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Beowulf by James A. Harrison and Robert Sharp, eds.

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Fitela, the son and nephew of the W‰lsing, Sigemund, and his companion in
arms, 876-890. (Sigemund had begotten Fitela by his sister, Sign˝. Cf. more
at length Leo on BeÛwulf, p. 38 ff., where an extract from the legend of
the Walsungs is given.)

Folc-walda (gen. Folc-waldan, 1090), Finn's father, 1090.

Francan (gen. Francna, 1211; dat. Froncum, 2913). King Hygel‚c fell on an
expedition against the allied Franks, Frisians, and H˚gas, 1211, 2917.

Fresan, Frisan, Frysan (gen. Fresena, 1094, Frysna, 1105, Fresna, 2916:
dat. Frysum, 1208, 2913). To be distinguished, are: 1) North Frisians,
whose king is Finn, 1069 ff.; 2) West Frisians, in alliance with the Franks
and H˚gas, in the war against whom Hygel‚c falls, 1208, 2916. The country
of the former is called Frysland, 1127; that of the latter, Fresna land,

Fr..es w‰l (in Fr..es w‰le, 1071), mutilated proper name.

Fre·waru, daughter of the Danish king, HrÙg‚r; given in marriage to
Ingeld, the son of the Heaobeard king, FrÙda, in order to end a war
between the Danes and the Heaobeardnas, 2023 ff., 2065.

FrÙda (gen. FrÙdan), father of Ingeld, the husband of Fre·ware, 2026.

G‚rmund (gen. G‚rmundes, 1963) father of Offa. His grandson is EÛmÊr,

Ge·tas (gen. Ge·ta, 205, etc.; dat. Ge·tum, 195, etc.), a tribe in Southern
Scandinavia, to which the hero of this poem belongs; also called
Wederge·tas, 1493, 2552; or, Wederas, 225, 423, etc.; G˚ge·tas, 1539;
SÊge·tas, 1851, 1987. Their kings named in this poem are: HrÍel; HÊcyn,
second son of HrÍel; Hygel‚c, the brother of HÊcyn; HeardrÍd, son of
Hygel‚c; then BeÛwulf.

Gifas (dat. Gifum, 2495), GepidÊ, mentioned in connection with Danes and
Swedes, 2495.

Grendel, a fen-spirit (102-3) of Cain's race, 107, 111, 1262, 1267. He
breaks every night into HrÙg‚r's hall and carries off thirty warriors, 115
ff., 1583ff. He continues this for twelve years, till BeÛwulf fights with
him (147, 711 ff.), and gives him a mortal wound, in that he tears out one
of his arms (817), which is hung up as a trophy in the roof of Heorot, 837.
Grendel's mother wishes to avenge her son, and the following night breaks
into the hall and carries off ƒschere, 1295. BeÛwulf seeks for and finds
her home in the fen-lake (1493 ff.), fights with her (1498 ff.), and kills
her (1567); and cuts off the head of Grendel, who lay there dead (1589),
and brings it to HrÙg‚r, 1648.

G˚-l‚f and Osl‚f, Danish warriors under Hn‰f, whose death they avenge on
Finn, 1149.

H‚lga, with the surname, _til_, the younger brother of the Danish king,
HrÙg‚r, 61. His son is HrÙulf, 1018, 1165, 1182.

H‚ma wrests the _Brosinga mene_ from EormenrÓc, 1199.

H‰re (gen. H‰rees, 1982), father of Hygd, the wife of Hygel‚c, 1930,

HÊcyn (dat. HÊcynne, 2483), second son of HrÍel, king of the Ge·tas,
2435. Kills his oldest brother, Herebeald, accidentally, with an arrow,
2438 ff. After HrÍel's death, he obtains the kingdom, 2475, 2483. He falls
at Ravenswood, in the battle against the Swedish king, Ongen˛eÛw, 2925. His
successor is his younger brother, Hygel‚c, 2944 ff., 2992.

Helmingas (gen. Helminga, 621). From them comes Wealh˛eÛw, HrÙg‚r's wife,

Heming (gen. Heminges, 1945, 1962). Offa is called Heminges mÊg, 1945;
EÛmÊr, 1962. According to Bachlechner (Pfeiffer's Germania, I., p. 458),
Heming is the son of the sister of G‚rmund, Offa's father.

Hengest (gen. Hengestes, 1092; dat. Hengeste, 1084): about him and his
relations to Hn‰f and Finn, see Finn.

Here-beald (dat. Herebealde, 2464), the oldest son of HrÍel, king of the
Ge·tas (2435), accidentally killed with an arrow by his younger brother,
HÊcyn, 2440.

Here-mÙd (gen. HeremÙdes, 902), king of the Danes, not belonging to the
Scylding dynasty, but, according to Grein, immediately preceding it; is, on
account of his unprecedented cruelty, driven out, 902 ff., 1710.

Here-rÓc (gen. HererÓces, 2207) HeardrÍd is called HererÓces nefa, 2207.
Nothing further is known of him.

Het-ware or Franks, in alliance with the Frisians and the H˚gas, conquer
Hygel‚c, king of the Ge·tas, 2355, 2364 ff., 2917.

Healf-dene (gen. Healfdenes, 189, etc.), son of BeÛwulf, the Scylding (57);
rules the Danes long and gloriously (57 f.); has three sons, Heorog‚r,
HrÙg‚r, and H‚lga (61), and a daughter, Elan, who, according to the
renewed text of the passage, w‰s married to the Scylfing, Ongen˛eÛw, 62,

Heard-rÍd (dat. HeardrÍde, 2203, 2376), son of Hygel‚c, king of the Ge·tas,
and Hygd. After his father's death, while still under age, he obtains the
throne (2371, 2376, 2379); wherefore BeÛwulf, as nephew of HeardrÍd's
father, acts as guardian to the youth till he becomes older, 2378. He is
slain by ‘hthere's sons, 2386. This murder BeÛwulf avenges on E·dgils,

Heao-beardnas (gen. -beardna, 2033, 2038, 2068), the tribe of the
Lombards. Their king, FrÙda, has fallen in a war with the Danes, 2029,
2051. In order to end the feud, King HrÙg‚r has given his daughter,
Fre·waru, as wife to the young Ingeld, the son of FrÙda, a marriage that
does not result happily; for Ingeld, though he long defers it on account of
his love for his wife, nevertheless takes revenge for his father, 2021-2070
(WÓdsÓ, 45-49).

Heao-l‚f (dat. Heao-l‚fe, 460), a Wylfingish warrior. Ecg˛eÛw, BeÛwulf's
father, kills him, 460.

Heao-rÊmas reached by B. in the swimming-race with BeÛwulf, 519.

Heoro-g‚r (nom. 61; Hereg‚r, 467; Hiorog‚r, 2159), son of Healfdene, and
older brother of HrÙg‚r, 61. His death is mentioned, 467. He has a son,
Heoroweard, 2162. His coat of mail BeÛwulf has received from HrÙg‚r
(2156), and presents it to Hygel‚c, 2158.

Heoro-weard (dat. Heorowearde, 2162), Heorog‚r's son, 2161-62.

Heort, 78. Heorot, 166 (gen. Heorotes, 403; dat. Heorote, 475, Heorute,
767, Hiorte, 2100). HrÙg‚r's throne-room and banqueting hall and
assembly-room for his liegemen, built by him with unusual splendor, 69, 78.
In it occurs BeÛwulf's fight with Grendel, 720 ff. The hall receives its
name from the stag's antlers, of which the one-half crowns the eastern
gable, the other half the western.

Hildeburh, daughter of HÙc, relative of the Danish leader, Hn‰f, consort of
the Frisian king, Finn. After the fall of the latter, she becomes a captive
of the Danes, 1072, 1077, 1159. See also under Finn.

Hn‰f (gen. Hn‰fes, 1115), a HÙcing (WÓdsÓ, 29), the Danish King
Healfdene's general, 1070 ff. For his fight with Finn, his death and
burial, see under Finn.

Hond-sciÛ, warrior of the Ge·tas: dat. 2077.

HÙc (gen. HÙces, 1077), father of Hildeburh, 1077; probably also of Hn‰f
(WÓdsÓ, 29).

HrÍel (gen. HrÍles, 1486), son of Swerting, 1204. King of the Ge·tas,
374. He has, besides, a daughter, who is married to Ecg˛eÛw, and has borne
him BeÛwulf, (374), three sons, Herebeald, HÊcyn, and Hygel‚c, 2435. The
eldest of these is accidentally killed by the second, 2440. On account of
this inexpiable deed, HrÍel becomes melancholy (2443), and dies, 2475.

HrÍla (gen. HrÍlan, MS. HrÊdlan, 454), the same as HrÍel (cf. M¸llenhoff
in Haupts Zeitschrift, 12, 260), the former owner of BeÛwulf's coat of
mail, 454.

HrÍ-men (gen. HrÍ-manna, 445), the Danes are so called, 445.

HrÍ-rÓc, son of HrÙg‚r, 1190, 1837.

Hrefna-wudu, 2926, or Hrefnes-holt, 2936, the thicket near which the
Swedish king, Ongen˛eÛw, slew HÊcyn, king of the Ge·tas, in battle.

Hreosna-beorh, promontory in the land of the Ge·tas, near which Ongen˛eÛw's
sons, ‘hthere and Onela, had made repeated robbing incursions into the
country after HrÍel's death. These were the immediate cause of the war in
which HrÍel's son, King HÊcyn, fell, 2478 ff.

HrÙ-g‚r (gen. HrÙg‚res, 235, etc.; dat. HrÙg‚re, 64, etc.), of the
dynasty of the Scyldings; the second of the three sons of King Healfdene,
61. After the death of his elder brother, Heorog‚r, he assumes the
government of the Danes, 465, 467 (yet it is not certain whether Heorog‚r
was king of the Danes before HrÙg‚r, or whether his death occurred while
his father, Healfdene, was still alive). His consort is Wealh˛eÛw (613), of
the stock of the Helmings (621), who has borne him two sons, HrÍrÓc and
HrÙmund (1190), and a daughter, Fre·ware (2023), who has been given in
marriage to the king of the Heaobeardnas, Ingeld. His throne-room (78
ff.), which has been built at great cost (74 ff.), is visited every night
by Grendel (102, 115), who, along with his mother, is slain by BeÛwulf (711
ff., 1493 ff). HrÙg‚r's rich gifts to BeÛwulf, in consequence, 1021, 1818;
he is praised as being generous, 71 ff., 80, 1028 ff., 1868 ff.; as being
brave, 1041 ff., 1771 ff.; and wise, 1699, 1725.--Other information about
HrÙg‚r's reign for the most part only suggested: his expiation of the
murder which Ecg˛eÛw, BeÛwulf's father, committed upon Heaol‚f, 460, 470;
his war with the Heaobeardnas; his adjustment of it by giving his
daughter, Fre·ware, in marriage to their king, Ingeld; evil results of this
marriage, 2021-2070.--Treachery of his brother's son, HrÙulf, intimated,

HrÙ-mund, HrÙg‚r's son, 1190.

HrÙ-ulf, probably a son of H‚lga, the younger brother of King HrÙg‚r,
1018, 1182. Wealh˛eÛw expresses the hope (1182) that, in case of the early
death of HrÙg‚r, HrÙ-ulf would prove a good guardian to HrÙg‚r's young
son, who would succeed to the government; a hope which seems not to have
been accomplished, since it appears from 1165, 1166 that HrÙ-ulf has
abused his trust towards HrÙg‚r.

Hrones-n‰s (dat. -n‰sse, 2806, 3137), a promontory on the coast of the
country of the Ge·tas, visible from afar. Here is BeÛwulf's grave-mound,
2806, 3137.

Hrunting (dat. Hruntinge, 1660), H˚nfer's sword, is so called, 1458, 1660.

H˚gas (gen. H˚ga, 2503), Hygel‚c wars against them allied with the Franks
and Frisians, and falls, 2195 ff. One of their heroes is called D‰ghrefn,
whom BeÛwulf slays, 2503.

[H]˚n-fer, the son of Ecgl‚f, ˛yle of King HrÙg‚r. As such, he has his
place near the throne of the king, 499, 500, 1167. He lends his sword,
Hrunting, to BeÛwulf for his battle with Grendel's mother, 1456 f.
According to 588, 1168, he slew his brothers. Since his name is always
alliterated with vowels, it is probable that the original form was, as
Rieger (Zachers Ztschr., 3, 414) conjectures, Unfer.

H˚n-l‚fing, name of a costly sword, which Finn presents to Hengest, 1144.
See Note.

