ne ... ne·n and feorran, _visible from afar, far and near_,
2318.--b) temporal: se ˛e c˚e frumsceaft fira feorran reccan (_since
remote antiquity_), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., _foreign-born_: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., _far way_: dat. pl. m‚dma fela of feorwegum, _many
precious things from distant paths_ (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-feÛn. See feohan.

feÛnd, st. m., _enemy_: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; feÛnd on helle (Grendel),
101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. feÛnde, 143, 439; gen. sg.
feÛndes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. feÛnd, 699; dat. pl. feÛndum, 420, 1670;
gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

feÛnd-gr‚p, st. f., _foe's clutch_: dat. (instr.) pl. feÛnd-gr‚pum f‰st,

feÛnd-sceaa, w. m., _one who is an enemy and a robber_: nom. sg. f‚h
feÛnd-scaa (_a hostile sea-monster_), 554.

feÛnd-scipe, st. m., _hostility_: nom. sg., 3000.

feÛwer, num., _four_: nom. feÛwer bearn, 59; feÛwer mearas, 2164; feÛwer,
as substantive, 1638; acc. feÛwer m‚mas, 1028.

feÛwer-tyne, num., _fourteen_: nom. with following gen. pl. feÛwertyne
Ge·ta, 1642.

findan, st. v., _to find, to invent, to attain_: a) with simple object in
acc.: inf. ˛‚ra ˛e he cÍnoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hie at Finnes-h‚m
findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; m‰g ˛Êr fela
freÛnda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; sw‚ hyt weorlÓcost
fore-snotre men findan mihton, _so splendidly as only very wise men could
devise it_, 3164; pret. sg. heal˛egnas fand, 720; word Ùer fand, _found
other words_, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelÓcne
grund-hyrde fond, 2137; ˛‰t ic gÙdne funde be·ga bryttan, 1487; pret. part.
syan Êrest wear fe·sceaft funden (_discovered_), 7.--b) with acc. and
pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten sÓnne driÛrigne fand, 2790.--c) with acc. and
inf.: pret. fand ˛‚ ˛Êr inne ‰elinga gedriht swefan, 118; fand w‰ccendne
wer wÓges bÓdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; Ù ˛‰t he
fyrgen-be·mas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon ˛‚ s‚wulle·sne
hlim-bed healdan, 3034.--d) with dependent clause: inf. nÙ ˛˝ Êr fe·sceafte
findan meahton ‰t ˛am ‰elinge ˛‰t he HeardrÍde hl‚ford wÊre (_could by no
means obtain it from the prince_), 2374.

on-findan, _to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice_: a) w. acc.: pret.
sg. landweard onfand eftsÓ eorla, _the coast-guard observed the return of
the earls_, 1892; pret. part. ˛‚ heÛ onfunden w‰s (_was discovered_),
1294.--b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. ˛‚ se gist onfand ˛‰t se beado-leÛma
bÓtan nolde, _the stranger_ (BeÛwulf) _perceived that the sword would not
cut_, 1523; sÙna ˛‰t onfunde, ˛‰t ..., _immediately perceived that_...,
751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., _finger_: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985;
dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

firas, fyras (O.H.G. firahÓ, i.e. _the living_; cf. feorh), st. m., only in
pl., _men_: gen. pl. fira, 91, 2742; monegum fira, 2002; fyra gehwylcne
leÛda mÓnra, 2251; fira fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., _cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice,
outrage_: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fÊhe, 153; fÊhe and
fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fÊhe and fyrene,
137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel),
751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of
_maliciously_, 1745, or _fallaciously_, with reference to HÊcyn's killing
Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dÊd, st. f., _wicked deed_: acc. pl. fyren-dÊda, 1670; instr. pl.
fyren-dÊdum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to
their nocturnal inroads.

firen-˛earf, st. f., _misery through the malignity of enemies_: acc. sg.
fyren-˛earfe, 14.

firgen-be·m, st. m., _tree of a mountain-forest_: acc. pl. fyrgen-be·mas,

firgen-holt, st. m., _mountain-wood, mountain-forest_: acc. sg. on
fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-stre·m, st. m., _mountain-stream_: nom. sg. fyrgen-stre·m, 1360;
acc. sg. under fyrgen-stre·m (marks the place where the mountain-stream,
according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., _fish_: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

fÓf, num., _five_: uninflect. gen. fÓf nihta fyrst, 545; acc. fÓfe (?),

fÓfel-cyn (O.N. fÓfl, stultus and gigas), st. n., _giant-race_: gen. sg.
fÓfelcynnes eard, 104.

fÓf-tene, fÓf-tyne, num., _fifteen_: acc. f˝ftyne, 1583; gen. fÓftena sum,

fÓf-tig, num., _fifty_: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fÓftig
wintra, 2734; gen. se w‰s fÓftiges fÙt-gemearces lang, 3043.--2) as
adjective: acc. fÓftig wintru, 2210.

fl‚n, st. m., _arrow_: dat. sg. fl‚ne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

fl‚n-boga, w. m., _bow which shoots the fl‚n, bow_: dat. sg. of fl‚n-bogan,
1434, 1745.

flÊsc, st. n., _flesh, body in contrast with soul_: instr. sg. nÙ ˛on lange
w‰s feorh ‰elinges flÊsce bewunden, _not much longer was the son of the
prince contained in his body_, 2425.

flÊsc-hama, w. m., _clothing of flesh_, i.e. the body: acc. sg.
flÊsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) _ground, floor of a hall_: acc. sg. heÛ on flet gebe·h,
_fell to the ground_, 1541; similarly, 1569.--2) _hall, mansion_: nom. sg.
1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; ˛‰t hie him
Ùer flet eal ger˝mdon, _that they should give up entirely to them another
hall_, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-r‰st, st. f., _resting-place in the hall_: acc. sg. flet-r‰ste gebe·g,
_reclined upon the couch in the hall_, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_: acc. pl -sittende, 2023;
dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., _troop from the hall_: nom. sg., 476.

fle·m, st. m., _flight_: acc. sg. on fle·m gewand, _had turned to flight_,
1002; fle·m eÛwerne, 2890.

fleÛgan, st. v., _to fly_: prs. sg. III. fleÛge, 2274.

fleÛn, st. v., _to flee_: inf. on heolster fleÛn, 756; fleÛn on fenhopu,
765; fleÛn under fen-hleou, 821; pret. hete-swengeas fle·h, 2226.

be-fleÛn, w. acc., _to avoid, to escape_: gerund nÙ ˛‰t ˝e by tÙ
befleÛnne, _that is not easy_ (i.e. not at all) _to be avoided_, 1004.

ofer-fleÛn, w. acc., _to flee from one, to yield_: inf. nelle ic beorges
weard oferfleÛn fÙtes trem, _will not yield to the warder of the mountain_
(the drake) _a foot's breadth_, 2526.

fleÛtan, st. v., _to float upon the water, to swim_: inf. nÙ he wiht fram
me flÙd-˝um feor fleÛtan meahte. hraor on helme, _no whit, could he swim
from me farther on the waves_ (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves
marked the distance), _more swiftly in the sea_, 542; pret. sÊgenga fle·t
f‚migheals for ofer ˝e, _floated away over the waves_, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

flÓtan, st. v., _to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate_: pres. part.
flÓtende fealwe strÊte mearum mÊton (_rode a race_), 917; pret. sg. II.
eart ˛u se BeÛwulf, se ˛e wi Brecan ... ymb sund flite, _art thou the
BeÛwulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming?_ 507.

ofer-flÓtan, _to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome_: pret.
w. acc. he ˛e ‰t sunde oferfl‚t (_overcome thee in a swimming-wager_), 517.

ge-flÓt, st. n., _emulation_: acc. sg. lÍton on geflÓt faran fealwe mearas,
_let the fallow horses go in emulation_, 866.

floga, w. m., _flyer_; in the compounds: g˚-, lyft-, uht-, wÓ-floga.

flota (see fleÛtan), w. m., _float, ship, boat_: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301;
acc. sg. flotan eÛwerne, 294.--Comp. wÊg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., _fleet_: instr. sg. cwom faran flotherge on Fresna land,

flÙd, st. m., _flood, stream, sea-current_: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.;
acc. sg. flÙd, 3134; ofer fealone flÙd, 1951; dat. sg. tÙ flÙde, 1889; gen.
pl. flÙda begong, _the region of floods_, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flÙda
genipu, 2809.

flÙd-˝, st. f., _flood-wave_: instr. pl. flÙd-˝um, 542.

flÙr, st. m., _floor, stone-floor_: acc. sg. on f‚gne flÙr (the floor was
probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang ˛‚
‰fter flÙre, _along the floor_ (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., _flight_: nom. sg. g‚res fliht, _flight of the
spear_, 1766.

ge-fl˝man, w. v., _to put to flight_: pret. part. gefl˝med, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., _troop, band of warriors; folk_, in the sense of the whole
body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; S˚dene
folc, 464; folc and rÓce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga,
465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer sÊ sÓde, _went with a band of warriors
over the wide sea_, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.--The
king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; fre·wine folces, 2358;
or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwÍn, 1933.--The pl., in the sense
of _warriors, fighting men_: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum,
55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. freÛ- (fre·-) wine folca, _of the king_, 430, 2430;
friu-sibb folca, _of the queen_, 2018.--Comp. sige-folc.

folc-‚gend, pres. part., _leader of a band of warriors_: nom. pl.
folc-‚gende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., _man of the multitude, a common man_: nom. sg.
folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwÍn, st. f., _queen of a warlike host_: nom. sg., of Wealh˛eÛw, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., _king of a warlike host_: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-rÊd, st. m, _what best serves a warlike host_: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., _the rights of the fighting men of a nation_: gen. pl.
him Êr forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, sw‚ his f‰der ‚hte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., _part of a host of warriors, nation_: dat. sg.
folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., _position of a band of warriors, place where a band of
warriors is quartered_: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76;
folcstede f‚ra (_the battle-field_), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., _leader of a body of warriors, duke_: nom. pl., powerful
liege-men of HrÙg‚r are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., _earth-house_ (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a
dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. f‰ger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-b˚end, pres. part. _dweller on earth, man_: nom. pl. fold-b˚end, 2275;
fold-b˚ende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-b˚endum, 309.

folde, w. f., _earth, ground_: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; feÛll on
foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, _the bosom of the earth_, 1138; foldan
sce·tas, 96; foldan f‰m, 1394.--Also, _earth, world_: dat. sg. on foldan,

fold-weg, st. m., _field-way, road through the country_: acc. sg. fold-weg,
1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) _to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow_: pret. pl.
˛e·h hie hira be·ggyfan banan folgedon, _although they followed the
murderer of their prince_, 1103.--2) _to pursue, to follow after_: folgode
feorh-genÓlan (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, _hand_: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743;
acc. pl. fÍt and folma, _feet and hands_, 746; dat. pl. tÙ banan folmum,
158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.--Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, _before_, ante: ˛‰t
he for eaxlum gestÙd Deniga fre·n, 358; for hl‚we, 1121.--b) _before_,
coram, in conspectu: no he ˛Êre feohgyfte for sceÛtendum scamigan ˛orfte,
_had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors_, 1027; for ˛‰m
werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for dugue, _before the noble band of
warriors_, 2021.--Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, _on account of,
through, from_: for wlenco, _from bravery, through warlike courage_, 338,
1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonh˝dum, 434; for onmÍdlan, 2927, etc.--b)
objective, partly denoting a cause, _through, from, by reason of_: for
metode, _for the creator, on account of the creator_, 169; for ˛re·n˝dum,
833; for ˛re·nÍdlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, _on account of, in accordance with
the promise of bold deeds_ (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself),
509; him for hrÙfsele hrÓnan ne mehte fÊr-gripe flÙdes, _on account of the
roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him_, 1516;
lÓg-egesan w‰g for horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the treasure_,
2782; for mundgripe mÓnum, _on account of, through the gripe of my hand_,
966; for ˛‰s hildfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, _through the
stroke_, 2967; ne meahte ... deÛp ged˝gan for dracan lÍge, _could not hold
out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake_, 2550. Here may be
added such passages as ic ˛‰m gÙdan sceal for his mÙd˛r‰ce m‚mas beÛdan,
_will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his
high courage_, 385; ful-oft for l‰ssan le·n teohhode, _gave often reward
for what was inferior_, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not uneasy about
his life_, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for ‚rstafum, _to
the assistance_, 382, 458.--2) w. instr. causal, _because of, for_: he hine
feor forwr‰c for ˛˝ mane, 110.--3) w. acc., _for, as, instead of_: for sunu
freÛgan, _love as a son_, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; ne him ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg
for wiht dyde, _held the drake's fighting as nothing_, 2349.

