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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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br˚n-f‚g, adj., _gleaming like metal_: acc. sg. br˚nf‚gne helm, 2616.

bryne-leÛma, w. m., _light of a conflagration, gleam of fire _: nom. sg.,

bryne-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire_: dat. pl. -wylmum, 2327.

brytnian (properly _to break in small pieces_, cf. breÛtan), w. v., _to
bestow, to distribute_: pret. sinc brytnade, _distributed presents_, i.e.
ruled (since the giving of gifts belongs especially to rulers), 2384.

brytta, w. m., _giver, distributer_, always designating the king: nom. sg.
sinces brytta, 608, 1171, 2072; acc. sg. be·ga bryttan, 35, 352, 1488;
sinces bryttan, 1923.

bryttian (_to be a dispenser_), w. v., _to distribute, to confer_: prs. sg.
III. god manna cynne snyttru brytta, _bestows wisdom upon the human race_,

br˝d, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_: acc. sg. br˝d, 2931; br˝de, 2957, both
times of the consort of Ongen˛eÛw (?).--2) _betrothed, bride_: nom. sg., of
HrÙg‚r's daughter, Fre·ware, 2032.

br˝d-b˚r, st. n., _woman's apartment_: dat. sg. eode ... cyning of
br˝db˚re, _the king came out of the apartment of his wife_ (into which,
according to 666, he had gone), 922.

bunden-stefna, w. m., _(that which has a bound prow), the framed ship_:
nom. sg., 1911.

bune, w. f., _can_ or _cup, drinking-vessel_: nom. pl. bunan, 3048; acc.
pl. bunan, 2776.

burh, burg, st. f., _castle, city, fortified house_: acc. sg. burh, 523;
dat. sg. byrig, 1200; dat. pl. burgum, 53, 1969, 2434.--Comp.: freÛ,
freoo-, he·-, hleÛ-, hord-, leÛd-, mÊg-burg.

burh-loca, w. m., _castle-bars_: dat. sg. under burh-locan, _under the
castle-bars_, i.e. in the castle (Hygel‚c's), 1929.

burh-stede, st. m., _castle-place, place where the castle_ or _city
stands_: acc. sg. burhstede, 2266.

burh-wela, w. m., _riches, treasure of a castle_ or _city_: gen. sg. ˛enden
he burh-welan br˚can mÙste, 3101.

burne, w. f., _spring, fountain_: gen. ˛Êre burnan w‰lm, _the bubbling of
the spring_, 2547.

b˚an, st. v.: 1) _to stay, to remain, to dwell_: inf. gif he weard onfunde
b˚an on beorge, _if he had found the watchman dwelling on the mountain_,
2843.--2) _to inhabit_, w. acc.: meduseld b˚an, _to inhabit the
mead-house_, 3066.

ge-b˚an, w. acc., _to occupy a house, to take possession_: pret. part. he·n
h˚ses, h˚ hit Hring Dene ‰fter beÛr˛ege geb˚n h‰fdon, _how the Danes, after
their beer-carouse, had occupied it_ (had made their beds in it),
117.--With the pres. part. b˚end are the compounds ceaster-, fold-, grund-,

b˚gan, st. v., _to bend, to bow, to sink; to turn, to flee_: prs. sg. III.
bon-g‚r b˚ge, _the fatal spear sinks_, i.e. its deadly point is turned
down, it rests, 2032; inf. ˛‰t se byrnwÓga b˚gan sceolde, _that the armed
hero had to sink down_ (having received a deadly blow), 2919; similarly,
2975; pret. sg. be·h eft under eorweall, _turned, fled again behind the
earth-wall_, 2957; pret. pl. bugon tÙ bence, _turned to the bench_, 327,
1014; hy on holt bugon, _fled to the wood_, 2599.

‚-b˚gan, _to bend off, to curve away from_: pret. fram sylle ‚be·g medubenc
monig, _from the threshold curved away many a mead-bench_, 776.

be-b˚gan, w. acc., _to surround, to encircle_: prs. sw‚ (_which_) w‰ter
beb˚ge, 93; efne sw‚ sÓde sw‚ sÊ beb˚ge windige weallas, _as far as the
sea encircles windy shores_, 1224.

ge-b˚gan, _to bend, to bow, to sink_: a) intrans.: heÛ on flet gebe·h,
_sank on the floor_, 1541; ˛‚ gebe·h cyning, _then sank the king_, 2981; ˛‚
se wyrm gebe·h sn˚de tÙsomne (_when the drake at once coiled itself up_),
2568; gew‚t ˛‚ gebogen scrÓan tÙ, _advanced with curved body_ (the drake),
2570.--b) w. acc. of the thing to which one bends or sinks: pret. selereste
gebe·h, _sank upon the couch in the hall_, 691; similarly gebe·g, 1242.

b˚r, st. n., _apartment, room_: dat. sg. b˚re, 1311, 2456; dat. pl. b˚rum,
140.--Comp. br˝d-b˚r.

b˚tan, b˚ton (from be and ˚tan, hence in its meaning referring to what is
without, excluded): 1) conj. with subjunctive following, _lest_: b˚tan his
lÓc swice, _lest his body escape_, 967. With ind. following, _but_: b˚ton
hit w‰s m‚re ˛onne Ênig mon Ùer tÙ beadul‚ce ‰tberan meahte, _but it_ (the
sword) _was greater than any other man could have carried to battle_, 1561.
After a preceding negative verb, _except_: ˛‚ra ˛e gumena bearn gearwe ne
wiston b˚ton Fitela mid hine, _which the children of men did not know at
all, except Fitela, who was with him_, 880; ne nom he m‚m-Êhta m‚ b˚ton
˛one hafelan, etc., _he took no more of the rich treasure than the head
alone_, 1615.--2) prep, with dat., _except_: b˚ton folcscare, 73; b˚ton ˛e,
658; ealle b˚ton ‚num, 706.

bycgan, w. v., _to buy, to pay_: inf. ne w‰s ˛‰t gewrixle til ˛‰t hie on b‚
healfa bicgan scoldon freÛnda feorum, _that was no good transaction, that
they, on both sides_ (as well to Grendel as to his mother), _had to pay
with the lives of their friends_, 1306.

be-bycgan, _to sell_: pret. nu ic on m‚ma hord mÓne bebohte frÙde
feorhlege (_now I, for the treasure-hoard, gave up my old life_), 2800.

ge-bycgan, _to buy, to acquire; to pay_: pret. w. acc. nÙ ˛Êr Ênige ...
frÙfre gebohte, _obtained no sort of help, consolation_, 974; hit (his,
MS.) ealdre gebohte, _paid it with his life_, 2482; pret. part. sylfes
feore be·gas [geboh]te, _bought rings with his own life_, 3015.

byldan, w. v. (_to make_ beald, which see), _to excite, to encourage, to
brave deeds_: inf. w. acc. sw‚ he Fresena cyn on beÛrsele byldan wolde (by
distributing gifts), 1095.

ge-byrd, st. n., "fatum destinatum" (Grein) (?): acc. sg. hie on gebyrd
hruron g‚re wunde, 1075.

ge-byrdu, st. f., _birth_; in compound, bearn-gebyrdu.

byrdu-scr˚d, st. n., _shield-ornament, design upon a shield_(?): nom. sg.,

byre, st. m., (_born_) _son_: nom. sg., 2054, 2446, 2622, etc.; nom. pl.
byre, 1189. In a broader sense, _young man, youth_: acc. pl. bÊdde byre
geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

byren, st. f., _burden_; in comp. m‰gen-byren.

byrele, st. m., _steward, waiter, cupbearer_: nom. pl. byrelas, 1162.

byrgan, w. v., _to feast, to eat_: inf., 448.

ge-byrgea, w. m., _protector_; in comp. leÛd-gebyrgea.

byrht. See _beorht_.

byrne, w. f., _shirt of mail, mail_: nom. sg. byrne, 405, 1630, etc.;
hringed byrne, _ring-shirt_, consisting of interlaced rings, 1246; acc. sg.
byrnan, 1023, etc.; sÓde byrnan, _large coat of mail_, 1292; hringde
byrnan, 2616; h‚re byrnan, _gray coat of mail_ (of iron), 2154; dat. sg. on
byrnan, 2705; gen. sg. byrnan hring, _the ring of the shirt of mail_ (i.e.
the shirt of mail), 2261; dat. pl. byrnum, 40, 238, etc.; beorhtum byrnum,
_with gleaming mail_, 3141.--Comp.: g˚-, here-, heao-, Óren-,

byrnend. See beornan.

byrn-wÓga, w. m., _warrior dressed in a coat of mail_: nom. sg., 2919.

bysgu, bisigu, st. f., _trouble, difficulty, opposition_: nom. sg. bisigu,
281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1744, bysigum, 2581.

bysig, adj., _opposed, in need_, in the compounds lÓf-bysig, syn-bysig.

b˝me, w. f., _a wind-instrument, a trumpet, a trombone_: gen. sg. b˝man
gealdor, _the sound of the trumpet_, 2944.

b˝wan, w. v., _to ornament, to prepare_: inf. ˛‚ ˛e beado-grÓman b˝wan
sceoldon, _who should prepare the helmets_, 2258.


camp, st. m., _combat, fight between two_: dat. sg. in campe (BeÛwulf's
with D‰ghrefn; cempan, MS.), 2506.

candel, st. f., _light, candle_: nom. sg. rodores candel, of the sun,
1573.--Comp. woruld-candel.

cempa, w. m., _fighter, warrior, hero_: nom. sg. ‰ele cempa, 1313; Ge·ta
cempa, 1552; rÍe cempa, 1586; mÊre cempa (as voc.), 1762; gyrded cempa,
2079; dat. sg. geongum (geongan) cempan, 1949, 2045, 2627; H˚ga cempan,
2503; acc. pl. cempan, 206.--Comp. fÍe-cempa.

cennan, w. v.: 1) _to bear_, w. acc.: efne sw‚ hwylc m‰ga sw‚ ˛one magan
cende, _who bore the son_, 944; pret. part. ˛‰m eafera w‰s ‰fter cenned,
_to him was a son born_, 12.--2) reflexive, _to show one's self, to reveal
one's self_: imp. cen ˛ec mid cr‰fte, _prove yourself by your strength_,

‚-cennan, _to bear_: pret. part. nÙ hie f‰der cunnon, hw‰er him Ênig w‰s
Êr ‚cenned dyrnra g‚sta, _they_ (the people of the country) _do not know
his_ (Grendel's) _father, nor whether any evil spirit has been before born
to him_ (whether he has begotten a son), 1357.

cÍnu, st. f., _boldness_: acc. sg. cÍnu, 2697.

cÍne, adj., _keen, warlike, bold_: gen. p.. cÍnra gehwylcum, 769. Superl.,
acc. pl. cÍnoste, 206.--Comp.: dÊd-, g‚r-cÍne.

ceald, adj., _cold_: acc. pl. cealde stre·mas, 1262; dat. pl. cealdum
cearsÓum, _with cold, sad journeys_, 2397. Superl. nom. sg. wedera
cealdost, 546;--Comp. morgen-ceald.

cearian, w. v., _to have care, to take care, to trouble one's self_: prs.
sg. III. n‚ ymb his lÓf ceara, _takes no care for his life_, 1537.

cearig, adj., _troubled, sad_: in comp. sorh-cearig.

cear-sÓ, st. m., _sorrowful way, an undertaking that brings sorrow_, i.e.
a warlike expedition: dat. pl. cearsÓum (of BeÛwulf's expeditions against
E·dgils), 2397.

cearu, st. f., _care, sorrow, lamentation_: nom. sg., 1304; acc. sg.
[ceare], 3173.--Comp.: ealdor-, g˚-, mÊl-, mÙd-cearu.

cear-w‰lm, st. m., _care-agitation, waves of sorrow in the breast_: dat.
pl. ‰fter cear-w‰lmum, 2067.

cear-wylm, st. m., same as above; nom. pl. ˛‚ cear-wylmas, 282.

ceaster-b˚end, pt, _inhabitant of a fortified place, inhabitant of a
castle_: dat. pl. ceaster-b˚endum, of those established in HrÙg‚r's
castle, 769.

ce·p, st. m., _purchase, transaction_: figuratively, nom. sg. n‰s ˛‰t ˝e
ce·p, _no easy transaction_, 2416; instr. sg. ˛e·h ˛e Ùer hit ealdre
gebohte, heardan ce·pe, _although the one paid it with his life, a dear
purchase_, 2483.

ge-ce·pian, w. v., _to purchase_: pret. part. gold unrÓme grimme gece·pod,
_gold without measure, bitterly purchased_ (with BeÛwulf's life), 3013.

be-ceorfan, st. v., _to separate, to cut off_ (with acc. of the pers. and
instr. of the thing): pret. hine ˛‚ he·fde becearf, _cut off his head_,
1591; similarly, 2139.

ceorl, st. m., _man_: nom. sg. snotor ceorl monig, _many a wise man_, 909;
dat. sg. gomelum ceorle, _the old man_ (of King HrÍel), 2445; so, ealdum
ceorle, of King Ongen˛eÛw, 2973; nom. pl. snotere ceorlas, _wise men_, 202,
416, 1592.

ceÛl, st. m., _keel_, figuratively for the ship: nom. sg., 1913; acc. sg.
ceÛl, 38, 238; gen. sg. ceÛles, 1807.

ceÛsan, st. v., _to choose_, hence, _to assume_: inf. ˛one cynedÙm ciÛsan
wolde, _would assume the royal dignity_, 2377; _to seek_: pret. subj. Êr he
bÊl cure, _before he sought his funeral-pile_ (before he died), 2819.

ge-ceÛsan, _to choose, to elect_: gerund, tÙ geceÛsenne cyning Ênigne
(sÍlran), _to choose a better king_, 1852; imp. ˛e ˛‰t sÍlre ge-ceÛs,
_choose thee the better_ (of two: bealonÓ and Íce rÊdas), 1759; pret. he
˚sic on herge gece·s tÙ ˛yssum sifate, _selected us among the soldiers for
this undertaking_, 2639; gece·s Ícne rÊd, _chose the everlasting gain_,
i.e. died, 1202; similarly, godes leÛht gece·s, 2470; pret. part. acc. pl.
h‰fde ... cempan gecorone, 206.

on-cirran, w. v., _to turn, to change_: inf. ne meahte ... ˛‰s wealdendes
[willan] wiht on-cirran, _could not change the will of the Almighty_, 2858;
pret. ufor oncirde, _turned higher_, 2952; ˛yder oncirde, _turned thither_,

‚-cÓgan, w. v., _to call hither_: pret. ‚cÓgde of corre cyninges ˛egnas
syfone, _called from the retinue of the king seven men_, 3122.

clam, clom, st. m., f. n.? _fetter_, figuratively of a strong gripe: dat.
pl. heardan clammum, 964; heardum clammum, 1336; atolan clommum (horrible
claws of the mother of Grendel), 1503.

clif, cleof, st. n., _cliff, promontory_: acc. pl. Ge·ta clifu,
1912.--Comp.: brim-, Íg-, holm-, st‚n-clif.

ge-cn‚wan, st. v., _to know, to recognize_: inf. meaht ˛u, mÓn wine, mÍce
gecn‚wan, _mayst thou, my friend, recognize the sword_, 2048.