Hygd (dat. Hygde, 2173), daughter of H‰re, 1930; consort of Hygel‚c, king
of the Ge·tas, 1927; her son, HeardrÍd, 2203, etc.--Her noble, womanly
character is emphasized, 1927 ff.

Hyge-l‚c (gen. Hige-l‚ces, 194, etc., Hygel‚ces, 2387; dat. Higel‚ce, 452,
Hygel‚ce, 2170), king of the Ge·tas, 1203, etc. His grandfather is
Swerting, 1204; his father, HrÍel, 1486, 1848; his older brothers,
Herebeald and HÊcyn, 2435; his sister's son, BeÛwulf, 374, 375. After his
brother, HÊcyn, is killed by Ongen˛eÛw, he undertakes the government (2992
in connection with the preceding from 2937 on). To Eofor he gives, as
reward for slaying Ongen˛eÛw, his only daughter in marriage, 2998. But much
later, at the time of the return of BeÛwulf from his expedition to HrÙg‚r,
we see him married to the very young Hygd, the daughter of H‰re, 1930. The
latter seems, then, to have been his second wife. Their son is HeardrÍd,
2203, 2376, 2387.--Hygel‚c falls during an expedition against the Franks,
Frisians, and H˚gas, 1206, 1211, 2356-59, 2916-17.

Ingeld (dat. Ingelde, 2065), son of FrÙda, the Heaobeard chief, who fell
in a battle with the Danes, 2051 ff. in order to end the war, Ingeld is
married to Fre·waru, daughter of the Danish king, HrÙg‚r, 2025-30. Yet his
love for his young wife can make him forget only for a short while his
desire to avenge his father. He finally carries it out, excited thereto by
the repeated admonitions of an old warrior, 2042-70 (WÓdsÓ, 45-59).

Ing-wine (gen. Ingwina, 1045, 1320), friends of Ing, the first king of the
East Danes. The Danes are so called, 1045, 1320.

Mere-wioingas (gen. Mere-wioinga, 2922), as name of the Franks, 2922.

N‰gling, the name of BeÛwulf's sword, 2681.

Offa (gen. Offan, 1950), king of the Angles (WÓdsÓ, 35), the son of
G‚rmund, 1963; married (1950) to firyo (1932), a beautiful but cruel woman,
of unfeminine spirit (1932 ff.), by whom he has a son, EÛmÊr, 1961.

‘ht-here (gen. ‘htheres, 2929, 2933; ‘hteres, 2381, 2393, 2395, 2613), son
of Ongen˛eÛw, king of the Swedes, 2929. His sons are E·nmund (2612) and
E·dgils, 2393.

Onela (gen. Onelan, 2933), ‘hthere's brother, 2617, 2933.

Ongen-˛eÛw (nom. -˛eÛw, 2487, -˛iÛ, 2952; gen. -˛eÛwes, 2476, -˛iÛwes,
2388; dat. -˛iÛ, 2987), of the dynasty of the Scylfings; king of the
Swedes, 2384. His wife is, perhaps, Elan, daughter of the Danish king,
Healfdene (62), and mother of two sons, Onela and ‘hthere, 2933. She is
taken prisoner by HÊcyn, king of the Ge·tas, on an expedition into Sweden,
which he undertakes on account of her sons' plundering raids into his
country, 2480 ff. She is set free by Ongen˛eÛw (2931), who kills HÊcyn,
2925, and encloses the Ge·tas, now deprived of their leader, in the
Ravenswood (2937 ff.), till they are freed by Hygel‚c, 2944. A battle then
follows, which is unfavorable to Ongen˛eÛw's army. Ongen˛eÛw himself,
attacked by the brothers, Wulf and Eofor, is slain by the latter, 2487 ff.,
2962 ff.

‘s-l‚f, a warrior of Hn‰f's, who avenges on Finn his leader's death, 1149

Scede-land, 19. Sceden-Óg (dat. Sceden-Ógge, 1687), O.N., Sc‚n-ey, the most
southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the Danish
kingdom, and, in the above-mentioned passages of our poem, a designation of
the whole Danish kingdom.

ScÍf or Sce·f. See Note.

Scyld (gen. Scyldes, 19), a ScÍfing. 4. His son is BeÛwulf, 18, 53: his
grandson, Healfdene, 57; his great-grandson, HrÙg‚r, who had two brothers
and a sister, 59 ff.--Scyld dies, 26; his body, upon a decorated ship, is
given over to the sea (32 ff.), just as he, when a child, drifted alone,
upon a ship, to the land of the Danes, 43 ff. After him his descendants
bear his name.

Scyldingas (Scyldungas, 2053; gen. Scyldinga, 53, etc., Scyldunga, 2102,
2160; dat. Scyldingum, 274, etc.), a name which is extended also to the
Danes, who are ruled by the Scyldings, 53, etc. They are also called
¬r-Scyldingas, 464; Sige-Scyldingas, 598, 2005; fieÛd-Scyldingas, 1020;
Here-Scyldingas, 1109.

Scylfingas, a Swedish royal family, whose relationship seems to extend to
the Ge·tas, since WÓgl‚f, the son of Wihst‚n, who in another place, as a
kinsman of BeÛwulf, is called a WÊgmunding (2815), is also called leÛd
Scylfinga, 2604. The family connections are perhaps as follows:--

WÊgmund. .......
| |
------------------ ----------
Ecg˛eÛw. Weohst‚n. Ongen˛eÛw.
| | |
-------- -------- ---------------
BeÛwulf. WÓgl‚f. Onela. ‘hthere.
E·umund. E·dgils.

The Scylfings are also called Heao-Scilfingas, 63, G˚-Scylfingas, 2928.

Sige-mund (dat. -munde, 876, 885), the son of W‰ls, 878, 898. His (son and)
nephew is Fitela, 880, 882. His fight with the drake, 887 ff.

Swerting (gen. Swertinges, 1204), Hygel‚c's grandfather, and HrÍel's
father, 1204.

Sweon (gen. Sweona, 2473, 2947, 3002), also SweÛ-˛eÛd, 2923. The dynasty of
the Scylfings rules over them, 2382, 2925. Their realm is called SwiÛrice,
2384, 2496.

firyo, consort of the Angle king, Offa, 1932, 1950. Mother of EÛmÊr, 1961,
notorious on account of her cruel, unfeminine character, 1932 ff. She is
mentioned as the opposite to the mild, dignified Hygd, the queen of the

W‰ls (gen. W‰lses, 898), father of Sigemund, 878, 898.

WÊg-mundingas (gen. WÊgmundinga, 2608, 2815). The WÊgmundings are on one
side, Wihst‚n and his son WÓgl‚f; on the other side, Ecg˛eÛw and his son
BeÛwulf (2608, 2815). See under Scylfingas.

Wederas (gen. Wedera, 225, 423, 498, etc.), or Weder-ge·tas. See Ge·tas.

WÍland (gen. WÍlandes, 455), the maker of BeÛwulf's coat of mail, 455.

Wendlas (gen. Wendla, 348): their chief is Wulfg‚r. See Wulfg‚r. The
Wendlas are, according to Grundtvig and Bugge, the inhabitants of Vendill,
the most northern part of Jutland, between Limfjord and the sea.

Wealh-˛eÛw (613, Wealh-˛eÛ, 665, 1163), the consort of King HrÙg‚r, of the
stock of the Helmings, 621. Her sons are HrÍrÓc and HrÙmund, 1190; her
daughter, Fre·waru, 2023.

Weoh-st‚n (gen. Weox-st‚nes, 2603, Weoh-st‚nes, 2863, Wih-st‚nes, 2753,
2908, etc.), a WÊgmunding (2608), father of WÓgl‚f, 2603. In what
relationship to him ƒlfhere, mentioned 2605, stands, is not
clear.--Weohst‚n is the slayer of E·nmund (2612), in that, as it seems, he
takes revenge for his murdered king, HeardrÍd. See E·nmund.

WÓg-l‚f, Weohst‚n's son, 2603, etc., a WÊgmunding, 2815, and so also a
Scylfing, 2604; a kinsman of ƒlfhere, 2605. For his relationship to
BeÛwulf, see the genealogical table under Scylfingas.--He supports BeÛwulf
in his fight with the drake, 2605 ff., 2662 ff. The hero gives him, before
his death, his ring, his helm, and his coat of mail, 2810 ff.

Won-rÍd (gen. WonrÍdes, 2972), father of Wulf and Eofor, 2966, 2979.

Wulf (dat. Wulfe, 2994), one of the Ge·tas, WonrÍd's son. He fights in the
battle between the armies of Hygel‚c and Ongen˛eÛw with Ongen˛eÛw himself,
and gives him a wound (2966), whereupon Ongen˛eÛw, by a stroke of his
sword, disables him, 2975. Eofor avenges his brother's fall by dealing
Ongen˛eÛw a mortal blow, 2978 ff.

Wulf-g‚r, chief of the Wendlas, 348, lives at HrÙg‚r's court, and is his
"‚r and ombiht," 335.

Wylfingas (dat. Wylfingum, 461). Ecg˛eÛw has slain Heool‚f, a warrior of
this tribe, 460.

Yrmen-l‚f, younger brother of ƒschere, 1325.


Eotenas (gen. pl. Eotena, 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. Eotenum, 1146), the
subjects of Finn, the North Frisians: distinguished from eoton, _giant_.
Vid eoton. Cf. Bugge, Beit., xii. 37; Earle, Beowulf in Prose, pp. 146,

HrÍling, son of HrÍel, Hygel‚c: nom. sg. 1924; nom. pl., the subjects of
Hygel‚c, the Geats, 2961.

ScÍfing, the son (?) of ScÍf, or Sce·f, reputed father of Scyld, 4. See


B.: Bugge.
Br.: S.A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit.
C.: Cosijn.
E.: Earle, Deeds of Beowulf in Prose.
G.: Garnett, Translation of Beowulf
Gr.: Grein.
H.: Heyne.
Ha.: Hall, Translation of Beowulf.
H.-So.: Heyne-Socin, 5th ed.
Ho.: Holder.
K.: Kemble.
Kl.: Kluge.
M¸llenh.: M¸llenhoff.
R.: Rieger.
S.: Sievers.
Sw.: Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, 6th ed.
Ten Br.: Ten Brink.
Th.: Thorpe.
Z.: Zupitza.


Ang.: Anglia.
Beit.: Paul und Branne's Beitr‰ge.
Eng. Stud.: Englische Studien.
Germ.: Germania.
Haupts Zeitschr.: Haupts Zeitschrift, etc.
Mod. Lang. Notes: Modern Language Notes.
Tidskr.: Tidskrift for Philologi.
Zachers Zeitschr.: Zachers Zeitschrift, etc.


l. 1. hw‰t: for this interjectional formula opening a poem, cf. _Andreas,
Daniel, Juliana, Exodus, Fata Apost., Dream of the Rood_, and the
"Listenith lordinges!" of mediaeval lays.--E. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue, ed.
Morris, l. 853:

"Sin I shal beginne the game,
_What_, welcome be the cut, a Goddes name!"

we ... gefrunon is a variant on the usual epic formulÊ ic gefr‰gn (l. 74)
and mÓne gefrÊge (l. 777). _Exodus, Daniel, Phoenix_, etc., open with the
same formula.

l. 1. "G‚r was the javelin, armed with two of which the warrior went into
battle, and which he threw over the 'shield-wall.' It was barbed."--Br.
124. Cf. _Maldon_, l. 296; _Judith_, l. 224; _Gnom. Verses_, l. 22; etc.

l. 4. "Scild of the Sheaf, not 'Scyld the son of Scaf'; for it is too
inconsistent, even in myth, to give a patronymic to a foundling. According
to the original form of the story, Sce·f was the foundling; he had come
ashore with a sheaf of corn, and from that was named. This form of the
story is preserved in Ethelwerd and in William of Malmesbury. But here the
foundling is Scyld, and we must suppose he was picked up with the sheaf,
and hence his cognomen."--E., p. 105. Cf. the accounts of Romulus and
Remus, of Moses, of Cyrus, etc.

l. 6. egsian is also used in an active sense (not in the Gloss.), = _to

l. 15. S. suggests ˛‚ (_which_) for ˛‰t, as object of dreÛgan; and for
aldor-le·se, Gr. suggested aldor-ceare.--_Beit._ ix. 136.

S. translates: "For God had seen the dire need which the rulerless ones
before endured."

l. 18. "Beowulf (that is, Beaw of the Anglo-Saxon genealogists, not our
Beowulf, who was a Geat, not a Dane), 'the son of Scyld in Scedeland.' This
is our ancestral myth,--the story of the first culture-hero of the North;
'the patriarch,' as Rydberg calls him, 'of the royal families of Sweden,
Denmark, Angeln, Saxland, and England.'"--Br., p. 78. Cf. _A.-S. Chron._
an. 855.