foran, adv., _before, among the first, forward_: sian ... sce·wedon
feÛndes fingras, foran Êghwylc (_each before himself_), 985; ˛‰t w‰s ‚n
foran ealdgestreÛna, _that was one among the first of the old treasures_,
i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; ˛e him foran onge·n linde bÊron, _bore
their shields forward against him_ (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, _before_: he ... beforan gengde, _went before_,
1413; temporal, _before, earlier_, 2498.--2) prep. w. acc. _before_, in
conspectu: mÊre m‚um-sweord manige ges‚won beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., _ford, water-way_: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

for: 1) local, _forth, hither, near_: for near ‰tstÙp, _approached
nearer_, 746; ˛‚ cwom Wealh˛eÛ for g‚n, 1163; similarly, 613; him sele˛egn
for wÓsade, _led him_ (BeÛwulf) _forth_ (to the couch that had been
prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; ˛‰t him sw‚t sprong for under fexe,
_forth under the hair of his head_, 2968. _Forward, further_: gewÓta for
beran wÊpen and gewÊdu, 291; he tÙ for gestÙp, 2290; freoo-wong ˛one for
ofereodon, 2960. _Away, forth_, 45, 904; fyrst for gew‚t, _the time_ (of
the way to the ship) _was out_, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; me
... for-gewitenum, _to me the departed_, 1480; fÍrdon for, _went forth_
(from Grendel's sea), 1633; ˛onne he for scile, _when he must (go) forth_,
i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men for gefremede, _carried
him forth, over all men_, 1719.--2) temporal, _forth, from now on_: heald
for tela niwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal for sprecan gen ymbe Grendel, _shall
from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2070. See furum and furor.

for-gerÓmed, pres. part., _in unbroken succession_, 59.

for-gesceaft, st. f., _that which is determined for farther on, future
destiny_: acc. sg. he ˛‚ for-gesceaft forgyte and forg˝me, 1751.

for-weg, st. m., _road that leads away, journey_: he of ealdre gew‚t frÙd
on for-weg (_upon the way to the next world_), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, _before_, coram, in conspectu: heÛ fore ˛‰m
werede spr‰c, 1216. Causal, _through, for, because of_: nÙ mearn fore fÊhe
and fyrene, 136; fore f‰der dÊdum, _because of the father's deeds_,
2060,--Allied to this is the meaning, _about_, de, super: ˛Êr w‰s sang and
swÍg samod ‰tg‰dere fore Healfdenes hildewÓsan, _song and music about
Healfdene's general_ (the song of Hn‰f), 1065.

fore-mÊre, adj., _renowned beyond (others)_, prÊclarus: superl. ˛‰t w‰s
fore-mÊrost foldb˚endum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., _able beyond (others)_, prÊpotens: nom. sg. w‰s tÙ
foremihtig feÛnd on fÍe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (could flee
too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., _wise beyond (others)_, sapientissimus: nom. pl.
foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-˛anc, st. m., _forethought, consideration, deliberation_: nom. sg.,

forht, adj., _fearful, cowardly_: nom. sg. forht, 2968; he on mÙde wear
forht on ferhe, 755.--Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., _foremost, first_: nom. sg. forma sÓ (_the first time_), 717,
1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sÓe, 741, 2287; forman dÙgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., _first of all, in the first place_: he fyrmest l‰g,

forst, st. m., _frost, cold_: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-˛am, for-˛an, for-˛on, adv. and conj., _therefore, on that account,
then_: for˛am, 149; for˛an, 418, 680, 1060; for˛on ˛e, _because_, 503.

fÙn, st. v., _to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take_: prs. sg. III.
fÍh Ùer tÙ, _another lays hold_ (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid
gr‚pe sceal fÙn wi feÛnde, 439; pret. sg. him tÙge·nes fÍng, _caught at
him, grasped at him_, 1543; w. dat. he ˛‚m fr‰twum fÍng, _received the rich
adornments_ (Ongen˛eÛw's equipment), 2990.

be-fÙn, _to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace_: pret. part.
hyne s‚r hafa ... nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; heÛ ‰elinga ‚nne
h‰fde f‰ste befangen (_had seized him firmly_), 1296; helm ... befongen
fre·wr‚snum (_encircled by an ornament like a diadem_), 1452; fenne
bifongen, _surrounded by the fen_, 2010; (draca) f˝re befongen, _encircled
by fire_, 2275, 2596; h‰fde landwara lÓge befangen, _encompassed by fire_,

ge-fÙn, w. acc., _to seize, to grasp_: pret. he gefÍng slÊpendne rinc, 741;
g˚rinc gefÍng atolan clommum, 1502; gefÍng ˛‚ be eaxle ... G˚ge·ta leÛd
Grendles mÙdor, 1538; gefÍng ˛‚ fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefÍng, geolwe
linde, 2610; ic on Ùfoste gefÍng micle mid mundum m‰gen-byrenne, _hastily
I seized with my hands the enormous burden_, 3091.

on-fÙn, w. dat., _to receive, to accept, to take_: pres. imp. sg. onfÙh
˛issum fulle, _accept this cup_, 1170; inf. ˛‰t ˛‰t ˛eÛdnes bearn ...
scolde f‰der-‰elum onfÙn, _receive the paternal rank_, 912; pret. sg. hw‚
˛‰m hl‰ste onfÍng, _who received the ship's lading_, 52; hleÛr-bolster
onfÍng eorles andwlitan, _the pillow received the nobleman's face_, 689;
similarly, 853, 1495; heal swÍge onfÍng, _the hall received the loud
noise_, 1215; he onfÍng hrae inwit-˛ancum, _he_ (BeÛwulf) _at once
clutched him_ (Grendel) _devising malice_, 749.

˛urh-fÙn, w. acc., _to break through with grasping, to destroy by
grasping_: inf. ˛‰t heÛ ˛one fyrd-hom ˛urh-fÙn ne mihte, 1505.

wi-fÙn, w. dat., _(to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of_: pret. sg. him
f‰ste wi-fÍng, 761.

ymbe-fÙn, w. acc., _to encircle_: pret. heals ealne ymbefÍng biteran b‚num,
_encircled his_ (BeÛwulf's) _whole neck with sharp bones_ (teeth), 2692.

fÙt, st. m., _foot_: gen. sg. fÙtes trem (_the measure of a foot, a foot
broad_), 2526; acc. pl. fÍt, 746; dat. pl. ‰t fÙtum, _at the feet_, 500,

fÙt-gemearc, st. n., _measure, determining by feet, number of feet_: gen.
sg. se w‰s fÓftiges fÙtgemearces lang (_fifty feet long_), 3043.

fÙt-l‚st, st. m., _foot-print_: acc. sg. (draca) onfand feÛndes fÙt-l‚st,

fracod, adj., _objectionable, useless_. nom. sg. n‰s seÛ ecg fracod
hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. _away from something_: ˛Êr fram sylle
‚be·g medubenc monig, 776, 1716; ˛anon eft gewiton ealdgesÓas ... fram
mere, 856; cyning-balde men from ˛‰m holmclife hafelan bÊron, 1636;
similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: he hine feor forwr‰c
... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, _hither from something_: ˛‚
ic cwom ... from feÛndum, 420; Êghw‰rum w‰s ... brÙga fram Ùrum,
2566.--Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, _of, about, concerning_:
s‰gdest from his sÓe, 532; nÙ ic wiht fram ˛e swylcra searo-nÓa secgan
h˝rde, 581; ˛‰t he fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., _away,
thence_: nÙ ˛˝ Êr fram meahte, 755; _forth, out_: from Êrest cwom oru
aglÊcean ˚t of st‚ne, _the breath of the dragon came forth first from the
rock_ 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) _directed forwards, striving forwards_; in comp.
sÓ-fram.--2) _excellent, splendid_, of a man with reference to his warlike
qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on mÙde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.--Comp. un-from;
see freme, forma.

ge-fr‰gen. See frignan.

fr‰twe, st. f. pl., _ornament, anything costly_, originally _carved
objects_ (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any
costly and artistic work: acc. pl. fr‰twe, 2920; beorhte fr‰twe, 214;
beorhte fr‰twa, 897; fr‰twe.. eorclan-st‚nas, 1208; fr‰twe,...
breÛst-weorunge, 2504, both times of Hygel‚c's collar; fr‰twe and
f‰t-gold, 1922; fr‰twe (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl.
˛‚m fr‰twum, 2164; on fr‰tewum, 963; fr‰twum (Heaobeard sword) hrÍmig,
2055; fr‰twum, of the drake's treasures, 2785; fr‰twum (Ongen˛eÛw's armor),
2990; gen. pl. fela ... fr‰twa, 37; ˛‚ra fr‰twa (drake's treasure), 2795;
fr‰twa hyrde (drake), 3134.

fr‰twan, w. v., _to supply with ornaments, to adorn_: inf. folc-stede
fr‰twan, 76.

ge-fr‰twian, w. v., _to adorn_: pret. sg. gefr‰twade foldan sce·tas leomum
and le·fum, 96; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s h‚ten Heort innanweard folmum gefr‰twod,

ge-frÊge, adj., _known by reputation, renowned_: nom. sg. leÛd-cyning ...
folcum gefrÊge, 55; sw‚ hyt gefrÊge w‰s, 2481.

ge-frÊge, st. n., _information through hearsay_: instr. sg. mine gefrÊge
(_as I learned through the narrative of others_), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frÊgnian, w. v., _to become known through hearsay_: pret. part. fylle
gefrÊgnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying
off of ƒschere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly _a wolf_, as one that breaks in, robs; here a
designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of BeÛwulf, 1564.--Comp.:
g˚-, hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wÓg-freca; fer-frec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly _distant, foreign_; then _estranged, hostile_: nom
sg. ˛‰t w‰s fremde ˛eÛd Ícean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwÍn, of
firyo, 1933(?).

fremman, w. v., _to press forward, to further_, hence: 1) in general, _to
perform, to accomplish, to do, to make_: pres. subj. without an object,
fremme se ˛e wille, _let him do (it) whoever will_, 1004. With acc.: imp.
pl. fremma ge nu leÛda ˛earfe, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; s‰cce
fremman, 2500; fÊhe ... mÊrum fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcrÊd
fremede (_did what was best for his men_, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. h˚
˛‚ ‰elingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles f‚censtafas
... ˛enden fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. ˛‰t ic ... mÊro fremede, 2135. --2)
_to help on, to support_: inf. ˛‰t he mec fremman wile wordum and worcum
(to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., _to do, to make, to render_: inf. gefremman eorlÓc
ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, _to give help_, 2450; ‰fter we·spelle wyrpe
gefremman, _to work a change after sorrow_ (to give joy after sorrow),
1316; gerund, tÙ gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165,
551, 585, etc.; ˛e·h ˛e hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men for gefremede,
_placed him away, above all men_, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl.
gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed,
476; fem, nu scealc hafa ... dÊd gefremede, 941; absolutely, ˛u ˛e self
hafast dÊdum gefremed, ˛‰t ..., _hast brought it about by thy deeds that_,

fretan, st. v., _to devour, to consume_: inf. ˛‚ (the precious things)
sceal brond fretan, 3015; nu sceal glÍd fretan wÓgena strengel, 3115; pret.
sg. (Grendel) slÊpende fr‰t folces Denigea f˝ftyne men, 1582.

frÍcne, adj., _dangerous, bold_: nom. sg. frÍcne f˝r-draca, 2690;
feorh-bealo frÍcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frÍcne dÊde, 890; frÍcne fengel‚d,
1360; frÍcne stÙwe, 1379; instr. sg. frÍcnan sprÊce (_through provoking
words_), 1105.

frÍcne, adv., _boldly, audaciously_, 960, 1033, 1692.

fre·, w. m., _ruler, lord_, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. fre·, 2286; acc.
sg. fre·n, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. fre·n, 359, 500, 1167,
1681; dat. sg. fre·n, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. eode ... tÙ
hire fre·n sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. fre·n ealles, _the Lord of all_,
2795; gen. sg. fre·n, 27.-- Comp.: ‚gend-, lÓf-, sin-fre·.

fre·-dryhten, st. m., _lord, ruling lord_: gen. sg. fre·-drihtnes, 797.

fre·-wine, st. m., _lord and friend, friendly ruler_: nom. sg. fre·-wine
folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his fre·-wine, 2439.