on-cn‚wan, _to recognize, to distinguish_: hordweard oncniÛw mannes reorde,
_distinguished the speech of a man_, 2555.

cniht, st. m., _boy, youth_: dat. pl. ˛yssum cnyhtum, _to these boys_
(HrÙg‚r's sons), 1220.

cniht-wesende, prs. part., _being a boy_ or _a youth_: acc. sg. ic hine
c˚e cniht-wesende, _knew him while still a boy_, 372; nom. pl. wit ˛‰t
gecwÊdon cniht-wesende, _we both as young men said that_, 535.

cnyssan, w. v., _to strike, to dash against each other_: pret. pl. ˛onne
... eoferas cnysedan, _when the bold warriors dashed against each other,
stormed_ (in battle), 1329.

collen-ferh, -fer, adj., (properly, _of swollen mind_), _of uncommon
thoughts, in his way of thinking, standing higher than others,
high-minded_: nom. sg. cuma collen-ferh, of BeÛwulf, 1807; collen-fer, of
WÓgl‚f, 2786.

corer, st. n., _troop, division of an army, retinue_: dat. sg. ˛‚ w‰s ...
Fin sl‰gen, cyning on corre, _then was Fin slain, the king in the troop_
(of warriors), 1154; of corre cyninges, _out of the retinue of the king_,

costian, w. v., _to try_; pret. (w. gen.) he mÓn costode, _tried me_, 2085.

cÙfa, w. m., _apartment, sleeping-room, couch_: in comp. b‚n-cÙfa.

cÙl, adj., _cool_: compar. cearwylmas cÙlran wura, _the waves of sorrow
become cooler_, i.e. the mind becomes quiet, 282; him wÓflufan ... cÙlran
weora, _his love for his wife cools_, 2067.

cr‰ft, st. m., _the condition of being able_, hence: 1) _physical
strength_: nom. sg. m‰ga cr‰ft, 1284; acc. sg. m‰genes cr‰ft, 418; ˛urh
‚nes cr‰ft, 700; cr‰ft and cÍnu, 2697; dat. (instr.) sg. cr‰fte, 983,
1220, 2182, 2361.--2) _art, craft, skill_: dat. sg. as instr. dyrnum
cr‰fte, _with secret_ (magic) _art_, 2169; dyrnan cr‰fte, 2291; ˛eÛfes
cr‰fte, _with thief's craft_, 2221; dat. pl. deÛfles cr‰ftum, _by devil's
art_ (sorcery), 2089.--3) _great quantity_ (?): acc. sg. wyrm-horda cr‰ft,
2223.--Comp.: leoo-, m‰gen-, nearo-, wÓg-cr‰ft.

cr‰ftig, adj.: 1) _strong, stout_: nom. sg. eafoes cr‰ftig, 1467; nÓa
cr‰ftig, 1963. Comp. wÓg-cr‰ftig.--2) _adroit, skilful_: in comp.
lagu-cr‰ftig.--3) _rich_ (of treasures); in comp. e·cen-cr‰ftig.

cringan, st. v., _to fall in combat, to fall with the writhing movement of
those mortally wounded_: pret. subj. on w‰l crunge, _would sink into death,
would fall_, 636; pret. pl. for the pluperfect, sume on w‰le crungon, 1114.

ge-cringan, same as above: pret. he under rande gecranc, _fell under his
shield_, 1210; ‰t wÓge gecrang, _fell in battle_, 1338; heÛ on flet
gecrong, _fell to the ground_, 1569; in campe gecrong, _fell in single
combat_, 2506.

cuma (_he who comes_), w. m., _newcomer, guest_: nom. sg. 1807.--Comp.:
cwealm-, wil-cuma.

cuman, st. v., _to come_: pres. sg. II. gyf ˛u on weg cymest, _if thou
comest from there_, 1383; III. cyme, 2059; pres. subj. sg. III. cume, 23;
pl. ˛onne we ˚t cymen, _when we come out_, 3107; inf. cuman, 244, 281,
1870; pret. sg. com, 430, 569, 826, 1134, 1507, 1601, etc.; cwom, 419,
2915; pret. subj. sg. cwÙme, 732; pret. part. cumen, 376; pl. cumene, 361.
Often with the inf. of a verb of motion, as, com gongan, 711; com sÓian,
721; com in g‚n, 1645; cwom g‚n, 1163; com scacan, 1803; cwÙmon lÊdan, 239;
cwÙmon sÍcean, 268; cwÙman scrÓan, 651, etc. [pret. cÙm, etc.]

be-cuman, _to come, to approach, to arrive_: pret. syan niht becom,
_after the night had come_, 115; ˛e on ˛‚ leÛde becom, _that had come over
the people_, 192; ˛‚ he tÙ h‚m becom, 2993. And with inf. following: stefn
in becom ... hlynnan under h‚rne st‚n, 2553; lyt eft becwom ... h‚mes
niÛsan, 2366; Ù ˛‰t ende becwom, 1255; similarly, 2117. With acc. of
pers.: ˛‚ hyne siÛ ˛rag becwom, _when this time of battle came over him_,

ofer-cuman, _to overcome, to compel_: pret. ˛˝ he ˛one feÛnd ofercwom,
_thereby he overcame the foe_, 1274: pl. hie feÛnd heora ... ofercÙmon,
700; pret. part. (w. gen.) nÓa ofercumen, _compelled by combats_, 846.

cumbol, cumbor, st. m., _banner_: gen. sg. cumbles hyrde, 2506.--Comp.

cund, adj., _originating in, descended from_: in comp. feorran-cund.

cunnan, verb pret. pres.: 1) _to know, to be acquainted with_ (w. acc. or
depend, clause): sg. pres. I. ic mÓnne can gl‰dne HrÙulf ˛‰t he ... wile,
_I know my gracious H., that he will_..., 1181; II. eard git ne const,
_thou knowest not yet the land_, 1378; III. he ˛‰t wyrse ne con, _knows no
worse_, 1740. And reflexive: con him land geare, _knows the land well_,
2063; pl. men ne cunnon hwyder helr˚nan scrÓa, _men do not know
whither_..., 162; pret. sg. ic hine c˚e, _knew him_, 372; c˚e he dugu
˛e·w, _knew the customs of the distinguished courtiers_, 359; so with the
acc., 2013; seolfa ne c˚e ˛urh hw‰t..., _he himself did not know through
what_..., 3068; pl. sorge ne c˚on, 119; so with the acc., 180, 418, 1234.
With both (acc. and depend. clause): nÙ hie f‰der cunnon (scil. nÙ hie
cunnon) hw‰er him Ênig w‰s Êr ‚cenned dyrnra g‚sta, 1356.--2) with inf.
following, _can, to be able_: prs. sg. him bebeorgan ne con, _cannot defend
himself_, 1747; prs. pl. men ne cunnon secgan, _cannot say_, 50; pret. sg.
c˚e reccan, 90; beorgan c˚e, 1446; pret. pl. hÍrian ne c˚on, _could not
praise_, 182; pret. subj. healdan c˚e, 2373.

cunnian, w. v., _to inquire into, to try_, w. gen. or acc.: inf. sund
cunnian (figurative for _roam over the sea_), 1427, 1445; geongne cempan
higes cunnian, _to try the young warrior's mind_, 2046; pret. eard cunnode,
_tried the home_, i.e. came to it, 1501; pl. wada cunnedon, _tried the
flood_, i.e. swam through the sea, 508.

c˚, adj.: 1) _known, well known; manifest, certain_: nom. sg. undyrne c˚,
150, 410; wÓde c˚, 2924; acc. sg. fern. c˚e folme, 1304; c˚e strÊte,
1635; nom. pl. ecge c˚e, 1146; acc. pl. c˚e n‰ssas, 1913.--2) _renowned_:
nom. sg. g˚um c˚, 2179; nom. pl. cystum c˚e, 868.--3) also, _friendly,
dear, good_ (see un-c˚).--Comp.: un-, wÓd-c˚.

c˚-lÓce, adv., _openly, publicly_: comp. nÙ her c˚lÓcor cuman ongunnon
lind-h‰bbende, _no shield-bearing men undertook more boldly to come hither_
(the coast-watchman means by this the secret landing of the Vikings), 244.

cwalu, st. f., _murder, fall_: in comp. de·-cwalu.

cweccan (_to make alive_, see cwic), w. v., _to move, to swing_: pret.
cwehte m‰gen-wudu, _swung the wood of strength_ (= spear), 235.

cwean, st. v., _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: prs. sg. III. cwi ‰t
beÛre, _speaks at beer-drinking_, 2042.--b) w. acc.: pret. word ‰fter cw‰,
315; fe· worda cw‰, 2247, 2663.--c) with ˛‰t following: pret. sg. cw‰,
92, 2159; pl. cwÊdon, 3182.--d) with ˛‰t omitted: pret. cw‰ he g˚-cyning
sÍcean wolde, _said he would seek out the war-king_, 199; similarly, 1811,

‚-cwean, _to say, to speak_, w. acc.: prs. ˛‰t word ‚cwy, _speaks the
word_, 2047; pret. ˛‰t word ‚cw‰, 655.

ge-cwean, _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: pret. sg. II. sw‚ ˛u gecwÊde,
2665.--b)w. acc.: pret. wel-hwylc gecw‰, _spoke everything_, 875; pl. wit
˛‰t gecwÊdon, 535.--c) w. ˛‰t following: pret. gecw‰, 858, 988.

cwellan, w. v., (_to make die_), _to kill, to murder_: pret. sg. II. ˛u
Grendel cwealdest, 1335.

‚-cwellan, _to kill_: pret. sg. (he) wyrm ‚cwealde, 887; ˛one ˛e Grendel Êr
m‚ne ‚cwealde, _whom Grendel had before wickedly murdered_, 1056; beorn
‚cwealde, 2122.

cwÍn, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_ (of noble birth): nom. sg. cwÍn, 62;
(HrÙg‚r's), 614, 924; (Finn's), 1154.--2) particularly denoting the queen:
nom. sg. be·ghroden cwÍn (Wealh˛eÛw), 624; mÊru cwÍn, 2017; fremu folces
cwÍn (firyo), 1933; acc. sg. cwÍn (Wealh˛eÛw), 666.-Comp. folc-cwÍn.

cwÍn-lÓc, adj., _feminine, womanly_: nom. sg. ne bi swylc cwÍnlÓc ˛e·w
(_such is not the custom of women, does not become a woman_), 1941.

cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder, destruction_: acc. sg. ˛one cwealm
gewr‰c, _avenged the death_ (of Abel by Cain), 107; mÊndon mondryhtnes
cwealm, _lamented the ruler's fall_, 3150.--Comp.: bealo-, de·-,

cwealm-bealu, st. n., _the evil of murder_: acc. sg., 1941.

cwealm-cuma, w. m., _one coming for murder, a new-comer who contemplates
murder_: acc. sg. ˛one cwealm-cuman (of Grendel), 793.

cwic and cwico, adj., _quick, having life, alive_: acc. sg. cwicne, 793,
2786; gen. sg. ‚ht cwices, _something living_, 2315; nom. pl. cwice, 98;
cwico w‰s ˛‚ gena, _was still alive_, 3094.

cwide, st. m., _word, speech, saying_: in comp. gegn-, gilp-, hleÛ-, or-
[non-existant form--KTH], word-cwide.

cwÓan, st. v., _to complain, to lament_: inf. w. acc. ongan ... giogue
cwÓan hilde-strengo, _began to lament the_ (departed) _battle-strength of
his youth_, 2113 [ceare] cwÓan, _lament their cares_, 3173.

cyme, st. m., _coming, arrival_: nom. pl. hwanan eÛwre cyme syndon, _whence
your coming is_, i. e. whence ye are, 257.--Comp. eft-cyme.

cymlÓce, adv., (convenienter), _splendidly, grandly_: comp. cymlÓcor, 38.

cyn, st. n., _race_, both in the general sense, and denoting noble lineage:
nom. sg. Fresena cyn, 1094; Wedera (gara, MS.) cyn, 461; acc. sg. eotena
cyn, 421; giganta cyn, 1691; dat. sg. Caines cynne, 107; manna cynne, 811,
915, 1726; eÛwrum (of those who desert BeÛwulf in battle) cynne, 2886; gen.
sg. manna (gumena) cynnes, 702, etc.; mÊran cynnes, 1730; l‚an cynnes,
2009, 2355; ˚sses cynnes WÊgmundinga, 2814; gen. pl. cynna gehwylcum,
98.--Comp.: eormen-, feorh-, frum-, gum-, man-, wyrm-cyn.

cyn, st. n., _that which is suitable or proper_: gen. pl. cynna (of
etiquette) gemyndig, 614.

ge-cynde, adj., _innate, peculiar, natural_: nom. sg., 2198, 2697.

cyne-dÙm, st. m., _kingdom, royal dignity_: acc. sg., 2377.

cyning, st. m., _king_: nom. acc. sg. cyning, II, 864, 921, etc.; kyning,
620, 3173; dat. sg. cyninge, 3094; gen. sg. cyninges, 868, 1211; gen. pl.
kyning[a] wuldor, of God, 666.--Comp. beorn-, eor-, folc-, gu-, he·h-,
leÛd-, sÊ-, sÙ-, ˛eÛd-, worold-, wuldor-cyning.

cyning-beald, adj., "_nobly bold_" (Thorpe), _excellently brave_ (?): nom.
pl. cyning-balde men, 1635.

ge-cyssan, w. v., _to kiss_: pret. gecyste ˛‚ cyning ... ˛egen betstan,
_kissed the best thane_ (BeÛwulf), 1871.

cyst (_choosing_, see ceÛsan), st. f., _the select, the best of a thing,
good quality, excellence_: nom. sg. Órenna cyst, _of the swords_, 803,
1698; wÊpna cyst, 1560; symbla cyst, _choice banquet_, 1233; acc. sg. Órena
cyst, 674; dat. pl. foldwegas ... cystum c˚e, _known through excellent
qualities_, 868; (cyning) cystum gec˝ed, 924.--Comp. gum-, hilde-cyst.

c˝. See on-c˝.

c˝an (see c˚), w. v., _to make known, to manifest, to show_: imp. sg.
m‰gen-ellen c˝, _show thy heroic strength_, 660; inf. cwealmbealu c˝an,
1941; ellen c˝an, 2696.

ge-c˝an (_to make known_, hence): 1) _to give information, to announce_:
inf. andsware gec˝an, _to give answer_, 354; gerund, tÙ gec˝anne hwanan
eÛwre cyme syndon (_to show whence ye come_), 257; pret. part. sÙ is
gec˝ed ˛‰t ... (_the truth has become known_, it has shown itself to be
true), 701; Higel‚ce w‰s sÓ BeÛwulfes sn˚de gec˝ed, _the arrival of B.
was quickly announced_, 1972; similarly, 2325.--2) _to make celebrated_, in
pret. part.: w‰s mÓn f‰der folcum gec˝ed (_my father was known to
warriors_), 262; w‰s his mÙdsefa manegum gec˝ed, 349; cystum gec˝ed, 924.

c˝u (properly, _condition of being known_, hence _relationship_), st. f.,
_home, country, land_: in comp. feor-c˝u. [should be c˝, feor-c˝--KTH]

ge-c˝pan, w. v., _to purchase_: inf. n‰s him Ênig ˛earf ˛‰t he ... ˛urfe
wyrsan wÓgfrecan weore gec˝pan, _had need to buy with treasures no
inferior warrior_, 2497.