H.-So. omits parenthetic marks, and reads (after S., _Beit._ ix. 135)
eaferan; cf. _Fata Apost._: lof wÓde sprang ˛eÛdnes ˛egna.

"The name _Beowulf_ means literally 'Bee-wolf,' wolf or ravager of
the bees, = bear. Cf. _beorn_, 'hero,' originally 'bear,' and
_beohata_, 'warrior,' in CÊdmon, literally 'bee-hater' or
'persecutor,' and hence identical in meaning with _beowulf_."--Sw.

Cf. "Arcite and Palamon,
That foughten _breme_, as it were bores two."
--Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 841, ed. Morris.

Cf. M. M¸ller, _Science of Lang._, Sec. Series, pp. 217, 218; and Hunt's
_Daniel_, 104.

l. 19. Cf. l. 1866, where Scedenig is used, = _Scania_, in Sweden(?).

l. 21. wine is pl.; cf. its apposition wil-gesÓas below. H.-So. compares
_HÈliand_, 1017, for language almost identical with ll. 20, 21.

l. 22. on ylde: cf.
"_In elde_ is bothe wisdom and usage."
--Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 1590, ed. Morris.

l. 26. Reflexive objects often pleonastically accompany verbs of motion;
cf. ll. 234, 301, 1964, etc.

l. 28. faro = _shore, strand, edge._ Add these to the meanings in the

l. 31. The object of ‚hte is probably geweald, to be supplied from wordum
weÛld of l. 30.--H.-So.

R., Kl., and B. all hold conflicting views of this passage: _Beit._ xii.
80, ix. 188; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 382, etc. Kl. suggests lÊndagas for

l. 32. "hringed-stefna is sometimes translated 'with curved prow,' but it
means, I think, that in the prow were fastened rings through which the
cables were passed that tied it to the shore."--Br., p. 26. Cf. ll. 1132,
1898. Hring-horni was the mythic ship of the Edda. See Toller-Bosworth for
three different views; and cf. wunden-stefna (l. 220), hring-naca (l.

ll. 34-52. Cf. the burial of Haki on a funeral-pyre ship, _Inglinga Saga;_
the burial of Balder, Sinfiˆtli, Arthur, etc.

l. 35. "And this [their joy in the sea] is all the plainer from the number
of names given to the ship-names which speak their pride and affection. It
is the ∆theling's vessel, the Floater, the Wave-swimmer, the Ring-sterned,
the Keel, the Well-bound wood, the Sea-wood, the Sea-ganger, the Sea-broad
ship, the Wide-bosomed, the Prow-curved, the Wood of the curved neck, the
Foam-throated floater that flew like a bird."--Br., p. 168.

l. 49. "We know from Scandinavian graves ... that the illustrious dead were
buried ... in ships, with their bows to sea-ward; that they were however
not sent to sea, but were either burnt in that position, or mounded over
with earth."--E. See Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, xix.

l. 51. (1) sele-rÊdende (K., S., C.); (2) sÍle-rÊdenne (H.); (3)
sele-rÊdende (H.-So.). Cf. l. 1347; and see Ha.

l. 51. E. compares with this canto Tennyson's "Passing of Arthur" and the
legendary burial-journey of St. James of Campostella, an. 800.

l. 53. The poem proper begins with this, "There was once upon a time," the
first 52 lines being a prelude. Eleven of the "fitts," or cantos, begin
with the monosyllable ˛‚, four with the verb gewÓtan, nine with the formula
HrÙg‚r (BeÛwulf, Unfer) maelode, twenty-four with monosyllables in
general (him, sw‚, sÍ, hw‰t, ˛‚, hÍht, w‰s, m‰g, cwÙm, strÊt).

l. 58. gamel. "The ... characteristics of the poetry are the use of archaic
forms and words, such as mec for mÈ, the possessive sÌn, gamol, dÛgor, sw·t
for eald, dÊg, blÛd, etc., after they had become obsolete in the prose
language, and the use of special compounds and phrases, such as hildenÊdre
(_war-adder_) for 'arrow,' gold-gifa (_gold-giver_) for 'king,' ...
goldwine gumena (_goldfriend of men, distributor of gold to men_) for
'king,'" etc.--Sw. Other poetic words are ides, ielde (_men_), etc.

l. 60. H.-So. reads rÊswa (referring to Heorog‚r alone), and places a point
(with the Ms.) after Heorog‚r instead of after rÊswa. Cf. l. 469; see B.,
_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 193.

l. 62. Elan here (OHG. _Elana, Ellena, Elena, Elina, Alyan_) is thought by
B. (_Tidskr_. viii. 43) to be a remnant of the masc. name Onela, and he
reads: [On-]elan ewÍn, Heaoscilfingas(=es) healsgebedda.

l. 68. For hÍ, omitted here, cf. l. 300. Pronouns are occasionally thus
omitted insubord. clauses.--Sw.

l. 70. ˛one, here = ˛onne, _than_, and micel = m‚re? The passage, by a
slight change, might be made to read, medo-‰rn micle m‚ gewyrcean,--˛one =
_by much larger than_,--in which ˛one (˛onne) would come in naturally.

l. 73. folc-scare. Add _folk-share_ to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.

l. 74. ic wide gefr‰gn: an epic formula very frequent in poetry, = _men
said._ Cf. _Judith_, ll. 7, 246; _Phoenix_, l. 1; and the parallel (noun)
formula, mÓne gefrÊge, ll. 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ll. 78-83. "The hall was a rectangular, high-roofed, wooden building, its
long sides facing north and south. The two gables, at either end, had
stag-horns on their points, curving forwards, and these, as well as the
ridge of the roof, were probably covered with shining metal, and glittered
bravely in the sun."--Br., p. 32.

l. 84. _Son-in-law and father-in-law;_ B., a so-called _dvanda_ compound.
Cf. l. 1164, where a similar compound means _uncle and nephew;_ and
WÓdsÓ's suhtorfÊdran, used of the same persons.

l. 88. "The word dre·m conveys the buzz and hum of social happiness, and
more particularly the sound of music and singing."--E. Cf. l. 3021; and
_Judith_, l. 350; _Wanderer_, l. 79, etc.

ll. 90-99. There is a suspicious similarity between this passage and the
lines attributed by Bede to CÊdmon:

N˚ wÍ sculan herian heofonrices Weard, etc.
--Sw., p. 47.

ll. 90-98 are probably the interpolation of a Christian scribe.

ll. 92-97. "The first of these Christian elements [in _BeÛwulf_] is the
sense of a fairer, softer world than that in which the Northern warriors
lived.... Another Christian passage (ll. 107, 1262) derives all the demons,
eotens, elves, and dreadful sea-beasts from the race of Cain. The folly of
sacrificing to the heathen gods is spoken of (l. 175).... The other point
is the belief in immortality (ll. 1202, 1761)."--Br. 71.

l. 100. Cf. l. 2211, where the third dragon of the poem is introduced in
the same words. Beowulf is the forerunner of that other national
dragon-slayer, St. George.

l. 100. onginnan in _BeÛwulf_ is treated like verbs of motion and modal
auxiliaries, and takes the object inf. without tÙ; cf. ll. 872, 1606, 1984,
244. Cf. _gan_ (= _did_) in Mid. Eng.: _gan_ espye (Chaucer, _Knightes
Tale_, l. 254, ed. Morris).

l. 101. B. and H.-So. read, feÛnd on healle; cf. l. 142.--_Beit._ xii.

ll. 101-151. "Grimm connects [Grendel] with the Anglo-Saxon grindel (_a
bolt_ or _bar_).... It carries with it the notion of the bolts and bars of
hell, and hence _a fiend._ ... Ettm¸ller was the first ... to connect the
name with grindan, _to grind, to crush to pieces, to utterly destroy._
Grendel is then _the tearer, the destroyer_."--Br., p. 83.

l. 102. g‰st = _stranger_ (Ha.); cf. ll. 1139, 1442, 2313, etc.

l. 103. See Ha., p. 4.

l. 106. "The perfect and pluperfect are often expressed, as in Modern
English, by hÊf and hÊfde with the past participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 433,
408, 940, 205 (p. p. inflected in the last two cases), etc.

l. 106. S. destroys period here, reads in Caines, etc., and puts ˛one ...
drihten in parenthesis.

l. 108. ˛‰s ˛e = _because_, especially after verbs of thanking (cf. ll.
228, 627, 1780, 2798); _according as_ (l. 1351).

l. 108. The def. article is omitted with Drihten (_Lord_) and Deofol
(_devil_; cf. l. 2089), as it is, generally, sparingly employed in poetry;
cf. tÙ sÊ (l. 318), ofer sÊ (l. 2381), on lande (l. 2311), tÙ r‰ste (l.
1238), on wicge (l. 286), etc., etc.

l. 119. weras (S., H.-So.); wera (K., Th.).--_Beit._ ix. 137.

l. 120. unfÊlo = _uncanny_ (R.).

l. 131. E. translates, _majestic rage;_ adopting Gr.'s view that swy is =
Icel. svii, _a burn_ or _burning_. Cf. l. 737.

l. 142. B. supposes heal-˛egnes to be corrupted from hel˛egnes; cf. l.
101.--_Beit._ xii. 80. See G˚l‚c, l. 1042.

l. 144. See Ha., p. 6, for S.'s rearrangement.

l. 146. S. destroys period after sÍlest, puts w‰s ... micel in parenthesis,
and inserts a colon after tÓd.

l. 149. B. reads s‚rcwidum for syan.

l. 154. B. takes sibbe for accus. obj. of wolde, and places a comma after
Deniga.--_Beit._ xii. 82.

l. 159. R. suggests ac se for atol.

l. 168. H.-So. plausibly conjectures this parenthesis to be a late
insertion, as, at ll. 180-181, the Danes also are said to be heathen.
Another commentator considers the throne under a "spell of enchantment,"
and therefore it could not be touched.

l. 169. ne ... wisse: _nor had he desire to do so_ (W.). See Ha., p. 7, for
other suggestions.

l. 169. myne wisse occurs in _Wanderer_, l. 27.

l. 174. The gerundial inf. with tÙ expresses purpose, defines a noun or
adjective, or, with the verb be, expresses duty or necessity passively; cf.
ll. 257, 473, 1004, 1420, 1806, etc. Cf. tÙ + inf. at ll. 316, 2557.

ll. 175-188. E. regards this passage as dating the time and place of the
poem relatively to the times of heathenism. Cf. the opening lines, _In days
of yore_, etc., as if the story, even then, were very old.

l. 177. g‚st-bona is regarded by Ettm¸ller and G. Stephens (_Thunor_, p.
54) as an epithet of Thor (= _giant-killer_), a kenning for Thunor or Thor,
meaning both _man_ and _monster_.--E.

l. 189. Cf. l. 1993, where similar language is used. H.-So. takes both
mÙd-ceare and mÊl-ceare as accus., others as instr.

ll. 190, 1994. se·: for this use of seÛan cf. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._, ed.
Miller, p. 128, where p. p. soden is thus used.

l. 194. fram h‚m = _in his home_ (S., H.-So.); but fram h‚m may be for fram
him (_from them_, i.e. _his people_, or _from Hrothgar's_). Cf. Ha., p. 8.

l. 197. Cf. ll. 791, 807, for this fixed phrase.

l. 200. See _Andreas, Elene_, and _Juliana_ for swan-r‚d (_= sea_). "The
swan is said to breed wild now no further away than the North of Sweden."
--E. Cf. ganotes b‰, l. 1862.

l. 203. Concessive clauses with ˛e·h, ˛e·h ˛e, ˛e·h ... eal, vary with
subj. and ind., according as fact or contingency is dominant in the mind;
cf. ll. 526, 1168, 2032, etc. (subj.), 1103, 1614 (ind.). Cf. gif, nefne.

l. 204. hÊl, an OE. word found in W¸lker's Glossaries in various forms, =
_augury, omen, divination_, etc. Cf. hÊlsere, _augur_; hÊl, _omen;_
hÊlsung, _augurium_, hÊlsian, etc. Cf. Tac., _Germania_, 10.

l. 207. C. adds "= _impetrare_" to the other meanings of findan given in
the Gloss.

l. 217. Cf. l. 1910; and _Andreas_, l. 993.--E. E. compares Byron's

"And fast and falcon-like the vessel flew,"
--_Corsair_, i.17.

and Scott's

"Merrily, merrily bounds the bark."
--_Lord of the Isles_, iv. 7.

l. 218. Cf.
"The fomy stedes on the golden brydel
--Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 1648, ed. Morris.