fre·-wr‚sn, st. f., _encircling ornament like a diadem_: instr. pl. helm
... befongen fre·wr‚snum, 1452; see wr‚sn.

freou, friu, f., _protection, asylum, peace_: acc. sg. wel bi ˛‰m ˛e mÙt
... tÙ f‰der f‰mum freoo wilnian, _who may obtain an asylum in God's
arms_, 188; ne·n and feorran ˛u nu [friu] hafast, 1175.--Comp. fen-freoo.

freoo-burh, st. f., _castle, city affording protection_: acc. sg.
freooburh f‰gere, 522.

freoo-wong, st. m., _field of peace, field of protection_: acc. sg., 2960;
seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freoo-wÊr, st. f., _peace-alliance, security of peace_: acc. sg. ˛‚ hie
getr˚wedon on tw‚ healfa f‰ste friou-wÊre, 1097; gen. sg. frioowÊre b‰d
hl‚ford sÓnne, _entreated his lord for the protection of peace_ (i.e. full
pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freoo-webbe, w. f., _peace-weaver_, designation of the royal consort
(often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two
nations): nom. sg., 1943.

freÛ-burh, st. f., = fre·-burg (?), _ruler's castle_ (?) (according to
Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. freÛburh, 694.

freÛd, st. f., _friendship_: acc. sg. freÛde ne woldon ofer heafo healdan,
2477; gen. sg. n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst freÛde tÙ friclan, _was no longer time to
seek for friendship_, 2557; --_favor, acknowledgement_: acc. sg. ic ˛e
sceal mÓne gelÊstan freÛde (_will show myself grateful_, with reference to
1381 ff.), 1708.

freÛ-dryhten (= fre·-dryhten), st. m., _lord, ruler_; according to Grein,
dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. freÛ-drihten min! 1170; dat.
sg. mid his freÛ-dryhtne, 2628.

freÛgan, w. v., _to love; to think of lovingly_: pres. subj. ˛‰t mon his
wine-dryhten ... ferhum freÛge, 3178; inf. nu ic ˛ec ... me for sunu wylle
freÛgan on ferhe, 949.

freÛ-lÓc, adj., _free, free-born_ (here of the lawful wife in contrast with
the bond concubine): nom. sg. freÛlÓc wÓf, 616; freÛlÓcu folc-cwÍn, 642.

freÛnd, st. m., _friend_: acc. sg. freÛnd, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. freÛndum,
916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. freÛnda, 1307, 1839.

freÛnd-lau, st. f., _friendly invitation_: nom. sg. him w‰s ful boren and
freÛnd-lau (_friendly invitation to drink_) wordum bew‰gned, 1193.

freÛnd-l‚r, st. f., _friendly counsel_: dat. (instr.) pl. freÛnd-l‚rum,

freÛnd-lÓce, adv., _in a friendly manner, kindly_: compar. freÛnd-lÓcor,

freÛnd-scipe, st. m., _friendship_: acc. sg. freÛnd-scipe f‰stne, 2070.

freÛ-wine, st. m. (see fre·wine), _lord and friend, friendly ruler_;
according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc.
freÛ-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., _to ask, to inquire into_: inf. ongan sÓnne geseldan f‰gre
fricgean hwylce SÊ-Ge·ta sÓas wÊron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding
fela fricgende feorran rehte, _the old Scilding, asking many questions_
(having many things related to him), _told of old times_ (the conversation
was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, _to learn, to learn by inquiry_: pres. pl. syan hie
ge-fricgea fre·n ˚serne ealdorle·sne, _when they learn that our lord is
dead_, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic ˛‰t gefricge, ˛‰t..., 1827; pl. syan
‰elingas feorran gefricgean fle·m eÛwerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., _to seek, to desire, to strive for_:
inf. n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst freÛde tÙ friclan, 2557.

frio-sib, st. f., _kin for the confirming of peace_, designation of the
queen (see freoo--webbe), _peace-bringer_: nom. sg. friu-sibb folca,

frignan, fringan, frinan, st. v., _to ask, to inquire_: imp. ne frin ˛u
‰fter sÊlum, _ask not after the well-being!_ 1323; inf. ic ˛‰s wine Deniga
frinan wille ... ymb ˛Ónne sÓ, 351; pret. sg. fr‰gn, 236, 332; fr‰gn gif
..., _asked whether_ ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frinan, _to find out by inquiry, to learn by
narration._ pret. sg. (w. acc.) ˛‰t fram h‚m gefr‰gn Higel‚ces ˛egn
Grendles dÊda, 194; nÙ ic gefr‰gn heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.)
˛‚ ic wÓde gefr‰gn weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne
gefr‰gen ic ˛‚ mÊge m‚ran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sÍl gebÊran, _I never
heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about
its chief_, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) we ˛eÛdcyninga ˛rym
gefrunon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne g˚cyning gÙdne gefrunon hringas
dÊlan, 1970; (parenthetical) sw‚ guman gefrungon, 667, (after ˛onne)
medo-‰rn micel (_greater_) ... ˛one yldo bearn Êfre gefrunon, 70; pret.
part. h‰fde Higel‚ces hilde gefrunen, 2953; h‰fdon gefrunen ˛‰t..., _had
learned that_ ..., 695; h‰fde gefrunen hwanan siÛ fÊh ‚r‚s, 2404;
healsbe·ga mÊst ˛‚ra ˛e ic on foldan gefr‰gen h‰bbe, 1197.

from, See fram.

frÙd, adj.: 1) Êtate provectus, _old, gray_: nom. sg. frÙd, 2626, 2951;
frÙd cyning, 1307, 2210; frÙd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frÙd, 1725, 2115,
2278; se frÙda, 2929; ac. sg. frÙde feorhlege (_the laying down of my old
life_), 2801; dat. sg. frÙdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong
under No. 2), 2124.--2) mente excellentior, _intelligent, experienced,
wise_: nom. sg. frÙd, 1367; frÙd and gÙd, 279; on mÙde frÙd, 1845.--Comp.:
in-, un-frÙd.

frÙfor, st. f., _consolation, compensation, help_: nom. sg. frÙfor, 2942;
acc. sg. frÙfre, 7, 974; fyrena frÙfre, 629; frÙfre and fultum, 1274;
frÙfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. tÙ frÙfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frÙfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., _the foremost_, hence: l) _beginning_: nom. sg.
w‰s se fruma egeslÓc leÛdum on lande, sw‚ hyt lungre wear on hyra
sincgifan s‚re geendod (_the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible,
its end distressing through the death of BeÛwulf_), 2310.--2) _he who
stands first, prince_; in comp. dÊd-, hild-, land-, leÛd-, ord-, wÓg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), _descent, origin_: acc. sg. nu ic
eÛwer sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-g‚r, st. m., primipilus, _duke, prince_: dat. sg. frumg‚re (of
BeÛwulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, _beginning_: acc. sg. se ˛e c˚e
frumsceaft fira feorran reccan, _who could tell of the beginning of mankind
in old times_, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, _in the beginning_, i.e at his
birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., _bird_: dat. sg. fugle gelÓcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] tÙ
gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., _full, filled_: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. se w‰s innan full wr‰tta
and wÓra, 2413.--Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weor-ful.

ful, adv., plene, _very_: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., _cup, beaker_: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026;
ofer ˝a ful, _over the cup of the waves_ (the basin of the sea filled with
waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfÙh ˛issum fulle, 1170.--Comp.: medo-, sele-full.

fullÊstian, w. v. w. dat, _to give help_: pres. sg. ic ˛e fullÊstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., _help, support, protection_: acc. sg. frÙfor (frÙfre) and
fultum, 699, 1274; m‰genes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.--Comp.

fundian, w. v., _to strive, to have in view_: pres. pl. we fundia Higel‚c
sÍcan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

furum, adv., primo, _just, exactly; then first_: ˛‚ ic furum weÛld folce
Deninga, _then first governed the people of the Danes_ (had just assumed
the government), 465; ˛‚ hie tÙ sele furum ... gangan cwÙmon, 323; ic ˛Êr
furum cwom tÙ ˛am hringsele, 2010;--_before, previously_: ic ˛e sceal mÓne
gelÊstan freÛde, sw‚ wit furum sprÊcon, 1708.

furur, adv., _further, forward, more distant_, 254, 762, 3007.

f˚s, adj., _inclined to, favorable, ready_: nom. sg. nu ic eom sÓes f˚s,
1476; leÛfra manna f˚s, _prepared for the dear men_, i.e. expecting them,
1917; sigel s˚an f˚s, _the sun inclined from the south_ (midday sun),
1967; se wonna hrefn f˚s ofer fÊgum, _eager over the slain_, 3026; sceft
... feer-gearwum f˚s, 3120; nom. pl. wÊron ... eft to leÛdum f˚se tÙ
farenne, 1806.--Sometimes f˚s means _ready for death_, moribundus: f˚s and
fÊge, 1242.--Comp.: hin-, ˚t-f˚s.

f˚s-lÓc, adj., _prepared, ready_: acc. sg. f˚s-lÓc f[yrd]-leÛ, 1425;
fyrd-searo f˚s-lÓc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu f˚s-lÓcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., _fall_: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, _the fall of the king_ (in the
dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. ˛‰t he on fylle wear, _that he came to a
fall, fell_, 1545.--Comp. hr‚-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., _troop, band of warriors_: in
comp. ‰l-fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., _to fell, to slay in battle_: inf. f‚ne
gefyllan, _to slay the enemy_, 2656; pret. pl. feÛnd gefyldan, _they had
slain the enemy_, 2707.

‚-fyllan (see ful), w. v., _to fill_: pret. part. Heorot innan w‰s freÛndum
‚fylled (_was filled with trusted men_), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (_plenty, abundant meal_: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrÊgnod,
1334; gen. sg. n‰s hie ˛Êre fylle gefe·n h‰fdon, 562; fylle gefÊgon,
1015.--Comp.: w‰l-, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wÍrig, adj., _weary enough to fall, faint to death_, moribundus: acc.
sg. fyl-wÍrigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) _to bear, to bring, carry_: pret. pl. ˛‚
˛e gif-sceattas Ge·ta fyredon ˛yder tÙ ˛ance, 378.

fyras. See firas.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., _movable, that can be moved_.--Comp. hard-fyrde.--Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade on an expedition, companion in battle_:
dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., _war-dress, coat of mail_: acc. sg. ˛one fyrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hr‰gl, st. n., _coat of mail, war-dress_: acc. sg. fyrd-hr‰gl, 1528.

fyrd-hw‰t, adj., _sharp, good in war, warlike_: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477.

fyrd-leÛ, st. n., _war-song, warlike music_: acc. sg. horn stundum song
f˚slÓc f[yrd]leo, 1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., _equipment for an expedition_: acc. sg. fyrd-searu
f˚slÓc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu f˚slÓcu, 232.

fyrd-wyre, adj., _of worth in war, excellent in battle_: nom. sg.
fyrd-wyre man (BeÛwulf), 1317.

ge-fyrran (see for), w. v., _to bring forward, to further_: pret. part.
‚r w‰s on Ùfoste, eftsÓes georn, fr‰twum gefyrred, _he was hurried
forward by the treasure_ (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he
hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded
BeÛwulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., _by-gone days_: dat. pl. fyrndagum (_in old
times_), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., _work, something done in old times_: acc. sg. fira
fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283), 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., _combat in ancient times_: gen. sg. Ùr fyrn-gewinnes
(_the origin of the battles of the giants_), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., _man of ancient times_: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., _counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many
years_: dat. sg. frÙdan fyrnwitan, of ƒschere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., _portion of time, definite time, time_: nom. sg. n‰s hit
lengra fyrst, ac ymb ‚ne niht ..., 134; fyrst for gew‚t, _the time_ (of
going to the harbor) _was past_, 210; n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst freÛde tÙ friclan,
2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; fÓf nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. ˛˝
fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., _within the fixed time_,

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., _prying spirit, curiosity_: nom. sg. fyrwyt,
232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-f˝san (f˚s), w. v., _to make ready, to prepare_: part. winde gef˝sed
flota, _the ship provided with wind_ (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) f˝re
gef˝sed, _provided with fire_, 2310; ˛‚ w‰s hringbogan (of the drake)
heorte gef˝sed s‰cce tÙ sÍceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the
question, for what? g˚e gef˝sed, _ready for battle, determined to fight_,

f˝r, st. n., _fire_: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. f˝re, 2220; as
instr. f˝re, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. f˝res f‰m, 185; f˝res feng, 1765.--
Comp.: ‚d-, bÊl-, heau-, w‰l-f˝r.

f˝r-bend, st. m., _band forged in fire_: dat. pl. duru ... f˝r-bendum f‰st,

f˝r-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon_: nom. sg., 2690.

f˝r-heard, adj., _hard through fire, hardened in fire_: nom. pl. (eoforlÓc)
f‚h and f˝r-heard, 305.

f˝r-leÛht, st. n., _fire-light_: acc. sg., 1517.

f˝r-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire, flame-wave_: dat. pl. wyrm ... f˝rwylmum
f‚h, 2672.


galan, st. v., _to sing, to sound_: pres. sg. sorh-leÛ g‰le, 2461; inf.
gryre-leÛ galan, 787; bearhtm onge‚ton, g˚horn galan, _heard the clang,
the battle-trumpet sound_, 1433.