daro, st. m., _spear_: dat. pl. dareum l‚can (_to fight_), 2849.

ge-d‚l, st. n., _parting, separation_: nom. sg. his worulde ged‚l, _his
separation from the world_ (his death), 3069.--Comp. ealdor-, lÓf-ged‚l.

d‰g, st. m., _day_: nom. sg. d‰g, 485, 732, 2647; acc. sg. d‰g, 2400;
andlangne d‰g, _the whole day_, 2116; morgenlongne d‰g (_the whole
morning_), 2895; Ù dÙmes d‰g, _till judgment-day_, 3070; dat. sg. on ˛‰m
d‰ge ˛ysses lÓfes (eo tempore, tunc), 197, 791, 807; gen. sg. d‰ges, 1601,
2321; hwÓl d‰ges, _a day's time, a whole day_, 1496; d‰ges and nihtes, _day
and night_, 2270; d‰ges, _by day_, 1936; dat. pl. on tyn dagum, _in ten
days_, 3161.--Comp. Êr-, de·-, ende-, ealdor-, fyrn-, ge‚r-, lÊn-, lÓf-,
swylt-, win-d‰g, an-d‰ges.

d‰g-hwÓl, st. f., _day-time_: acc. pl. ˛‰t he d‰ghwÓla gedrogen h‰fde
eoran wynne, _that he had enjoyed earth's pleasures during the days_
(appointed to him), i.e. that his life was finished, 2727.--(After Grein.)

d‰g-rÓm, st. n., _series of days, fixed number of days_: nom. sg. dÙgera
d‰grÓm (_number of the days of his life_), 824.

dÊd, st. f., _deed, action_: acc. sg. deÛrlÓce dÊd, 585; dÙmle·san dÊd,
2891; frÍcne dÊde, 890; dÊd, 941; acc. pl. Grendles dÊda, 195; gen. pl.
dÊda, 181, 479, 2455, etc.; dat. pl. dÊdum, 1228, 2437, etc.--Comp. ellen-,
fyren-, lof-dÊd.

dÊd-cÍne, adj., _bold in deed_: nom. sg. dÊd-cÍne mon, 1646.

dÊd-fruma, w. m., _doer of deeds, doer_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 2091.

dÊd-bata, w. m., _he who pursues with his deeds_: nom. sg., of Grendel,

dÊdla, w. m., _doer_: in comp. m‚n-for-dÊdla.

dÊl, st. m., _part, portion_: acc. sg. dÊl, 622, 2246, 3128; acc. pl.
dÊlas, 1733.--Often dÊl designates the portion of a thing or of a quality
which belongs in general to an individual, as, Ù ˛‰t him on innan
oferhygda dÊl weaxe, _till in his bosom his portion of arrogance
increases_: i.e. whatever arrogance he has, his arrogance, 1741. BiÛwulfe
wear dryhtm‚ma dÊl de·e, forgolden, _to BeÛwulf his part of the splendid
treasures was paid with death_, i.e. whatever splendid treasures were
allotted to him, whatever part of them he could win in the fight with the
dragon, 2844; similarly, 1151, 1753, 2029, 2069, 3128.

dÊlan, w. v., _to divide, to bestow, to share with_, w. acc.: pres. sg.
III. m‚dmas dÊle, 1757; pres. subj. ˛‰t he wi aglÊcean eofoo dÊle, _that
he bestow his strength upon_ (strive with) _the bringer of misery_ the
drake), 2535; inf. hringas dÊlan, 1971; pret. be·gas dÊlde, 80; sceattas
dÊlde, 1687.

be-dÊlan, w. instr., _(to divide), to tear away from, to strip of_: pret.
part. dre·mum (dre·me) bedÊled, _deprived of the heavenly joys_ (of
Grendel), 722, 1276.

ge-dÊlan: 1) _to distribute_: inf. (w. acc. _of the thing distributed_);
bÊr on innan eall gedÊlan geongum and ealdum swylc him god sealde,
_distribute therein to young and old all that God had given him_, 71.--2)
_to divide, to separate_, with acc.: inf. sundur gedÊlan lÓf wi lÓce,
_separate life from the body_, 2423; so pret. subj. ˛‰t he gedÊlde ... ‚nra
gehwylces lÓf wi lÓce, 732.

denn (cf. denu, dene, vallis), st. n., _den, cave_: acc. sg. ˛‰s wyrmes
denn, 2761; gen. sg. (draca) gew‚t dennes niÛsian, 3046.

ge-defe, adj.: 1) (impersonal) _proper, appropriate_: nom. sg. sw‚ hit
gedÍfe w‰s (bi), _as was appropriate, proper_, 561, 1671, 3176.--2) _good,
kind, friendly_; nom sg. beÛ ˛u suna mÓnum dÊdum gedÍfe, _be friendly to my
son by deeds_ (support my son in deed, namely, when he shall have attained
to the government), 1228.--Comp. un-ge-dÍfelÓce.

dÍman (see dÙm), w. v.: 1) _to judge, to award justly_: pres. subj. mÊro
dÍme, 688.--2) _to judge favorably, to praise, to glorify_: pret. pl. his
ellenweorc duguum dÍmdon, _praised his heroic deed with all their might_,

dÍmend, _judge_: dÊda dÍmend (of God), 181.

deal, adj., "superbus, clarus, fretus" (Grimm): nom. pl. ˛ryum dealle,

de·d, adj., _dead_: nom. sg. 467, 1324, 2373; acc. sg. de·dne, 1310.

de·, st. m., _death, dying_: nom. sg, de·, 441, 447, etc.; acc. sg. de·,
2169; dat. sg. de·e, 1389, 1590, (as instr.) 2844, 3046; gen. sg. de·es
wylm, 2270; de·es n˝d, 2455.--Comp. g˚-, w‰l-, wundor-de·.

de·-bed, st. n., _death-bed_: dat. sg. de·-bedde f‰st, 2902.

de·-cwalu, st. f., _violent death_, _ruin and death_: dat. pl. tÙ
de·-cwalum, 1713.

de·-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder_: nom. sg. 1671.

de·-d‰g, st. m., _death-day, dying day_: dat. sg. ‰fter de·-d‰ge (_after
his death_), 187, 886.

de·-fÊge, adj., _given over to death_: nom. sg. (Grendel) de·-fÊge deÛg,
_had hidden himself, being given over to death_ (mortally wounded), 851.

de·-sc˚a, w. m., _death-shadow, ghostly being, demon of death_: nom. sg.
deorc de·-sc˚a (of Grendel), 160.

de·-wÍrig, adj., _weakened by death_, i.e. dead: acc. sg. de·-wÍrigne,
2126. See wÍrig.

de·-wÓc, st. n. _death's house, home of death_: acc. sg. gew‚t de·wÓc
seÛn (_had died_), 1276.

de·gan (O.H.G. pret. part. tougan, _hidden_), _to conceal one's self, to
hide_: pret. (for pluperf.) deÛg, 851.--Leo.

deorc, adj., _dark_: of the night, nom. sg. (nihthelm) deorc, 1791; dat.
pl. deorcum nihtum, 275, 2212; of the terrible Grendel, nom. sg. deorc
de·-sc˚a, 160.

deÛfol, st. m. n., _devil_: gen. sg. deÛfles, 2089; gen. pl. deÛfla, of
Grendel and his troop, 757, 1681.

deÛgol, d˝gol, adj., _concealed, hidden, inaccessible, beyond information,
unknown_: nom. sg. deÛgol dÊdhata (of Grendel), 275; acc. sg. d˝gel lond,
_inaccessible land_, 1358.

deÛp, st. n., _deep, abyss_: acc. sg., 2550.

deÛp, adv. _deeply_: acc. sg. deÛp w‰ter, 509, 1905.

diÛpe, adj., _deep_: hit Ù dÙmes d‰g diÛpe benemdon ˛eÛdnas mÊre, _the
illustrious rulers had charmed it deeply till the judgment-day, had laid a
solemn spell upon it_, 3070.

deÛr, st. n., _animal, wild animal_: in comp. mere-, sÊ-deÛr.

deÛr, adj.: 1) _wild, terrible_: nom. sg. diÛr dÊd-fruma (of Grendel),
2091.--2) _bold, brave_: nom. nÊnig ... deÛr, 1934.--Comp.: heau-,

deÛre, d˝re, adj.: 1) _dear, costly_ (high in price): acc. sg. d˝re Óren,
2051; drincf‰t d˝re (deÛre), 2307, 2255; instr. sg. deÛran sweorde, 561;
dat. sg. deÛrum m‚me, 1529; nom. pl. d˝re swyrd, 3049; acc. pl. deÛre
(d˝re) m‚mas, 2237, 3132.--2) _dear, beloved, worthy_: nom. sg. f., ‰elum
diÛre, _worthy by reason of origin_, 1950; dat. sg. ‰fter deÛrum men, 1880;
gen. sg. deÛrre dugue, 488; superl. acc. sg. aldor˛egn ˛one deÛrestan,

deÛr-lÓc, adj., _bold, brave_: acc. sg. deÛrlÓce dÊd, 585. See deÛr.

disc, st. m., _disc, plate, flat dish_: nom. acc. pl. discas, 2776, 3049.

ge-dÓgan. See ge-d˝gan.

dol-gilp, st. m., _mad boast, foolish pride, vain-glory, thoughtless
audacity_: dat. sg. for dolgilpe, 509.

dol-lÓc, adj., _audacious_: gen. pl. mÊst ... dÊda dollÓcra, 2647.

dol-sceaa, w. m., _bold enemy_: acc. sg. ˛one dol-scaan (Grendel), 479.

dÙgor, st. m. n., _day_; 1) day as a period of 24 hours: gen. sg. ymb ‚ntÓd
Ùres dÙgores, _at the same time of the next day_, 219; morgen-leÛht Ùres
dÙgores, _the morning-light of the second day_, 606.--2) day in the usual
sense: acc. sg. n. ˛ys dÙgor, _during this day_, 1396; instr. ˛˝ dÙgore,
1798; forman dÙgore, 2574; gen. pl. dÙgora gehw‚m, 88; dÙgra gehwylce,
1091; dÙgera d‰grim, _the number of his days_ (the days of his life),
824.--3) _day_ in the wider sense of time: dat. pl. ufaran dÙgrum, _in
later days, times_, 2201, 2393.--Comp. ende-dÙgor.

dÙgor-gerÓm, st. n., _series of days_: gen. sg. w‰s eall sceacen
dÙgor-gerÓmes, _the whole number of his days_ (his life) _was past_, 2729.

dÙhtor, st. f., _daughter_: nom. acc. sg. dÙhtor, 375, 1077, 1930, 1982,

dÙm, st. m.: I., _condition, state in general_; in comp. cyne-,
wis-dÙm.--II., having reference to justice, hence: 1) _judgment, judicial
opinion_: instr. sg. weotena dÙme, _according to the judgment of the
Witan_, 1099. 2) _custom_: ‰fter dÙme, _according to custom_, 1721. 3)
_court, tribunal_: gen. sg. miclan dÙmes, 979; Ù dÙmes d‰g, 3070, both
times of the last judgment.--III., _condition of freedom_ or _superiority_,
hence: 4) _choice, free will_: acc. sg. on sÓnne sylfes dÙm, _according to
his own choice_, 2148; instr. sg. selfes dÙme, 896, 2777. 5) _might,
power_: nom. sg. dÙm godes, 2859; acc. sg. Eofores ‚nne dÙm, 2965; dat. sg.
drihtnes dÙme, 441. 6) _glory, honor, renown_: nom. sg. [dÙm], 955; dÙm
unlytel, _not a little glory_, 886; ˛‰t w‰s forma sÓ deÛrum m‚me ˛‰t his
dÙm ‚l‰g, _it was the first time to the dear treasure_ (the sword Hrunting)
_that its fame was not made good_, 1529; acc. sg. ic me dÙm gewyrce, _make
renown for myself_, 1492; ˛‰t ˛u ne ‚lÊte dÙm gedreÛsan, _that thou let not
honor fall_, 2667; dat. instr. sg. ˛Êr he dÙme forle·s, _here he lost his
reputation_, 1471; dÙme gewurad, _adorned with glory_, 1646; gen. sg.
wyrce se ˛e mÙte dÙmes, _let him make himself reputation, whoever is able_,
1389. 7) _splendor_ (in heaven): acc. sÙ-f‰stra dÙm, _the glory of the
saints_, 2821.

dÙm-le·s, adj., _without reputation, inglorious_: acc. sg. f. dÙmle·san
dÊd, 2891.

dÙn, red. v., _to do, to make, to treat_: 1) absolutely: imp. dÙ sw‚ ic
bidde, _do as I beg_, 1232.--2) w. acc.: inf. hÍt hire selfre sunu on bÊl
dÙn, 1117; pret. ˛‚ he him of dyde Ósernbyrnan, _took off the iron
corselet_, 672; (˛onne) him H˚nl‚fing, ... billa sÍlest, on bearm dyde,
_when he made a present to him of H˚nl‚fing, the best of swords_, 1145;
dyde him of healse hring gyldenne, _took off the gold ring from his neck_,
2810; ne him ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg for wiht dyde, eafo and ellen, _nor did he
reckon as anything the drake's fighting, power, and strength_, 2349; pl. hi
on beorg dydon bÍg and siglu, _placed in the (grave-) mound rings and
ornaments_, 3165.--3) representing preceding verbs: inf. tÙ Ge·tum sprec
mildum wordum! sw‚ sceal man dÙn, _as one should do_, 1173; similarly,
1535, 2167; pres. metod eallum weÛld, sw‚ he nu git dÍ, _the creator ruled
over all, as he still does_, 1059; similarly, 2471, 2860, and (sg. for pl.)
1135; pret. II. sw‚ ˛u Êr dydest, 1677; III. sw‚ he nu gyt dyde, 957;
similarly, 1382, 1892, 2522; pl. sw‚ hie oft Êr dydon, 1239; similarly,
3071. With the case also which the preceding verb governs: wÍn' ic ˛‰t he
wille ... Ge·tena leÛde etan unforhte, sw‚ he oft dyde m‰gen HrÍmanna, _I
believe he will wish to devour the Ge·t people, the fearless, as he often
did_ (devoured) _the bloom of the HrÍmen_, 444; gif ic ˛‰t gefricge ...
˛‰t ˛ec ymbesittend egesan ˛˝wa, sw‚ ˛ec hetende hwÓlum dydon, _that the
neighbors distress thee as once the enemy did thee_ (i.e. distressed),
1829; gif ic Ùwihte m‰g ˛Ónre mÙd-lufan m‚ran tilian ˛onne ic gyt dyde, _if
I can with anything obtain thy greater love than I have yet done_, 1825;
similarly, pl. ˛onne ˛‚ dydon, 44.

ge-dÙn, _to do, to make_, with the acc. and predicate adj.: prs. (god)
gedÍ him sw‚ gewealdene worolde dÊlas, _makes the parts of the world_
(i.e. the whole world) _so subject that ..._, 1733; inf. ne hyne on
medo-bence micles wyrne drihten wereda gedÙn wolde, _nor would the leader
of the people much honor him at the mead-banquet_, 2187. With adv.: he mec
˛Êr on innan ... gedÙn wolde, _wished to place me in there_, 2091.