l. 219. Does ‚n-tÓd mean _hour_ (Th.), or _corresponding hour_ = ‚nd-tÓd
(H.-So.), or _in due time_ (E.), or _after a time_, when Ù˛res, etc., would
be adv. gen.? See C., _Beit._ viii. 568.

l. 224. eoletes may = (1) _voyage_; (2) _toil, labor_; (3) _hurried
journey;_ but _sea_ or _fjord_ appears preferable.

ll. 229-257. "The scenery ... is laid on the coast of the North Sea and the
Kattegat, the first act of the poem among the Danes in Seeland, the second
among the Geats in South Sweden."--Br., p. 15.

l. 239. "A shoal of simple terms express in _BeÛwulf_ the earliest
sea-thoughts of the English.... The simplest term is SÊ.... To this they
added WÊter, Flod, Stream, Lagu, Mere, Holm, Grund, Heathu, Sund, Brim,
Garsecg, Eagor, Geofon, Fifel, Hron-rad, Swan-rad, Segl-rad,
Ganotes-bÊ."--Br., p. 163-166.

l. 239. "The infinitive is often used in poetry after a verb of motion
where we should use the present participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 711, 721, 1163
1803, 268, etc. Cf. German _spazieren fahren reiten_, etc., and similar
constructions in French, etc.

l. 240, W. reads hringed-stefnan for helmas bÊron. B. inserts (?) after
holmas and begins a new line at the middle of the verse. S. omits B.'s "on
the wall."

l. 245. Double and triple negatives strengthen each other and do not
produce an affirmative in A.-S. or M. E. The neg. is often prefixed to
several emphatic words in the sentence, and readily contracts with vowels,
and h or w; cf. ll. 863, 182, 2125, 1509, 575, 583, 3016, etc.

l. 249. seld-guma = _man-at-arms in another's house_ (Wood); = _low-ranking
fellow_ (Ha.); stubenhocker, _stay-at-home_ (Gr.), Scott's "carpet knight,"
_Marmion_, i. 5.

l. 250. n‰fne (nefne, nemne) usually takes the subj., = _unless_; cf. ll.
1057, 3055, 1553. For ind., = _except_, see l. 1354. Cf. b˚tan, gif, ˛e·h.

l. 250. For a remarkable account of armor and weapons in _BeÛwulf_, see S.
A. Brooke, _Hist. of Early Eng. Lit_. For general "Old Teutonic Life in
BeÛwulf," see J. A. Harrison, _Overland Monthly_.

l. 252. Êr as a conj. generally has subj., as here; cf. ll. 264, 677, 2819,
732. For ind., cf. l. 2020.

l. 253. le·s = _loose_, _roving_. Ettm¸ller corrected to le·se.

l. 256. This proverb (Ùfest, etc.) occurs in _Exod_. (Hunt), l. 293.

l. 258. An "elder" may be a very young man; hence yldesta, = _eminent_, may
be used of Beowulf. Cf. _Laws of ∆lfred_, C. 17: N‚ ˛‰t Êlc eald s˝, ac ˛‰t
he eald s˝ on wÓsdÙme.

l. 273. Verbs of hearing and seeing are often followed by acc. with inf.;
cf. ll. 229, 1024, 729, 1517, etc. Cf. German construction with _sehen,
horen_, etc., French construction with _voir, entendre_, etc., and the
classical constructions.

l. 275. dÊd-hata = _instigator_. Kl. reads dÊd-hwata.

l. 280. ed-wendan, n. (B.; cf. 1775), = edwenden, limited by bisigu. So ten
Br. = _Tidskr_. viii. 291.

l. 287. "Each is denoted ... also by the strengthened forms 'ÊghwÊer
('Êger), ÈghwÊer, etc. This prefixed 'Ê, Ûe corresponds to the Goth,
_aiw_, OHG. _eo_, _io_, and is umlauted from ·, Û by the i of the gi which
originally followed."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 190.

l. 292. "All through the middle ages suits of armour are called

l. 303. "An English warrior went into battle with a boar-crested helmet,
and a round linden shield, with a byrnie of ringmail ... with two javelins
or a single ashen spear some eight or ten feet long, with a long two-edged
sword naked or held in an ornamental scabbard.... In his belt was a short,
heavy, one-edged sword, or rather a long knife, called the seax ... used
for close quarters."--Br., p. 121.

l. 303. For other references to the boar-crest, cf. ll. 1112, 1287, 1454;
Grimm, _Myth._ 195; Tacitus, _Germania_, 45. "It was the symbol of their
[the Baltic ∆stii's] goddess, and they had great faith in it as a
preservative from hard knocks."--E. See the print in the illus. ed. of
Green's _Short History_, Harper & Bros.

l. 303. "See Kemble, _Saxons in England_, chapter on heathendom, and
Grimm's _Teutonic Mythology_, chapter on Freyr, for the connection these
and other writers establish between the Boar-sign and the golden boar which
Freyr rode, and his worship."--Br., p. 128. Cf. _Elene_, l. 50.

l. 304. Gering proposes hleÛr-bergan = _cheek-protectors_; cf. _Beit._ xii.
26. "A bronze disk found at ÷land in Sweden represents two warriors in
helmets with boars as their crests, and cheek-guards under; these are the
hleÛr-bergan."--E. Cf. hauberk, with its diminutive habergeon, < A.-S.
heals, _neck_ + beorgan, _to cover_ or _protect_; and harbor, < A.-S. here,
_army_ + beorgan, id.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ xii. 123. Cf. cinberge, Hunt's
_Exod._ l. 175.

l. 305. For ferh wearde and g˚mÙde grummon, B. and ten Br. read
ferh-wearde (l. 305) and g˚mÙdgum men (l. 306), = _the boar-images ...
guarded the lives of the warlike men_.

l. 311. leÛma: cf. Chaucer, _Nonne Preestes Tale_, l. 110, ed. Morris:

"To dremen in here dremes
Of armes, and of fyr with rede _lemes_."

l. 318. On the double gender of sÊ, cf. Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 147; and
note the omitted article at ll. 2381, 318, 544, with the peculiar tmesis of
_between_ at ll. 859, 1298, 1686, 1957. So _CÊdmon_, l. 163 (Thorpe),
_Exod._ l. 562 (Hunt), etc.

l. 320. Cf. l. 924; and _Andreas_, l. 987, where almost the same words
occur. "Here we have manifestly before our eye one of those ancient
causeways, which are among the oldest visible institutions of
civilization." --E.

l. 322. S. inserts comma after scÓr, and makes hring-Óren (= _ring-mail_)
parallel with g˚-byrne.

l. 325. Cf. l. 397. "The deposit of weapons outside before entering a house
was the rule at all periods.... In provincial Swedish almost everywhere a
church porch is called vÂkenhus,... i.e. _weapon-house_, because the
worshippers deposited their arms there before they entered the house."--E.,
after G. Stephens.

l. 333. Cf. Dryden's "mingled metal _damask'd_ o'er with gold."--E.

l. 336. "Êl-, el-, kindred with Goth. _aljis_, other, e.g. in Êl˛Èodig,
el˛Èodig, foreign."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 47.

l. 336. Cf. l. 673 for the functions of an ombiht-˛egn.

l. 343. Cf. l. 1714 for the same beÛd-gene·tas,--"the predecessor title to
that of the Knights of the Table Round."--E. Cf. _Andreas_ (K.), l. 2177.

l. 344. The future is sometimes expressed by willan + inf., generally with
some idea of volition involved; cf. ll. 351, 427, etc. Cf. the use of
willan as principal vb. (with omitted inf.) at ll. 318, 1372, 543, 1056;
and sculan, ll. 1784, 2817.

l. 353. sÓ here, and at l. 501, probably means _arrival_. E. translates
the former by _visit_, the latter by _adventure_.

l. 357. unh‚r = _hairless, bald_ (Gr., etc.).

l. 358. eode is only one of four or five preterits of g‚n (gongan, gangan,
gengan), viz. geÛng (giÛng: ll. 926, 2410, etc.), gang (l. 1296, etc.),
gengde (ll. 1402, 1413). Sievers, p. 217, apparently remarks that eode is
"probably used only in prose." (?!). Cf. geng, _Gen._ ll. 626, 834; _Exod._
(Hunt) l. 102.

l. 367. The MS. and H.-So. read with Gr. and B. gl‰dman HrÙg‚r, abandoning
Thorkelin's gl‰dnian. There is a glass. hilaris gl‰dman.--_Beit._ xii. 84;
same as gl‰d.

l. 369. dugan is a "preterit-present" verb, with new wk. preterit, like
sculan, durran, magan, etc. For various inflections, see ll. 573, 590,
1822, 526. Cf. _do_ in "that will _do_"; _doughty_, etc.

l. 372. Cf. l. 535 for a similar use; and l. 1220. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._,
ed. Miller, uses the same expression several times. "Here, and in all other
places where cniht occurs in this poem, it seems to carry that technical
sense which it bore in the military hierarchy [of a noble youth placed out
and learning the elements of the art of war in the service of a qualified
warrior, to whom he is, in a military sense, a servant], before it bloomed
out in the full sense of _knight_."--E.

l. 373. E. remarks of the hyphened eald-f‰der, "hyphens are risky toys to
play with in fixing texts of pre-hyphenial antiquity"; eald-f‰der could
only = _grandfather_. eald here can only mean _honored_, and the hyphen is
unnecessary. Cf. "old fellow," "my old man," etc.; and Ger. _alt-vater_.

l. 378. Th. and B. propose Ge·tum, as presents from the Danish to the
Geatish king.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 380. h‰bbe. The subj. is used in indirect narration and question, wish
and command, purpose, result, and hypothetical comparison with swelce = _as

ll. 386, 387. Ten Br. emends to read: "Hurry, bid the kinsman-throng go
into the hall together."

l. 387. sibbe-gedriht, for Beowulf's friends, occurs also at l. 730. It is
subject-acc. to seÛn. Cf. ll. 347, 365, and Hunt's _Exod_. l. 214.

l. 404. "Here, as in the later Icelandic halls, Beowulf saw Hrothgar
enthroned on a high seat at the east end of the hall. The seat is sacred.
It has a supernatural quality. Grendel, the fiend, cannot approach
it."--Br., p. 34. Cf. l. 168.

l. 405. "At Benty Grange, in Derbyshire, an Anglo-Saxon barrow, opened in
1848, contained a coat of mail. 'The iron chain work consists of a large
number of links of two kinds attached to each other by small rings half an
inch in diameter; one kind flat and lozenge-shaped ... the others all of
one kind, but of different lengths.'"--Br., p. 126.

l. 407. Wes ... h‚l: this ancient Teutonic greeting afterwards grew into
wassail. Cf. Skeat's _Luke_, i. 28; _Andreas_ (K.), 1827; Layamon, l.
14309, etc.

l. 414. "The distinction between wesan and weoran [in passive relations]
is not very clearly defined, but wesan appears to indicate a state, weoran
generally an action."--Sw. Cf. Mod. German _werden_ and _sein_ in similar

l. 414. Gr. translates h‚dor by _receptaculum_; cf. Gering, _Zachers
Zeitschr._ xii. 124. Toller-Bosw. ignores Gr.'s suggestion.

ll. 420, 421. B. reads: ˛Êr ic (_on_) fÓfelgeban (= _ocean_) ˝de eotena
cyn. Ten Br. reads: ˛Êr ic fÓfelgeban ˝de, eotena h‚m. Ha. suggests
fÓfelgeband = _monster-band_, without further changes.

l. 420. R. reads ˛Êra = _of them_, for ˛Êr.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 399;
_Beit._ xii. 367.

l. 420. "niht has a gen., nihtes, used for the most part only adverbially,
and almost certainly to be regarded as masculine."--Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
p. 158.

l. 425. Cf. also ll. 435, 635, 2345, for other examples of Beowulf's
determination to fight single-handed.

l. 441. ˛e hine = _whom_, as at l. 1292, etc. The indeclinable ˛e is often
thus combined with personal pronouns, = relative, and is sometimes
separated from them by a considerable interval.--Sw.

l. 443. The MS. has Geotena. B. and Fahlbeck, says H.-So., do not consider
the Ge·tas, but the Jutes, as the inhabitants of Swedish West-Gothland.
Alfred translates Juti by Ge·tas, but _Jutland_ by _Gotland_. In the laws
they are called Guti.--_Beit._ xii. 1, etc.

l. 444. B., Gr., and Ha. make unforhte an adv. = _fearlessly_, modifying
etan. Kl. reads anforhte = _timid_.