‚-galan, _to sing, to sound_: pret. sg. ˛‰t hire on hafelan hringmÊl ‚gÙl
grÊdig g˚leÛ, _that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon
her head_, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., _tribute, interest_: acc. sg.
gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., _social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings_: nom. sg. gamen,
1161; gomen, 2460; gomen gleÛbe·mes, _the pleasure of the harp_, 2264; acc.
sg. gamen and gleÛdre·m, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.--Comp.

gamen-w‚, st. f., _way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous
society_: dat. sg. of gomen-w‚e, 855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., _wood of social enjoyment_, i.e. harp: nom. sg. ˛Êr w‰s
... gomenwudu grÍted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grÍtte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., _old_; of persons, _having lived many years,
gray_: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398;
gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. ˛one gomelan,
2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; ˛am gomelan,
2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.--Also, _late, belonging to former
time_: gen. pl. gomelra l‚fe (_legacy_), 2037.--Of things, _old, from old
times_: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele l‚fe, 2564; gomel
swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., _with gray hair_: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) _gait, way_: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne
mihte ... ganges ge-twÊman, _could not keep him from going_, 969.--2)
_step, foot-step_: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel),
1405; acc. sg. uton hrae fÍran Grendles m‚gan gang sce·wigan, 1392.--Comp.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (_so far as something goes_), _extent_: acc. sg.
ofer geofenes begang, _over the extent of the sea_, 362; ofer flÙda begang,
1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flÙda begong, 1498; siolea bigong,

gangan. See under g‚n.

ganot, st. m., _diver_, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes b‰ (i.e. the
sea), 1862.

g‚d, st. n., _lack_: nom. sg. ne bi ˛e wilna g‚d (_thou shalt have no lack
of desirable_ [valuable] _things_), 661; similarly, 950.

g‚n, _expanded =_ gangan, st. v., _to go_: pres. sg. III. gÊ ‚ Wyrd sw‚
hiÛ scel, 455; gÊ eft ... tÙ medo, 605; ˛onne he ... on flett gÊ, 2035;
similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. g‚ ˛Êr he wille, _let him go whither
he will_, 1395; imp. sg. II. g‚ nu tÙ setle, 1783; nu ˛u lungre geong, hord
sce·wian, under h‚rne st‚n, 2744; inf. in g‚n, _to go in_, 386, 1645 'for
g‚n, _to go forth, to go thither_, 1164; ˛at hie him tÙ mihton gegnum
gangan, _to go towards, to go to_, 314; tÙ sele ... gangan cwÙmon, 324; in
a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nu ge mÙton gangan ... HrÙg‚r
geseÛn, 395; ˛‚ com of mÙre ... Grendel gongan, _there came Grendel (going)
from the fen_, 712; onge·n gramum gangan, _to go to meet the enemy, to go
to the war_, 1035; cwom ... tÙ hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan tÙ, _let us
go thither_, 2649.--As preterite, serve, 1) geÛng or giÛng: he tÙ healle
geÛng, 926; similarly, 2019; se ˛e on orde geÛng, _who went at the head,
went in front, _3126; on innan giÛng, _went in_, 2215; he ... giÛng tÙ ˛‰s
˛e he eorsele ‚nne wisse, _went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall,
_2410; ˛‚ se ‰eling, giÛng, ˛‰t he bÓ wealle ges‰t, _then went the prince_
(BeÛwulf) _that he might sit down by the wall_, 2716.--2) gang: tÙ healle
gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang ˛‚ ‰fter flÙre, _went
along the floor, along the hall_, 1317.--3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): he ...
beforan gengde ..., wong sce·wian, _went in front to inspect the fields_,
1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.--4) from another stem, eode (Goth.
iddja): eode ellenrÙf, ˛‰t he for eaxlum gestÙd Deniga fre·n, 358;
similarly, 403; [wi duru healle Wulfg‚r eode], _went towards the door of
the hall_, 390; eode Wealh˛eÛw for, _went forth_, 613; eode tÙ hire fre·n
sittan, 641; eode yrremÙd, _went with angry feeling_, 727; eode ... tÙ
sele, 919; similarly, 1233; eode ... ˛Êr se snottra b‚d, 1313; eode weor
Denum ‰eling tÙ yppan, _the prince_ (BeÛwulf), _honored by the Danes, went
to the high seat_, 1815; eode ... under inwit-hrÙf, 3124; pl. ˛Êr
swÓferhe sittan eodon, 493; eodon him ˛‚ tÙge·nes, _went to meet him_,
1627; eodon under Earna n‰s, 3032.

‚-gangan, _to go out, to go forth, to befall_: pret. part. sw‚ bit ‚gangen
wear eorla manegum (_as it befell many a one of the earls_), 1235.

full-gangan, _to emulate, to follow after_: pret. sg. ˛onne ... sceft nytte
heÛld, feer-gearwum f˚s fl‚ne full-eode, _when the shaft had employment,
furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow_, 3120.

ge-g‚n, ge-gangan: 1) _to go, to approach_: inf. (w. acc.) his mÙdor ...
geg‚n wolde sorhfulne sÓ, 1278; se ˛e gryre-sÓas geg‚n dorste, _who dared
to go the ways of terror_ (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga
geonga under his mÊges scyld elne geeode, _went quickly under his kinsman's
shield_, 2677; pl. elne geeodon tÙ ˛‰s ˛e ..., _went quickly thither where_
..., 1968; pret. part. syan hie tÙ-g‰dre geg‚n h‰fdon, _when they_
(WÓgl‚f and the drake) _had come together_, 2631; ˛‰t his aldres w‰s ende
gegongen, _that the end of his life had come_, 823; ˛‚ w‰s ended‰g gÙdum
gegongen, ˛‰t se g˚cyning ... swealt, 3037.--2) _to obtain, to reach_:
inf. (w. acc.) ˛onne he ‰t g˚e geg‚n ˛ence longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid
elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, n‰s ˛‰t ˝e ce·p tÙ gegangenne
gumena Ênigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geeodon ... ˛‰t se byrnwÓga b˚gan
sceolde, 2918; pret. part. h‰fde ... gegongen ˛‰t, _had attained it, that_
..., 894; hord ys gesce·wod, grimme gegongen, 3086.--3) _to occur, to
happen_: pres. sg. III. gif ˛‰t gegange ˛‰t ..., _if that happen, that_
..., 1847; pret. sg. ˛‰t geiode ufaran dÙgrum hilde-hl‰mmum, _it happened
in later times to the warriors_ (the Ge·tas), 2201; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s
gegongen guman unfrÙdum earfolÓce ˛‰t, _then it had happened to the young
man in sorrowful wise that_ ..., 2822.

Ù-gangan, _to-go thither_: pret. pl. o ˛‰t hi Ùeodon ... in Hrefnesholt,

ofer-gangan, w. acc., _to go over_: pret. sg. ofereode ˛‚ ‰elinga bearn
ste·p st‚n-hlio, _went over steep, rocky precipices_, 1409; pl.
freoo-wong ˛one for ofereodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., _to go around_: pret. ymb-eode ˛‚ ides Helminga dugue
and geogoe dÊl Êghwylcne, _went around in every part, among the superior
and the inferior warriors_, 621.

g‚r, st. m., _spear, javelin, missile_: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg.
g‚re, 1076; blÙdigan g‚re, 2441; gen. sg. g‚res fliht, 1766; nom. pl.
g‚ras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).--Comp.: bon-, frum-g‚r.

g‚r-cÍne, adj., _spear-bold_: nom. sg., 1959.

g‚r-cwealm, st. m., _murder, death by the spear_: acc. sg. g‚r-cwealm
gumena, 2044.

g‚r-holt, st. n., _forest of spears_, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

g‚r-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), _sea, ocean_: acc. sg. on
g‚r-secg, 49, 537; ofer g‚r-secg, 515.

g‚r-wÓga, w. m., _one who fights with the spear_: dat. sg. geongum
g‚r-wÓgan, of WÓgl‚f, 2675, 2812.

g‚r-wÓgend, pres. part., _fighting with spear, spear-fighter_: acc. pl.
g‚r-wÓgend, 2642.

g‚st, gÊst, st. m., _ghost, demon_: acc. sg. helle g‚st (Grendel), 1275;
gen. sg. wergan g‚stes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl.
dyrnra g‚sta (Grendel's race), 1358; gÊsta gÓfrost (_flames consuming
corpses_), 1124.--Comp.: ellor-, geÛ-sceaft-g‚st; ellen-, w‰l-gÊst.

g‚st-bana, w. m., _slayer of the spirit_, i.e. the devil: nom. sg.
g‚st-bona, 177.

g‰deling, st. m., _he who is connected with another, relation, companion_:
gen. sg. g‰delinges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his g‰delingum, 2950.

‰t-g‰dere, adv., _together, united_: 321, 1165, 1191; samod ‰tg‰dere, 329,
387, 730, 1064.

tÙ-gadere, adv., _together_, 2631.

g‰st, gist, gyst, st. m., _stranger, guest_: nom. sg. g‰st, 1801; se g‰st
(the drake), 2313; se grimma g‰st (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc.
sg. gryre-lÓcne gist (the nixy slain by BeÛwulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste,
2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. g‰s[tas], 1894.--Comp.: fÍe-,
gryre-, inwit-, nÓ-, sele-g‰st (-gyst).

g‰st-sele, st. m., _hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall_:
acc. sg., 995.

ge, conj., _and_, 1341; ge ... ge ..., _as well ... as ..._, 1865; ge ...
ge ..., ge ..., 1249; ge swylce, _and likewise, and moreover_, 2259.

ge, pron., _ye, you_, plur. of ˛u, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., _reply_: gen. pl. ˛Ónra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., _thither, towards, away_, with the prep, tÙ, ofer, giving the
direction: ˛‰t hie him tÙ mihton gegnum gangan (_that they might go
thither_), 314; gegnum fÙr [˛‚] ofer myrcan mÙr, _away over the dark moor_,

gehu, geohu, st. f., _sorrow, care_: instr. sg. gioho mÊnde, 2268; dat.
sg. on geho, 3096; on giohe, 2794.

gen (from gegn), adv., _yet, again_. ne w‰s hit lenge ˛‚ gen, ˛‰t ..., _it
was not then long before_ ..., 83; ic sceal for sprecan gen ymb Grendel,
_shall from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2071; nÙ ˛˝ Êr ˚t ˛‚ gen ...
gongan wolde (_still he would not yet go out_), 2082; gen is eall ‰t ˛e
lissa gelong (_yet all my favor belongs to thee_), 2150; ˛‚ gen, _then
again_, 2678, 2703; sw‚ he nu gen dÍ, _as he still does_, 2860; furur
gen, _further still, besides_, 3007; nu gen, _now again_, 3169; ne gen, _no
more, no farther_: ne w‰s ˛‰t wyrd ˛‚ gen, _that was no more fate_ (fate no
longer willed that), 735.

gena, _still_: cwico w‰s ˛‚ gena, _was still living_, 3094.

genga, w. m., _goer_; in comp. in-, sÊ-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See g‚n(3).

genge. See ˚-genge.

genunga (from gegnunga), adv., _precisely, completely_, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) _to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition_:
pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.--2) _to equip, to arm for battle_: pret.
sg. gyrede hine BeÛwulf eorl-gewÊdum (_dressed himself in the armor_),

ge-gyrwan: 1) _to make, to prepare_: pret. pl. him ˛‚ gegiredan Ge·ta leÛde
‚d ... unw‚clÓcne, 3138; pret. part. glÙf ... eall gegyrwed deÛfles cr‰ftum
and dracan fellum, 2088.--2) _to fit out, to make ready_: inf. ceÛl
gegyrwan hilde-wÊpnum and heaowÊdum, 38; hÍt him ˝lidan gÙdne gegyrwan,
_had (his) good ship fitted up for him_, 199. Also, _to provide warlike
equipment_: pret. part. syan he hine tÙ g˚e gegyred h‰fde, 1473.--3) _to
endow, to provide, to adorn_: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hr‰gl ... golde
gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. l‚fe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. m‚dmas ...
golde gegyrede, 1029.