draca, w. m., _drake, dragon_: nom. sg., 893, 2212; acc. sg. dracan, 2403,
3132; gen. sg., 2089, 2291, 2550.--Comp.: eor-, f˝r-, lÍg-, lÓg-,

on-drÊdan, st. v., w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the pers., _to fear, to
be afraid of_: inf. ˛‰t ˛u him on-drÊdan ne ˛earft ... aldorbealu, _needest
not fear death for them_, 1675; pret. nÙ he him ˛‚ s‰cce ondrÍd, _was not
afraid of the combat_, 2348.

ge-dr‰g (from dragan, in the sense se gerere), st. n., _demeanor, actions_:
acc. sg. sÍcan deÛfla gedr‰g, 757.

drepan, st. v., _to hit, to strike_: pret. sg. sweorde drep ferh-genÓlan,
2881; pret. part. bi on hrere ... drepen biteran strÊle, _struck in the
breast with piercing arrow_, 1746; w‰s in feorh dropen (_fatally hit_),

drepe, st. m., _blow, stroke_: acc. sg. drepe, 1590.

drÍfan, ge-drÍfan, w. v., _to move, to agitate, to stir up_: inf. gew‚t ...
drÍfan deÛp w‰ter (_to navigate_), 1905; pret. part. w‰ter under stÙd
dreÛrig and gedrÍfed, 1418.

dre·m, st. m., _rejoicing, joyous actions, joy_: nom. sg. h‰lea dre·m,
497; acc. sg. dre·m hl˚dne, 88; ˛u ... dre·m healdende, _thou who livest in
rejoicing_ (at the drinking-carouse), _who art joyous_, 1228: dat. instr.
sg. dre·me bedÊled, 1276; gen. pl. dre·ma le·s, 851; dat. pl. dre·mum (here
adverbial) lifdon, _lived in rejoicing, joyously_, 99; dre·mum bedÊled,
722; the last may refer also to heavenly joys.--Comp. gleÛ-, gum-, man-,

dre·m-le·s, adj., _without rejoicing, joyless_: nom. sg. of King HeremÙd,

dreÛgan, st. v.: 1) _to lead a life, to be in a certain condition_: pret.
dre·h ‰fter dÙme, _lived in honor, honorably_, 2180; pret. pl. fyren-˛earfe
ongeat, ˛‰t hie Êr drugon aldorle·se lange hwile, _(God) had seen the great
distress, (had seen) that they had lived long without a ruler_ (?), 15.--2)
_to experience, to live through, to do, to make, to enjoy_: imp. dreÛh
symbelwynne, _pass through the pleasure of the meal, to enjoy the meal_,
1783; inf. driht-scype dreÛgan (_do a heroic deed_), 1471; pret. sundnytte
dre·h (_had the occupation of swimming_, i.e. swam through the sea), 2361;
pret. pl. hie gewin drugon (_fought_), 799; hÓ sÓ drugon, _made the way,
went_, 1967.--3) _to experience, to bear, to suffer_: scealt werho
dreÛgan, _shall suffer damnation_, 590; pret. ˛egn-sorge dre·h, _bore
sorrow for his heroes_, 131; nearo˛earfe dre·h, 422; pret. pl. inwidsorge
˛e hie Êr drugon, 832; similarly, 1859.

‚-dreÛgan, _to suffer, to endure_: inf. wrÊc ‚dreÛgan, 3079.

ge-dreÛgan, _to live through, to enjoy_, pret. part. ˛‰t he ... gedrogen
h‰fde eoran wynne, _that he had now enjoyed the pleasures of earth_ (i.e.
that he was at his death), 2727.

dreÛr, st. m., _blood dropping or flowing from wounds_: instr. sg. dreÛre,
447.--Comp. heoru-, s‚wul-, w‰l-dreÛr.

dreÛr-f‚h, adj., _colored with blood, spotted with blood_: nom. sg. 485.

dreÛrig, adj., _bloody, bleeding_: nom. sg. w‰ter stÙd dreÛrig, 1418; acc.
sg. dryhten sÓnne driÛrigne fand, 2790.--Comp. heoru-dreÛrig.

ge-dreÛsan, st. v., _to fall down, to sink_: pres. sg. III. lÓc-homa lÊne
gedreÛse, _the body, belonging to death, sinks down_, 1755; inf. ˛‰t ˛u ne
‚lÊte dÙm gedreÛsan, _honor fall, sink_, 2667.

drincan, st. v., _to drink_ (with and without the acc.): pres. part. nom.
pl. ealo drincende, 1946; pret. blÙd Ídrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743; pret. pl. druncon wÓn weras, _the men drank wine_, 1234;
˛Êr guman druncon, _where the men drank_, 1649. The pret. part., when it
stands absolutely, has an active sense: nom. pl. druncne dryhtguman, _ye
warriors who have drunk, are drinking_, 1232; acc. pl. nealles druncne slÙg
heor-gene·tas, _slew not his hearth-companions who had drunk with him_,
i.e. at the banquet, 2180. With the instr. it means _drunken_: nom. sg.
beÛre (wÓne) druncen, 531, 1468; nom. pl. beÛre druncne, 480.

drÓfan, st. v., _to drive_: pres. pl. ˛‚ ˛e brentingas ofer flÙda genipu
feorran drÓfa, _who drive their ships thither from afar over the darkness
of the sea_, 2809; inf. (w. acc.) ˛e·h ˛e he [ne] meahte on mere drÓfan
hringedstefnan, _although he could not drive the ship on the sea_, 1131.

to-drÓfan, _to drive apart, to disperse_: pret. Ù ˛‰t unc flÙd tÙdr‚f,

drohto, st. m., _mode of living_ or _acting, calling, employment_: nom.
sg. ne w‰s his drohto ˛Êr swylce he Êr gemÍtte, _there was no employment
for him_ (Grendel) _there such as he had found formerly_, 757.

drusian, w. v. (cf. dreÛsan, properly, _to be ready to fall_; here of
water), _to stagnate, to be putrid_. pret. lagu drusade (through the blood
of Grendel and his mother), 1631.

dryht, driht, st. f., _company, troop, band of warriors; noble band_: in
comp. mago-driht.

ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. f., _troop, band of noble warriors_: nom. sg. mÓnra
eorla gedryht, 431; acc. sg. ‰elinga gedriht, 118; mid his eorla (h‰lea)
gedriht (gedryht), 357, 663; similarly, 634, 1673.--Comp. sibbe-gedriht.

dryht-bearn, st. n., _youth from a noble warrior band, noble young man_:
nom. sg. dryhtbearn Dena, 2036.

dryhten, drihten, st. m., _commander, lord_: a) _temporal lord_: nom. sg.
dryhten, 1485, 2001, etc.; drihten, 1051; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc.;
dryhten, 1832.--b) _God_: nom. drihten, 108, etc.; dryhten, 687, etc.; dat.
sg. dryhtne, 1693, etc.; drihtne, 1399, etc.; gen. sg. dryhtnes, 441;
drihtnes, 941.--Comp.: fre·-, freÛ-, gum-, man-, sige-, wine-dryhten.

dryht-guma, w. m., _one of a troop of warriors, noble warrior_: dat. sg.
drihtguman, 1389; nom. pl. drihtguman, 99; dryhtguman, 1232; dat. pl. ofer
dryhtgumum, 1791 (of HrÙg‚r's warriors).

dryht-lÓc, adj., _(that which befits a noble troop of warriors), noble,
excellent_: dryhtlÓc Óren, _excellent sword_, 893; acc. sg. f. (with an
acc. sg. n.) drihtlÓce wÓf (of Hildeburh), 1159.

dryht-m‚um, st. m., _excellent jewel, splendid treasure_: gen. pl.
dryhtm‚ma, 2844.

dryht-scipe, st. m., _(lord-ship) warlike virtue, bravery; heroic deed_:
acc. sg. drihtscype dreÛgan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1471.

dryht-sele, st. m., _excellent, splendid hall_: nom. sg. driht-sele, 485;
dryhtsele, 768; acc. sg. dryhtsele, 2321.

dryht-sib, st. f., _peace_ or _friendship between troops of noble
warriors_: gen. sg. dryhtsibbe, 2069.

drync, st. m., _drink_: in comp. heoru-drync.

drync-f‰t, st. n., _vessel for drink, to receive the drink_: acc. sg.,
2255; drinc-f‰t, 2307.

drysmian, w. v., _to become obscure, gloomy_ (through the falling rain):
pres. sg. III. lyft drysma, 1376.

drysne, adj. See on-drysne.

dugan, v., _to avail, to be capable, to be good_: pres. sg. III. h˚ru se
aldor de·h, _especially is the prince capable_, 369; onne his ellen de·h,
_if his strength avails, is good_, 573; ˛e him selfa de·h, _who is capable
of himself, who can rely on himself_, 1840; pres. subj. ˛e·h ˛Ón wit duge,
_though, indeed, your understanding be good, avail_, 590; similarly, 1661,
2032; pret. sg. ˛u ˚s wel dohtest, _you did us good, conducted yourself
well towards us_, 1822; similarly, nu seÛ hand lige se ˛e eÛw welhwylcra
wilna dohte, _which was helpful to each one of your desires_, 1345; pret.
subj. ˛e·h ˛u heaorÊsa gehwÊr dohte, _though thou wast everywhere strong
in battle_, 526.

dugu (_state of being fit, capable_), st. f.: 1) _capability, strength_:
dat. pl. for dugeum, _in ability_(?), 2502; duguum dÍmdon, _praised with
all their might_(?), 3176.--2) _men capable of bearing arms, band of
warriors_, esp., _noble warriors_: nom. sg. dugu unlytel, 498; dugu,
1791, 2255; dat. sg. for dugue, _before the heroes_, 2021; nalles fr‰twe
geaf ealdor dugue, _gave the band of heroes no treasure_ (more), 2921;
leÛda dugue on l‚st, _upon the track of the heroes of the people_, i.e.
after them, 2946; gen. sg. c˚e he dugue ˛e·w, _the custom of the noble
warriors_, 359; deÛrre dugue, 488; similarly, 2239, 2659; acc. pl. dugua,
2036.--3) contrasted with geogo, dugu designates the noted warriors of
noble birth (as in the Middle Ages, knights in contrast with squires): so
gen. sg. dugue and geogoe, 160; gehwylc ... dugue and iogoe, 1675;
dugue and geogoe dÊl Êghwylcne, 622.

durran, v. pret. and pres. _to dare_; prs. sg. II. ˛u dearst bÓdan, _darest
to await_, 527; III. he gesÍcean dear, 685; pres. subj. sÍc gyf ˛u dyrre,
_seek_ (Grendel's mother), _if thou dare_, 1380; pret. dorste, 1463, 1469,
etc.; pl. dorston, 2849.

duru, st. f., _door, gate, wicket_: nom. sg., 722; acc. sg. [duru], 389.

ge-d˚fan, st. v., _to dip in, to sink into_: pret. ˛‰t sweord gede·f (_the
sword sank into the drake_, of a blow), 2701.

˛urh-d˚fan, _to dive through; to swim through, diving_: pret. w‰ter up
˛urh-de·f, _swam through the water upwards_ (because he was before at the
bottom), 1620.

dwellan, w. v., _to mislead, to hinder_: prs. III. nÙ hine wiht dwele, ‚dl
ne yldo, _him nothing misleads, neither sickness nor age_, 1736.

dyhtig, adj., _useful, good for_: nom. sg. n. sweord ... ecgum dyhtig,

dynnan, w. v., _to sound, to groan, to roar_: pret. dryhtsele (healwudu,
hruse) dynede, 768, 1318, 2559.

dyrne, adj.: 1) _concealed, secret, retired_: nom. sg. dyrne, 271; acc. sg.
dryhtsele dyrnne (of the drake's cave-hall), 2321.--2) _secret, malicious,
hidden by sorcery_: dat. instr. sg. dyrnan cr‰fte, _with secret magic art_,
2291; dyrnum cr‰fte, 2169; gen. pl. dyrnra g‚sta, _of malicious spirits_
(of Grendel's kin), 1358.--Comp. un-dyrne.

dyrne, adv., _in secret, secretly_: him ...‰fter deÛrum men dyrne langa,
_longs in secret for the dear man_, 1880.

dyrstig, adj., _bold, daring_: ˛e·h ˛e he dÊda gehw‰s dyrstig wÊre,
_although he had been courageous for every deed_, 2839.

ge-d˝gan, ge-dÓgan, w. v., _to endure, to overcome_, with the acc. of the
thing endured: pres. sg. II. gif ˛u ˛‰t ellenweorc aldre gedÓgest, _if thou
survivest the heroic work with thy life_, 662; III. ˛‰t ˛one hilderÊs h‚l
gedÓge, _that he survives the battle in safety_, 300; similarly, inf.
unfÊge gedÓgan we·n and wr‰csÓ, 2293; hw‰er sÍl mÊge wunde ged˝gan,
_which of the two can stand the wounds better_ (come off with life), 2532;
ne meahte unbyrnende deÛp ged˝gan, _could not endure the deep without
burning_ (could not hold out in the deep), 2550; pret. sg. I. III.
ge-dÓgde, 578, 1656, 2351, 2544.

d˝gol. See deÛgol.

d˝re. See deÛre.


ecg, st. f., _edge of the sword, point_: nom. sg. sweordes ecg, 1107; ecg,
1525, etc.; acc. sg. wi ord and wi ecge ingang forstÙd, _defended the
entrance against point and edge_ (i.e. against spear and sword), 1550;
mÍces ecge, 1813; nom. pl. ecge, 1146.--_Sword, battle-axe, any cutting
weapon_: nom. sg. ne w‰s ecg bona (_not the sword killed him_), 2507; siÛ
ecg br˚n (BeÛwulf's sword N‰gling), 2578; hyne ecg fornam, _the sword
snatched him away_, 2773, etc.; nom. pl. ecga, 2829; dat. pl. ‰scum and
ecgum, 1773; dat. pl. (but denoting only one sword) e·cnum ecgum, 2141;
gen. pl. ecga, 483, 806, 1169;--_blade_: ecg w‰s Óren, 1460.--Comp.: br˚n-,
heard-, st˝l-ecg, adj.

ecg-bana, w. m., _murderer by the sword_: dat. sg. Cain wear tÙ ecg-banan
‚ngan brÍer, 1263.

ecg-hete, st. m., _sword-hate, enmity which the sword carries out_: nom.
sg., 84, 1739.

ecg-˛racu, st. f., _sword-storm_ (of violent combat): acc. atole ecg-˛r‰ce,

ed-hwyrft, st. m., _return_ (of a former condition): ˛‚ ˛Êr sÙna wear
edhwyrft eorlum, sian inne fealh Grendles mÙdor (i.e. after Grendel's
mother had penetrated into the hall, the former perilous condition, of the
time of the visits of Grendel, returned to the men), 1282.

ed-wendan, w. v., _to turn back, to yield, to leave off_: inf. gyf him
edwendan Êfre scolde bealuwa bisigu, _if for him the affliction of evil
should ever cease_, 280.

ed-wenden, st. f., _turning, change_: nom. sg. edwenden, 1775; ed-wenden
torna gehwylces (_reparation for former neglect_), 2189.