l. 446. Cf. l. 2910. Th. translates: _thou wilt not need my head to hide_
(i.e. _bury_). Simrock supposes a dead-watch or lyke-wake to be meant.
Wood, _thou wilt not have to bury so much as my head!_ H.-So. supposes
he·fod-weard, _a guard of honor_, such as sovereigns or presumptive rulers
had, to be meant by hafalan h˝dan; hence, _you need not give me any guard_,
etc. Cf. Schmid, _Gesetze der A._, 370-372.

l. 447. S. places a colon after nime.

l. 451. H.-So., Ha., and B. (_Beit._ xii. 87) agree essentially in
translating feorme, _food_. R. translates _consumption of my corpse.
Maintenance, support_, seems preferable to either.

l. 452. Rˆnning (after Grimm) personifies Hild.--_Beovulfs Kvadet_, l. 59.
Hildr is the name of one of the Scandinavian Walkyries, or battle-maidens,
who transport the spirits of the slain to Walhalla. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l.
18, etc.

l. 455. "The war-smiths, especially as forgers of the sword, were garmented
with legend, and made into divine personages. Of these Weland is the type,
husband of a swan maiden, and afterwards almost a god."-- Br., p. 120. Cf.
A. J. C. Hare's account of "Wayland Smith's sword with which Henry II. was
knighted," and which hung in Westminster Abbey to a late date.--_Walks in
London_, ii. 228.

l. 455. This is the Êlces mannes wyrd of Boethius (Sw., p. 44) and the wyrd
bi swÓost of Gnomic Verses, 5. There are about a dozen references to it
in _BeÛwulf_.

l. 455. E. compares the fatalism of this concluding hemistich with the
Christian tone of l. 685 _seq._

ll. 457, 458. B. reads wÊre-ryhtum ( = _from the obligations of

l. 480. Cf. l. 1231, where the same sense, "flown with wine," occurs.

l. 488. "The dugu, the mature and ripe warriors, the aristocracy of the
nation, are the support of the throne."--E. The M. E. form of the word,
_douth_, occurs often. Associated with geogo, ll. 160 and 622.

l. 489. Kl. omits comma after meoto and reads (with B.) sige-hrÍ-secgum, =
_disclose thy thought to the victor-heroes_. Others, as Kˆrner, convert
meoto into an imperative and divide on sÊl = _think upon happiness_. But
cf. onband beadu-r˚ne, l. 501. B. supposes onsÊl meoto =_speak courteous
words_. _Tidskr_. viii. 292; _Haupts Zeitschr._ xi. 411; _Eng. Stud_. ii.

l. 489. Cf. the invitation at l. 1783.

l. 494. Cf. Grimm's _Andreas_, l. 1097, for deal, =_proud, elated,
exulting; Phoenix_ (Bright), l. 266.

l. 499. MS. has Hunfer, but the alliteration requires €nfer, as at ll.
499, 1166, 1489; and cf. ll. 1542, 2095, 2930. See _List of Names_.

l. 501. sÓ = _arrival_ (?); cf. l. 353.

l. 504. ˛on m‚ = _the more_ (?), may be added to the references under ˛on.

l. 506. E. compares the taunt of Eliab to David, I Sam. xvii. 28.

l. 509. dol-gilp = _idle boasting_. The second definition in the Gloss. is

l. 513. "Eagor-stream might possibly be translated the stream of Eagor, the
awful terror-striking stormy sea in which the terrible [Scandinavian] giant
dwelt, and through which he acted."--Br., p. 164. He remarks, "The English
term _eagre_ still survives in provincial dialect for the tide-wave or bore
on rivers. Dryden uses it in his _Threnod. Angust._ 'But like an _eagre_
rode in triumph o'er the tide.' Yet we must be cautious," etc. Cf. Fox's
_Boethius_, ll. 20, 236; Thorpe's _CÊdmon_, 69, etc.

l. 524. Kr¸ger and B. read B‚nst‚nes.--_Beit._ ix. 573.

l. 525. R. reads wyrsan (= wyrses: cf. Mod. Gr. _guten Muthes_) ge˛inges;
but H.-So. shows that the MS. wyrsan ... ˛ingea = wyrsena ˛inga, _can
stand_; cf. gen. pl. banan, _Christ_, l. 66, etc.

l. 534. Insert, under eard-lufa (in Gloss.), earfo, st. n., _trouble,
difficulty, struggle_; acc. pl. earfeo, 534.

l. 545 _seq._ "Five nights Beowulf and Breca kept together, not swimming,
but sailing in open boats (to swim the seas is to sail the seas), then
storm drove them asunder ... Breca is afterwards chief of the Brondings, a
tribe mentioned in _WÓdsÌth_. The story seems legendary, not
mythical."--Br., pp. 60, 61.

ll. 574-578. B. suggests sw‚ ˛Êr for hw‰ere, = _so there it befell me_.
But the word at l. 574 seems = _however_, and at l. 578 = _yet_; cf. l.
891; see S.; _Beit._ ix. 138; _Tidskr_. viii. 48; _Zacher_, iii. 387, etc.

l. 586. Gr. and Grundt. read f‚gum sweordum (no ic ˛‰s fela gylpe!),
supplying fela and blending the broken half-lines into one. Ho. and Kl.
supply geflites.

l. 599. E. translates n˝d-b‚de by _blackmail_; adding "nÍd b‚d, _toll_; nÍd
b‚dere, _tolltaker_."--Land Charters, Gloss, v.

l. 601. MS. has ond = _and_ in three places only (601, 1149, 2041);
elsewhere it uses the symbol 7 = _and_.

l. 612. _seq._ Cf. the drinking ceremony at l. 1025. "The royal lady offers
the cup to Beowulf, not in his turn where he sate among the rest, but after
it has gone the round; her approach to Beowulf is an act apart."--E.

l. 620. "The [loving] cup which went the round of the company and was
tasted by all," like the Oriel and other college anniversary cups.--E.

l. 622. Cf. ll. 160, 1191, for the respective places of young and old.

l. 623. Cf. the circlet of gold worn by Wealh˛eÛw at l. 1164.

l. 631. gyddode. Cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ l. 237 (ed. Morris):

"Of _yeddynges_ he bar utterly the prys."

Cf. _giddy_.

l. 648. Kl. suggests a period after ge˛inged, especially as B. (_Tidskr_.
viii. 57) has shown that o˛˛e is sometimes = ond. Th. supplies ne.

l. 650. o˛˛e here and at ll. 2476, 3007, probably = _and_.

l. 651. Cf. 704, where sceadu-genga (the _night-ganger_ of _Leechdoms_, ii.
344) is applied to the demon.--E.

l. 659. Cf. l. 2431 for same formula, "to have and to hold" of the Marriage

l. 681. B. considers ˛e·h ... eal a precursor of Mod. Eng. _although_.

l. 682. gÙdra = _advantages in battle_ (Gr.), _battle-skill_ (Ha.), _skill
in war_ (H.-So.). Might not n‚t be changed to nah = ne + ‚h (cf. l. 2253),
thus justifying the translation _ability_ (?) --_he has not the ability
to_, etc.

l. 695. Kl. reads hiera.--_Beit._ ix. 189. B. omits hÓe as occurring in the
previous hemistich.--_Beit._ xii. 89.

l. 698. "Here Destiny is a web of cloth."--E., who compares the Greek
Clotho, "spinster of fate." Women are also called "weavers of peace," as l.
1943. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l. 88; _WÓdsÓ_, l. 6, etc.

l. 711. B. translates ˛‚ by _when_ and connects with the preceding
sentences, thus rejecting the ordinary canto-division at l. 711. He objects
to the use of com as principal vb. at ll. 703, 711, and 721. (_Beit_, xii.)

l. 711. "Perhaps the Gnomic verse which tells of Thyrs, the giant, is
written with Grendel in the writer's mind,--˛yrs sceal on fenne gewunian
‚na inuan lande, _the giant shall dwell in the fen, alone in the land_
(Sweet's Read., p. 187)."--Br. p. 36.

l. 717. Dietrich, in _Haupt._ xi. 419, quotes from ∆lfric, _Hom._ ii. 498:
hÍ beworhte ˛‚ bigelsas mid gyldenum lÊfrum, _he covered the arches with
gold-leaf_,--a Roman custom derived from Carthage. Cf. Mod. Eng. _oriel_ =
_aureolum_, a gilded room.--E. (quoting Skeat). Cf. ll. 2257, 1097, 2247,
2103, 2702, 2283, 333, 1751, for various uses of gold-sheets.

l. 720. B. and ten Br. suggest _hell-thane_ (Grendel) for heal-˛egnas, and
make h‰le refer to Beowulf. Cf. l. 142.

l. 723. Z. reads [ge]hr‚n.

l. 727. For this use of standan, cf. ll. 2314, 2770; and Vergil, _Ecl._ ii. 26:

"Cum placidum ventis _staret_ mare."

l. 757. gedr‰g. _Tumult_ is one of the meanings of this word. Here, appar.
= _occupation, lair_.

l. 759. R. reads mÙdega for gÙda, "because the attribute cannot be
separated from the word modified unless the two alliterate."

l. 762. Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1537, for a similar use of ˚t = _off_.--E.

l. 769. The foreign words in _BeÛwulf_ (as ceaster-here) are not numerous;
others are (aside from proper names like _Cain, Abel_, etc.) deÛfol
(diabolus), candel (l. 1573), ancor (l. 303), scrÓfan (for- ge-), segn (l.
47), gigant (l. 113), mÓl- (l. 1363), strÊt (l. 320), ombeht (l. 287), gim
(l. 2073), etc.

l. 770. MS. reads cerwen, a word conceived by B. and others to be part of a
fem. compd.: -scerwen like -wenden in ed-wenden, -rÊden, etc. (cf.
meodu-scerpen in _Andreas_, l. 1528); emended to -scerwen, _a great scare
under the figure of a mishap at a drinking-bout_; one might compare
bescerwan, _to deprive_, from bescyrian (Grein, i. 93), hence ealu-seerwen
would = _a sudden taking away, deprivation, of the beer_.--H.-So., p. 93.
See B., _Tidskr_. viii. 292.

l. 771. Ten Br. reads rÍe, rÍnhearde, = _raging, exceeding bold_.

l. 792. Instrumental adverbial phrases like Ênige ˛inga, nÊnige ˛inga (_not
at all_), h˚ru ˛inga (_especially_) are not infrequent. See Cook's Sievers'
Gram., p. 178; March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 182.

l. 811. myre. E. translates _in wanton mood_. Toller-Bosw. does not
recognize _sorrow_ as one of the meanings of this word.

ll. 850, 851. S. reads deÛp for deÛg and erases semicolon after weÛl, =
_the death-stained deep welled with sword-gore_; cf. l. 1424. B. reads
de·-fÊges deÛp, etc., = _the deep welled with the doomed one's
gore_.--_Beit._ xii. 89.

l. 857. The meaning of blaneum is partly explained by fealwe mearas below,
l. 866. Cf. Layamon's "and leop on his _blancke" = steed_, l. 23900; Kent's
_Elene_, l. 1185.

l. 859. Kˆrner, _Eng. Stud_. i. 482, regards the oft-recurring be sÊm
tweÛnum as a mere formula = _on earth_; cf. ll. 1298, 1686. tweÛne is part
of the separable prep. _between_; see be-. Cf. Baskerville's _Andreas_, l.

l. 865. Cf. _Voyage of ‘hthere and Wulfst‚n_ for an account of funeral
horse-racing, Sweet's Read., p. 22.

l. 868. See Ha., p. 31, for a variant translation.

l. 871 _seq._ R. considers this a technical description of improvised
alliterative verse, suggested by and wrought out on the spur of the moment.

l. 872. R. and B. propose secg[an], = _rehearse_, for secg, which suits the
verbs in the next two lines.

ll. 878-98. "It pleases me to think that it is in English literature we
possess the first sketch of that mighty saga [the Volsunga Saga = W‰lsinges
gewin] which has for so many centuries engaged all the arts, and at last in
the hands of Wagner the art of music."--Br., p. 63. Cf. _Nibelung. Lied_,
l. 739.

l. 894. Intransitive verbs, as g‚n, weoran, sometimes take habban, "to
indicate independent action."--Sw. Cf. hafa ... geworden, l. 2027.

l. 895. "br˚can (_enjoy_) always has the genitive."--Sw.; cf. l. 895; acc.,
gen., instr., dat., according to March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 151.

l. 898. Scherer proposes h‚te, = _from heat_, instr. of h‚t, _heat_; cf. l.

l. 901. hÍ ˛‰s ‚ron ˛‚h = _he throve in honor_ (B.). Ten Br. inserts comma
after ˛‚h, making sian introduce a depend. clause.--_Beit._ viii. 568.
Cf. weor-myndum ˛‚h, l. 8; ll. 1155, 1243.--H.-So.