getan, w. v., _to injure, to slay_: inf., 2941.

be-gÍte, adj., _attainable_; in comp. Í-begÍte.

geador, adv., _unitedly, together, jointly_, 836; geador ‰tsomne, 491.

on-geador, adv., _unitedly, together_, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) _sound_: acc. sg. b˝man gealdor, 2944.--2) _magic song,
incantation, spell_: instr. sg. ˛onne w‰s ˛‰t yrfe ... galdre bewunden
(_placed under a spell_), 3053.

gealga, w. m., _gallows_: dat. sg. ˛‰t his byre rÓde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-mÙd, adj., _gloomy_: nom. sg. gÓfre and galgmÙd, 1278.

gealg-treÛw, st. n., _gallows_: dat. pl. on galg-treÛwu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., _residence_; in BeÛwulf corresponding to the house-complex
of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (_in
Finn's castle_), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; Êr he
on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, _before he went away from his
dwelling-place_, i.e. died, 265.--Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, _made, prepared_; hence, _ready, finished,
equipped_: nom. sg. ˛‰t hit wear eal gearo, heal-‰rna mÊst, 77; wiht
unhÊlo ... gearo sÙna w‰s, _the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did
not delay long_, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca w‰s on bÊl gearu,
_was ready for the funeral-pile_ (for the solemn burning), 1110; ˛eÛd (is)
eal gearo, _the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared_, 1231;
hrae w‰s ‰t holme h˝-weard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo g˚-freca,
2415; sÓe siÛ bÊr gearo ‰dre ge‰fned, _let the bier be made ready at once_,
3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwr‰ce, _ready for revenge for harm done_, 2119,
acc. sg. gearwe stÙwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., _completely, entirely_: ne ge ... gearwe ne
wisson, _you do not know at all_ ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe
geman witena welhwyle (_remembers him very well_), 265; wisse he gearwe ˛‰t
..., _he knew very well that_ ..., 2340, 2726; ˛‰t ic ... gearo sce·wige
swegle searogimmas (_that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as
they are_), 2749; ic w‚t geare ˛‰t ..., 2657.--Comp. gearwor, _more
readily, rather_, 3077.--Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., _with ready hand_, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., _equipment, dress_; in comp. feer-gearwe.

geat, st. n., _opening, door_; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-lÓc, adj., _well prepared, handsome, splendid_: of sword and armor,
215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wÓsa fengel geatolÓc gengde, _passed
on in a stately manner_, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment, adornment_: acc. recedes geatwa, _the
ornaments of the dragon's cave_ (its treasures), 3089.--Comp.: eÛred-,
gryre-, g˚-, hilde-, wÓg-geatwe.

ge·n (from gegn), adv. in

on-ge·n, adv. and prep., _against, towards_: ˛‰t he me onge·n sle·, 682;
rÊhte onge·n feÛnd mid folme, 748; foran onge·n, _forward towards_, 2365.
With dat.: onge·n gramum, _against the enemy_, 1035.

tÙ-ge·nes, tÙ-genes, prep, _against, towards_: Grendle tÙge·nes, _towards
Grendel, against Grendel_, 667; gr‚p ˛‚ tÙge·nes, _she grasped at_
(BeÛwulf), 1502; similarly, him tÙge·nes fÍng, 1543; eodon him ˛‚ tÙge·nes,
_went towards him_, 1627; hÍt ˛‚ gebeÛdan ... ˛‰t hie bÊl-wudu feorran
feredon gÙdum tÙgÍnes, _had it ordered that they should bring the wood from
far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man_ (i.e. to the place where the
dead BeÛwulf lay), 3115.

ge·p, adj., _roomy, extensive, wide_: nom. sg. reced ... ge·p, _the roomy
hall_, 1801; acc. sg. under ge·pne hrÙf, 837.--Comp.: horn-, sÊ-ge·p.

ge‚r, st. n., _year_: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. ge‚ra, in adverbial sense,
olim, _in former times_, 2665. See un-ge‚ra.

ge‚r-dagas, st. m. pl., _former days_: dat. pl. in (on) ge‚r-dagum, 1,

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., _sea, flood_:
nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen geÛtende, _the streaming flood_, 1691; gen. sg.
geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogo, st. f.: 1) _youth, time of youth_: dat. sg. on geogoe, 409, 466,
2513; on giogoe, 2427; gen. giogue, 2113.--2) contrasted with dugu, _the
younger warriors of lower rank_ (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires
with the knights): nom. sg. geogo, 66; giogo, 1191; acc. sg. geogoe,
1182; gen. dugue and geogoe, 160; dugue and iogoe (geogoe), 1675, 622.

geogu-feorh, st. n., _age of youth_, i.e. age in which one still belongs
in the ranks of the geogo: on geogo- (geogu-) feore, 537, 2665.

geoho. See geho.

geolo, adj., _yellow_: acc. sg. geolwe linde (_the shield of yellow linden
bark_), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., _yellow shield_ (shield with a covering of interlaced
yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., _through, throughout, along, over_: geond ˛isne
middangeard, _through the earth, over the earth_, 75; wide geond eoran,
266, 3100; fÍrdon folctogan ... geond wÓd-wegas, _went along the ways
coming from afar_, 841; similarly, 1705; geond ˛‰t s‰ld, _through the hall,
through the extent of the hall_, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., _young, youthful_: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447;
w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne g˚cyning, 1970; dat. sg.
geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on sw‚ geongum feore, _at a so youthful
age_, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum
and ealdum, 72.--Superl. gingest, _the last_: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word,

georn, adj., _striving, eager_, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sÓes
georn, 2784.--Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., _readily, willingly_: ˛‰t him wine-m‚gas georne h˝rdon, 66;
georne tr˚wode, 670.--_zealously, eagerly_: sÙhte georne ‰fter grunde,
_eagerly searched over the ground_, 2295.--_carefully, industriously_: nÙ
ic him ˛‰s georne ‰tfealh (_held him not fast enough_), 969.--_completely,
exactly_: comp. wiste ˛Í geornor, 822.

geÛ, i˙, adv., _once, formerly, earlier_, 1477; giÛ, 2522; i˙, 2460.

geÛc, st. f., _help, support_: acc. sg. geÛce gefremman, 2675; ˛‰t him
g‚st-bona geÛce gefremede wi ˛eÛd-˛re·um, 177; geÛce gel˝fde, _believed in
the help_ (of BeÛwulf), 609; dat. sg. tÙ geÛce, 1835.

geÛcor, adj., _ill, bad_: nom. sg., 766.--See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

geÛ-man, i˙-man, st. m., _man of former times_: gen. pl. i˙-manna, 3053.

geÛ-meowle, w. f., (_formerly a virgin), wife_: acc. sg. iÛ-meowlan, 2932.

geÙmor, adj., _with depressed feelings, sad, troubled_: nom. sg. him w‰s
geÙmor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; mÙdes geÙmor, 2101; fem. ˛‰t w‰s geÙmuru
ides, 1076.

geÙmore, adv., _sadly_, 151.

geÙmor-gid, st. n., _dirge_: acc. sg. giÙmor-gyd, 3151.

geÙmor-lÓc, adj., _sad, painful_: sw‚ bi geÙmorlÓc gomelum ceorle tÙ
gebÓdanne ˛‰t..., _it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..._,

geÙmor-mÙd, adj., _sad, sorrowful_: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; giÙmor-mÙd, 2268.

geÙmrian, w. v., _to complain, to lament_: pret. sg. geÙmrode giddum, 1119.

geÛ-sceaft, st. f., (_fixed in past times), fate_: acc. sg. geÛsceaft
grimme, 1235.

geÛsceaft-g‚st, st. m., _demon sent by fate_: gen. pl. fela
geÛsceaft-g‚sta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

geÛtan, st. v. intrans., _to pour, to flow, to stream_: pres. part. gifen
geÛtende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., _icicle_: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., _speech, solemn alliterative song_: nom. sg. ˛Êr w‰s ...
gid oft wrecen, 1066; leÛ w‰s ‚sungen, gleÛmannes gyd, _the song was sung,
the gleeman's lay_, 1161; ˛Êr w‰s gidd and gleÛ, 2106; acc. sg. ic ˛is gid
‚wr‰c, 1724; gyd ‚wr‰c, 2109; gyd ‰fter wr‰c, 2155; ˛onne he gyd wrece,
2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.--Comp.:
geÙmor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., _to speak, to speak in alliteration_: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) _if_, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With
subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.--2) _whether_, w. ind.,
272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., _giver_; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., _to give_: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas be·gas geaf
Denum, 1720; he me [m‚mas] geaf, 2147; and similarly, 2174, 2432, 2624,
etc.; pret. pl. ge‚fon (hyne) on g‚rsecg, 49; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s HrÙg‚re
here-spÍd gyfen, 64; ˛‚ w‰s gylden hilt gamelum rince ... on hand gyfen,
1679; syan Êrest wear gyfen ... geongum cempan (_given in marriage_),

‚-gifan, _to give, to impart_: inf. andsware ... ‚gifan, _to give an
answer_, 355; pret. sg. sÙna him se frÙda f‰der ‘htheres ... ondslyht ‚geaf
(_gave him a counter-blow_), (_hand-blow_?), 2930.

for-gyfan, _to give, to grant_: pret. sg. him ˛‰s lÓf-fre· ... worold-‚re
forgeaf, 17; ˛‰m tÙ h‚m forgeaf HrÍel Ge·ta ‚ngan dÙhtor (_gave in
marriage_), 374; similarly, 2998; he me lond forgeaf, _granted me land_,
2493; similarly, 697, 1021, 2607, 2617; m‰gen-rÊs forgeaf hilde-bille, _he
gave with his battle-sword a mighty blow_, i.e. he struck with full force,

of-gifan, (_to give up_), _to leave_: inf. ˛‰t se mÊra maga Ecg˛eÛwes
grund-wong ˛one ofgyfan wolde (_was fated to leave the earth-plain_), 2589;
pret. sg. ˛‚s worold ofgeaf gromheort guma, 1682; similarly, gumdre·m
ofgeaf, 2470; Dena land ofgeaf, 1905; pret. pl. n‰s ofge‚fon hwate
Scyldingas, _left the promontory_, 1601; ˛‰t ˛‚ hildlatan holt ofgÍfan,
_that the cowards left the wood_ (into which they had fled), 2847; sg.
pret. for pl. ˛‚ra ˛e ˛is [lÓf] ofgeaf, 2252.

gifee, adj., _given, granted_: G˚fremmendra swylcum gifee bi ˛‰t...,
_to such a warrior is it granted that_..., 299; similarly, 2682; sw‚ me
gifee w‰s, 2492; ˛Êr me gifee sw‚ Ênig yrfeweard ‰fter wurde, _if an
heir_, (living) _after me, had been given me_, 2731.--Neut. as subst.: w‰s
˛‰t gifee tÙ swÓ, ˛e ˛one [˛eÛden] ˛yder ontyhte, _the fate was too harsh
that has drawn hither the king_, 3086; gyfee, 555, 820.--Comp. un-gifee.

gif-heal, st. f., _hall in which fiefs were bestowed, throne-hall_: acc.
sg. ymb ˛‚ gifhealle, 839.

gif-sceat, st. m., _gift of value_: acc. pl. gif-sceattas, 378.

gif-stÙl, st. m., _seat from which fiefs are granted, throne_: nom. sg.,
2328; acc. sg., 168.

gift, st. f., _gift, present_: in comp. feoh-gift.

gifu, geofu, st. f., _gift, present, grant; fief_: nom. sg. gifu, 1885 acc.
sg. gimf‰ste gife ˛e him god sealde, _the great gift that God had granted
him_ (i.e. the enormous strength), 1272; ginf‰stan gife ˛e him god sealde,
2183; dat. pl. (as instr.) geofum, 1959; gen. pl. gifa, 1931; geofena,
1174.--Comp.: m‚um-, sinc-gifu.

gigant, st. m., _giant_: nom. pl. gigantas, 113; gen. pl. giganta, 1563,

gild, gyld, st. n., _reparation_: in comp. wier-gyld(?).

gildan, gyldan, st. v., _to do something in return, to repay, to reward, to
pay_: inf. gomban gyldan, _pay tribute_, 11; he mid gÙde gyldan wille
uncran eaferan, 1185; we him ˛‚ g˚geatwa gyldan woldon, 2637; pret. sg.
heaorÊsas geald mearum and m‚mum, _repaid the battles with horses and
treasures_, 1048; similarly, 2492; geald ˛one g˚rÊs ... Jofore and Wulfe
mid oferm‚mum, _repaid Eofor and Wulf the battle with exceedingly great
treasures_, 2992.

an-gildan, _to pay for_: pret. sg. sum s‚re angeald Êfenr‰ste, _one_
(ƒschere) _paid for the evening-rest with death's pain_, 1252.