edwÓt-lÓf, st. n., _life in disgrace_: nom. sg., 2892.

efn, adj., _even, like_, with preceding on, and with depend. dat., _upon
the same level, near_: him on efn lige ealdorgewinna, _lies near him_,

efnan (see ‰fnan) w. v., _to carry out, to perform, to accomplish_: pres.
subj. eorlscype efne (_accomplish knightly deeds_), 2536; inf. eorlscipe
efnan, 2623; sweorda gel‚c efnan (_to battle_), 1042; gerund. tÙ efnanne,
1942; pret. eorlscipe efnde, 2134, 3008.

efne, adv., _even, exactly, precisely, just_, united with sw‚ or swylc:
efne sw‚ swÓe sw‚, _just so much as_, 1093; efne sw‚ sÓde sw‚, 1224; w‰s
se gryre l‰ssa efne sw‚ micle sw‚, _by so much the less as ..._, 1284;
leÛht inne stÙd efne sw‚ ... scÓne, _a gleam stood therein_ (in the sword)
_just as when ... shines_, 1572; efne sw‚ hwylc m‰ga sw‚ ˛one magan cende
(_a woman who has borne such a son_), 944; efne sw‚ hwylcum manna sw‚ him
gemet ˛˚hte, _to just such a man as seemed good to him_, 3058; efne swylce
mÊla swylce ... ˛earf gesÊlde, _just at the times at which necessity
commanded it_, 1250.

eft, adv.: l) _thereupon, afterwards_: 56, 1147, 2112, 3047, etc.; eft sÙna
bi, _then it happens immediately_, 1763; bÙt eft cuman, _help come again_,
281.--2) _again, on the other side_: ˛‰t hine on ylde eft gewunigen
wilgesÓas, _that in old age again_ (also on their side) _willing
companions should be attached to him_, 22;--_anew, again_: 135, 604, 693,
1557, etc.; eft sw‚ Êr, _again as formerly_, 643.--3) retro, rursus,
_back_: 123, 296, 854, etc.; ˛‰t hig ‰elinges eft ne wÍndon (_did not
believe that he would come back_), 1597.

eft-cyme, st. m., _return_: gen. sg. eftcymes, 2897.

eft-sÓ, st. m., _journey back, return_: acc. sg. 1892; gen. sg. eft-sÓes
georn, 2784; acc. pl. eftsÓas te·h, _went the road back_, i.e. returned,

egesa, egsa (_state of terror_, active or passive): l) _frightfulness_:
acc. sg. ˛urh egsan, 276; gen. egesan ne g˝me, _cares for nothing
terrible, is not troubled about future terrors_(?), 1758.--2) _terror,
horror, fear_: nom. sg. egesa, 785; instr. sg. egesan, 1828, 2737.--Comp.:
glÍd-, lÓg-, w‰ter-egesa.

eges-full, adj., _horrible (full of fear, fearful)_, 2930.

eges-lÓc, adj., _terrible, bringing terror_: of Grendel's head, 1650; of
the beginning of the fight with the drake, 2310; of the drake, 2826.

egle, adj., _causing aversion, hideous_: nom. pl. neut., or, more probably,
perhaps, adverbial, egle (MS. egl), 988.

egsian (denominative from egesa), w. v., _to have terror, distress_: pret.
(as pluperf.) egsode eorl(?), 6.

ehtian, w. v., _to esteem, to make prominent with praise_: III. pl. pres.
˛‰t ˛e ... weras ehtiga, _that thee men shall esteem, praise_, 1223.

elde (_those who generate_, cf. O.N. al-a, generare), st. m. only in the
pl., _men_: dat. pl. eldum, 2215; mid eldum, _among men_, 2612.--See ylde.

eldo, st. f., _age_: instr. sg. eldo gebunden, 2112.

el-land, st. n., _foreign land, exile_: acc. sg. sceall ... elland tredan,
(_shall be banished_), 3020.

ellen, st. n., _strength, heroic strength, bravery_: nom. sg. ellen, 573;
eafo and ellen, 903; Ge·ta ... eafo and ellen, 603; acc. sg. eafo and
ellen, 2350; ellen c˝an, _show bravery_, 2696; ellen fremedon, _exercised
heroic strength, did heroic deeds_, 3; similarly, ic gefremman sceal eorlÓc
ellen, 638; ferh ellen wr‰c, _life drove out the strength_, i.e. with the
departing life (of the dragon) his strength left him, 2707; dat. sg. on
elne, 2507, 2817; as instr. ˛‚ w‰s ‰t ˛am geongum grim andswaru ÍbegÍte
˛‚m ˛e Êr his elne forle·s, _then it was easy for_ (every one of) _those
who before had lost his hero-courage, to obtain rough words from the young
man_ (WÓgl‚f), 2862; mid elne, 1494, 2536; elne, alone, in adverbial sense,
_strongly, zealously_, and with the nearly related meaning, _hurriedly,
transiently_, 894, 1098, 1968, 2677, 2918; gen. sg. elnes l‰t, 1530; ˛‚ him
w‰s elnes ˛earf, 2877.--Comp. m‰gen-ellen.

ellen-dÊd, st. f., _heroic deed_: dat. pl. -dÊdum, 877, 901.

ellen-gÊst, st. m., _strength-spirit, demon with heroic strength_: nom. sg.
of Grendel, 86.

ellen-lÓce, adv., _strongly, with heroic strength_, 2123.

ellen-mÊru, st. f., _renown of heroic strength_, dat. pl. -mÊrum, 829,

ellen-rÙf, adj., _renowned for strength_: nom. sg. 340, 358, 3064; dat. pl.
-rÙfum, 1788.

ellen-seÛc, adj., _infirm in strength_: acc. sg. ˛eÛden ellensiÛcne (_the
mortally wounded king, BeÛwulf_), 2788.

ellen-weorc, st. n., (_strength-work_), _heroic deed, achievement in
battle_: acc. sg. 662, 959, 1465, etc.; gen. pl. ellen-weorca, 2400.

elles, adv., _else, otherwise_: a (modal), _in another manner_, 2521.--b
(local), elles hwÊr, _somewhere else_, 138; elles hwergen, 2591.

ellor, adv., _to some other place_, 55, 2255.

ellor-g‚st, -gÊst, st. m., _spirit living elsewhere_ (standing outside of
the community of mankind): nom. sg. se ellorg‚st (Grendel), 808; (Grendel's
mother), 1622; ellorgÊst (Grendel's mother), 1618; acc. pl. ellorgÊstas,

ellor-sÓ, st. m., _departure, death_: nom. sg. 2452.

elra, adj. (comparative of a not existing form, ele, Goth. aljis, alius),
_another_: dat. sg. on elran men, 753.

el-˛eÛdig, adj., _of another people: foreign_: acc. pl. el-˛eÛdige men,

ende, st. m., _the extreme_: hence, 1) _end_: nom. sg. aldres (lÓfes) ende,
823, 2845; Ù ˛‰t ende becwom (scil. unrihtes), 1255; acc. sg. ende
lÓfgesceafta (lÓfes, lÊn-daga), 3064, 1387, 2343; h‰fde eorscrafa ende
genyttod, _had used the end of the earth-caves_ (had made use of the caves
for the last time), 3047; dat. sg. ealdres (lÓfes) ‰t ende, 2791, 2824;
eoletes ‰t ende, 224.--2) _boundary_: acc. sg. sÓde rÓce ˛‰t he his selfa
ne m‰g ... ende ge˛encean, _the wide realm, so that he himself cannot
comprehend its boundaries_, 1735.--3) _summit, head_: dat. sg. eorlum on
ende, _to the nobles at the end_ (the highest courtiers), 2022.--Comp.

ende-d‰g, st. m., _last day, day of death_: nom. sg. 3036; acc. sg. 638.

ende-dÙgor, st. m., _last day, day of death_: gen. sg. bega on wÍnum
endedÙgores and eftcymes leÛtes monnes (_hesitating between the belief in
the death and in the return of the dear man_), 2897.

ende-l‚f, st. f., _last remnant_: nom. sg. ˛u eart ende-l‚f ˚sses cynnes,
_art the last of our race_, 2814.

ende-le·n, st. n., _final reparation_: acc. sg. 1693.

ende-sÊta, w. m., _he who sits on the border, boundary-guard_: nom. sg.
(here of the strand-watchman), 241.

ende-st‰f, st. m. (elementum finis), _end_: acc. sg. hit on endest‰f eft
gelimpe, _then it draws near to the end_, 1754.

ge-endian, w. v., _to end_: pret. part. ge-endod, 2312.

enge, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. enge ‚npaas, _narrow paths_, 1411.

ent, st. m., _giant_: gen. pl. enta Êr-geweorc (the sword-hilt out of the
dwelling-place of Grendel), 1680; enta geweorc (the dragon's cave), 2718;
eald-enta Êr-geweorc (the costly things in the dragon's cave), 2775.

entisc, adj., _coming from giants_: acc. sg. entiscne helm, 2980.

etan, st. v., _to eat, to consume_: pres. sg. III. blÙdig w‰l ... ete
‚n-genga, _he that goes alone_ (Grendel) _will devour the bloody corpse_,
448; inf. Ge·tena leÛde ... etan, 444.

˛urh-etan, _to eat through_: pret. part. pl. nom. swyrd ... ˛urhetone,
_swords eaten through_ (by rust), 3050.


Íc. See e·c.

Íce, adj., _everlasting_; nom. Íce drihten (God), 108; acc. sg. Íce
eorreced, _the everlasting earth-hall_ (the dragon's cave), 2720; gece·s
Ícne rÊd, _chose the everlasting gain_ (died), 1202; dat. sg. Ícean
dryhtne, 1693, 1780, 2331; acc. pl. geceÛs Íce rÊdas, 1761.

Ídre. See Êdre.

Í-begÍte, adj., _easy to obtain, ready_: nom. sg. ˛‚ w‰s ‰t ˛am geongum
grim andswaru Í-begÍte, _then from the young man_ (WÓgl‚f) _it was an easy
thing to get a gruff answer_, 2862.

Íe. See e·e.

Íel, st. m., _hereditary possessions, hereditary estate_: acc. sg. swÊsne
Íel, 520; dat. sg. on Íle, 1731.--In royal families the hereditary
possession is the whole realm: hence, acc. sg. Íel Scyldinga, _of the
kingdom of the Scyldings_, 914; (Offa) wÓsdÙme heÛld Íel sÓnne, _ruled
with wisdom his inherited kingdom_, 1961.

Íel-riht, st. n., _hereditary privileges_ (rights that belong to a
hereditary estate): nom. sg. eard Íel-riht, _estate and inherited
privileges_, 2199.

Íel-stÙl, st. m., _hereditary seat, inherited throne_: acc. pl.
Íel-stÙlas, 2372.

Íel-turf, st. f., _inherited ground, hereditary estate_: dat. sg. on mÓnre
Íeltyrf, 410.

Íel-weard, st. m., _lord of the hereditary estate_ (realm): nom. sg.
Íelweard (_king_), 1703, 2211; dat. sg. E·st-Dena Íel wearde (King
HrÙg‚r), 617.

Íel-wyn, st. f., _joy in_, or _enjoyment of, hereditary possessions_: nom.
sg. nu sceal ... eall Íelwyn eÛwrum cynne, lufen ‚licgean, _now shall your
race want all home-joy, and subsistence_(?) (your race shall be banished
from its hereditary abode), 2886; acc. sg. he me lond forgeaf, eard
Íelwyn, _presented me with land, abode, and the enjoyment of home_, 2494.

Í-ges˝ne, ˝-gesÍne, adj., _easy to see, visible to all_: nom. sg. 1111,

Ífstan, w. v., _to be in haste, to hasten_: inf. uton nu Ífstan, _let us
hurry now_, 3102; pret. Ífste mid elne, _hastened with heroic strength_,

Íg-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer Íg-clif (ecg-clif, MS.), 2894.

Íg-stre·m, st. m., _sea-stream, sea-flood_: dat. pl. on Íg-stre·mum, _in
the sea-floods_, 577. See e·gor-stre·m.

Íhtan (M.H.G. Êchten; cf. Êht and ge-Êhtla), w. v. w. gen., _to be a
pursuer, to pursue_: pres. part. ‰glÊca Íhtende w‰s dugue and geogoe,
159; pret. pl. Íhton aglÊcan, _they pursued the bringer of sorrow_
(BeÛwulf)(?), 1513.

Íst, st. m. f., _favor, grace, kindness_: acc. sg. he him Íst gete·h meara
and m‚ma (_honored him with horses and jewels_), 2166; gearwor h‰fde
‚gendes Íst Êr gesce·wod, _would rather have seen the grace of the Lord_
(of God) _sooner_, 3076.--dat. pl., adverbial, libenter: him on folce
heÛld, Ístum mid ‚re, 2379; Ístum ge˝wan (_to present_), 2150; him w‰s ...
wunden gold Ístum gee·wed (_presented_), 1195; we ˛‰t ellenweorc Ístum
miclum fremedon, 959.

Íste, adj., _gracious_: w. gen. Íste bearn-gebyrdo, _gracious through the
birth_ (of such a son as BeÛwulf), 946.


eafo, st. n., _power, strength_: nom, sg. eafo and ellen, 603, 903; acc.
sg. eafo and ellen, 2350; we frÍcne genÍdon eafo unc˚es, _we have
boldly ventured against the strength of the enemy_ (Grendel) _have
withstood him_, 961; gen. sg. eafoes cr‰ftig, 1467; ˛‰t ˛ec ‚dl oe ecg
eafoes getwÊfed, _shall rob of strength_, 1764; acc. pl. eafeo (MS.
earfeo) [This reading cancelled. See note to l. 534--KTH], 534; dat. pl.
hine mihtig god ... eafeum stÍpte, _made him great through strength_,
1718. See Note for l. 534.

eafor, st. m., _boar_; here the image of the boar as banner: acc. sg.
eafor, 2153.

eafora (_offspring_), w. m.: 1) _son_: nom. sg. eafera, 12, 898; eafora,
375; acc. sg. eaferan, 1548, 1848; gen. sg. eafera, 19; nom. pl. eaferan,
2476; dat. pl. eaferum, 1069, 2471; uncran eaferan, 1186.--2) in broader
sense, _successor_: dat. pl. eaforum, 1711.

eahta, num., _eight_: acc. pl. eahta mearas, 1036; eode eahta sum, _went as
one of eight, with seven others_, 3124.

eahtian, w. v.: 1) _to consider; to deliberate_: pret. pl. w. acc. rÊd
eahtedon, _consulted about help_, 172; pret. sg. (for the plural) ˛one
sÍlestan ˛‚ra ˛e mid HrÙg‚re h‚m eahtode, _the best one of those who with
HrÙg‚r deliberated about their home_ (ruled), 1408.--2) _to speak with
reflection of_ (along with the idea of praise): pret. pl. eahtodan
eorlscipe, _spoke of his noble character_, 3175.

eal, eall, adj., _all, whole_: nom. sg. werod eall, 652; pl. eal benc˛elu,
486; sg. eall Íelwyn, 2886; eal worold, 1739, etc.; ˛‰t hit wear eal
gearo, heal‰rna mÊst, 77; ˛‰t hit (wÓgbil) eal gemealt, 1609. And with a
following genitive: ˛Êr w‰s eal geador Grendles gr‚pe, _there was all
together Grendel's hand, the whole hand of Grendel_, 836; eall ... lissa,
_all favor_, 2150; w‰s eall sceacen dÙgorgerÓmes, 2728. With apposition:
˛˚hte him eall tÙ r˚m, wongas and wÓcstede, 2462; acc. sg. beÛt eal, 523;
similarly, 2018, 2081; onc˝e ealle, _all distress_, 831; heals ealne,
2692; hlÊw ... ealne ˚tan-weardne, 2298; gif he ˛‰t eal gemon, 1186, 2428;
˛‰t eall geondseh, recedes geatwa, 3089; ealne wÓde-ferh, _through the
whole wide life, through all time_, 1223; instr. sg. ealle m‰gene, _with
all strength_, 2668; dat. sg. eallum ... manna cynne, 914; gen. sg. ealles
moncynnes, 1956. Subst. ic ˛‰s ealles m‰g ... gefe·n habban, 2740; br˚c
ealles well, 2163; fre·n ealles ˛anc secge, _give thanks to the Lord of
all_, 2795; nom. pl. untydras ealle, 111; sceÛtend ... ealle, 706; we
ealle, 942; acc. pl. feÛnd ealle, 700; similarly, 1081, 1797, 2815; subst.
ofer ealle, 650; ealle hie de· fornam, 2237; lÓg ealle forswealg ˛‚ra ˛e
˛Êr g˚ fornam, _all of those whom the war had snatched away_, 1123; dat.
pl. eallum ceaster-b˚endum, 768; similarly, 824, 907, 1418; subst. ‚na wi
eallum, _one against all_, 145; with gen. eallum gumena cynnes, 1058; gen.
pl. ‰elinga bearn ealra twelfa, _the kinsmen of all twelve nobles_ (twelve
nobles hold the highest positions of the court), 3172; subst. he ‚h ealra
geweald, _has power over all_, 1728.