l. 902. HeremÙdes is considered by Heinzel to be a mere epithet = _the
valiant_; which would refer the whole passage to Sigmund (Sigfrid), the
eotenas, l. 903, being the Nibelungen. This, says H.-So., gets rid of the
contradiction between the good "HeremÙd" here and the bad one, l. 1710
_seq._--B. however holds fast to HeremÙd.--_Beit._ xii. 41. on feÛnda
geweald, l. 904,--_into the hands of devils_, says B.; cf. ll. 809, 1721,
2267; _Christ_, l. 1416; _Andreas_, l. 1621; for hine fyren onwÙd, cf.
_Gen._ l. 2579; Hunt's _Dan._ 17: hÓe wlenco anwÙd.

l. 902 _seq._ "HeremÙd's shame is contrasted with the glory of Sigemund,
and with the prudence, patience, generosity, and gentleness of Beowulf as a
chieftain."--Br., p. 66.

l. 906. MS. has lemede. Toller-Bosw. corrects to lemedon.

l. 917. Cf. Hunt's _Exod._, l. 170, for similar language.

l. 925. hÙs, G. hansa, _company_, "the word from which the mercantile
association of the 'Hanseatic' towns took their designation."--E.

l. 927. on sta˛ole = _on the floor_ (B., Rask, ten Br.).--_Beit._ xii. 90.

l. 927. May not ste·pne here = _bright_, from its being immediately
followed by golde f‚hne? Cf. Chaucer's "his eyen _stepe_," _Prol._ l. 201
(ed. Morris); Cockayne's _Ste. Marherete_, pp. 9, 108; _St. Kath._, l.

l. 931. grynna may be for gyrnna (= _sorrows_), gen. plu. of gyrn, as
suggested by one commentator.

l. 937. B. (_Beit._ xii. 90) makes gehwylcne object of wÓd-scofen (h‰fde).
Gr. makes we· nom. absolute.

l. 940. scuccum: cf. G. scheuche, scheusal; Prov. Eng. _old-shock_; perhaps
the pop. interjection _O shucks!_ (!)

l. 959. H. explains we as a "plur. of majesty," which BeÛwulf throws off at
l. 964.

l. 963. feÛnd ˛one fr‰tgan (B. _Beit._ xii. 90).

l. 976. synnum. "Most abstract words in the poetry have a very wide range
of meanings, diverging widely from the prose usage, synn, for instance,
means simply _injury, mischief, hatred_, and the prose meaning _sin_ is
only a secondary one; hata in poetry is not only _hater_, but _persecutor,
enemy_, just as nÓ is both _hatred_ and _violence, strength_; heard is
_sharp_ as well as _hard_."--Sw.

l. 986. S. places w‰s at end of l. 985 and reads stÓra n‰gla, omitting
gehwylc and the commas after that and after sce·wedon. _Beit._ ix. 138;
stÍdra (H.-So.); hand-sporu (H.-So.) at l. 987.

l. 986. Miller (_Anglia_, xii. 3) corrects to Êghwylene, in apposition to

l. 987. hand-sporu. See _Anglia_, vii. 176, for a discussion of the
intrusion of u into the nom. of n-stems.

l. 988. Cf. ll. 2121, 2414, for similar use of unheÛru = ungeheuer.

l. 992. B. suggests he·timbred for h‚ten, and gefr‰twon for -od; Kl.,
hroden (_Beit._ ix. 189).

l. 995, 996. Gold-embroidered tapestries seem to be meant by web =

l. 997. After ˛‚ra ˛e = _of those that_, the depend, vb. often takes sg.
for pl.; cf. ll. 844, 1462, 2384, 2736.--Sw.; Dietrich.

l. 998. "Metathesis of l takes place in seld for setl, bold for botl,"
etc.--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 96. Cf. Eng. proper names, _Bootle,
Battle_field, etc.--Skeat, _Principles_, i. 250.

l. 1000. heorras: cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ (ed. Morris) l. 550:

"Ther was no dore that he nolde heve of _harre_."

ll. 1005-1007. See _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 391, and _Beit._ xii. 368, for
R.'s and B.'s views of this difficult passage.

l. 1009. Cf. l. 1612 for sÊl and mÊl, surviving still in E. Anglia in "mind
your _seals and meals_," = _times and occasions_, i.e. have your wits about

ll. 1012, 1013. Cf. ll. 753, 754 for two similar comparatives used in

l. 1014. Cf. l. 327 for similar language.

ll. 1015, 1016. H.-So. puts these two lines in parentheses (fylle ...
˛‚ra). Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 91.

l. 1024. One of the many famous swords spoken of in the poem. See Hrunting,
ll. 1458, 1660; H˚nl‚fing, l. 1144, etc. Cf. Excalibur, Roland's sword, the
Nibelung Balmung, etc.

l. 1034. sc˚r-heard. For an ingenious explanation of this disputed word see
Professor Pearce's article in _Mod. Lang. Notes_, Nov. 1, 1892, and ensuing

l. 1039. eoderas is of doubtful meaning. H. and Toller-Bosw. regard the
word here = _enclosure, palings of the court_. Cf. _CÊdmon_, ll. 2439,
2481. The passage throws interesting light on horses and their trappings

l. 1043. Grundt. emends wÓg to wicg, = _charger_; and E. quotes Tacitus,
_Germania_, 7.

l. 1044. "Power over each and both"; cf. "all and some," "one and all."

For Ingwin, see _List of Names_.

l. 1065. Gr. contends that fore here = de, _concerning, about_ (Ebert's
_Jahrb._, 1862, p. 269).

l. 1069. H.-So. supplies fram after eaferum, to govern it, = _concerning_
(?). Cf. _Fight at Finnsburg_, Appendix.

l. 1070. For the numerous names of the Danes, "bright-" "spear-" "east-"
"west-" "ring-" Danes, see these words.

l. 1073. Eotenas = _Finn's people, the Frisians_; cf. ll. 1089, 1142, 1146,
etc., and _Beit._ xii. 37. Why they are so called is not known.

l. 1084. R. proposes wiht Hengeste wi gefeohtan (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii.
394). Kl., wi H. wiht gefeohtan.

ll. 1085 and 1099. we·-l‚f occurs in Wulfstan, _Hom._ 133, ed. Napier.--E.
Cf. daroa l‚f, _Brunanb._, l. 54; ‚des l‚fe, _Phoenix_, 272 (Bright), etc.

l. 1098. elne unflitme = _so dass der eid (der inhalt des eides) nicht
streitig war_.--B., _Beit._ iii. 30. But cf. 1130, where Hengist and Finn
are again brought into juxtaposition and the expression ealles (?) unhlitme

l. 1106. The pres. part. + be, as myndgiend wÊre here, is comparatively
rare in original A.-S. literature, but occurs abundantly in translations
from the Latin. The periphrasis is generally meaningless. Cf. l. 3029.

l. 1108. Kˆrner suggests ecge, = _sword_, in reference to a supposed old
German custom of placing ornaments, etc., on the point of a sword or spear
(_Eng. Stud._ i. 495). Singer, ince-gold = _bright gold_; B., andiÈge =
Goth, _andaugjo, evidently_. Cf. incge l‚fe, l. 2578. Possibly: and inge (=
_young men_) gold ‚hÙfon of horde. For inge, cf. Hunt's _Exod._ l. 190.

ll. 1115-1120. R. proposes (hÍt ˛‚ ...) b‚nfatu b‰rnan ond on bÊl dÙn,
earme on eaxe = _to place the arms in the ashes_, reading g˚rÍc =
_battle-reek_, for -rinc (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 395). B., Sarrazin
(_Beit._ xi. 530), Lichtenfeld (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 330), C., etc.,
propose various emendations. See H.-So., p. 97, and _Beit._ viii. 568. For
g˘rinc ‚st‚h, cf. Old Norse, _stiga · b·l_, "ascend the bale-fire."

l. 1116. sweoloe. "On Dartmoor the burning of the furze up the hillsides
to let new grass grow, is called _zwayling_."--E. Cf. _sultry_, G.
_schw¸l_, etc.

l. 1119. Cf. wudu-rÍc ‚st‚h, l. 3145; and _Exod_. (Hunt), l. 450: wÊlmist

l. 1122. ‰tspranc = _burst forth, arose_ (omitted from the Gloss.), < ‰t +

l. 1130. R. and Gr. read elne unflitme, = _loyally and without contest_, as
at l. 1098. Cf. Ha., p. 39; H.-So., p. 97.

l. 1137. scacen = _gone_; cf. ll. 1125, 2307, 2728.

l. 1142. "The sons of the Eotenas" (B., _Beit._ xii. 31, who conjectures a
gap after 1142).

l. 1144. B. separates thus: H˚n L‚fing, = _H˚n placed the sword L‚fing_,
etc.--_Beit._ xii. 32; cf. R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 396. Heinzel and
Homburg make other conjectures (Herrig's _Archiv_, 72, 374, etc.).

l. 1143. B., H.-So., and Mˆller read: worod rÊdenne, ˛onne him H˚n L‚fing,
= _military brotherhood, when H˚n laid upon his breast_ (the sword)
_L‚fing_. There is a sword _Laufi, Lˆvi_ in the Norse sagas; but swords,
armor, etc., are often called the _leaving_ (l‚f) of files, hammers, etc.,
especially a precious heirloom; cf. ll. 454, 1033, 2830, 2037, 2629, 796,
etc., etc.

l. 1152. roden = _reddened_ (B., _Tidskr_. viii. 295).

l. 1160. For ll. 1069-1160, containing the Finn episode, cf. Mˆller,
_Alteng. Volksepos_, 69, 86, 94; Heinzel, _Anz. f. dtsch. Altert._, 10,
226; B., _Beit._ xii. 29-37. Cf. _WÓdsÓ_, l. 33, etc.

ll. 1160, 1161. leÛ (lied = _song, lay_) and gyd here appear synonyms.

ll. 1162-1165. "Behind the wars and tribal wanderings, behind the
contentions of the great, we watch in this poem the steady, continuous life
of home, the passions and thoughts of men, the way they talked and moved
and sang and drank and lived and loved among one another and for one
another."--Br., p. 18.

l. 1163. Cf. _wonderwork_. So _wonder-death, wonder-bidding,
wonder-treasure, -smith, -sight_, etc. at ll. 1748, 3038, 2174, 1682, 996,
etc. Cf. the German use of the same intensive, = _wondrous_, in
_wunder-schˆn_, etc.

l. 1165. ˛‚ gyt points to some future event when "each" was not "true to
other," undeveloped in this poem, suhtor-gef‰deran = HrÙg‚r and HrÙulf,
l. 1018. Cf. ‚um-swerian, l. 84.

l. 1167 almost repeats l. 500, ‰t fÙtum, etc., where €nfer is first

l. 1191. E. sees in this passage separate seats for youth and middle-aged
men, as in English college halls, chapels, convocations, and churches

l. 1192. ymbutan, _round about_, is sometimes thus separated: ymb hie ˚tan;
cf. _Voyage of ‘hthere_, etc. (Sw.), p. 18, l. 34, etc.; _BeÛwulf_, ll.
859, 1686, etc.

l. 1194. bew‰gned, a [Greek: hapax legomenon], tr. _offered_ by Th.
Probably a p. p. w‰gen, made into a vb. by -ian, like _own, drown_, etc.
Cf. hafenian ( < hafen, < hebban), etc.

l. 1196. E. takes the expression to mean "mantle and its rings or
broaches." "Rail" long survived in Mid. Eng. (_Piers Plow_., etc.).

l. 1196. This necklace was afterwards given by Beowulf to Hygd, ll. 2173,

ll. 1199-1215. From the obscure hints in the passage, a part of the poem
may be approximately dated,--if Hygel‚c is the _Chochi-laicus_ of Gregory
of Tours, _Hist. Francorum_, iii. 3,--about A.D. 512-20.

l. 1200. The Breosinga men (Icel. _Brisinga men_) is the necklace of the
goddess Freya; cf. _Elder Edda, Hamarshemt_. H‚ma stole the necklace from
the Gothic King EormenrÓc; cf. _Traveller's Song_, ll. 8, 18, 88, 111. The
comparison of the two necklaces leads the poet to anticipate Hygel‚c's
history,--a suggestion of the poem's mosaic construction.

l. 1200. For BrÙsinga mene, cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 72. C. suggests fle·h, =
_fled_, for fealh, placing semicolon after byrig, and making hÍ subject of
fle·h and gece·s.

l. 1202. B. conjectures gece·s Ícne rÊd to mean _he became a pious man and
at death went to heaven_. Heime (H‚ma) in the _Thidrekssaga_ goes into a
cloister = to choose the better part (?). Cf. H.-So., p. 98. But cf.
HrÙg‚r's language to Beowulf, ll. 1760, 1761.