‚-gildan, _to offer one's self_: pret. sg. ˛‚ me sÊl ‚geald, _when the
favorable opportunity offered itself_, 1666; similarly, ˛‚ him r˚m ‚geald,

for-gildan, _to repay, to do something in return, to reward_: pres. subj.
sg. III. alwalda ˛ec gÙde forgylde, _may the ruler of all reward thee with
good_, 957; inf. ˛one Ênne hÍht golde forgyldan, _he ordered that the one_
(killed by Grendel) _be paid for_ (atoned for) _with gold_, 1055; he ...
wolde Grendle for-gyldan g˚rÊsa fela, _wished to pay Grendel for many
attacks_, 1578; wolde se l‚a lÓge forgyldan drinc-f‰t d˝re, _the enemy
wished to repay with fire the costly drinking vessel_ (the theft of it),
2306; pret. sg. he him ˛‰s le·n forgeald, _he gave them the reward
therefore_, 114; similarly, 1542, 1585, 2095; forgeald hrae wyrsan wrixle
w‰lhlem ˛one, _repaid the murderous blow with a worse exchange_, 2969.

gilp, gylp, st. m., _speech in which one promises great things for himself
in a coming combat, defiant speech, boasting speech_: acc. sg. h‰fde ...
Ge·t-mecga leÛd gilp gelÊsted (_had fulfilled what he had claimed for
himself before the battle_), 830; nallas on gylp sele f‰tte be·gas, _gives
no chased gold rings for a boastful speech_, 1750; ˛‰t ic wi ˛one
g˚flogan gylp ofersitte, _restrain myself from the speech of defiance_,
2529; dat. sg. gylpe wigrÓpan (_fulfil my promise of battle_),
2522.--Comp. dol-gilp.

gilpan, gylpan, st. v. w. gen., acc., and dat., _to make a defiant speech,
to boast, to exult insolently_: pres. sg. I. nÙ ic ˛‰s gilpe (after a break
in the text), 587; sg. III. morres gylpe, _boasts of the murder_, 2056;
inf. sw‚ ne gylpan ˛earf Grendles maga Ênig ... uhthlem ˛one, 2007; nealles
folc-cyning fyrdgesteallum gylpan ˛orfte, _had no need to boast of his
fellow-warrior_, 2875; pret. sg. hrÍsigora ne gealp goldwine Ge·ta, _did
not exult at the glorious victory_ (could not gain the victory over the
drake), 2584.

gilp-cwide, st. m., _speech in which a man promises much for himself for a
coming combat, speech of defiance_: nom. sg., 641.

gilp-hl‰den, pret. part., _laden with boasts of defiance_ (i.e. he who has
made many such boasts, and consequently has been victorious in many
combats), _covered with glory_: nom. sg. guma gilp-hl‰den, 869.

gilp-sprÊc, same as gilp-cwide, _speech of defiance, boastful speech_: dat.
sg. on gylp-sprÊce, 982.

gilp-word, st. n., _defiant word before the coming combat, vaunting word_:
gen. pl. gespr‰c ... gylp-worda sum, 676.

gim, st. m., _gem, precious stone, jewel_: nom. sg. heofones gim, _heaven's
jewel_, i.e. the sun, 2073. Comp. searo-gim.

gimme-rÓce, adj., _rich in jewels_: acc. sg. gimme-rÓce hord-burh h‰lea,

gin (according to Bout., ginne), adj., properly _gaping_, hence, _wide,
extended_: acc. sg. gynne grund (_the bottom of the sea_), 1552.

gin-f‰st, adj., _extensive, rich_: acc. sg. gim-f‰ste gife (gim-, on
account of the following _f_), 1272; in weak form, gin-f‰stan gife, 2183.

ginnan, st. v., original meaning, _to be open, ready_; in

on-ginnan, _to begin, to undertake_: pret. Ù ˛‰t ‚n ongan fyrene fremman
feÛnd on helle, 100; secg eft ongan sÓ BeÛwulfes snyttrum styrian, 872; ˛‚
˛‰t sweord ongan ... wanian, _the sword began to diminish_, 1606; Higel‚c
ongan sÓnne geseldan ... f‰gre fricgean, _began with propriety to question
his companion_, 1984, etc.; ongon, 2791; pret. pl. nÙ her c˚lÓcor cuman
ongunnon lindh‰bbende, _no shield-bearing men e'er undertook more openly to
come hither_, 244; pret. part. h‰bbe ic mÊra fela ongunnen on geogoe,
_have in my youth undertaken many deeds of renown_, 409.

gist. See g‰st.

gistran, adv., _yesterday_: gystran niht, _yesterday night_, 1335.

git, pron., _ye two_, dual of ˛u, 508, 512, 513, etc.

git, gyt, adv., _yet; then still_, 536, 1128, 1165, 2142; _hitherto_, 957;
nÊfre git, _never yet_, 583; _still_, 945, 1059, 1135; _once more_, 2513;
_moreover_, 47, 1051, 1867.

gitan (original meaning, _to take hold of, to seize, to attain_), in

be-gitan, w. acc., _to grasp, to seize, to reach_: pret. sg. begeat, 1147,
2231; ˛‚ hine wÓg beget, _when war seized him, came upon him_, 2873;
similarly, begeat, 1069; pret. pl. hit Êr on ˛e gÙde be-ge‚ton, _good men
received it formerly from thee_, 2250; subj. sg. for pl. ˛‰t w‰s HrÙg‚re
hreÛwa tornost ˛‚ra ˛e leÛdfruman lange bege‚te, _the bitterest of the
troubles that for a long time had befallen the people's chief_, 2131.

for-gitan, w. acc., _to forget_: pres. sg. III. he ˛‚ forgesceaft forgyte
and forg˝me, 1752.

an-gitan, on-gitan, w. acc.: 1) _to take hold of, to grasp_: imp. sg.
gumcyste ongit, _lay hold of manly virtue, of what becomes the man_, 1724;
pret. sg. ˛e hine se brÙga angeat, _whom terror seized_, 1292.--2) _to
grasp intellectually, to comprehend, to perceive, to distinguish, to
behold_: pres. subj. I. ˛‰t ic Êrwelan ... ongite, _that I may behold the
ancient wealth_ (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2749; inf. s‰l timbred
... ongytan, 308, 1497; Ge·ta clifu ongitan, 1912; pret. sg. fyren-˛earfe
ongeat, _had perceived their distress from hostile snares_, 14; ongeat ...
grund-wyrgenne, _beheld the she-wolf of the bottom_, 1519; pret. pl.
bearhtm onge‚ton, g˚horn galan, _perceived the noise_, (heard) _the
battle-trumpet sound_, 1432; syan hie Hygel‚ces horn and b˝man gealdor
onge‚ton, 2945.

gÓfre, adj., _greedy, eager_: nom. sg. gÓfre and galgmÙd, of Grendel's
mother, 1278.--Superl.: lÓg..., gÊsta gÓfrost, 1124.--Comp. heoro-gÓfre.

gÓtsian, w. v., _to be greedy_: pres. sg. III. g˝tsa, 1750.

gio-, giÛ-. See geo-, geÛ-.

gladian, w. v., _to gleam, to shimmer_: pres. pl. III. on him gladia
gomelra l‚fe, _upon him gleams the legacy of the men of ancient times_
(armor), 2037.

gl‰d, adj., _gracious, friendly_ (as a form of address for princes): nom.
sg. beÛ wi Ge·tas gl‰d, 1174; acc. sg. gl‰dne HrÙg‚r, 864; gl‰dne
HrÙulf, 1182; dat. sg. gladum suna FrÙdan, 2026.

gl‰de, adv., _in a gracious, friendly way_, 58.

gl‰dnian, w. v., _to rejoice_: inf. w. gen., 367.

gl‰d-mÙd, adj., _joyous, glad_, 1786.

glÍd, st. f., _fire, flame_: nom. sg., 2653, 3115; dat. (instr.) pl.
glÍdum, 2313, 2336, 2678, 3042.

glÍd-egesa, w. m., _terror on account of fire, fire-terror_: nom. sg.
glÍd-egesa grim (_the fire-spewing of the drake_), 2651.

gle·w (Goth, glaggwu-s), adj., _considerate, well-bred_, of social conduct;
in comp. un-gle·w.

gleÛ, st. n., _social entertainment_, (especially by music, play, and
jest): nom. sg. ˛Êr w‰s gidd and gleÛ, 2106.

gleÛ-be·m, st. m., _(tree of social entertainment, of music), harp._ gen.
sg. gleÛ-be·mes, 2264.

gleÛ-dre·m, st. _m., joyous carrying-on in social entertainment, mirth,
social gaiety_: acc. sg. gamen and gleÛ-dre·m, 3022.

gleÛ-man, m., _(gleeman, who enlivens the social entertainment, especially
with music), harper_: gen. sg. gleÛmannes gyd, 1161.

glitinian (O.H.G. glizinÙn), w. v., _to gleam, to light, to glitter_: inf.
geseah ˛‚ ... gold glitinian, 2759.

glÓdan, st. v., _to glide_: pret. sg. syan heofones gim gl‚d ofer
grundas, _after heaven's gem had glided over the fields_ (after the sun had
set), 2074; pret. pl. glidon ofer g‚rsecg, _you glided over the ocean_
(swimming), 515.

tÙ-glÓdan _(to glide asunder), to separate, to fall asunder_: pret.
g˚-helm tÙ-gl‚d (Ongen˛eÛw's helmet was split asunder by the blow of
Eofor), 2488.

glÙf, st. f., _glove_: nom. sg. glÙf hangode, (on Grendel) _a glove hung_,

gne·, adj., _niggardly_: nom. sg. f. n‰s hiÛ ... tÙ gne· gifa Ge·ta
leÛdum, _was not too niggardly with gifts to the people of the Ge·tas_,

gnorn, st. m., _sorrow, sadness_: acc. sg. gnorn ˛rowian, 2659.

gnornian, w. v., _to be sad, to complain_: pret. sg. earme ... ides
gnornode, 1118.

be-gnornian, w. acc., _to bemoan, to mourn for_: pret. pl. begnornodon ...
hl‚fordes [hry]re, _bemoaned their lord's fall_, 3180.

god, st. m., _god_: nom. sg., 13, 72, 478, etc.; h‚lig god, 381, 1554;
witig god, 686; mihtig god, 702; acc. sg. god, 812; ne wiston hie drihten
god, _did not know the Lord God_, 181; dat. sg. gode, 113, 227, 626, etc.;
gen. sg. godes, 570, 712, 787, etc.

gold, st. n., _gold_: nom. sg., 3013, 3053; icge gold, 1108; wunden gold,
_wound gold, gold in ring-form_, 1194, 3136; acc. sg. gold, 2537, 2759,
2794, 3169; hÊen gold, _heathen gold_ (that from the drake's cave), 2277;
br‚d gold, _massive gold_, 3106; dat. instr. sg. golde, 1055, 2932, 3019;
f‰ttan golde, _with chased gold, with gold in plate-form_, 2103; gehroden
golde, _covered with gold, gilded_, 304; golde gegyrwed (gegyrede),
_provided with, ornamented with gold_, 553, 1029, 2193; golde geregnad,
_adorned with gold_, 778; golde f‚hne (hrÙf), _the roof shining with gold_,
928; bunden golde, _bound with gold_ (see under bindan), 1901; hyrsted
golde (helm), _the helmet ornamented with, mounted with gold_, 2256; gen.
sg. goldes, 2302; f‰ttan goldes, 1094, 2247; scÓran goldes, _of pure gold_,
1695. --Comp. f‰t-gold.

gold-Êht, st. f., _possessions in gold, treasure_: acc. sg., 2749.