Uninflected: bil eal ˛urhwÙd flÊschoman, _the battle-axe cleft the body
through and through_, 1568; h‰fde ... eal gefeormod fÍt and folma, _had
devoured entirely feet and hands_, 745; se ˛e eall geman g‚r-cwealm gumena,
_who remembers thoroughly the death of the men by the spear_, 2043, etc.

Adverbial: ˛e·h ic eal mÊge, _although I am entirely able_, 681; hÓ on
beorg dydon bÍg and siglu eall swylce hyrsta, _they placed in the
grave-mound rings, and ornaments, all such adornments_, 3165.--The gen. sg.
ealles, adverbial in the sense of _entirely_, 1001, 1130.

eald, adj., _old_: a) of the age of living beings: nom. sg. eald, 357,
1703, 2211, etc.; dat. sg. ealdum, 2973; gen. sg. ealdes uhtflogan
(_dragon_), 2761; dat. sg. ealdum, 1875; geongum and ealdum, 72.--b) of
things and of institutions: nom. sg. helm monig eald and Ùmig, 2764; acc.
sg. ealde l‚fe (_sword_), 796, 1489; ealde wÓsan, 1866; eald sweord, 1559,
1664, etc.; eald gewin, _old_ (lasting years), _distress_, 1782; eald enta
geweorc (_the precious things in the drake's cave_), 2775; acc. pl. ealde
m‚mas, 472; ofer ealde riht, _against the old laws_ (namely, the Ten
Commandments; BeÛwulf believes that God has sent him the drake as a
punishment, because he has unconsciously, at some time, violated one of the
commandments), 2331.

yldra, compar. _older_: mÓn yldra mÊg, 468; yldra brÙor, 1325; Ù ˛‰t he
(HeardrÍd) yldra wear, 2379.

yldesta, superl. _oldest_, in the usual sense; dat. sg. ˛am yldestan, 2436;
in a moral sense, _the most respected_: nom. sg. se yldesta, 258; acc. sg.
˛one yldestan, 363, both times of BeÛwulf.

eald-f‰der, st. m., _old-father, grandfather, ancestor_: nom. sg. 373.

eald-gesegen, st. f., _traditions from old times_: gen. pl. eal-fela
eald-gesegena, _very many of the old traditions_, 870.

eald-gesÓ, st. m., _companion ever since old times, courtier for many
years_: nom. pl. eald-gesÓas, 854.

eald-gestreÛn, st. n., _treasure out of the old times_: dat. pl.
eald-gestreÛnum, 1382; gen. pl. -gestreÛna, 1459.

eald-gewinna, w. m., _old-enemy, enemy for many years_: nom. sg. of
Grendel, 1777.

eald-gewyrht, st. n., _merit on account of services rendered during many
years_: nom. pl. ˛‰t nÊron eald-gewyrht, ˛‰t he ‚na scyle gnorn ˛rowian,
_that has not been his desert ever since long ago, that he should bear the
distress alone_, 2658.

eald-hl‚ford, st. m., _lord through many years_: gen. sg. bill
eald-hl‚fordes (of the old BeÛwulf(?)), 2779.

eald-metod, st. m., _God ruling ever since ancient times_: nom. sg. 946.

ealdor, aldor, st. m., _lord, chief_ (king or powerful noble): nom. sg.
ealdor, 1645, 1849, 2921; aldor, 56, 369, 392; acc. sg. aldor, 669; dat.
sg. ealdre, 593; aldre, 346.

ealdor, aldor, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. aldor, 1372; dat. sg. aldre, 1448,
1525; ealdre, 2600; him on aldre stÙd herestrÊl hearda (in vitalibus),
1435; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not troubled about his life_, 1443; of
ealdre gew‚t, _went out of life, died_, 2625; as instr. aldre, 662, 681,
etc.; ealdre, 1656, 2134, etc.; gen. sg. aldres, 823; ealdres, 2791, 2444;
aldres orwÍna, _despairing of life_, 1003, 1566; ealdres scyldig, _having
forfeited life_, 1339, 2062; dat. pl. aldrum nÍdon, 510, 538.--Phrases: on
aldre (_in life_), _ever_, 1780; tÙ aldre (_for life_), _always_, 2006,
2499; ‚wa tÙ aldre, _for ever and ever_, 956.

ealdor-bealu, st. n., _life's evil_: acc. sg. ˛u ... ondrÊdan ne ˛earft ...
aldorbealu eorlum, _thou needest not fear death for the courtiers_, 1677.

ealdor-cearu, st. f., _trouble that endangers life, great trouble_: dat.
sg. he his leÛdum wear ... tÙ aldor-ceare, 907.

ealdor-dagas, st. m. pl., _days of one's life_: dat. pl. nÊfre on
aldor-dagum (_never in his life_), 719; on ealder-dagum Êr (_in former
days_), 758.

ealdor-ged‚l, st. n., _severing of life, death, end_: nom. sg. aldor-ged‚l,

ealdor-gewinna, w. m., _life-enemy, one who strives to take his enemy's
life_ (in N.H.G. the contrary conception, Tod-feind): nom. sg.
ealdorgewinna (_the dragon_), 2904.

ealdor-le·s, adj., _without a ruler_(?): nom. pl. aldor-le·se, 15.

ealdor-le·s, adj., _lifeless, dead_: acc. sg. aldor-le·sne, 1588;
ealdor-le·sne, 3004.

ealdor-˛egn, st. m., _nobleman at the court, distinguished courtier_: acc.
sg. aldor-˛egn (HrÙg‚r's confidential adviser, ƒschere), 1309.

eal-fela, adj., _very much_: with following gen., eal-fela eald-gesegena,
_very many old traditions_, 870; eal-fela eotena cynnes, 884.

ealgian, w. v., _to shield, to defend, to protect_: inf. w. acc. feorh
ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; pret. sian he (Hygel‚c) under segne sinc
eal-gode, w‰lre·f werede, _while under his banner he protected the
treasures, defended the spoil of battle_ (i.e. while he was upon the Viking
expeditions), 1205.

eal-gylden, adj., _all golden, entirely of gold_: nom. sg. sw˝n ealgylden,
1112; acc. sg. segn eallgylden, 2768.

eal-Órenne, adj., _entirely of iron_: acc. sg. eall-Órenne wÓgbord, _a
wholly iron battle-shield_, 2339.

ealu, st. n., _ale, beer_: acc. sg. ealo drincende, 1946.

ealu-benc, st. f., _ale-bench, bench for those drinking ale_: dat. sg. in
ealo-bence, 1030; on ealu-bence, 2868.

ealu-scerwen, st. f., _terror_, under the figure of a mishap at an
ale-drinking, probably the sudden taking away of the ale: nom. sg. Denum
eallum wear ... ealuscerwen, 770.

ealu-wÊge, st. n., _ale-can, portable vessel out of which ale is poured
into the cups_: acc. sg. 2022; hroden ealowÊge, 495; dat. sg. ofer ealowÊge
(_at the ale-carouse_), 481.

eal-wealda, w. adj., _all ruling_ (God): nom. sg. f‰der alwalda, 316;
alwalda, 956, 1315; dat. sg. al-wealdan, 929.

eard, st. m., _cultivated ground, estate, hereditary estate_; in a broader
sense, _ground in general, abode, place of sojourn_: nom. sg. him w‰s b‚m
... lond gecynde, eard Íel-riht, _the land was bequeathed to them both,
the land and the privileges attached to it._ 2199; acc. sg. fÓfel-cynnes
eard, _the ground of the giant race, place of sojourn_, 104; similarly,
‰lwihta eard, 1501; eard gemunde, _thought of his native ground, his home_,
1130; eard git ne const, _thou knowest not yet the place of sojourn._ 1378;
eard and eorlscipe, _prÊdium et nobilitatem_, 1728; eard Íelwyn, _land and
the enjoyment of home_, 2494; dat. sg. ellor hwearf of earde, _went
elsewhere from his place of abode_, i.e. died, 56; ˛‰t we rondas beren eft
tÙ earde, _that we go again to our homes_, 2655; on earde, 2737; nom. pl.
e·cne eardas, _the broad expanses_ (in the fen-sea where Grendel's home
was), 1622.

eardian, w. v.: 1) _to have a dwelling-place, to live; to rest_: pret. pl.
d˝re swyrd sw‚ hie wi eoran f‰m ˛Êr eardodon, _costly swords, as they
had rested in the earth's bosom_, 3051.--2) also transitively, _to
inhabit_: pret. sg. Heorot eardode, 166; inf. wÓc eardian elles hwergen,
_inhabit a place elsewhere_ (i.e. die), 2590.

eard-lufa, w. m., _the living upon one's land, home-life_: acc. sg.
eard-lufan, 693.

earfo-lÓce, adv., _with trouble, with difficulty_, 1637, 1658; _with
vexation, angrily_, 86; _sorrowfully_, 2823; _with difficulty, scarcely_,
2304, 2935.

earfo-˛rag, st. f., _time full of troubles, sorrowful time_: acc. sg.
-˛rage, 283.

earh, adj., _cowardly_: gen. sg. ne bi swylc earges sÓ (_no coward
undertaken that_), 2542.

earm, st. m., _arm_: acc. sg. earm, 836, 973; wi earm ges‰t, _supported
himself with his arm_, 750; dat. pl. earmum, 513.

earm, adj., _poor, miserable, unhappy_: nom. sg. earm, 2369; earme ides,
_the unhappy woman_, 1118; dat. sg. earmre teohhe, _the unhappy band_,
2939.--Comp. acc. sg. earmran mannan, _a more wretched, more forsaken man_,

earm-be·g, st. m., _arm-ring, bracelet_: gen. pl. earm-be·ga fela searwum
gesÊled, _many arm-rings interlaced_, 2764.

earm-hre·d, st. f., _arm-ornament_. nom. pl. earm-hre·de tw‚, 1195 (Grein's
conjecture, MS. earm reade).

earm-lÓc, adj., _wretched, miserable_: nom. sg. sceolde his ealdor-ged‚l
earmlÓc wuran, _his end should be wretched_, 808.

earm-sceapen, pret. part. as adj. (_properly, wretched by the decree of
fate_), _wretched_: nom. sg. 1352.

earn, st. m., _eagle_: dat. sg. earne, 3027.

eatol. See atol.

eaxl, st. f., _shoulder_: acc. sg. eaxle, 836, 973; dat. sg. on eaxle, 817,
1548; be eaxle, 1538; on eaxle ides gnornode, _the woman sobbed on the
shoulder_ (of her son, who has fallen and is being burnt), 1118; dat. pl.
s‰t fre·n eaxlum ne·h, _sat near the shoulders of his lord_ (BeÛwulf lies
lifeless upon the earth, and WÓgl‚f sits by his side, near his shoulder, so
as to sprinkle the face of his dead lord), 2854; he for eaxlum gestÙd
Deniga fre·n, _he stood before the shoulders of the lord of the Danes_
(i.e. not directly before him, but somewhat to the side, as etiquette
demanded), 358.

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., _he who has his position at the shoulder_ (sc. of
his lord), _trusty courtier, counsellor of a prince_: nom. sg. 1327; acc.
pl. -gesteallan, 1715.

e·c, conj., _also_: 97, 388, 433, etc.; Íc, 3132.

e·cen (pret. part. of a not existing eacan, augere), adj., _wide-spread_,
_large_: nom. pl. e·cne eardas, _broad plains_, 1622.--_great, heavy_: eald
sweord e·cen, 1664; dat. pl. e·cnum ecgum, 2141, both times of the great
sword in Grendel's habitation.--_great, mighty, powerful_: ‰ele and e·cen,
of BeÛwulf, 198.

e·cen-cr‰ftig, adj., _immense_ (of riches), _enormously great_: acc. sg.
hord-‰rna sum e·cen-cr‰ftig, _that enormous treasure-house_, 2281; nom. sg.
˛‰t yrfe e·cen-cr‰ftig, i˙monna gold, 3052.

e·dig, adj., _blessed with possessions, rich, happy by reason of property_:
nom. sg. wes, ˛enden ˛u lifige, ‰eling e·dig, _be, as long as thou livest,
a prince blessed with riches_, 1226; e·dig mon, 2471.--Comp. sige-, sigor-,

e·dig-lÓce, adv., _in abundance, in joyous plenty_: dre·mum lifdon
e·diglÓce, _lived in rejoicing and plenty_, 100.

e·e, Íe, ˝e, adj., _easy, pleasant_: nom. pl. gode ˛ancedon ˛‰s ˛e him
˝-l‚de e·e wurdon, _thanked God that the sea-ways_ (the navigation) _had
become easy to them_, 228; ne w‰s ˛‰t Íe sÓ, _no pleasant way_, 2587; n‰s
˛‰t ˝e ce·p, _no easy purchase_, 2416; nÙ ˛‰t ˝e by tÙ befleÛnne, _not
easy_ (as milder expression for _in no way, not at all_), 1003.

e·e, ˝e, adv., _easily_. e·e, 478, 2292, 2765.

e·-fynde, adj., _easy to find_: nom. sg. 138.

e·ge, w. n., _eye_: dat. pl. him of e·gum stÙd leÛht unf‰ger, _out of his
eyes came a terrible gleam_, 727; ˛‰t ic ... e·gum starige, _see with eyes,
behold_, 1782; similarly, 1936; gen. pl. e·gena bearhtm, 1767.

e·gor-stre·m, st. m., _sea-stream sea_: acc. sg. 513.