l. 1211. S. proposes feoh, = _property_, for feorh, which would be a
parallel for breÛst-gewÊdu ... be·h below.

l. 1213. E. remarks that in the _Laws of Cnut_, i. 26, the devil is called
se wÙdfreca werewulf, _the ravening werwolf_.

l. 1215. C. proposes heals-bÍge onfÍng. _Beit._ viii. 570. For hre‚- Kl.
suggests hrÊ-.

l. 1227. The son referred to is, according to Ettm¸ller, the one that
reigns after HrÙg‚r.

l. 1229. Kl. suggests sÓ, = _be_, for _is_.

l. 1232. S. gives _wine-elated_ as the meaning of druncne.--_Beit._ ix.
139; Kl. _ibid_. 189, 194. But cf. _Judith_, ll. 67, 107.

l. 1235. Cf. l. 119 for similarity of language.

l. 1235. Kl. proposes gea-sceaft; but cf. l. 1267.

l. 1246. Ring armor was common in the Middle Ages. E. points out the
numerous forms of byrne in cognate languages,--Gothic, Icelandic, OHG.,
Slavonic, O. Irish, Romance, etc. Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, i. 126. Cf.
Murray's _Dict._ s. v.

l. 1248. ‚nwÓg-gearwe = _ready for single combat_ (C.); but cf. Ha. p. 43;
_Beit._ ix. 210, 282.

l. 1252. Some consider this _fitt_ the beginning of Part (or Lay) II. of
the original epic, if not a separate work in itself.

l. 1254. K., W., and Ho. read farode = _wasted;_ Kolbing reads furode; but
cf. wÍsten warode, l. 1266. MS. has warode.

ll. 1255-1258. This passage is a good illustration of the constant
parallelism of word and phrase characteristic of A.-S. poetry, and is
quoted by Sw. The changes are rung on ende and swylt, on ges˝ne and wÓdc˚,

l. 1259. "That this story of Grendel's mother was originally a separate lay
from the first seems to be suggested by the fact that the monsters are
described over again, and many new details added, such as would be inserted
by a new singer who wished to enhance and adorn the original tale."--Br.,
p. 41.

l. 1259. Cf. l. 107, which also points to the ancestry of murderers and
monsters and their descent from "Cain."

l. 1261. The MS. has se ˛e, m.; changed by some to seo ˛e. At ll. 1393,
1395, 1498, Grendel's mother is referred to as m.; at ll. 1293, 1505,
1541-1546, etc., as f., the uncertain pronoun designating a creature female
in certain aspects, but masculine in demonic strength and
savageness.--H.-So.; Sw. p. 202. Cf. the masc. epithets at ll. 1380, 2137,

l. 1270. ‚glÊca = _Grendel_, though possibly referring to Beowulf, as at l.

l. 1273. "It is not certain whether anwalda stands for onwealda, or whether
it should be read ‚nwealda, = _only ruler_.--Sw.

l. 1279. The MS. has sunu ˛eod wrecan, which R. changes to sunu
˛eÛd-wrecan, ˛eÛd- = _monstrous_; but why not regard ˛eÛd as opposition to
sunu, = _her son, the prince?_ See Sweet's Reader, and Kˆrner's discussion,
_Eng. Stud._ i. 500.

l. 1281. Ten Br. suggests (for sÙna) s‚ra = _return of sorrows._

l. 1286. "ge˛uren (twice so written in MSS.) stands for ge˛r˙en, _forged_,
and is an isolated p. p."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., 209. But see Toller-Bosw.
for examples; Sw., Gloss.; March, p. 100, etc.

ll. 1292. ˛e hine = _whom;_ cf. ll. 441, 1437, 1292; _HÍliand_, l. 1308.

l. 1298. be sÊm tweonum; cf. l. 1192; Hunt's _Exod_. l. 442; and Mod. Eng.
"to _us_-ward, etc.--Earle's _Philol._, p. 449. Cf. note, l. 1192.

l. 1301. C. proposes Ùer him ‰rn = _another apartment was assigned him_.

l. 1303. B. conjectures under hrÙf genam; but Ha., p. 45, shows this to be
unnecessary, under also meaning _in_, as _in_ (or _under_) these

l. 1319. E. and Sw. suggest nÊgde or nÍgde, _accosted_, < nÍgan = Mid. Ger.
_nÍhwian_, pr. p. _nÍhwiandans, approach_. For hnÊgan, _press down,
vanquish_, see ll. 1275, 1440, etc.

l. 1321. C. suggests ne·d-l‚um for neÛd-lau, _after crushing hostility_;
but cf. freÛnd-lau, l. 1193.

l. 1334. K. and ten Br. conjecture gef‰gnod = _rejoicing in her fill_, a
parallel to Êse wlanc, l. 1333.

l. 1340. B. translates: "and she has executed a deed of blood-vengeance of
far-reaching consequence."--_Beit._ xii. 93.

l. 1345. B. reads geÛ for eÛw (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 205).

ll. 1346-1377. "This is a fine piece of folk-lore in the oldest extant
form.... The authorities for the story are the rustics (ll. 1346, 1356)."

l. 1347. Cf. sele-rÊdende at l. 51.

l. 1351. "The ge [of gewitan] may be merely a scribal error,--a repetition
(dittography) of the preceding ge of gewislÓcost."--Sw.

l. 1352. ides, like firas, _men_, etc., is a poetic word supposed by Grimm
to have been applied, like Gr. [Greek: n˙mphÊ], to superhuman or
semi-divine women.

ll. 1360-1495 _seq._ E. compares this Dantesque tarn and scenery with the
poetical accounts of _∆neid_, vii. 563; _Lucretius_, vi. 739, etc.

l. 1360. firgenstre·m occurs also in the _Phoenix_ (Bright, p. 168) l. 100;
_Andreas_, ll. 779, 3144 (K.); _Gnomic Verses_, l. 47, etc.

l. 1363. The genitive is often thus used to denote measure = by or in
miles; cf. l. 3043; and contrast with partitive gen. at l. 207.

l. 1364. The MS. reads hrinde = hrÓnende (?), which Gr. adopts; K. and Th.
read hrinde-bearwas; hringde, _encircling_ (Sarrazin, _Beit._ xi. 163);
hrÓmge = _frosty_ (Sw.); _with frost-whiting covered_ (Ha.). See Morris,
_Blickling Hom_., Preface, vi., vii.

l. 1364. Cf. Ruin, hrÓmige edoras behrofene, _rimy, roofless halls_.

l. 1366. nÓwundor may = ni- (as in ni-sele, _q. v._) wundor, _wonder of
the deep_.

l. 1368. The personal pronoun is sometimes omitted in subordinate and even
independent clauses; cf. wite here; and Hunt's _Exod_., l. 319.

l. 1370. hornum. Such "datives of manner or respect" are not infrequent
with adj.

l. 1371. "sele is not dependent on Êr, for in that case it would be in the
subjunctive, but Êr is simply an adverb, correlative with the conjunction
Êr in the next line: 'he will (sooner) give up his life, before he will,'

l. 1372. Cf. ll. 318 and 543 for willan with similar omitted inf.

l. 1373. heafola is found only in poetry.--Sw. It occurs thirteen or
fourteen times in this poem. Cf. the poetic gamol, sw‚t (l. 2694), etc.,
for eald, blÙd.

l. 1391. uton: hortatory subj. of wÓtan, _go_, = _let us go;_ cf. French
_allons_, Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_, etc. + inf. Cf. ll. 2649, 3102.

l. 1400. H. is dat. of person indirectly affected, = advantage.

l. 1402. geatolÓc probably = _in his equipments_, as B. suggests (_Beit._
xii. 83), comparing searolÓc.

ll. 1402, 1413 reproduce the wk. form of the pret. of g‚n (Goth,
_gaggida_). Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1096, etc.

l. 1405. S. (_Beit._ ix. 140) supplies [˛Êr heÛ] gegnum fÙr; B. (_ibid._
xii. 14) suggests hwÊr heÛ.

l. 1411. B., Gr., and E. take ‚n-paas = paths wide enough for only one,
like Norwegian _einstig_; cf. stÓge nearwe, just above. _Trail_ is the
meaning. Cf. enge ‚npaas, unc˚ gel‚d, _Exod._ (Hunt), l. 58.

l. 1421. Cf. onc˝, l. 831. The whole passage (ll. 1411-1442) is replete
with suggestions of walrus-hunting, seal-fishing, harpooning of sea-animals
(l. 1438), etc.

l. 1425. E. quotes from the 8th cent. Corpus Gloss., "_Falanx_ foea."

l. 1428. For other mention of nicors, cf. ll. 422, 575, 846. E. remarks,
"it survives in the phrase 'Old Nick' ... a word of high authority ...
Icel. _nykr_, water-goblin, Dan. _nˆk, nisse_, Swed. _n‰cken_, G. _nix,
nixe_, etc." See Skeat, _Nick._

l. 1440. Sw. reads gehnÊged, _prostrated_, and regards nÓa as gen. pl.
"used instrumentally," = _by force._

l. 1441. -bora = _bearer, stirrer;_ occurs in other compds., as mund-,
rÊd-, wÊg-bora.

l. 1447. him = _for him_, a remoter dative of reference.--Sw.

l. 1455. Gr. reads brondne, = _flaming_.

l. 1457. leÛn is the inf. of l‚h; cf. onl‚h (< onleÛn) at l. 1468. lÓhan
was formerly given as the inf.; cf. lÊne = lÊhne.

l. 1458. Cf. the similar dat. of possession as used in Latin.

l. 1458. H.-So. compares the Icelandic saga account of Grettir's battle
with the giant in the cave. h‰ft-mÍce may be = Icel. _heptisax_ (_Anglia_,
iii. 83), "hip-knife."

l. 1459. "The sense seems to be 'pre-eminent among the old treasures.' ...
But possibly foran is here a prep. with the gen.: 'one before the old
treasures.'".--Sw. For other examples of foran, cf. ll. 985, 2365.

l. 1460. ‚ter-te·rum = _poison-drops_ (C., _Beit._ viii. 571; S., _ibid_.
xi. 359).

l. 1467. ˛‰t, comp. relative, = _that which_; "we testify _that_ we do

l. 1480. for-gewitenum is in appos. to me, = _mihi defuncto_.--M.
Callaway, _Am. Journ. of Philol._, October, 1889.

l. 1482. nime. Conditional clauses of doubt or future contingency take gif
or b˚ton with subj.; cf. ll. 452, 594; of fact or certainty, the ind.; cf.
ll. 442, 447, 527, 662, etc. For b˚ton, cf. ll. 967, 1561.

l. 1487. "findan sometimes has a preterit funde in W. S. after the manner
of the weak preterits."--Cook's Sievers' Cram., p, 210.

l. 1490. Kl. reads w‰l-sweord, = _battle-sword_.

l. 1507. "This cave under the sea seems to be another of those natural
phenomena of which the writer had personal knowledge (ll. 2135, 2277), and
which was introduced by him into the mythical tale to give it a local
color. There are many places of this kind. Their entrance is under the
lowest level of the tide."--Br., p. 45.

l. 1514. B. (_Beit._ xii. 362) explains nisele, hrÙfsele as _roof-covered
hall in the deep_; cf. Grettir Saga (_Anglia_, iii. 83).

l. 1538. Sw., R., and ten Br. suggest feaxe for eaxle, = _seized by the

l. 1543. and-le·n (R.); cf. l. 2095. The MS. has hand-le·n.

l. 1546. Sw. and S. read seax.--_Beit._ ix. 140.

l. 1557. H.-So. omits comma and places semicolon after ˝elÓce; Sw. and S.
place comma after gescÍd.

l. 1584. Ùer swylc = _another fifteen_ (Sw.); = _fully as many_ (Ha.).

ll. 1592-1613 _seq._ Cf. _Anglia_, iii; 84 (Grettir Saga).

l. 1595. blondenfeax = _grizzly-haired_ (Bright, Reader, p. 258); cf.
_Brunanb._, l. 45 (Bright).

l. 1599. gewear, impers. vb., = _agree, decide = many agreed upon this,
that_, etc. (Ha., p. 55; cf. ll. 2025-2027, 1997; B., _Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1605. C. supposes wiston = wÓscton = _wished_.--_Beit._ viii. 571.

l. 1607. broden mÊl is now regarded as a comp. noun, = _inlaid or
damascened sword_.--W., Ho.

l. 1611. w‰l-r‚pas = _water-ropes = bands of frost_ (l. 1610) (?). Possibly
the Prov. Eng. weele, _whirlpool_. Cf. wÊl, _gurges_, Wright, Voc., _Gnom.
Verses_, l. 39.--E.