gold-f‚h, adj., _variegated with gold, shining with gold_: nom. sg. reced
... gold-f‚h, 1801; acc. sg. gold-f‚hne helm, 2812; nom. pl. gold-f‚g
scinon web ‰fter wagum, _variegated with gold, the tapestry gleamed along
the walls_, 995.

gold-gifa, w. m., _gold-giver_, designation of the prince: acc. sg. mid
mÓnne goldgyfan, 2653.

gold-hroden, pret. part., _(covered with gold), ornamented with gold_: nom.
sg., 615, 641, 1949, 2026; epithet of women of princely rank.

gold-hw‰t, adj., _striving after gold, greedy for gold_: n‰s he goldhw‰t,
_he_ (BeÛwulf) _was not greedy for gold_ (he did not fight against the
drake for his treasure, cf. 3067 ff.) 3075.

gold-m‚m, st. m., _jewel of gold_: acc. pl. gold-m‚mas (the treasures of
the drake's cave), 2415.

gold-sele, st. m., _gold-hall_, i.e. the hall in which the gold was
distributed, ruler's hall: acc. sg., 716, 1254; dat. sg. gold-sele, 1640,

gold-weard, st. m., _gold-ward, defender of the gold_: acc. sg. (of the
drake), 3082.

gold-wine, st. m., _friend who distributes gold_, i.e. ruler, prince: nom.
sg. (partly as voc.) goldwine gumena, 1172, 1477, 1603; goldwine Ge·ta,
2420, 2585.

gold-wlanc, adj., _proud of gold_: nom. sg. g˚rinc goldwlanc (BeÛwulf
rewarded with gold by HrÙg‚r on account of his victory), 1882.

gomban, gomel, gomen. See gamban, gamal, gamen.

gong, gongan. See gang, gangan.

gÙd, adj., _good, fit_, of persons and things: nom. sg., 11, 195, 864,
2264, 2391, etc.; frÙd and gÙd, 279; w. dat. cyning ‰elum gÙd, _the king
noble in birth_, 1871; gumcystum gÙd, 2544; w. gen. wes ˛u ˚s l‚rena gÙd,
_be good to us with teaching_ (help us thereto through thy instruction),
269; in weak form, se gÙda, 205, 355, 676, 1191, etc.; acc. sg. gÙdne, 199,
347, 1596, 1970, etc.; gumcystum gÙdne, 1487; neut. gÙd, 1563; dat. sg.
gÙdum, 3037, 3115; ˛‰m gÙdan, 384, 2328; nom. pl. gÙde, 2250; ˛‚ gÙdan,
1164; acc. pl. gÙde, 2642; dat. pl. gÙdum dÊdum, 2179; gen. pl. gÙdra
g˚rinca, 2649.--Comp. Êr-gÙd.

gÙd, st. n.: 1) _good that is done, benefit, gift_: instr. sg. gÙde, 20,
957, 1185; gÙde mÊre, _renowned on account of her gifts_ (firyo), 1953;
instr. pl. gÙdum, 1862.--2) _ability_, especially in fight: gen. pl. n‚t he
˛‚ra gÙda, 682.

gram, adj., _hostile_: gen. sg. on grames gr‚pum, _in the gripe of the
enemy_ (BeÛwulf), 766; nom. pl. ˛‚ graman, 778; dat. pl. gramum, 424, 1035.

gram-heort, adj., _of a hostile heart, hostile_: nom. sg. grom-heort guma,

gram-hydig, adj., _with hostile feeling, maliciously inclined_: nom. sg.
gromhydig, 1750.

gr‚p, st. f., _the hand ready to grasp, hand, claw_: dat. sg. mid gr‚pe,
438; on gr‚pe, 555; gen. sg. eal ... Grendles gr‚pe, _all of Grendel's
claw, the whole claw_, 837; dat. pl. on grames gr‚pum, 766; (as instr.)
grimman gr‚pum, _with grim claws_, 1543.--Comp.: feÛnd-, hilde-gr‚p.

gr‚pian, w. v., _to grasp, to lay hold of, to seize_: pret. sg. ˛‰t hire
wi halse heard gr‚pode, _that_ (the sword) _griped hard at her neck_,
1567; he ... gr‚pode gearofolm, _he took hold with ready hand_, 2086.

gr‰s-molde, w. f., _grass-plot_: acc. sg. gr‰smoldan tr‰d, _went over the
grass-plot_, 1882.

grÊdig, adj., _greedy, hungry, voracious_: nom. sg. grim and grÊdig, 121,
1500; acc. sg. grÊdig g˚leÛ, 1523.

grÊg, adj., _gray_: nom. pl. ‰sc-holt ufan grÊg, _the ashen wood, gray
above_ (the spears with iron points) 330; acc. pl. grÊge syrcan, _gray_
(i.e. iron) _shirts of mail_, 334.

grÊg-mÊl, adj., _having a gray color_, here = _iron_: nom. sg. sweord
BeÛwulfes gomol and grÊgmÊl, 2683.

grÊpe. See ‰t-grÊpe.

grÍtan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute_: inf. hine sw‚ gÙdne
grÍtan, 347; HrÙg‚r grÍtan, 1647, 2011; eÛwic grÍtan hÍt (_bade me bring
you his last greeting_), 3096; pret. sg. grÍtte Ge·ta leÛd, 626; grÍtte ˛‚
guma Ùerne, 653; HrÙg‚r grÍtte, 1817.-- 2) _to come on, to come near, to
seek out; to touch; to take hold of_: inf. gifstÙl grÍtan, _take possession
of the throne, mount it as ruler_, 168; n‰s se folccyning Ênig ... ˛e mec
g˚winum grÍtan dorste (_attack with swords_), 2736; Wyrd ... se ˛one
gomelan grÍtan sceolde, 2422; ˛‰t ˛one sin-scaan g˚billa n‚n grÍtan
nolde, _that no sword would take hold upon the irreconcilable enemy_, 804;
pret. sg. grÍtte goldhroden guman on healle, _the gold-adorned_ (queen)
_greeted the men in the hall_, 615; nÙ he mid hearme ... g‰stas grÍtte,
_did not approach the strangers with insults_, 1894; gomenwudu grÍtte,
_touched the wood of joy, played the harp_, 2109; pret. subj. II. sg. ˛‰t
˛u ˛one w‰lgÊst wihte ne grÍtte, _that thou shouldst by no means seek out
the murderous spirit_ (Grendel), 1996; similarly, sg. III. ˛‰t he ne grÍtte
goldweard ˛one, 3082; pret. part. ˛Êr w‰s ... gomenwudu grÍted, 1066.

ge-grÍtan, w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute, to address_: pret. sg. holdne
gegrÍtte meaglum wordum, _greeted the dear man with formal words_, 1981;
gegrÍtte ˛‚ gumena gehwylcne ... hindeman sie, _spoke then the last time
to each of the men_, 2517.--2) _to approach, to come near, to seek out_:
inf. sceal ... manig Ùerne gÙdum gegrÍtan ofer ganotes b‰, _many a one
will seek another across the sea with gifts_, 1862.

greÛt, st. m., _grit, sand, earth_: dat. sg. on greÛte, 3169.

greÛtan, st. v., _to weep, to mourn, to lament_: pres. sg. III. se ˛e ‰fter
sincgyfan on sefan greÛte, _who laments in his heart for the
treasure-giver_, 1343.

grim, adj., _grim, angry, wild, hostile_: nom. sg., 121, 555, 1500, etc.;
weak form, se grimma g‰st, 102; acc. sg. m. grimne, 1149, 2137; fem,
grimme, 1235; gen. sg. grimre g˚e, 527; instr. pl. grimman gr‚pum,
1543.--Comp.: beado-, heao-, heoro-, searo-grim.

grimme, adv., _grimly, in a hostile manner, bitterly_, 3013, 3086.

grim-lÓc, adj., _grim, terrible_: nom. sg. grimlÓc gry[re-g‰st], 3042.

grimman, st. v., (properly _to snort_), _to go forward hastily, to hasten_:
pret. pl. grummon, 306.

grindan, st. v., _to grind_, in

for-grindan, _to destroy, to ruin_: pret. sg. w. dat. forgrand gramum,
_destroyed the enemy, killed them_ (?), 424; pret. part. w. acc. h‰fde
lÓgdraca leÛda f‰sten ... glÍdum forgrunden, _had with flames destroyed the
people's feasts_, 2336; ˛‚ his ‚gen (scyld) w‰s glÍdum forgrunden, _since
his own (shield) had been destroyed by the fire_, 2678.

gripe, st. m., _gripe, attack_: nom. sg. gripe mÍces, 1766; acc. sg. grimne
gripe, 1149.--Comp.: fÊr-, mund-, nÓ-gripe.

grÓma, w. m., _mask, visor_: in comp. beado-, here-grÓma.

grÓm-helm, st. m., _mask-helmet, helmet with visor_: acc. pl. grÓm-helmas,

grÓpan, st. v., _to gripe, to seize, to grasp_: pret. sg. gr‚p ˛‚ tÙge·nes,
_then she caught at_, 1502.

for-grÓpan _(to gripe vehemently), to gripe so as to kill, to kill by the
grasp_, w. dat.: pret. sg. ‰t g˚e forgr‚p Grendeles mÊgum, 2354.
wi-grÓpan, w. dat., _(to seize at), to maintain, to hold erect_: inf. h˚
wi ˛am aglÊcean elles meahte gylpe wi-grÓpan, _how else I might maintain
my boast of battle against the monster_, 2522.

grÙwan, st. v., _to grow, to sprout_: pret. sg. him on ferhe greÛw
breÛsthord blÙdreÛw, 1719.

grund, st. m.: 1) _ground, plain, fields_ in contrast with highlands;
_earth_ in contrast with heaven: dat. sg. sÙhte ... ‰fter grunde, _sought
along the ground_, 2295; acc. pl. ofer grundas, 1405, 2074.--2) _bottom,
the lowest part_: acc. sg. grund (of the sea of Grendel), 1368; on gyfenes
grund, 1395; under gynne grund (_bottom of the sea_) 1552; dat. sg. tÙ
grunde (of the sea), 553; grunde (of the drake's cave) getenge, 2759; so,
on grunde, 2766.--Comp.: eormen-, mere-, sÊ-grund.

grund-b˚end, pres. part., _inhabitant of the earth_: gen. pl.
grund-b˚endra, 1007.

grund-hyrde, st. m., _warder of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg. (of
Grendel's mother), 2137.

grund-sele, st. m., _hall at the bottom_ (of the sea): dat sg. in ˛am
[grund]sele, 2140.

grund-wang, st. m., _ground surface, lowest surface_: acc. sg. ˛one
grund-wong (_bottom of the sea_), 1497; (bottom of the drake's cave), 2772,

grund-wyrgen, st. f., _she-wolf of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg.
grund-wyrgenne (Grendel's mother), 1519.

gryn (cf. Gloss. Aldh. "retinaculum, rete grin," Hpts. Ztschr. IX. 429),
st. n., _net, noose, snare_: gen. pl. fela ... grynna, 931. See gyrn.

gryre, st. m., _horror, terror, anything causing terror_: nom. sg., 1283;
acc. sg. wi Grendles gryre, 384; hie Wyrd forsweÛp on Grendles gryre,
_snatched them away into the horror of Grendel, to the horrible Grendel_,
478; dat. pl. mid gryrum ecga, 483; gen. pl. sw‚ fela gryra, 592.--Comp.:
fÊr-, wÓg-gryre.

gryre-brÙga, w. m., _terror and horror, amazement_: nom. sg.
[gryre-]br[Ù]g[a], 2229.

gryre-f‚h, adj., _gleaming terribly_: acc. sg. gryre-f‚hne (_the
fire-spewing drake_, cf. also [draca] f˝rwylmum f‚h, 2672), 2577.

gryre-g‰st, st. m., _terror-guest, stranger causing terror_: nom. sg.
grimlÓc gry[reg‰st], 3042; dat. sg. wi ˛am gryregieste (the dragon), 2561.

gryre-geatwe, st. f. pl., _terror-armor, warlike equipment_: dat. pl. in
hyra gryre-geatwum, 324.

gryre-leÛ, st. n., _terror-song, fearful song_: acc. sg. geh˝rdon
gryreleÛ galan godes and-sacan (_heard Grendel's cry of agony_), 787.

gryre-lÓc, adj., _terrible, horrible_: acc. sg. gryre-lÓcne, 1442, 2137.