e·-land, st. n., _land surrounded by water_ (of the land of the Ge·tas):
acc. sg. e·-lond, 2335; _island_.

e·m, st. m., _uncle, mothers brother_: nom. sg. 882.

e·stan, adv., _from the east_, 569.

e·wan, w. v., _to disclose, to show, to prove_: pres. sg. III. e·we ...
unc˚ne nÓ, _shows evil enmity_, 276. See eÛwan, ˝wan.

ge-e·wan, _to show, to offer_: pret. part. him w‰s ... wunden gold Ístum
ge-e·wed, _was graciously presented_, 1195.


eode. See gangan.

eodor, st. m., _fence, hedge, railing_. Among the old Germans, an estate
was separated by a fence from the property of others. Inside of this fence
the laws of peace and protection held good, as well as in the house itself.
Hence eodor is sometimes used instead of _house_: acc. pl. hÍht eahta
mearas on flet teÛn, in under eoderas, _gave orders to lead eight steeds
into the hall, into the house_, 1038.--2) figuratively, _lord, prince_, as
protector: nom. sg. eodor, 428, 1045; eodur, 664.

eofo, st. n., _strength_: acc. pl. eofoo, 2535. See eafo.

eofer, st. m.: 1) _boar_, here of the metal boar-image upon the helmet:
nom. sg. eofer Órenheard, 1113.--2) figuratively, _bold hero, brave
fighter_ (O.N. iˆfur): nom. pl. ˛onne ... eoferas cnysedan, _when the
heroes rushed upon each other_, 1329, where eoferas and fÍan stand in the
same relation to each other as cnysedan and hniton.

eofor-lÓc, st. n. _boar-image_ (on the helmet): nom. pl. eofor-lÓc scionon,

eofor-spreÛt, st. m., _boar-spear_: dat. pl. mid eofer-spreÛtum
heÛro-hÙcyhtum, _with hunting-spears which were provided with sharp hooks_,

eogu, iogu. See geogo.

eolet, st. m. n., _sea_(?): gen. sg. eoletes, 224.

eorclan-st‚n, st. m., _precious stone_: acc. pl. -st‚nas, 1209.

eor-cyning, st. m., _king of the land_: gen. sg. eor-cyninges (Finn),

eor-draca, w. m., _earth-drake, dragon that lives in the earth_: nom. sg.
2713, 2826.

eore, w. f.: 1) _earth_ (in contrast with heaven), _world_: acc. sg.
‰lmihtiga eoran worhte, 92; wÓde geond eoran, _far over the earth,
through the wide world_, 266; dat. sg. ofer eoran, 248, 803; on eoran,
1823, 2856, 3139; gen. sg. eoran, 753.--2) _earth, ground_: acc. sg. he
eoran gefeÛll, _fell to the ground_, 2835; forlÍton eorla gestreÛn eoran
healdan, _let the earth hold the nobles' treasure_, 3168; dat. sg. ˛‰t hit
on eoran l‰g, 1533; under eoran, 2416; gen. sg. wi eoran f‰m (_in the
bosom of the earth_), 3050.

eor-reced, st. n., _hall in the earth, rock-hall_: acc. sg. 2720.

eor-scr‰f, st. n., _earth-cavern, cave_: dat. sg. eor-[scr‰fe], 2233;
gen. pl. eor-scr‰fe, 3047.

eor-sele, st. m., _hall in the earth, cave_: acc. sg. eor-sele, 2411; dat
sg. of eorsele, 2516.

eor-weall, st. m., _earth-wall_: acc. sg. (Ongen˛eÛw) be·h eft under
eorweall, _fled again under the earth-wall_ (into his fortified camp),
2958; ˛‚ me w‰s ... sÓ ‚l˝fed inn under eorweall, _then the way in, under
the earth-wall was opened to me_ (into the dragon's cave), 3091.

eor-weard, st. m., _land-property, estate_: acc. sg. 2335.

eorl, st. m., _noble born man, a man of the high nobility_: nom. sg. 762,
796, 1229, etc.; acc. sg. eorl, 573, 628, 2696; gen. sg. eorles, 690, 983,
1758, etc.; acc. pl. eorlas, 2817; dat. pl. eorlum, 770, 1282, 1650, etc.;
gen. pl. eorla, 248, 357, 369, etc.--Since the king himself is from the
stock of the eorlas, he is also called eorl, 6, 2952.

eorl-gestreÛn, st. n., _wealth of the nobles_: gen. pl. eorl-gestreÛna ...
hardfyrdne dÊl, 2245.

eorl-gewÊde, st. n., _knightly dress, armor_: dat. pl. -gewÊdum, 1443.

eorlÓc (i.e. eorl-lÓc), adj., _what it becomes a noble born man to do,
chivalrous_: acc. sg. eorlÓc ellen, 638.

eorl-scipe, st. m., _condition of being noble born, chivalrous nature,
nobility_: acc. sg. eorl-scipe, 1728, 3175; eorl-scipe efnan, _to do
chivalrous deeds_, 2134, 2536, 2623, 3008.

eorl-weorod, st. n., _followers of nobles_: nom. sg. 2894.

eormen-cyn, st. n., _very extensive race, mankind_: gen. sg. eormen-cynnes,

eormen-grund, st. m., _immensely wide plains, the whole broad earth_: acc.
sg. ofer eormen-grund, 860.

eormen-l‚f, st. f., _enormous legacy_: acc. sg. eormen-l‚fe ‰elan cynnes
(_the treasures of the dragon's cave_) 2235.

eorre, adj., _angry, enraged_: gen. sg. eorres, 1448.

eoton, st. m.: 1) _giant_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel), 762; dat. sg.
uninflected, eoton (Grendel), 669; nom. pl. eotenas, 112.--2) Eotens,
subjects of Finn, the N. Frisians: 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. pl. 1146. See
List of Names, p. 114.

eotonisc, adj., _gigantic, coming from giants_: acc. sg. eald sweord
eotenisc (eotonisc), 1559, 2980, (etonisc, MS.) 2617.


eÛred-geatwe, st. f. pl., _warlike adornments_: acc. pl., 2867.

eÛwan, w. v., _to show, to be seen_: pres. sg. III. ne gesacu ÙhwÊr,
ecghete eÛwe, _nowhere shows itself strife, sword-hate_, 1739. See e·wan,

eÛwer: 1) gen. pl. pers. pron., vestrum: eÛwer sum, _that one of you_
(namely, BeÛwulf), 248; fÊhe eÛwer leÛde, _the enmity of the people of
you_ (of your people), 597; nis ˛‰t eÛwer sÓ ... nefne mÓn ‚nes, 2533.--2)
poss. pron., _your_, 251, 257, 294, etc.


ge-fandian, -fondian, w. v., _to try, to search for, to find out, to
experience_: w. gen. pret. part. ˛‰t h‰fde gumena sum goldes gefandod,
_that a man had discovered the gold_, 2302; ˛onne se ‚n hafa ˛urh de‚es
n˝d dÊda gefondad, _now the one_ (Herebeald) _has with death's pang
experienced the deeds_ (the unhappy bow-shot of HÊcyn), 2455.

fara, w. m., _farer, traveller_: in comp. mere-fara.

faran, st. v., _to move from one place to another, to go, to wander_: inf.
tÙ h‚m faran, _to go home_, 124; lÍton on geflÓt faran fealwe mearas, _let
the fallow horses go in emulation_, 865; cwom faran flotherge on Fresna
land, _had come to Friesland with a fleet_, 2916; com leÛda dugoe on l‚st
faran, _came to go upon the track of the heroes of his people_, i.e. to
follow them, 2946; gerund wÊron ‰elingas eft tÙ leÛdum f˚se tÙ farenne,
_the nobles were ready to go again to their people_, 1806; pret. sg. gegnum
fÙr [˛‚] ofer myrcan mÙr, _there had_ (Grendel's mother) _gone away over
the dark fen_, 1405; sÊgenga fÙr, _the seafarer_ (the ship) _drove along_,
1909; (wyrm) mid bÊle fÙr, (the dragon) _fled away with fire_, 2309; pret.
pl. ˛‰t ... scawan scÓrhame tÙ scipe fÙron, _that the visitors in
glittering attire betook themselves to the ship_, 1896.

gefaran, _to proceed, to act_: inf. h˚ se m‚nsceaa under fÊrgripum gefaran
wolde, _how he would act in his sudden attacks_, 739.

˚t faran, _to go out_: w. acc. lÍt of breÛstum ... word ˚t faran, _let
words go out of his breast, uttered words_, 2552.

faro, st. m., _stream, flood of the sea_: dat. sg. tÙ brimes faroe, 28;
‰fter faroe, _with the stream_, 580; ‰t faroe, 1917.

faru, st. f., _way, passage, expedition_: in comp. ‚d-faru.

f‚cen-st‰f (elementum nequitiae), st. m., _wickedness, treachery, deceit_.
acc. pl. f‚cen-stafas, 1019.

f‚h, f‚g, adj., _many-colored, variegated, of varying color_ (especially
said of the color of gold, of bronze, and of blood, in which the beams of
light are refracted): nom. sg. f‚h (_covered with blood_), 420; blÙde f‚h,
935; ‚tert‚num f‚h (sc. Óren) [This is the MS reading; emmended to
‚terte·rum in text--KTH], 1460; sadol searwum f‚h (_saddle artistically
ornamented with gold_), 1039; sweord sw‚te f‚h, 1287; brim blÙde f‚h, 1595;
w‰ldreÛre f‚g, 1632; (draca) f˝rwylmum f‚h (_because he spewed flame_),
2672; sweord f‚h and f‰ted, 2702; blÙde f‚h, 2975; acc. sg. dreÛre f‚hne,
447; goldsele f‰ttum f‚hne, 717; on f‚gne flÙr treddode, _trod the shining
floor_ (of Heorot), 726; hrÙf golde f‚hne, _the roof shining with gold_,
928; nom. pl. eoforlÓc ... f‚h and f˝r-beard, 305; acc. pl. ˛‚ hilt since
f‚ge, 1616; dat. pl. f‚gum sweordum, 586.--Comp. b‚n-, blÙd-, br˚n-,
dreÛr-, gold-, gryre-, searo-, sinc-, st‚n-, sw‚t-, w‰l-, wyrm-f‚h.

f‚h, f‚g, f‚, adj.: 1) _hostile_: nom. sg. f‚h feÛnd-scaa, 554; he w‰s f‚g
wi god (Grendel), 812; acc. sg. f‚ne (_the dragon_), 2656; gen. pl. f‚ra,
578, 1464.--2) _liable to pursuit, without peace, outlawed_: nom. sg. f‚g,
1264; m‚ne f‚h, _outlawed through crime_, 979; fyren-dÊdum f‚g,
1002.--Comp. nearo-f‚h.

f‚mig-heals, adj., _with foaming neck_: nom. sg. flota f‚mig-heals, 218;
(sÊgenga) f‚mig-heals, 1910.

f‰c, st. n., _period of time_: acc. sg. lytel f‰c, _during a short time_,

f‰der, st. m., _father_: nom. sg. f‰der, 55, 262, 459, 2609; of God, 1610;
f‰der alwalda, 316; acc. sg. f‰der, 1356; dat. sg. f‰der, 2430; gen. sg.
f‰der, 21, 1480; of God, 188--Comp.: Êr, eald-f‰der.

f‰dera, w. m., _father's brother_ in comp. suhter-gef‰deran.

f‰der-‰elo, st. n. pl., _paternus principatus_ (?): dat. pl. f‰der-‰elum,

f‰deren-mÊg, st. m., _kinsman descended from the same father,
co-descendant_: dat. sg. f‰deren-mÊge, 1264.

f‰m, st. m.: 1) _the outspread, encircling arms_: instr. pl. feÛndes
f‰[mum], 2129.--2) _embrace, encircling_: nom. sg. lÓges f‰m, 782; acc.
sg. in f˝res f‰m, 185.--3) _bosom, lap_: acc. sg. on foldan f‰m, 1394;
wi eoran f‰m, 3050; dat. pl. tÙ f‰der (God's) f‰mum, 188.--4) _power,
property_: acc. in Francna f‰m, 1211.--Cf. sÓd-f‰med, sÓ-f‰me.

f‰mian, w. v., _to embrace, to take up into itself_: pres. subj. ˛‰t minne
lÓchaman ... glÍd f‰mie, 2653; inf. lÍton flÙd f‰mian fr‰twa hyrde, 3134.

ge-f‰g, adj., _agreeable, desirable_ (Old Eng., fawe, _willingly_): comp.
ge-f‰gra, 916.

f‰gen, adj., _glad, joyous_: nom. pl. ferhum f‰gne, _the glad at heart_,

f‰ger, adj., _beautiful, lovely_: nom. sg. f‰ger fold-bold, 774; f‰ger
foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. freooburh f‰gere, 522; nom. pl. ˛Êr him
fold-wegas f‰gere ˛˚hton, 867.--Comp. un-f‰ger.

f‰gere, f‰gre, adv., _beautifully, well, becomingly, according to
etiquette_: f‰gere ge˛Êgon medoful manig, 1015; ˛‚ w‰s flet-sittendum
f‰gere gereorded, _becomingly the repast was served_, 1789; Higel‚c ongan
... f‰gre fricgean, 1986; similarly, 2990.

f‰r, st. n., _craft, ship_: nom. sg., 33.

f‰st, adj., _bound, fast_: nom. sg. bi se slÊp tÙ f‰st, 1743; acc. sg.
freÛndscipe f‰stne, 2070; f‰ste friouwÊre, 1097.--The prep. on stands to
denote the where or wherein: w‰s tÙ f‰st on ˛‚m (sc. on fÊhe and fyrene),
137; on ancre f‰st, 303. Or, oftener, the dative: feÛnd-gr‚pum f‰st,
_(held) fast in his antagonist's clutch_, 637; f˝rbendum f‰st, _fast in the
forged hinges_, 723; handa f‰st, 1291, etc.; hygebendum f‰st (beorn him
langa), _fast (shut) in the bonds of his bosom, the man longs for_ (i.e.
in secret), 1879.--Comp: ‚r-, blÊd-, gin-, sÙ-, tÓr-, wÓs-f‰st.

f‰ste, adv., _f‰st_ 554, 761, 774, 789, 1296.--Comp. f‰stor, 143.

be-f‰stan, w. v., _to give over_: inf. hÍt Hildeburh hire selfre sunu
sweoloe bef‰stan, _to give over to the flames her own son_, 1116.

f‰sten, st. n., _fortified place, or place difficult of access_: acc. sg.
leÛda f‰sten, _the fastness of the Ge·tas_ (with ref. to 2327), 2334;
f‰sten (Ongen˛eÛw's castle or fort), 2951; f‰sten (Grendel's house in the
fen-sea), 104.

f‰st-rÊd, adj., _firmly resolved_: acc. sg. f‰st-rÊdne ge˛Ùht, _firm
determination_, 611.

f‰t, st. m., _way, journey_: in comp. sÓ-f‰t.

f‰t, st. n., _vessel; vase, cup_: acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, _the
(drinking-) vessels of men of old times_, 2762.--Comp.: b‚n-, drync-,
m‚um-, sinc-, wundor-f‰t.