l. 1611. wÊgr‚pas (Sw.) = _wave-bands_ (Ha.).

l. 1622. B. suggests eatna = eotena, eardas, _haunts of the giants_
(Northumbr. ea for eo).

l. 1635. cyning-holde (B., _Beit._ xii. 369); cf. l. 290.

l. 1650. H., Gr., and Ettm¸ller understand idese to refer to the queen.

l. 1651. Cf. _Anglia_, iii. 74, _Beit._ xi. 167, for coincidences with the
Grettir Saga (13th cent.).

l. 1657. Restore MS. reading wigge in place of wÓge.

l. 1664. B. proposes eotenise ... Ëste for e·cen ... oftost, omitting
brackets (_Zackers Zeitschr._ iv. 206). G. translates _mighty ... often_.

l. 1675. ondrÊdan. "In late texts the final n of the preposition on is
frequently lost when it occurs in a compound word or stereotyped phrase,
and the prefix then appears as a: ab˙tan, amang, aweg, aright,
adr'Êdan."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 98.

ll. 1680-1682. Giants and their work are also referred to at ll. 113, 455,
1563, 1691, etc.

l. 1680. Cf. ceastra ... oranc enta geweorc, _Gnomic Verses_, l. 2;
Sweet's Reader, p. 186.

ll. 1687-1697. "In this description of the writing on the sword, we see the
process of transition from heathen magic to the notions of Christian times
.... The history of the flood and of the giants ... were substitutes for
names of heathen gods, and magic spells for victory."--E. Cf. Mohammedan

ll. 1703, 1704. ˛‰t ˛Í eorl nÊre geboren betera (B., _Tidskr._ 8, 52).

l. 1715. ‚na hwearf = _he died solitary and alone_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38); =
_lonely_ (Ha.); = _alone_ (G.).

l. 1723. leÛd-bealo longsum = _eternal hell-torment_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38,
who compares _Ps. Cott._ 57, lÓf longsum).

l. 1729. E. translates on lufan, _towards possession_; Ha., _to

l. 1730. mÙdge˛onc, like lig, sÊ, segn, niht, etc., is of double gender
(m., n. in the case of mÙdge˛.).

l. 1741. The doctrine of nemesis following close on [Greek: hubris], or
overweening pride, is here very clearly enunciated. The only protector
against the things that "assault and hurt" the soul is the "Bishop and
Shepherd of our souls" (l. 1743).

l. 1745 appears dimly to fore-shadow the office of the evil archer Loki,
who in the Scandinavian mythology shoots Balder with a mistletoe twig. The
language closely resembles that of Psalm 64.

l. 1748. Kl. regards wom = wÙ(u)m; cf. wÙh-bogen, l. 2828. See Gloss., p.
295, under wam. Contrast the construction of bebeorgan a few lines below
(l. 1759), where the dat. and acc. are associated.

l. 1748. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 167, for declension of wÙh, _wrong_
= gen. wÙs or wÙges, dat. wÙ(u)m, etc.; pl. gen. wÙra, dat. wÙ(u)m, etc.;
and cf. declension of he·h, hreÛh, r˚h, etc.

l. 1748. wergan g‚stes; cf. _Blickl. Hom._ vii.; _Andreas_, l. 1171. "_Auld
Wearie_ is used in Scotland, or was used a few years ago, ... to mean the
devil."--E. Bede's _Eccles. Hist._ contains (naturally) many examples of
the expression = devil.

l. 1750. on gyld = _in reward_ (B. _Beit._ xii. 95); Ha. translates
_boastfully_; G., _for boasting_; Gr., _to incite to boastfulness_. Cf.
_Christ_, l. 818.

l. 1767. E. thinks this an allusion to the widespread superstition of the
evil eye (_mal occhio, mauvais Êil_). Cf. Vergil, _Ecl._ iii. 103. He
remarks that Pius IX., Gambetta, and President Carnot were charged by their
enemies with possessing this weapon.

l. 1784. wigge geweorad (MS. wigge weorad) is C.'s conjecture; cf.
_Elene_, l. 150. So G., _honored in war_.

l. 1785. The future generally implied in the present of beÛn is plainly
seen in this line; cf. ll. 1826, 661, 1830, 1763, etc.

l. 1794. Some impers. vbs. take acc. (as here, Geat) of the person
affected; others (as ˛yncan) take the dat. of the person, as at ll. 688,
1749, etc. Cf. verbs of dreaming, being ashamed, desiring, etc.--March,
A.-S. Gram., p. 145.

l. 1802. E. remarks that the blaca hrefn here is a bird of good omen, as
opposed to se wonna hrefn of l. 3025. The raven, wolf, and eagle are the
regular epic accompaniments of battle and carnage. Cf. ll. 3025-3028;
_Maldon_, 106; _Judith_, 205-210, etc.

l. 1803. S. emends to read: "then came the light, going bright after
darkness: the warriors," etc. Cf. Ho., p. 41, l. 23. G. puts period before
"the warriors." For onettan, cf. Sw.'s Gloss, and Bright's Read., Gloss.

ll. 1808-1810. M¸llenh. and Grundt. refer se hearda to Beowulf, correct
sunu (MS.) to suna Ecgl‚fes (i.e. Unferth); [_he_] (Beo.) _thanked him_
(Un.) _for the loan_. Cf. ll. 344, 581, 1915.

ll. 1823-1840. "Beowulf departing pledges his services to Hrogar, to be
what afterwards in the mature language of chivalry was called his 'true

l. 1832. Kl. corrects to dryhtne, in appos. with Higel‚ce.

l. 1835 g‚r-holt more properly means _spear-shaft_; cf. ‰sc-holt.

l. 1855. sÍl = _better_ (Grundt.; B., _Beit._ xii. 96), instead of MS. wel.

ll. 1855-1866. "An ideal picture of international amity according to the
experience and doctrine of the eighth century."--E.

l. 1858. S. and Kl. correct to gemÊne, agreeing with sib.--_Beit._ ix. 140,

l. 1862. "The gannet is a great diver, plunging down into the sea from a
considerable height, such as forty feet."--E.

l. 1863. Kl. suggests heafu, = _seas_.

l. 1865. B. proposes ge˛Ùhte, = _with firm thought_, for geworhte; cf. l.

l. 1876. geseÛn = _see again_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 190). S. and B. insert n‚
to modify geseÛn and explain HrÙg‚r's tears. Ha. and G. follow Heyne's
text. Cf. l. 567.

l. 1881. Is beorn here = bearn (be-arn?) of l. 67? or more likely = born,
barn, = _burned?_--S., Th.

l. 1887. orleahtre is a _[Greek: hapax legomenon]_. E. compares Tennyson's
"blameless" king. Cf. also ll. 2015, 2145; and the gÙd cyning of l. 11.

l. 1896. scaan = _warriors_ (cf. l. 1804) has been proposed by C.; but cf.
l. 253.

l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of
HrÙg‚r's men; at l. 1901 the b‚t-weard is specially honored by Beowulf
with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."--E. This circumstance appears
to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb
‚n-tÓd Ù˛res dÙgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both
passages (f‚mig-heals, clifu, n‰ssas, sÊlde, brim, etc.).--The nautical
terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.

l. 1904. R. proposes, gew‚t him on naca, = _the vessel set out_, on
alliterating as at l. 2524 (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 402). B. reads on
nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1913. Cf. the same use of ceÛl, = _ship_, in the _A.-S. Chron._, ed.
Earle-Plummer; _Gnomic Verses_, etc.

l. 1914. S. inserts ˛‰t hÍ before on lande.

l. 1916. B. makes leÛfra manna depend on wl‚tode, = _looked for the dear
men ready at the coast_ (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = _remained;_ but cf. l. 1929. S.
conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (_Beit._ ix. 141).

l. 1927 _seq._ "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted
and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle,
and holding their place with dignity."--Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the
exception, l. 1932 _seq._

l. 1933. C. suggests frÍcnu, = _dangerous, bold_, for Thrytho could not be
called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd
seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l.
902 _seq._, Sigemund and HeremÙd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf.
Gr., _Jahrb. f¸r rom. u. eng. Lit._ iv. 279; M¸llenhoff, _Haupts Zeitschr._
xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, _Beit._ iv. 500-521; R. _Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 402; B., _ibid._ iv. 206; Kˆrner, _Eng. Stud._ i. 489-492;
H.-So., p. 106.

l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical
Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and firyo (Gr.'s
_Drida_ of the _Vita OffÊ Secundi_) of the present passage. The tale is
told of her, not of Hygd.

l. 1936. Suchier proposes andÊges, = _eye to eye_; Leo proposes ‚ndÊges, =
_the whole day_; G., _by day_. No change is necessary if an be taken to
govqern hire, = _on her_, and d‰ges be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a
genitive of time, = _by day_.

l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsÍce, = _seek, require_; but cf. 2955.

l. 1966. Cf. the _heofoncandel_ of _Exod_. l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's

l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 _seq._ for the actual slayer of Ongen˛eÛw, i.e. Eofor,
to whom Hygel‚c gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.

l. 1981. meodu-scencum = _with mead-pourers_ or _mead-cups_ (G., Ha.);
_draught or cup of mead_ (Toller-Bosw.).

l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [he·-].

l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading hÊ n˚ (for hÊn˚), which he regards as
= Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (hÊ). Cf. H.-So., p. 107;
_Beit._ xii. 9.

l. 1985. sÓnne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third
person, sÓn (declined like mÓn). It is used not only as a true reflexive,
but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. _ejus_)"--Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.

l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of se·; cf. to "glow" with emotion,
"boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used;
cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.

l. 2010. B. proposes f‚cne, = _in treachery_, for fenne. Cf. _Juliana_, l.
350; _Beit._ xii. 97.

l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the
poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,--_ale_
(as here: ealu-wÊg), _mead, beer, wine, lÓ_ (cider? Goth. _lei˛us_, Prov.
Ger. _leit-_ in _leit-haus_, ale-house), etc.

l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for w‰s.

l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weoran, = _agree, be pleased
with_ (Ha.); _appear_ (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).

ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = _gave_) wÊre ‰fter
leÛd-hryre: lytle hwÓle bong‚r b˚ge, ˛e·h seÛ br˝d duge = _oft has a
treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the
murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be._ Cf. Kl., _Beit._ ix.
190; B., _Beit._ xii. 369; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G.,
p. 62.

l. 2036. Cf. Kl, _Beit._ ix. 191; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 404.

l. 2042. For be·h B. reads b‚, = _both_, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.

l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wÓgende, = _fighting_, for

l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this
line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is
not so designated in the MS., though ˛‚ (at l. 2822) is written with
capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.

l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.

l. 2115 _seq._ B. restores thus:

fiÊr on innan giÛng
nia n‚thwylc, neÛde tÙ gefÍng
hÊnum horde; hond ‰tgenam
seleful since f‚h; nÍ hÍ ˛‰t syan ‚geaf,
˛e·h ˛e hÍ slÊpende besyrede hyrde
˛eÛfes cr‰fte: ˛‰t se ˛iÛden onfand,
b˝-folc beorna, ˛‰t hÍ gebolgen w‰s.

--_Beit._ xii. 99; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 210.

l. 2128. ‰tb‰r here = _bear away_, not given in the Gloss.

l. 2129. B. proposes fÊrunga, = _suddenly_, for Gr.'s reading in the
text.--_Beit._ xii. 98.

l. 2132. MS. has ˛ine life, which Leo translates _by thy leave_ (= ON.
_leyfi_); B., _by thy life_.--_Beit._ xii. 369.

l. 2150. B. renders gen, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my
gracious king" (_Beit._ xii. 99).

l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafa, are poetic archaisms.--Sw.

l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = _prince_, for eafor. W. proposes the compd.
eafor-he·fodsegn, = _helm_; cf. l. 1245.

l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially
when postponed: "Beowulf leÛfa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.:
wudu selesta, etc.

l. 2158. Êrest is possibly the verbal subs. from ‚rÓsan, _to arise, =
arising, origin_. R. suggested Êrist, _arising, origin_. Cf. Bede, _Eccles.
Hist._, ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual)
_resurrection_. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's _Chronicle_, p.
302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., _Beit._ x. 222; and cf. l.

l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wÍn]don, = _weened_, instead of Th.'s [oft

l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals
his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is
"laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid L‚fing on Hengest's breast, l.

l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an
unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son
in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and
was passionate for adventure."--Br., p. 22.

l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., _Beit._ ix.
191, thinks with Ettm. that ˛˚sendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, _Ges.
der Angl_, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like
hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.

l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat"

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