gryre-sÓ, st. m., _way of terror, way causing terror_, i.e. warlike
expedition: acc. pl. se ˛e gryre-sÓas geg‚n dorste, 1463.

guma, w. m., _man, human being_: nom. sg., 653, 869, etc.; acc. sg. guman,
1844, 2295; dat. sg. guman (gumum, MS.), 2822; nom pl. guman, 215, 306,
667, etc.; acc. pl. guman, 615; dat. pl. gumum, 127, 321; gen. pl. gumena,
73, 328, 474, 716, etc.--Comp.: driht-, seld-guma.

gum-cyn, st. n., _race of men, people, nation_: gen. sg. we synt gumcynnes
Ge·ta leÛde, _people from the nation of the Ge·tas_, 260; dat. pl. ‰fter
gum-cynnum, _along the nations, among the nations_, 945.

gum-cyst, st. f., _man's excellence, man's virtue_: acc. sg. (or pl.)
gumcyste, 1724; dat. pl. as adv., _excellently, preeminently_: gumcystum
gÙdne be·ga bryttan, 1487; gumcystum gÙd ... hilde-hlemma (BeÛwulf), 2544.

gum-dre·m, st. m., _joyous doings of men_: acc. sg. gum-dre·m ofgeaf
(died), 2470.

gum-dryhten, st. m., _lord of men_: nom. sg. 1643.

gum-fÍa, w. m., _troop of men going on foot_: nom. sg., 1402.

gum-man, st. m., _man_: gen. pl. gum-manna fela, 1029.

gum-stÙl, st. m., _man's seat_ [Greek: kat'ezochÊn] _ruler's seat, throne_:
dat. sg. in gumstÙle, 1953.

g˚, st. f., _combat, battle_: nom. sg., 1124, 1659, 2484, 2537; acc. sg.
g˚e, 604; instr. sg. g˚e, 1998; dat. sg. tÙ (‰t) g˚e, 438, 1473. 1536,
2354, etc.; gen. sg. g˚e, 483, 527, 631, etc.; dat. pl. g˚um, 1959, 2179;
gen. pl. g˚a, 2513, 2544.

g˚-beorn, st. m., _warrior_: gen. pl. g˚-beorna sum (_the strand-guard on
the Danish coast_), 314.

g˚-bil, st. n., _battle-bill_: nom. sg. g˚bill, 2585; gen. pl. g˚-billa
n‚n, 804.

g˚-byrne, w. f., _battle-corselet_: nom. sg., 321.

g˚-cearu, st. f., _sorrow which the combat brings_: dat. sg. ‰fter
g˚-ceare, 1259.

g˚-cr‰ft, st. m., _warlike strength, power in battle_: nom. sg. Grendles
g˚-cr‰ft, 127.

g˚-cyning, st. m., _king in battle, king directing a battle_: nom. sg.,
199, 1970, 2336, etc.

g˚-de·, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 2250.

g˚-floga, w. m., _flying warrior_: acc. sg. wi ˛one g˚flogan (the
drake), 2529.

g˚-freca, w. m., _hero in battle, warrior_ (see freca): nom. sg. gearo
g˚-freca, of the drake, 2415.

g˚-fremmend, pres. part., _fighting a battle, warrior_: gen. pl.
g˚-fremmendra, 246; g˚- (gÙd-, MS.) fremmendra swylcum, _such a warrior_
(meaning BeÛwulf), 299.

g˚-gewÊde, st. n., _battle-dress, armor_: nom. pl. g˚-gewÊdo, 227; acc.
pl. -gewÊdu, 2618, 2631(?), 2852, 2872; gen. pl. -gewÊda, 2624.

g˚-geweorc, st. n., _battle-work warlike deed_: gen. pl., -geweorca, 679,
982, 1826.

g˚-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for combat_: acc. ˛‚ g˚-geatwa
(-getawa, MS.), 2637; dat. in eÛwrum g˚-geatawum, 395.

g˚-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet_: nom. sg., 2488.

g˚-horn, st. n., _battle-horn_: acc. sg., 1433.

g˚-hrÍ, st. f., _battle-fame_: nom. sg., 820.

g˚-leÛ, st. n., _battle-song_: acc., sg., 1523.

g˚-mÙd, adj., _disposed to battle, having an inclination to battle_. nom.
pl. g˚-mÙde, 306.

g˚-rÊs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack_: acc. sg., 2992; gen. pl.
g˚-rÊsa, 1578, 2427.

g˚-reÛw, adj., _fierce in battle_: nom. sg., 58.

g˚-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 839, 1119,
1882; acc. sg., 1502; gen. pl. g˚-rinca, 2649.

g˚-rÙf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 609.

g˚-sceaa, w. m., _battle-foe, enemy in combat_: nom. sg., of the drake,

g˚-scearu, st. f., _decision of the battle_: dat. sg. ‰fter g˚-sceare,

g˚-sele, st. m., _battle-hall, hall in which a battle takes place_: dat
sg. in ˛‰m g˚sele (in Heorot), 443.

g˚-searo, st. n. pl., _battle-equipment, armor_; acc., 215, 328.

g˚-sweord, st. n., _battle-sword_: acc. sg., 2155.

g˚-wÍrig, adj., _wearied by battle dead_: acc. sg. g˚-wÍrigne Grendel,

g˚-wine, st. m., _battle-friend, comrade in battle_ designation of the
sword: acc. sg., 1811; instr. pl. ˛e mec g˚-winum grÍtan dorste, _who
dared to attack me with his war-friends_, 2736.

g˚-wÓga, w. m., _fighter of battles, warrior_: nom. sg., 2112.

gyd. See gid.

gyfan. See gifan.

gyldan. See gildan.

gylden, adj., _golden_: nom. sg. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. segen
gyldenne, 47, 1022; bring gyldenne, 2810; dat. sg. under gyldnum be·ge,
1164.--Comp. eal-gylden.

gylp. See gilp.

gyrdan, w. v., _to gird, to lace_: pret. part. gyrded cempa, _the (sword-)
girt warrior_, 2079.

gyrn, st. n., _sorrow, harm_: nom. sg., 1776.

gyrn-wracu, st. f., _revenge for harm_: dat. sg. tÙ gyrn-wr‰ce, 1139; gen.
sg. ˛‚ w‰s eft hrae gearo gyrn-wr‰ce Grendeles mÙdor, _then was Grendel's
mother in turn immediately ready for revenge for the injury_, 2119.

gyrwan. See gerwan.

gystran. See gistran.

g˝man, w. v. w. gen., _to take care of, to be careful about_: pres. III.
g˝me, 1758, 2452; imp. sg. oferhyda ne g˝m! _do not study arrogance_
(despise it), 1761.

for-g˝man, w. acc., _to neglect, to slight_: pres. sg. III. he ˛‚
for-gesceaft forgyte and forg˝me, 1752.

g˝tsian. See gÓtsian.

gyt. See git.


habban, w. v., _to have_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. I. ˛‰s ic wÍn h‰bbe (_as I
hope_), 383; ˛e ic geweald h‰bbe, 951; ic me on hafu bord and byrnan, _have
on me shield and coat of mail_, 2525; hafo, 3001; sg. II. ˛u nu [friu]
hafast, 1175; pl. I. habba we ... micel Êrende, 270; pres. subj. sg. III.
˛‰t he ˛rittiges manna m‰gencr‰ft on his mundgripe h‰bbe, 381. Blended with
the negative: pl. III. ˛‰t be SÊ-Ge·tas sÍlran n‰bben tÙ geceÛsenne cyning
Ênigne, _that the Sea-Ge·tas will have no better king than you to choose_,
1851; imp. hafa nu and geheald h˚sa sÍlest, 659; inf. habban, 446, 462,
3018; pret. sg. h‰fde, 79, 518, 554; pl. h‰fdon, 539.--2) used as an
auxiliary with the pret. part.: pres. sg. I. h‰bbe ic ... ongunnen, 408;
h‰bbe ic ... ge‚hsod, 433; II. hafast, 954, 1856; III. hafa, 474, 596;
pret. sg. h‰fde, 106, 220, 666, 2322, 2334, 2953, etc.; pl. h‰fdon, 117,
695, 884, 2382, etc. Pret. part. inflected: nu scealc hafa dÊd gefremede,
940; h‰fde se gÙda ... cempan gecorone, 205. With the pres. part. are
formed the compounds: bord-, rond-h‰bbend.

for-habban, _to hold back, to keep one's self_: inf. ne meahte w‰fre mÙd
forhabban in hrere, _the expiring life could not hold itself back in the
breast_, 1152; ne mihte ˛‚ for-habban, _could not restrain himself_, 2610.

wi-habban, _to resist, to offer resistance_: pret. ˛‰t se wÓnsele
wi-h‰fde heao-deÛrum, _that the hall resisted them furious in fight_,

hafela, heafola, w. m., _head_: acc. sg. hafelan, 1373, 1422, 1615, 1636,
1781; n‚ ˛u mÓnne ˛earft hafalan h˝dan, 446; ˛onne we on orlege hafelan
weredon, _protected our heads, defended ourselves_, 1328; se hwÓta helm
hafelan werede, 1449; dat. sg. hafelan, 673, 1522; heafolan, 2680; gen. sg.
heafolan, 2698; nom. pl. hafelan, 1121.--Comp. wÓg-heafola.

hafenian, w. v., _to raise, to uplift_: pret. sg. wÊpen hafenade heard be
hiltum, _raised the weapon, the strong man, by the hilt_, 1574.

hafoc, st. m., _hawk_: nom. sg., 2264.

haga, w. m., _enclosed piece of ground, hedge, farm-enclosure_: dat. sg. tÙ
hagan, 2893, 2961.

haga, w. m. See ‚n-haga.

hama, homa, w. m., _dress_: in the comp. flÊsc-, fyrd-, lÓc-hama, scÓr-ham

hamer, st. m., _hammer_: instr. sg. hamere, 1286; gen. pl. homera l‚fe
(swords), 2830.

hand, hond, st. f., _hand_: nom. sg. 2138; siÛ swÓre ... hand, _the right
hand_, 2100; hond, 1521, 2489, 2510; acc. sg. hand, 558, 984; hond, 657,
687, 835, 928, etc.; dat. sg. on handa, 495, 540; mid handa, 747, 2721; be
honda, 815; dat. pl. (as instr.) hondum, 1444, 2841.

hand-bana, w. m., _murderer with the hand_, or _in hand-to-hand combat_:
dat. sg. tÙ hand-bonan (-banan), 460, 1331.

hand-gemÙt, st. n., _hand-to-hand conflict, battle_: gen. pl. (ecg) ˛olode
Êr fela hand-gemÙta, 1527; nÙ ˛‰t l‰sest w‰s hond-gemÙta, 2356.

hand-gesella, w. m., _hand-companion, man of the retinue_: dat. pl.
hond-gesellum, 1482.

hand-gestealla, w. m., _(one whose position is near at hand), comrade,
companion, attendant_: dat. sg. hond-gesteallan, 2170; nom. pl.
hand-gesteallan, 2597.

hand-geweorc, st. n., _work done with the hands_, i.e. achievement in
battle: dat. sg. for ˛‰s hild-fruman hondgeweorce, 2836.

hand-gewrien, pret. part. _hand-wreathed, bound with the hand._ acc. pl.
w‰lbende ... hand-gewriene, 1938.

hand-locen, pret. part., _joined, united by hand_: nom. sg. (g˚-byrne,
lÓc-syrce) hondlocen (because the shirts of mail consisted of interlaced
rings), 322, 551.

hand-rÊs, st. m., _hand-battle_, i.e. combat with the hands: nom. sg.
hond-rÊs, 2073.

hand-scalu, st. f., _hand-attendance, retinue_: dat. sg. mid his hand-scale
(hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

hand-sporu, st. f., _finger_ (on Grendel's hand), under the figure of a
spear: nom. pl. hand-sporu, 987.

hand-wundor, st. n., _wonder done by the hand, wonderful handwork_: gen.
pl. hond-wundra mÊst, 2769.

hangan. See hÙn.

hangian, w. v., _to hang_: pres. sg. III. ˛onne his sunu hanga hrefne to
hrÙre, _when his son hangs, a joy to the ravens_, 2448; pl. III. ofer ˛‰m
(mere) hongia hrÓmge bearwas, _over which frosty forests hang_, 1364; inf.
hangian, 1663; pret. hangode, _hung down_, 2086.

hatian, w. v. w. acc., _to hate, to be an enemy to, to hurt_: inf. he ˛one

Book of the day:
Facebook Google Reddit StumbleUpon Twitter Pinterest