f‰t, st. n. (?), _plate, sheet of metal_, especially _gold plate_ (Dietrich
Hpt. Ztschr. XI. 420): dat. pl. gold sele ... f‰ttum f‚hne, _shining with
gold plates_ (the walls and the inner part of the roof were partly covered
with gold), 717; sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde f‰tum befeallen (sc.
wesan), _the gold ornaments shall fall away from it_, 2257.

f‰ted, f‰tt, part., _ornamented with gold beaten into plate-form_: gen. sg.
f‰ttan goldes, 1094, 2247; instr. sg. f‰ttan golde, 2103. Elsewhere,
_covered, ornamented with gold plate_: nom. sg. sweord ... f‰ted, 2702;
acc. sg. f‰ted wÊge, 2254, 2283; acc. pl. f‰tte scyldas, 333; f‰tte be·gas,
1751. [fÊted, etc.]

f‰ted-hleÛr, adj., phaleratus gena (Dietr.): acc. pl. eahta mearas
f‰ted-hleÛre (_eight horses with bridles covered with plates of gold_),

f‰t-gold, st. n., _gold in sheets_ or _plates_: acc. sg., 1922.

fÊge, adj.: 1) _forfeited to death, allotted to death by fate_: nom. sg.
fÊge, 1756, 2142, 2976; fÊge and ge-fl˝med, 847; f˚s and fÊge, 1242; acc.
sg. fÊgne flÊsc-homan, 1569; dat. sg. fÊgum, 2078; gen. sg. fÊges,
1528.--2) _dead_: dat. pl. ofer fÊgum (_over the warriors fallen in the
battle_), 3026.--Comp.: de·-, un-fÊge.

fÊh (_state of hostility_, see f‚h), st. f., _hostile act, feud, battle_:
nom. sg. fÊh, 2404, 3062; acc. sg. fÊhe, 153, 459, 470, 596, 1334, etc.;
also of the unhappy bowshot of the HrÍling, HÊcyn, by which he killed his
brother, 2466; dat. sg. fore fÊhe and fyrene, 137; nalas for fÊhe mearn
(_did not recoil from the combat_), 1538; gen. sg, ne gefeah he ˛Êre fÊhe,
109; gen. pl. fÊha gemyndig, 2690.--Comp. w‰l-fÊh.

fÊho, st. f., same as above: nom. sg. siÛ fÊho, 3000; acc. fÊho, 2490.

fÊlsian, w. v., _to bring into a good condition, to cleanse_: inf. ˛‰t ic
mÙte ... Heorot fÊlsian (from the plague of Grendel), 432; pret. HrÙg‚res
... sele fÊlsode, 2353.

ge-fÊlsian, w. v., same as above: pret. part. h‰fde gefÊlsod ... sele
HrÙg‚res, 826; Heorot is gefÊlsod, 1177; wÊron ˝-gebland eal gefÊlsod,

fÊmne, w. f., _virgin, recens nupta_: dat. sg. fÊmnan, 2035; gen. sg.
fÊmnan, 2060, both times of HrÙg‚r's daughter Fre·ware.

fÊr, st. m., _sudden, unexpected attack_: nom. sg. (attack upon Hn‰f's band
by Finn's), 1069, 2231.

fÊr-gripe, st. m., _sudden, treacherous gripe, attack_: nom. sg. fÊr-gripe
flÙdes, 1517; dat. pl. under fÊrgripum, 739.

fÊr-gryre, st. m., _fright caused by a sudden attack_: dat. pl. wi
fÊr-gryrum (against the inroads of Grendel into Heorot), 174.

fÊringa, adv., _suddenly, unexpectedly_, 1415, 1989.

fÊr-nÓ, st. m., _hostility with sudden attacks_: gen. pl. hw‰t me Grendel
hafa ... fÊrnÓa gefremed, 476.

feer-gearwe, st. f. pl. _(feather-equipment), the feathers of the shaft of
the arrow_: dat. (instr.) pl. sceft feer-gearwum f˚s, 3120.

fel, st. n., _skin, hide_: dat. pl. glÙf ... gegyrwed dracan fellum, _made
of the skins of dragons_, 2089.

fela, I., adj. indecl., _much, many_: as subst.: acc. sg. fela fricgende,
2107. With worn placed before: hw‰t ˛u worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprÊce,
_how very much you spoke about Breca_, 530.--With gen. sg.: acc. sg. fela
fyrene, 810; wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426; worna fela sorge, 2004; tÙ fela micles
... Denigea leÛde, _too much of the race of the Danes_, 695; unc˚es fela,
877; fela l‚es, 930; fela leÛfes and l‚es, 1061.--With gen. pl.: nom. sg.
fela m‚dma, 36; fela ˛Êra wera and wÓfa, 993, etc.; acc. sg. fela missera,
153; fela fyrena, 164; ofer landa fela, 311; m‚um-sigla fela (falo, MS.),
2758; ne me swÙr fela ‚a on unriht, _swore no false oaths_, 2739, etc.;
worn fela m‚ma, 1784; worna fela g˚a, 2543.--Comp. eal-fela.

II., adverbial, _very_, 1386, 2103, 2951.

fela-hrÙr, adj., valde agitatus, _very active against the enemy, very
warlike_, 27.

fela-mÙdig, adj., _very courageous_: gen. pl. -mÙdigra, 1638, 1889.

fela-synnig, adj., _very criminal, very guilty_: acc. sg. fela-sinnigne
secg (in MS., on account of the alliteration, changed to simple sinnigne),

feÛlan, st. v., _to betake one's self into a place, to conceal one's self_:
pret. sian inne fealh Grendles mÙdor (in Heorot), 1282; ˛Êr inne fealh
secg syn-bysig (in the dragon's cave), 2227.--_to fall into, undergo,
endure_: searonÓas fealh, 1201.

‰t-feÛlan, w. dat., insistere, adhÊrere: pret. nÙ ic him ˛‰s georne ‰tfealh
_(held him not fast enough_, 969.

fen, st. n., _fen, moor_: acc. sg. fen, 104; dat. sg. tÙ fenne, 1296;
fenne, 2010.

fen-freoo, st. f., _refuge in the fen_: dat. sg. in fen-freoo, 852.

feng, st. m., _gripe, embrace_: nom. sg. f˝res feng, 1765; acc. sg. f‚ra
feng (of the hostile sea-monsters), 578.--Comp. inwit-feng.

fengel (probably _he who takes possession_, cf. tÙ fÙn, 1756, and fÙn tÙ
rÓce, _to enter upon the government_), st. m., _lord, prince, king_: nom.
sg. wÓsa fengel, 1401; snottra fengel, 1476, 2157; hringa fengel, 2346.

fen-ge-l‚d, st. n., _fen-paths, fen with paths_: acc. pl. frÍcne fengel‚d
(_fens difficult of access_), 1360.

fen-hli, st. n., _marshy precipice_: acc. pl. under fen-hleou, 821.

fen-hop, st. n., _refuge in the fen_: acc. pl. on fen-hopu, 765.

ferh, st. m. n., _life_; see feorh.

ferh, st. m., _hog, boar_, here of the boar-image on the helmet: nom. sg.,

ferh, st. m., _heart, soul_: dat. sg. on ferhe, 755, 949, 1719; gehwylc
hiora his ferhe treÛwde, ˛‰t ..., _each of them trusted to his_
(H˚nfer's) _heart, that_ ..., 1167; gen. sg. ferhes fore-˛anc, 1061; dat.
pl. (adverbial) ferhum f‰gne, _happy at heart_, 1634; ˛‰t mon ... ferhum
freÛge, _that one ... heartily love_, 3178.--Comp.: collen-, sarig-,
swift-, wide-ferh.

ferh-frec, adj., _having good courage, bold, brave_: acc. sg. ferh-frecan
Fin, 1147.

ferh-genÓla, w. m., _mortal enemy_: acc. sg. ferh-genÓlan, of the
drake, 2882.

ferian, w. v. w. acc., _to bear, to bring, to conduct_: pres. II. pl.
hwanon ferigea f‰tte scyldas, 333; pret. pl. tÙ scypum feredon eal
ingesteald eorcyninges, 1155; similarly, feredon, 1159, 3114.

‰t-ferian, _to carry away, to bear off_: pret. ic ˛‰t hilt ˛anan feÛndum
‰tferede, 1669.

ge-ferian, _bear, to bring, to lead_: pres. subj. I. pl. ˛onne (we)
geferian fre·n ˚serne, 3108; inf. geferian ... Grendles he·fod, 1639; pret.
˛‰t hi ˚t geferedon d˝re m‚mas, 3131; pret. part. her syndon geferede
feorran cumene ... Ge·ta leÛde, _men of the Ge·tas, come from afar, have
been brought hither_ (by ship), 361.

Ù-ferian, _to tear away, to take away_: pret. sg. I. unsÙfte ˛onan feorh
Ù-ferede, 2142.

of-ferian, _to carry off, to take away, to tear away_: pret. Ùer swylc ˚t
offerede, _took away another such_ (sc. fifteen), 1584.

fetel-hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_, with the gold chains fastened to it: acc.
(sg. or pl.?), 1564. (See "Leitfaden f. nord. Altertumskunde," pp.45, 46.)

fetian, w. v., _to bring near, bring_: pres. subj. n‚h hw‚ ... fe[tige]
f‰ted wÊge, _bring the gold-chased tankard_, 2254; pret. part. hrae w‰s tÙ
b˚re BeÛwulf fetod, 1311.

ge-fetian, _to bring_: inf. hÍt ˛‚ eorla hleÛ in gefetian HrÍles l‚fe,
_caused HrÍel's sword to be brought_, 2191.

‚-fÍdan, w. v., _to nourish, to bring up_: pret. part. ˛Êr he ‚fÍded w‰s,

fÍa (O.H.G. fendo), w. m.: 1) _foot-soldiers_: nom. pl. fÍan, 1328,
2545.--2) collective in sing., _band of foot-soldiers, troop of warriors_:
nom. fÍa eal ges‰t, 1425; dat. on fÍan, 2498, 2920.--Comp. gum-fÍa.

fÍe, st. n., _gait, going, pace_: dat. sg. w‰s tÙ foremihtig feÛnd on
fÍe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (i.e. could flee too fast), 971.

fÍe-cempa, w. m., _foot-soldier_: nom. sg., 1545, 2854.

fÍe-g‰st, st. m., _guest coming on foot_: dat. pl. fÍe-gestum, 1977.

fÍe-l‚st, st. m., _signs of going, footprint_: dat. pl. fÍrdon for ˛onon
fÍe-l‚stum, _went forth from there upon their trail_, i.e. by the same way
that they had gone, 1633.

fÍe-wÓg, st. m., _battle on foot_: gen. sg. nealles Hetware hrÍmge ˛orfton
(sc. wesan) fÍe-wÓges, 2365.

fÍl (= feÛl), st. f. _file_: gen. pl. fÍla l‚fe, _what the files have left
behind_ (that is, the swords), 1033.

fÍran, w. v., iter (A.S. fÙr) facere, _to come, to go, to travel_: pres.
subj. II. pl. Êr ge ... on land Dena furur fÍran, _ere you go farther into
the land of the Danes_, 254; inf. fÍran on fre·n wÊre (_to die_), 27;
gewiton him ˛‚ fÍran (_set out upon their way_), 301; mÊl is me tÙ fÍran,
316; fÍran ... gang sce·wigan, _go, so as to see the footprints_, 1391;
wÓde fÍran, 2262; pret. fÍrdon folctogan ... wundor sce·wian, _the princes
came to see the wonder_, 840; fÍrdon for, 1633.

ge-fÍran: 1) adire, _to arrive at_: pres. subj. ˛onne eorl ende gefÍre
lÓfgesceafta, _reach the end of life_, 3064; pret. part. h‰fde Êghw‰er
ende gefÍred lÊnan lÓfes, _frail life's end had both reached_, 2845.--2)
_to reach, to accomplish, to bring about_: pret. hafast ˛u gefÍred ˛‰t ...,
1222, 1856.--3) _to behave one's self, to conduct one's self_: pret. frÍcne
gefÍrdon, _had shown themselves daring_, 1692.

feal, st. m., _fall_: in comp. w‰l-feal.

feallan, st. v., _to fall, to fall headlong_: inf. feallan, 1071; pret. sg.
˛‰t he on hrusan ne feÛl, _that it_ (the hall) _did not fall to the
ground_, 773; similarly, feÛll on foldan, 2976; feÛll on fÍan (dat. sg.),
_fell in the band_ (of his warriors), 2920; pret. pl. ˛onne walu feÛllon,

be-feallen, pret. part. w. dat. or instr., _deprived of, robbed_: freÛndum
befeallen, _robbed of friends_, 1127; sceal se hearda helm ... f‰tum
befeallen (sc. wesan), _be robbed of its gold mountings_ (the gold mounting
will fall away from it moldering), 2257.

ge-feallan, _to fall, to sink down_: pres. sg. III. ˛‰t se lÓc-homa ...
fÊge gefealle, _that the body doomed to die sinks down_, 1756.--Also, with
the acc. of the place whither: pret. meregrund gefeÛll, 2101; he eoran
gefeÛll, 2835.

fealu, adj., _fallow, dun-colored, tawny_: acc. sg. ofer fealone flÙd
(_over the sea_), 1951; fealwe strÊte (with reference to 320), 917; acc.
pl. lÍton on geflÓt faran fealwe mearas, 866.--Comp. ‰ppel-fealo.

feax, st. n., _hair, hair of the head_: dat. sg. w‰s be feaxe on flet boren
Grendles he·fod, _was carried by the hair into the hall_, 1648; him ...
sw‚t ... sprong for under fexe, _the blood sprang out under the hair of
his head_, 2968.--Comp.: blonden-, gamol-, wunden-feax.

ge-fe·, w. m., _joy_: acc. sg. ˛Êre fylle gefe·n, _joy at the abundant
repast_, 562; ic ˛‰s ealles m‰g ... gefe·n habban (_can rejoice at all
this_), 2741.

fe·, adj., _few_ dat. pl. nemne fe·um ‚num, _except some few_, 1082; gen.
pl. fe·ra sum, _as one of a few, with a few_, 1413; fe·ra sumne, _one of a
few (some few)_, 3062. With gen. following: acc. pl. fe· worda cw‰, _spoke
few words_, 2663, 2247.

fe·-sceaft, adj., _miserable, unhappy, helpless_: nom. sg. syan Êrest
wear fe·sceaft funden, 7; fe·sceaft guma (Grendel), 974; dat. sg.
fe·sceaftum men, 2286; E·dgilse ... fe·sceaftum, 2394; nom. pl. fe·sceafte
(the Ge·tas robbed of their king, Hygel‚c), 2374.

feoh, feÛ, st. n., (_properly cattle, herd_) here, _possessions, property,
treasure_: instr. sg. ne wolde ... feorh-bealo feÛ ˛ingian, _would not
allay life's evil for treasure_ (tribute), 156; similarly, ˛‚ fÊhe feÛ
˛ingode, 470; ic ˛e ˛‚ fÊhe feÛ le·nige, 1381.

ge-feohan, ge-feÛn, st. v. w. gen. and instr., _to enjoy one's self, to
rejoice at something_: a) w. gen.: pret. sg. ne gefeah he ˛Êre fÊhe, 109;
hilde gefeh, beado-weorces, 2299; pl. fylle gefÊgon, _enjoyed themselves at

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